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Pratt & Whitney of U.S.A, Rolls Royce of UK, Japanese Aero Engine, Fiat Aviazone of Italy Motor Turbine Union (MTU) of Germany. BY M PINAKINI-06951A2125 B ADITYA REDDY-06951A2101



We earnestly take the responsibility to acknowledge the following distinguished personalities who graciously allowed us to carry out our project work successfully. we express our gratitude to the esteemed organization Air India (National Aviation Company of India Limited (I)) , Hyderabad for providing means of attaining of our most cherished goals. we are grateful and indebted to Mr. V.M.M. Rao, Engineer, Indian Airlines Ltd, for his valuable support and guidance in executing this project work. It was his qualified commitment that led to the completion of the project work. we take this opportunity to express our acknowledgement and record our sincere thanks to our respected parents, family members, friends, all faculty members and all other well wishers whose casual and informal encouragement and motivations at various stages resulted in the accomplishment of project.

military and space research applications. engines are being designed which are more reliable and efficient. and smoother. By studying the way air flows around the plane the engineers can define the shapes of the plane. Our work involves with case study of turboprop engine. and without undesirably increasing fuel consumption or disturbing the work cycle of the engine. Mainly aerodynamics and propulsion. There are four basic areas that aeronautical engineers must understand in order to be able to design planes. quite. Aeronautics is the one of the science of flight which involves method of designing an airplane or other flying machine. A turboprop engine includes an engine nacelle and at least one bleed air line on the low-pressure compressor and at least one ejector formed by a cooling air duct and a nozzle to create a cooling air flow within the engine nacelle during critical ground idle operation (controlled or uncontrolled).ABSTRACT The concept of Jet propulsion Engine has started in 150-BC by Hero through his Aeolipile based on Newton’s laws. Aerodynamics is the study of how air flows around the airplane. Propulsion is the study of how to design an engine that will provide the thrust that is needed for a plane to take off and fly through the air. After various inventions and developments numerous types of jet engines have been introduced in aviation for commercial. and with the at least one nozzle being arranged in the cooling air duct . Further developments are being made to travel faster. The ejector is arranged within the engine nacelle in the forward part of the turboprop engine . with the cooling air duct appertaining to the ejector connecting at least one air intake disposed on the periphery of the engine nacelle with the interior of the engine nacelle . Now a days. The engine provides the power for the airplane. . higher.


The combustor liner consists of sheet metal shells to which turbine alloy segments are attached. When the V2500 entered service this unique blade had accumulated five years of in-service experience of Rolls-Royce RB211 series engines. hollow structure. To date. . The design improves cooling effectiveness.INTRODUCTION Most of the IAE V2500 engine's advanced features are the result of its heritage. The V2500 traces its pedigree through partner company engines such as the Rolls-Royce RB211 and the Pratt and Whitney PW4000. eliminates stresses and the segment can be replaced individually lowering maintenance cost. Pratt and Whitney's "float wall" combustor is another example of V2500 technology which fits this category. In addition. One of the most noticeable features of the V2500 are its unique fan blades. At high temperatures a diffusion bond is formed between these three piece of materials such that the finished blade is effectively a single piece. The V2500 uses wide chord. shroudless. This lightweight blade is then extremely strong with a leading edge that is robust and can resist damage due to foreign object impact. These segments "float" on the cooling air between the segments and the outer shell. a good example of the advanced. the wide chord nature of the blade centrifuges runway debris and dust into the bypass duct reducing engine removals due to Foreign Object Damage (FOD) by a factor of four when measured against conventional narrow blades. hollow wide-chord fan blades have achieved over 50 million hours in-service experience worldwide. These are manufactured by placing a 3D-machined piece of honey-comb material between two sheets of pre-machined titanium. proven technology contributed by the IAE partners. hollow blades designed and developed by Rolls-Royce.

a 5-stage uncooled Low pressure turbine.Fuel efficiency is another factor.000 lbf).335 kgf or 25. Fiat of Italy & Japan Aero engines to form "I. a 10 stage High pressure compressors and an annular combustor with 20 fuel injectors.96 m 2. the V2500 burns up to 4% less fuel than the competition. It provides a maximum take off thrust of 111 kN (11. International aero engine V2500-AI Type SPECIFICATIONS Fan Diameter Length Dry weight Maximum takeoff thrust Pressure ratio Bypass ratio METRIC SYSTEM 1. a 2-stage air cooled High pressure turbine. the utilization of the ten-stage high-pressure compressor creates extra efficiency as does the two-stage high-pressure turbine and the five stage low-pressure turbine.A." and build a mid-range high by-pass two-stage turbofan.E. while the turbines. along with MTU engines of Germany. The fan and compressor are derived from ROLLS ROYCE technology. gearbox and FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control ) are derived from Pratt and Whitney technology. the "V2500" series.1 inches 4. The V2500 series has been used on the Airbus A321 and A320 twin jet airliners as well as the McDonnel Douglas MD-90 (now Boeing 717) twin jet airliners. The engine features a FADEC and the turbines have active clearance control.7:1 ENGLISH SYSTEM 5 ft 3 inches 10 ft 2. which is equivalent to 5500 barrels less per aircraft per year. This reduction in overall cost is achieved by a number of component efficiencies: the upgraded wide chord fan gives the highest flow/unit area and lowest drag. ROLLS ROYCE decided to team up with Pratt & Whitney. 11. The initial "V2500-AI" engine variant was introduced in 1989 for airbus A320 twin jet airliner and featured a single-fan and four-associated Low pressure compressor stages.943 lbs 25000 lbf ------------- .335 kgf 36:1 5.242 kg 111 kN.6 m 2.

560 lb/lb-hr 789 lb/s Airflow Twr(max takeoff thrust) Different stages with blade specifications FAN-TYPE LOW PRESSUE COMPRESSOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR COMBUSTOR HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE LOW PRESSURE TURBINE SINGLE-STAGE 3 STAGES 10 STAGES ANNULAR. air cooled GENERAL: Two IAE V2500 turbofan engines designed for subsonic commercial airline service power the A320 aircraft.Tsfc (thrust specific fuelconsumption) 15. The right and left power plants are inter-changeable except for the thrust reverser ‘C’duct.06 0. 20 FUEL INJECTORS 2 STAGES. air cooled ACC 5 STAGES. . Each engine is housed in a nacelle suspended from a pylon attached below the wing.81 mg/ N-s 358 kg/s 5.

high by-pass ratio turbo fan engine.1 General The aircraft is powered by two IAE V2500 turbo fan engines designed for subsonic commercial airline service. 462AR. 438AR. the No. The design and configuration of the engine are based on obtaining long life high reliability and easy access for line maintenance. The right and left power plants are interchangeable except for the thrust reverser C ducts. The V2500 incorporates a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC). The main modules of the engine are: the Low Pressure (LP) compressor (fan and booster) assembly. axial flow. 0.1. B.1 POWERPLANT 0. . Cowling The cowling assembly consists of: • • • • the air intake cowl. the fan cowl 437AL.1. the LP compressor/intermediate case.2 Description A. the Common Nozzle Assembly (CNA). the High Pressure (HP) compressor.The control system governs all engine control functions including power plant management. the HP turbine section. 461AL. Engine The V2500 is a two spool. the LP turbine section and the accessory drives(gearbox). 452AR. 447AL. 448AR.1 POWER PLANT .GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 0. Each engine is housed in a nacelle suspended from a pylon attached below the wing. 4 bearing and combustion section. the thrust reverser 451AL.

rigging. trouble shooting. .1. The fan cowls are hinged at the upper part by four hinges.The hinged fan reverser and fan cowls are attached to the pylon. They are held open by hold-open rods providing access to the engine for: Fig.1 Component Location • • • maintenance.

electrical cables. ducts. C. the accessory gearbox. The attachment fittings and support brackets are attached on: E. Electrical Harness .The composite components of the nacelle incorporate a lightning protection system consisting of: • a conductive graphite material within the skin. pipes. Attachment Fittings The attachment fittings and support brackets ensure the attachment on the • • • • • • • • • engine of: components.The forward mount comprises five attach bolts that connect the engine directly to the pylon. F. Fire Seals The fire walls and fire seals provide fire protection (to a fire proof standard) between the power plant designated fire zones (fan and core compartments). the engine core. the fan case. Mechanical attachments and fittings conduct the current into the pylon/engine structure. The aft mount consists of a link and beam system attaching the engine to the pylon. Mounts The engine is attached to the pylon by two damage tolerant mounts. The mounts are the main attaching structures (forward and aft). the accessories. D.

The nacelle ensures airflow around the engine during its operation and also provides protection for the engine and accessories. transmits signals for: nacelle sub-systems engine control monitoring functions G.DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 0. This section is a description of the following cowls: • • • engine air intake. Engine Drains The drain and vent system consists of lines collecting and carrying waste fluids and vapors overboard through the system drain mast. fan cowl. supplies the 115VAC and 28VAC power to the engine and nacelle systems. .The engine electrical harness: • • • distributes the power required by the aircraft electrical system.2 COWLING . This system drains the gearbox mounted accessories and engine components 0.2. the thrust reversers and the common nozzle assembly NOTE : Fan cowls and thrust reversers are not removed for an engine change since they are hinged to the pylon.1 General The cowls enclose the periphery of the engine so as to form the engine Nacelle.

Fig.2 Nacelle Component .1.

3 COWL . the anti-icing ducting. Air Intake Cowl Anti-Icing A piccolo tube is mounted in the air intake cowl lip and distributes anti-icing air into the lip inner surface. a drainage provision. Air Intake Cowl Configuration • • The outer skin assembly of the intake cowl is constructed of a carbon fiber composite solid laminate.2 Description A.3. The assembly is composed of: • • • • • • • • • an inner and outer barrel. the phone jack. air intake collecting atmospheric air to ventilate the fan case compartment The assembly also includes installation of: 0.AIR INTAKE . hoisting provisions. The anti-icing air is supplied to the piccolo tube by a supply tube that penetrates the forward and aft bulkheads .DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 0.3. a nose lip.0. The inner barrel consists of acoustically treated carbon fibercomposite/Nomex honeycomb which is bolted to the engine fan casing front flange. a forward and aft bulkhead. The aft bulkhead and nose lip/forward bulkhead assembly connect the outer barrel to the inner barrel. B.1 General The air intake cowl structure is an interchangeable aerodynamically faired assembly which is mounted on the front of the engine fan case. the P2/T2 probe.

The acoustic panels are structural and carry air intake cowl loads. D. The longititudinal and transverse loads are distributed into the fan case forward flange through a bolted joint.3 Air Intake Assembly Details C. Air Intake Cowl Structure The majority of the internal pressure loads and internal air loads are taken in hoop tension through the inner barrel skins.Fig1. Air Intake Cowl Materials . The air intake cowl aft bulkhead forms a land on which the fan cowl doors leading edges are supported when closed.

. 0. Each inboard fan cowl has a strake attached to it. A fourth hinge at the forward end of each door connects to a common tie link between each door.DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 0. The forward land incorporates alignment fittings. Each door is interchangeable from one engine to the other and is attached to the pylon by three hinges.4.4. The strakes are attached to the cowl with Hi-Loks and jointing compound.FAN .4 COWL . 0. Both doors are supported on land formed in the air intake cowl at the front and in the thrust reverser at the rear. and together provide a firewall barrier to the fan case compartment.The intake cowl aft bulkhead and the rear of the inner barrel are constructed of carbon composite sandwich and together provide a firewall barrier to the fan case compartment. The doors are latched together along the bottom centre line by four adjustable tension hook latches. The strake helps give smooth airflow between the cowl and the fuselage to decrease turbulence.1 General The left and right fan cowl assemblies enclose the engine fan case between the air intake cowl and the thrust reverser. The intake cowl aft bulkhead is constructed of titanium and the rear of the inner barrel is constructed of carbon composite sandwich.2 Description The fan cowl doors are constructed from a sandwich of carbon fibre composite skins and an aluminium honeycomb core.

Two hold-open rods engage into brackets on the engine fan case to support the fan cowl doors in the 55 degrees open position for ground maintenance only. . A pressure relief door is located in the right fan cowl door to limit fan case compartment pressure.

Both mounts are made to be fail-safe and have a tolerance to damage.5. • • • Vertical and side loads are transmitted through the support bearing to the beam assembly and then to the aircraft pylon.0. 0.DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 0. one at the front and one at the rear of the engine. The rear mount is installed at the top centre of the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) case. The mount assemblies transmit loads from the engine to the aircraft structure.5 MOUNTS . the cross beam assembly and the beam assembly to the aircraft pylon.2 Component Location The front mount is installed at the top centre of the Low Pressure Compressor (LPC) case. The front mount is made to be fail-safe.5. then thrust loads are .4 Operation A. A rear mount 1550KM. 0.3 System Description The engine mount system has these components: • • A front mount 1500KM.1 General The engine is attached to the aircraft pylon by two mount assemblies. If one of the two thrust links or the cross beam should fail. The Front Mount 1500KM • The thrust of the engine is transmitted through the thrust links.5.5. Spherical bearings in each mount permit thermal expansion and some movement between the engine and the pylon. The support bearing permits the engine to turn so that torsional loads are not transmitted to the aircraft structure. 0.

The Aft Mount 1550KM • • • Vertical and side loads are transmitted through the side links and beam assembly and into the pylon. raceways.2 Description A. The harness assemblies • that are part of the fan zone harness are: • The Electronic Engine Control (EEC) harness. Here they interface with the aircraft electrical systems. If one part of the link should fail.DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 0. The fan zone harness and the core zone harness. Each of these primary assemblies has smaller harness assemblies .6. These harness assemblies are connected to the following engine components: The EDA.1 General The engine electrical harnesses connect the electrical components installed in the nacelle to the aircraft electrical systems.The core zone harnesses are connected to the fan zone harnesses at the bifurcation panel. The thrust is then transmitted to the pylon structure.transmitted through the ball stop and into the beam assembly. The harnesses have two primary assemblies. The harnesses are installed around the engine and go up to the pylon break points.6 ELECTRICAL HARNESS . 0. the remaining part will transmit the loads to the beam assembly. clips and clamps. B. The harnesses are attached to the engine with brackets.6. . 0. The mount is made to be fail-safe. The side links are each made up of two parts which are attached together to make one unit. Torsional loads are transmitted by the center link to the beam assembly and in to the pylon. The EEC and ignition supply harness. The general supply harness.

that are part of the core zone harness are: These harness assemblies are connected to the following engine components: The Active Clearance Control (ACC) actuator. The relay box. The stage 10 solenoid valve. The igniter boxes. The ACOC oil temperature thermocouple. The EGT thermocouples. cabin services and nacelle over temperature harness. The fuel diverter and return valve. . The EEC harness. The EEC link harness. The Low Pressure Control (LPC) bleed master actuator. The 10th stage valve.• • - The ACOC modulating valve. The ignition harness. The FCOC fuel temperature thermocouple. The fire detection (System A).5 CM terminal. The fire detection (System B) harness. The terminal block. The T3 sensor. The stage 7 solenoid valves. The fuel flow transmitter. The Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) fuel temperature thermocouple. The EEC. The pneumatic starter valve. The Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) harness. The Variable Stator Vane (VSV) actuator. The T2. The Fuel Metering Unit (FMU).

6. They also transmit the signals for the nacelle sub-systems and the engine control and monitoring functions.0.3 Operation The engine electrical harness supply the power that is necessary for the electrical systems. .

7 POWER PLANT DRAINS . oil.2 System Operation A. Fuel Drains The fuel drain lines come from engine accessories on the engine core. This drain mast is installed below the engine accessory gearbox. 0. General • The drain system comprises two sub-systems: • fuel drains.1 General The power plant drain system collects fluids that may leak from some of the engine accessories and drives. The engine core drains go through the bifurcation panel.DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 0. B.7. The two sub-systems come together at the same drain mast.7.0. the engine fan case and gearbox. The fuel drain system is connected to these engine accessories: • • • • • • • • Booster bleed master actuator Booster bleed slave actuator Variable Stator Vane Actuator ) ) Engine ) Core Active Clearance Control Actuator ) Fuel diverter valve Air Cooled Oil Cooler actuator Fuel metering unit LP/HP fuel pumps ) ) Engine fan case ) Engine fan case ) Gearbox . hydraulic and water drains. The fluids collected from the power plant are discharged overboard through the drain mast.

hydraulic and water drains system comes from engine accessories on the engine fan case and gearbox. The tubes are shaped to go around the engine and go in the side of the drain mast. Each tube is connected by a union with a packing seal at the accessory or gearbox pad. Oil. The drain system is connected to these engine accessories: • • • • Integrated Drive Generator ) Air starter Hydraulic Pump Oil tank scupper ) Gearbox ) ) Oil tank The only hydraulic fluid drain is from the hydraulic pump. Hydraulic and Water Drains The oil. Each tube is connected by a union with a packing seal at the accessory or gearbox pad . C.Fuel that can leak from these accessories is removed by a steel tube connected to the accessory or gearbox mounting pad. The other drains are for engine oil or accessory lubricant.


Its compression system features a single stage fan.1 ENGINE – GENERAL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 1.1. The Low Pressure Compressor (LPC) is driven by a five stage Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) and the HPC by a two stage High Pressure . a three stage booster. and a ten stage High Pressure Compressor (HPC). high bypass ratio turbofan engine.1. axial flow.1 General Fig.2.1 Engine Bearing The engine is a two spool.

2 Component location Fig.Turbine (HPT). The two shafts are supported by five main bearings.1.1. The engine incorporates a full authority digital Electronic Engine Control (EEC). including power management. in turn. The control system governs all engine functions. Reverse thrust for braking the aircraft after landing is supplied by an integrated system which acts on the fan discharge airflow. drives the engine and aircraft mounted accessories.3 Engine Modules The engine modules are • • • the fan module the intercase module the HPC .2. The HPT also drives a gearbox which.2Component Location 1. 1.

rotor assembly. 2 and 3 (front) bearing compartment is built into the module and contains the support bearings for the low spool and high spool stubshafts. combustor.5 bleed is used for engine handling by controlling airflow to the high compressor entrance. booster. high spool stub shaft and the station 2. The main features of the module include a close-coupled prediffuser and combustor that provide low velocity shroud air to feed the combustor liners and to minimize performance losses.5 bleed valve (BSBV). D. the front casing which houses the variable geometry vanes and the rear casing which contains the fixed geometry stators and forms the bleed manifolds.In conjunction with the inner fan section. Diffuser/Combustor Module The combustion section consists primarily of the diffuser case. 1. The station 2. E. fuel injector and ignitors. low spool stub shaft. The high compressor exit guide vanes and the No. intermediate case. High Pressure Turbine . the accessory gearbox tower shaft drive assembly. axial flow module. The booster consists of inlet stators. the booster increases the pressure at the entrance to the HPC and provides an even pressure profile to improve efficiency. wide-chord. fan Exit Guide Vanes (EGV). Intercase Module It consists of the fan containment case. shroudless fan and hub. A. B. It is comprised of the drum rotor assembly. C. The No. 4 bearing compartment are also part of the module. High Pressure Compressor The HPC is a ten stage. and outlet stators. Fan Module It consists of a single stage.• • • • the diffuser/combustor module the HPT the LPT the accessory drive gearbox.

G. Accessory Drive Gearbox The accessory drive gearbox provides shaft horse power to drive engine and aircraft accessories. Low Pressure Turbine The LPT is a five stage module. These include fuel. The gearbox also includes provision for a starter which is used to drive the N2 shaft for engine starting. F. Active clearance control is used to control seal clearances and to provide structural cooling. .The HPT is a two stage turbine and drives the HPC and the accessory gearbox. oil and hydraulic pressure pumps and electrical power generators for the EEC and for the aircraft. Module efficiency is further enhanced by incorporation of rim seals and clustered vanes which results in reduced losses due to leakage. The elliptical leading edge airfoils improve the aerodynamic efficiency.

3 LP Compressor / Intermediate case module The LP compressor intermediate case module consists of booster section. Mounted on the front casing is the linkage system .4 HP Compressor Module The HP compressor is a 10 stage axial flow module. A larger proportion of the compressed air is delivered through the fan discharge duct to the exhaust nozzle to provide the majority of engine thrust. 1.2.2. Compressed air is then divided into two separate airflows: • • a large portion is delivered to the exhaust nozzle. the front casing and variable vanes.1.2 LP Compressor (Fan) Module Assembly The LP compressor (fan) module is a rotor assembly which includes twenty two titanium blades and a titanium disk.2. Rotation of the fan rotor causes air to be ingested into the front of the engine and to be compressed. LP compressor/intermediate case module. HP compressor.2. a fan case section and an internal gearbox and drive section. the rear casing which contains the fixed stators and forms the bleed manifolds. 1. the remainder is compressed in the booster before being again compressed by the HP compressor.2 COMPRESSOR SECTION – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 1. blades.1 General The compressor section consists of three modules: • • • LP compressor (fan) module assembly. 1. It comprises the HP compressor rotor. Rotation of the rotor causes air to be ingested into the front of the engine and compressed. The remainder of the compressed air passes into the booster section for further compression by the booster.

Attached to the rear of the compressor rotor is the rear thrust balance seal rotating member. Power to drive the HP compressor is provided through the rear shaft from the HP turbine system.associated with the variable inlet guide vanes and stators. .

1 General The combustion section includes the diffuser and combustion group. The combustion section has four primary functions: • • • • straighten the flow of air from the HP compressor. the No. The diameter of the diffuser section is larger at the rear than at the front. 1.3. change the flow of air characteristics to get the best speed and pressure for combustion.3 Diffuser Case And Combustor Assemblies The diffuser case is a main structural part of the engine.2.2 Diffuser Case And Combustor Assemblies A. This diametral difference decreases the speed of the air and changes the energy of the speed into pressure. 4 bearing in position.1. Diffuser Case Fig.3 COMBUSTION SECTION – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 1. hold the No. mix fuel with the air and supply ignition to make the fuel burn. The diffuser case has 20 mounting .3. 4 bearing section and the turbine nozzle assembly.

pads, where the fuel injectors are installed, two mounting pads where the ignitor plugs are installed and five borescope bosses located around the case. B. Combustor The combustor is an annular type which consists of an outer liner assembly. The liner is fitted with mechanically attached segments which form the inner wall of the combustion chamber. Air which surrounds the combustor is used in the combustion process for dilution and exit temperature profile control of the combustion gases and for cooling of the combustor walls. The front of the combustor outer liner is secured to the diffuser case outer wall by five combustion chamber retaining bolts. A seal is provided at the transition from the rear of the combustor outer liner to the turbine nozzle guide vanes. The rear of the combustor inner liner is bolted to the stage 1 HP turbine blade cooling duct. The cooling duct directs and meters HP compressor exit air to the stage 1 HP turbine blades. The front lip of the combustor inner liner forms a seal with the inner diameter of the combustor hood.

1.3.3 Turbine Nozzle Assembly

Fig.2.4 Turbine Nozzle Assembly

The stage on the turbine nozzle assembly consists of an outer ring, 40 cobalt alloy vanes welded together in pairs, inner combustor linerassembly and the stage 1 HP turbine blade cooling duct assembly. The vane pairs are retained at the outer end by a support ring which

is bolted to the rear outer flange of the diffuser case. The outer ends of the vane pairs are retained such that the vanes may slide radially under thermal growth. The vane pairs are bolted to the stage 1 HP Turbine Blade Cooling Duct Assembly at the inner end. Each vane is cooled by air which enters at the outer and inner ends and exits through airfoil holes into the primary gas path.

1.3.4 Bearing Compartment Assembly
The No. 4 bearing compartment consists of front and rear walls which attach to the No. 4 bearing support assembly. The bearing support assembly, in turn, is bolted to the diffuser case rear inner flange. The compartment walls are surrounded by a cooling duct which is itself insulated by a heat shield. The compartment walls also provide support for the carbon seals. The No. 4 bearing compartment service tubes connect to the front wall and supply the compartment with oil and cooling air. 12th stage compressor air is directed through an external air-to-air heat exchanger and carried by service tubes to the bearing compartment cooling duct.



1.4.1 General

Fig.2.5 Turbine Section Assembly

The turbine section consists of the HP and LP turbine modules.The HP turbine uses combustion gases to drive the HP compressor and the accessory gearbox, and provides a gas stream to the LP turbine in order to drive the LP compressor and the fan through the LPT shaft.

1.4.2 HP Turbine Section
A. General The HP Turbine Rotor and Stator Assembly provides the rotational driving force for the HP compressor and accessory gearbox by extracting energy from the hot combustion gases. It consists of a Stage 1 Turbine Rotor Assembly ; a HP Turbine Case and Vane Assembly ; a Stage 2 HPT Airseal ; and a Stage 2 Turbine Rotor Assembly.

This air moves through holes in the first stage HPT(front inner) air seal and the turbine front hub into the area between the hubs. The abrasive decreases blade tip wear during rub.The first stage HPT blades are cooled by the HPC discharge air which flows through the first stage HPT duct assembly. C.Active clearance control tubes around the turbine case supply fan discharge air to cool the surface of the case during climb and cruisepower operation.Second stage HPT cooling air is a mixture of HPC discharge air and tenth stage compressor air. The velocity of the air increases to the outside between the turbine front hub and the first stage HPT (front outer) air seal into the blade root.3 Low Pressure Turbine Section The five stage Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) extracts energy from the gas stream delivered from the HP Turbine in order to provide a mechanical drive through the LPT shaft to the LP Compressor and the Fan. Cooling All of the HPT airfoils are cooled by secondary air flow. Clearance Control The abradable duct segments and abrasive blade tips. along with active clearance control. Some of this air is used for cooling of the second stage HPT air seal. keep tight blade tip clearances for better performance.4.B.The abrasive/abradable system makes tight clearances by letting the parts rub. thus providing(once the speed is converted back into pressure) the pressure differential required to ensure cooling air flow.The second stage vane clusters are cooled by tenth stage compressor air mixed with thrust balance seal vent air supplied externally. Exhaust gas from the LPT passes through a nozzle to provide . 1.Cooling results in shrinkage of the case and decreased blade tip clearances. The air then goes into the second blade root and out thecooling holes. Air flows into the case and through the center of each vane and then outward into the turbine area and the gaspath.

.propulsive thrust. Fan discharge air is directed externally to the LPT case via the ACC tubes.Seal clearance and LPT case heat expansion are controlled by an external Active Clearance Control (ACC) System. This controls the heat expansion of the LPT case and optimizes the seal clearances.

5.The external gearbox is installed at the bottom of the fan case.1 General The external gearbox has an angle gearbox assembly.1.5 ACCESSORY DRIVES (EXTERNAL GEARBOX) – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 1. a main gear assembly and external components. Four articulated support links attach the gearbox to the fan case. . The links have spherical bearings at each end to allow for any necessary mount articulation.

General The angle gearbox transmits power from the engine to the main gearbox and from the starter on the main gearbox to the engine.2.6 Accessory Drives 1. B. The bevel gear set has a spiral gear mesh which drives a horizontal input gear shaft in the main gearbox.Fig. Description The angle gearbox has a bevel gear set held by a cast aluminium housing. Two metered .5.2 Angle Gearbox A. The bevel gear set transmits the power to and from the engine through a power shaft engaged to the high pressure compressor rotor.

The metered oil nozzles are installed on a gearbox housing and supply pressure oil to the bearings and gears in the gearbox. B.jets supply pressure oil to the bearings and gears in the angle gearbox. An external oil tank is attached at the LH flange of the main gearbox. The main gearbox transmits power from the engine to the accessories installed on the gearbox and from the starter to the engine. . The main gearbox supplies speed torques necessary for the accessories to perform their various functions. Description The main gearbox has a cast aluminium housing that has a rear train and mounting pads for the airframe and engine accessories.5. General The main gearbox is installed forward of the angle gearbox.3 Main Gearbox A. An external de-oiler is installed on the front face of the main gearbox. 1. Each of the accessories drive geartrain sections is individually replaceable.

3.3.1 ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL – GENERAL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. These include the booster stage bleed valve actuators. the fuel diverter and return (to tank) valve. the fuel flow meter. the fuel distribution valve. High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control (HPTACC) and Low Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control (LPTACC) valve.1 General The fuel system enables delivery of a fuel flow corresponding to the power required and compatible with engine limits.1. Air Cooler Oil Cooler (ACOC) air modulating valve. stator vane actuator. the Fuel Metering Unit (FMU). 20 fuel nozzles.2 Distribution The fuel supplied from aircraft tanks flows through a centrifugal pump Low Pressure (LP) stage then through the FCOC and then through a filter and a gear pump High Pressure (HP) stage. the Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC).The system consists of: • • • • • • • • • the two stage fuel pump with low pressure and high pressure elements.ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROLLING 3. Low pressure return fuel from the actuators is routed . the fuel filter.1. The fuel from the HP pump is delivered to the FMU which controls the fuel flow supplied to the fuel nozzles (through the fuel flow-meter and the fuel distribution valve). the engine Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC). The FMU also provides hydraulic pressure to all hydraulic system external actuators.

.4 Indicating The engine fuel system is monitored from: • • the ECAM display. 3.3 Controlling The Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) system provides full range control of the engine to achieve steady state and transient performance when operated in combination with aircraft subsystems. The warnings and cautions reflect: • • • the engine health and status through the FADEC. engine oil and fuel temperatures within specified limits.1. the warning and caution lights. 3.back into the fuel diverter and return valve. the FADEC switches from one channel to the other. The indications cover all the main engine parameters through the FADEC.1. The fuel diverter and return valve enables the selection of one of the four basic configurations between which the flow paths of the fuel in the engine are varied to maintain the IDG oil. The transfer between configurations is determined by a software logic contained in the Electronic Engine Control (EEC). The FADEC is a dual channel EEC with crosstalk and failure detection capability. the FADEC health & status. the fuel filter condition through a dedicated hardwired pressure switch. In case of failure detection.

1 Fuel System Schematic .3.Fig.

3. a fuel diverter and return (to tank) valve.2. Each fuel manifold feeds two fuel nozzles.2 Fuel Manifold And Fuel Tubes The fuel manifold and fuel tubes consist of several single wall tubes which carry fuel between components in the fuel system. an engine Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC). a fuel filter. a Fuel Metering Unit (FMU). a fuel flow-meter. an Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC).2 DISTRIBUTION – DISCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. Fuel supplied to the fuel nozzles is carried by a large tube from the FMU to the fuel distribution valve.1 General The engine fuel supply distribution system mainly consists of: • • • • • • • • • • a fuel supply line an engine 2-stage pump High Pressure/Low Pressure (HP/LP).2. a Fuel Distribution Valve (FDV).3 Fuel Pump The Low Pressure/High Pressure (LP/HP) fuel pumps are housed in a single pump unit which is driven by a common gearbox output shaft. All the brackets and tubing are fireproof. . Fuel pressure for actuating various valves is supplied by small tubes from the FMU mounted on the fuel pump. 20 fuel nozzles. At the fuel distribution valve the fuel supply is split and carried to twenty fuel nozzles by ten manifolds.2. 3. 3.

the bypass . A coarse mesh strainer is provided at the inlet to the HP gear stage. the fuel flows through the fuel filter to the HP gear stage. After passing through the LP boost stage. B. two gear pumps.2.4 Fuel Filter A. Description • • The fuel filter element is a low pressure filter which removes all contamination from fuel to go through it.A LP stage and a HP stage provide fuel at the flows and pressures required for the operation of the hydromechanical components and for combustion in the burner. The housing has a provision for the installation of the FMU. 3. The FCOC includes the following components: A filter cap which has a pressure plate to keep the filter element in position once installed. The filter bypass valve keeps a pressure drop across the filter element to a maximum of 17 psi (1. The filter cap of the FCOC also includes a fuel drain plug to drain the fuel for maintenance purposes. The LP pump is designed to provide fuel to the HP gear stage with the aircraft pumps inoperative. Excess flow from the gear stage pump is recirculated through the FMU bypass loop to the low pressure side of the pump. The filter element is installed in the lower housing of a Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC). Operation • • The fuel from the FCOC goes through the filter element into the high pressure gear element of an LP/HP fuel pump. If the pressure drop is higher than the maximum limit. A filter bypass valve to let the fuel go around the filter element when it becomes clogged. Fuel from the aircraft tanks flows to the LP stage of the engine fuel pumps. This stage is protected from overpressure by a relief valve. The unit consists of a LP centrifugal boost stage which feeds an HP single stage. through the aircraft fuel pumps.17 bar) differential.

The FDV operates to change the direction of the FMU spill flow to: • • • The Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC) or.5 Fuel Nozzle A. Heat shields installed internally and externally also prevent formation of coke. They are a Fuel Diverter Valve (FDV) and a Fuel Return Valve (FRV). and send the mixture into the combustion chamber in a controlled pattern. The fuel nozzles carry the fuel through a single orifice. The FD and RV has two valves in one body.2. The fuel nozzle forms the atomized mixture of fuel and air into the correct pattern for satisfactory combustion. The fuel is vaporized by highvelocity air as it enters the combustion chamber. and each nozzle is held in position by three bolts. General The Fuel Diverter and Return Valve (FD and RV) is a primary unit in the Heat Management System (HMS) of the engine.6 Fuel Diverter And Return Valve A. The fuel nozzles mix the fuel with air. 3. 3. The design of the fuel nozzle results in fast vaporization of the fuel through the full range of operation. B. General The fuel nozzles receive fuel from the fuel manifolds. the fuel filter (element) inlet or. The fuel nozzles are installed through the wall of the case. Description/Operation There are 20 fuel nozzles equally spaced around the diffuser case assembly. the IDG FCOC. .valve will start to open and let the fuel go around the filter element. The highvelocity flow of fuel prevents formation of coke on areas where fuel touches metal.2.

This main valve is a half-area piston-type valve which moves the valve to change the metering port area. C. Operation (1) General The FDRV configuration allows four modes of operation according to the electrical signals generated from the EEC (based on fuel and oil temperature measurements transmitted by means of thermocouples). B. (2) Fuel return valve • • The EEC operates the dual-wound torque motor to control the servo pressure. The FDRV gives a feedback signal to the EEC to transmit the position of valves in the unit. The pressure balance between two sides of the main valve (Valves C and D) gives the direction and the speed of the valve movement. Thus.The FRV operates to control fuel flow which goes back to the aircraft fuel tank acting as a fuel cooler. The fuel flow changes with the position of the valves. The main valve has two valve functions that are referred to as valve C and valve D The EEC gives the electrical signal to the FDRV to change the position of the valves. Description The fuel diverter and return valve is installed on the FCOC. The FRV has a main valve and a pushing piston in a sleeve. the fuel flow can be controlled through the FDRV and the EEC. The FDV is a two-position selector valve which has two pistons in a sleeve. Then the valve changes the direction of the fuel flow and controls the metering port area. (3) Fuel diverter valve • The EEC energizes the solenoid valve to let the servo fuel flow. . The two pistons are mechanically connected and make two valve areas which are referred to as valve A and valve B. This servo fuel goes into one side of the piston face in the valve B. This servo fuel pushes the main valve.

The servo pressure pushes two pistons (which are the valves A and B) in the same direction. Then these valves change the direction of the fuel flow, and one of these pistons compresses the spring.

When the solenoid is de-energized, this spring pushes back two pistons.

(There is an orifice to release the servo fuel to the FMU spill port). And the other one of two pistons pushes the switch assemblies. The switch assemblies transmit the EEC the valve position when the solenoid is de-energized. (4) Constant Pressure Valve (CPV) The CPV makes the servo pressure constant between the HP port and LP port of the FDRV. This servo flow moves each valve in the FDRV. (5) Failure mode • When the servo pressure becomes zero: • • The pushing piston comes up to hold the main valve at a mode 5 position. The spring extends to hold the FDV pistons at a mode 5 position. Other than in (a), the FDRV keeps the mode 5 position in these conditions: The failure of the electrical signal. During the engine stops. If the IDG FCOC port is clogged in this valve position, relief valve releases the FMU spill flow. This relief valve is in the valve A and it can release the unwanted pressure to the FCOC port.

1.5.4 Fuel Distribution Valve
A. General The FDV subdivides scheduled engine fuel flow from the FMU equally to ten fuel manifolds, each of which in turn feeds two nozzles. B. Description

The fuel distribution valve is installed at the 4:00 o_clock location, at the front flange of the diffuser case. The fuel distribution valve receives fuel through a fuel line from the FMU. The fuel goes through a 200 micron strainer, and then into ten internal discharge ports. The ten discharge ports are connected to the ten fuel manifolds. Eight of the ten internal discharge ports in the valve are connected after an engine shutdown. This lets fuel drain from eight of the fuel

1.6.1 General
The Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) system provides full range control of the engine to achieve steady state and transient performance when operated in combination with aircraft subsystems. The FADEC system consists of • • • • • • • • • • • a dual-channel FADEC unit; Fuel Metering Unit (FMU); dedicated Permanent Magnetic Alternator (PMA); actuation systems for stator vanes, engine bleeds, active clearance control, 10th stage cooling air, engine and Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) heat management control; sensors; electrical harness; and start system components.

The FADEC Electronic Engine Control (EEC) is a vibration-isolated, aircooled unit mounted on the engine fan case. Its vibration isolation and cooling systems are specifically designed to provide a protected and controlled internal environment that is completely compatible with the electronic components.

1.6.2 System Description
A. FADEC (1) FADEC Functions The FADEC system operates compatibly with applicable aircraft systems to perform the following functions

• Engine limits protection - Power management Automatic engine start sequencing Control of the starter valve ON/OFF Control of HP fuel shutoff valve (ON/OFF on ground. Fuel flow control Acceleration and deceleration schedules Variable Stator Vane (VSV) and Booster Stage Bleed Valve (BSBV)schedules Turbine clearance control (High Pressure/Low Pressure) (HP/LP) 10th stage cooling air control Idle setting. Exhaust GasTemperature (EGT) monitoring Abort/Recycle capability on ground. WF. Fan and core over speed protection to prevent engine running over certified red lines Engine turbine outlet gas temperature monitoring. ON in flight) Control of the fuel schedule Control of the ignition (ON/OFF) Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR).• GAS - generator control for steady state and transient engineoperation within safe limits. N1. Control of thrust reverser actuation Thrust reverser control Automatic engine thrust rating control Thrust parameter limits computation manual power management through constant ratings versus throttle lever relation Automatic power management through direct engine power adjustment to the auto thrust system demand. N2. .

.- Control of engine power during reverser operation engine idle setting during reverser transient Fig.3.2 Full Authority Digital Elecetronic Controll – Schematic - Control of maximum reverser power at full rearward throttle control lever position.

The request is transmitted through the torque motor in the fuel metering unit. Gas Generator Control (1) Fuel Control The EEC produces a fuel flow request using the control laws relevant to engine operation. isolation. The rotor speed reference (N1 REF) will be scheduled as a function of TRA and T2. Detection. The result is that fuel flow is modulated until the EPR error is eliminated. IDG oil and fuel temperatures Aircraft fuel system configuration Flight phases. (2) Variable Stator Vane (VSV) Control . Engine condition monitoring parameters transmission. Fuel return valve control. accommodation and memorization of its internal system failures. The EPR reference is compared to sensed EPR and dynamic compensation is then applied to this EPR error. Redeploy command in case of non commanded stowage. B.- Restow command in case of non commanded deployment. idle speed and accel/decel transients requires different control laws. The primary mode of setting steady state power is provided by controlling fuel flow to set EPR as illustrated in An EPR Reference (EPR REF) is calculated as a function of the Throttle Resolver Angle (TRA). The FADEC controls the ON/OFF return to the aircraft tank in relationship with: Engine oil. Mach number and altitude. Setting steady state power. ambient temperature (T2). Engine parameters transmission for cockpit indication Engine primary parameters Starting system status Thrust reverser system status FADEC system status.

The VSV position is controlled by the EEC as a function of N2/square root of theta T2.6. The EEC uses the VSV feedback signal from the Linear Variable Differential Transducer (LVDT) to adjust the actual VSV position. (3) Booster Stage Bleed Valve (BSBV) Control The BSBV position is controlled by the EEC. The EEC uses the BSBV feedback signal from the LVDT to adjust the actual BSBV position. (4) HPT/LPT Active Clearance Control (HPT/LPT ACC) The HPT/LPT ACC valve modulates fan air flow to the HP and LP turbine cases. The EEC controls the valve position as a function of the thrust level. The LVDTs transmit the valve position to the EEC. (5) HP Turbine (10th Stage) Cooling Air Control The HP turbine cooling air valve supplies supplemental air (from HP compressor 10th stage) to cool various parts of the HP and LP turbines. The valve operates as a function of high rotor speed and altitude and incorporates a 2-position switch to provide a feedback signal to the EEC (channels A and B) (6) Oil/Fuel Temperature Control Heating and cooling of fuel, engine oil and IDG oil is accomplished by the Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC), the Air Cooled Oil Cooler (ACOC) and the IDG cooler under the management of the EEC. Devices used by the EEC include the fuel diverter valve, the ACOC modulating air valve and the return to tank valve. Fuel, engine oil and IDG oil temperatures are transmitted to the EEC by thermocouples. The fuel temperature is measured at the exit of the filter. The engine oil temperature is measured upstream of the ACOC. The IDG oil temperature is measured at IDG oil cooler exit. C. Engine Limits Protection The FADEC prevents inadvertent over boosting of the expected rating(EPR limit and EPR target) during power setting. It also prevents exceedance of rotor speeds (N1 and N2) and burner pressure limits. In addition, the FADEC unit monitors EGT and sends an appropriate

indication to the cockpit display in case of exceedance of the limit. The FADEC unit also provides surge recovery. D. Power Management The FADEC unit contains all the engine thrust setting curves to provide automatic engine thrust ratings control in Engine Pressure Ratio, (EPR) (in normal mode) and N1 (in reversionary mode).The FADEC unit computes power management LIMIT and COMMAND parameters in EPR mode, except during reverse operation (N1 mode). These parameters are available for the following engine thrust modes: • • • • • • Maximum Take-Off and Go-Around Flexible Take-Off Maximum Continuous Maximum Climb Idle (no limit parameter) Reverse (N1 mode operation)

E. Engine Starting/Ignition Control There are two modes of starting control associated with two different procedures and corresponding to two engine starting logics in the EEC (a) Automatic starting logic under the full authority of the FADEC system. The FADEC initiates the automatic sequence of command to: • • • • • • pneumatic starter valve opening and closing HP fuel valve igniters. engine limits protection N1, N2, EGT on ground start abort in case of detected incident (hot start, stall, failure to light, hung start) in flight start, only fault indication, without automatic start abort

The FADEC provides:

• •

specific fault message transmission. actuation of the pneumatic starter valve, through the activation of the MAN START pushbutton switch and the setting of the ENG/MODE/CRANK/NORM/IGN START to IGN START.

(b) Alternate start logic with authority of the FADEC limited to:

• • •

energization of the spark igniter and setting of the ENG/MASTER control switch to ON to energize the HP fuel shut off valve. Stop of the ignition and starter air valve. generation of warning indications.

F. Engine Parameter Transmission for Cockpit Display The FADEC provides the necessary engine parameters for cockpit display through the ARINC 429 data bus outputs. G. Engine Condition Parameter Transmission Engine Condition monitoring is provided by the ability of the FADEC to transmit the engine parameters through the ARINC 429 data bus output. The basic engine parameters available are: • • • WF, N1, N2, P5, PB, Pamb T4.9 (EGT), P2, T2, P3 and T3. VSV, BSBV, 7th and 10th stage bleed commanded positions HPT/LPT ACC,HPT cooling, WF valve or actuator position status and maintenance words, engine serial number and position.In order to perform a better analysis of the engine condition, some additional parameters are optionally available. These are P12.5, P2.5 and T2. H. FADEC System Maintenance The FADEC maintenance is facilitated by internal extensive Built in Test Equipment (BITE) providing efficient fault detection. The results of this fault detection are contained in status and maintenance words according to ARINC 429 specification and are available on the output data bus.

3 Component Description A. The EEC also monitors the systems and components to make sure they operate properly. The alternator provides two identical and independent power outputs. The rotor is mounted directly on the gearbox output shaft and the stator is bolted to the gearbox housing.9 (EGT) Sensor N1 Sensor N2 Sensor Engine Oil Temperature Sensor P2/T2 Sensor P3/T3 Sensor P5 (4. Engine Electronic Control (EEC) The Electronic Engine Control is the main component of the engine fuel and control system. If a shaft seal failure occurs and the alternator fills with engine oil. The stator and rotor are sealed from the gearbox by a shaft seal.1. one for each channel of the EEC. the alternator will continue to function normally. a rotor and an N2 winding. .9) Sensor Fuel Temperature Sensor B. The EEC obtains its N2 speed input by sensing the frequency of the input provided by the alternator. Engine Sensors • • • • • • • • T4. and is designed to tolerate indefinite short circuit conditions. Dedicated Permanent Magnet Alternator (PMA) The alternator functions as the primary power source for the EEC and transmits an N2 signal to the EEC and the cockpit. It comprises two stators. A separate stator winding provides a dedicated frequency signal to the Engine Vibration Monitoring Unit (EVMU). C.6. The EEC receives data input from the other aircraft systems and generates control signals to the engine systems and components.

by a torque motor controlled servo drive. Fuel Metering Unit (FMU) The Fuel Metering Unit (FMU) provides fuel flow control for all operating conditions.D. . Ignition Boxes They are powered with aircraft 115VAC . Position resolves provide feedback to the EEC. Pneumatic Starter Valve The FADEC controls the opening/closing of the valve and receives the open/not open signal from the valve. F.400Hz through the EIV and the FADEC. VSV Feedback Signal The FADEC receives a VSV position feedback signal from the VSV actuator. The igniter A is powered from the emergency bus and the igniter B is Powered from the normal bus. E. The FMU has provision to route excess fuel above engine requirements to the fuel diverter valve through the bypass loop. Variable fuel metering is provided by the FMU through EEC commands. G.

1. FADEC Inputs/Outputs Digital inputs/outputs of the FADEC conform to ARINC 429-7 specification. Throttle control system which translates the crew commands for engine power level into a command signal to the FADEC. Engine Interface Unit which: concentrates airframe signals and transmits them to the FADEC.1 General The FADEC unit interfaces with the following aircraft functional elements: • • Air data computer which transmits air data signals to the engine control system. receives information from the engine and dispatches them to other systems. • • • • • Cockpit system display which furnishes engine parameters indication and warnings to the crew. Electrical power supply from airframe to power FADEC while engines are not running.7 FUNCTIONAL INTERFACES – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 1.7. The thrust reverser control system.2 System Description A.1. Each channel of the EEC has input ports for both ADIRU and EIU plus an input port for a spare. The AIDS interface which records engine data for maintenance purposes. (1) Digital Inputs Inputs to each channel are isolated from each other in order to prevent failure propagation between channel A and B and/or between both engines.7. The FADEC makes fault detection on its inputs by performing the following: • • range and rate tests status Matrix check .

Each channel of the EEC has two /output ports and each bus has separated line driver. (2) Digital Outputs Bit transmission rate is nominally 12.In the case where EIU is not able to identify the channel in control. it will assume Channel A as in control. EIU/EEC Interface 1 EIU input from the EEC The EIU acquires two ARINC 429 output data buses from the associated EEC (one from each channel) and it reads data from the channel in control.3 Interfrace A. data from the other channel are used. When some data are not available on the channel in control.7.• • Source/Destination Identifier (SDI) check (except for data from the EIU) data parity test.Outputs are isolated in such a way that propagation of failuresis prevented.5 kHz. Faults detected by the FADEC are annunciated and recorded for maintenance or crew action if required. ADIRU/EEC Interface Air Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) sends air data parameters to the FADEC through ARINC 429 buses.Each channel of the EEC receives a digital data stream from both ADIRU which contains total temperature. total pressure and altitude pressure signals from the airframe sensing system B.The EIU looks at particular engine data on the EEC digital . 1. Information contained on FADEC output buses includes the following general items: • • • • • Engine Rating Parameter Information Parameters used for Engine Control FADEC System Maintenance Data Engine Condition Monitoring Parameters ECU Status and Fault Indication.

2 EIU output to the EEC Through its output ARINC 429 data bus. EIU/A/C Interface The EIU concentrates data from cockpit panels and different aircraft systems to send them to the FADEC and gives selected FADEC information to the A/C systems. one for each engine.Each throttle lever is fitted with one pushbutton which is used to generate the autothrust disconnect discrete signal to the EEC.Each DMC receives 4 engines data buses. the EIU transmits data coming from all the A/C computers which have to communicate with the EEC. Throttle Control System/EEC Interfaces The throttle control system is fully electrical and each throttle lever drives two resolvers . F. C. All the 8 buses from EEC engine 1 and EEC engine 2 are acquired by the 3 DMCs. these resolvers are dedicated to the FADEC. D.There is no data flow during EIU internal test or initialization. one from each channel of EEC and two from each engine. except from ADCs and throttle which communicate directly with the EEC. Each FWC recives 4 data buses one from each channel of EEC General Arrangement.The FADEC excites and demodulates these flow to interface them with other aircraft computers and with engine cockpit panels. E. located in the cockpit center pedestal. The EIU communicates with a lot of A/C systems through analog and digital interfaces. Cockpit System Display/EEC Interface The aircraft system which processes the engine data and messages for cockpit display on the cathode ray tubes consists in three display management computers (DMC) and two flight warning computers. Thrust Reverser Interface .

5 Sensor T2.5 Sensor P12.5) are available on the EEC data bus output if installed on the engine. 115 VAC Power Supply The 115 VAC power supply is dedicated to the ignitors and to the P2/T2 probe heating. These additional engine sensors are optional and dedicated to the engine condition monitoring through the AIDS. P2. 28VDC Power Supply The EEC is designed to operate with the engine not running. the dedicated alternator provides electrical power for the FADEC system.The EEC controls the deployment and stowing sequence of the thrust reverser. These engine parameters (P12.5 sensor provides air pressure at the LP compressor exit. As soon as the engine is running at and above 10 % N2 rpm. thrust reverser position feedback. T2.5 Sensor P2.7.5.7. A320 28VDC permits: • • • automatic ground check of the FADEC before engine running engine starting powering the EEC (while engine is running below 10 % N2). .P2.5 Additional Engine Sensor All interface between ECC and engine sensors. B. P12.5 sensor provides air pressure from the LP compressor exit.5.4 ECU / Engine Interface A.5 sensor provides air pressure from the fan exit. flight ground signals. 1. LVDTS feedback and FMU are additional engine sensor. The logic which is implemented in the EEC is based on TLA signals. T2. 1. The EEC is electrically powered by the aircraft through the EIU. the EEC is operational five seconds after it is electrically powered by aircraft 28VDC.

the measurement assembly. The fuel leaves the turbine and the bypass valve and then all of it flows through the straightening vanes. This prevents the turbine from turning too quickly. the bypass valve starts to open to let some of the fuel go around the turbine. It is mounted on the lower left-hand side of the fan case. At low fuel flow rates all the fuel goes through the turbine. As the fuel flow increase. The fuel flow transmitter is made of these primary assemblies: • • • • the transmitter body.8. the .1 General The fuel system is monitored from: • • The fuel flow indication on the upper ECAM display unit permanently displayed in green and under numerical form. 1. These vanes straighten the fuel flow before it goes into the measurement assembly.1. the inlet bearing assembly.8 INDICATING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 1.8.2 Fuel Flow Indication A. (2) Operation Fuel goes into the transmitter and drives the turbine. The fuel filter clogging caution (amber) on the lower ECAM display unit. the turbine assembly. Fuel Flow Indication The fuel flow transmitter signal is fed to the FADEC which processes it and transmits the information to the ECAM system for display through the digital FADEC data bus B. Fuel Flow Transmitter (1) Description The fuel flow transmitter is installed in the fuel line between the fuel metering unit and the fuel distribution valve. rearward of the LP/HP fuel pump. When the fuel flow transmitter is stopped.

resists the movement of the impeller.Fig. a pulse is generated each time a magnet passes its related pick-off coil.3. As the measurement assembly is turned. through the impeller vanes. The spring permits the impeller to move in relation to the drum. When the fuel goes into the measurement assembly its flow.3 Fuel Flow Indication – Diagram magnets on the impeller align axially with the magnets on the drum. The magnets are then not aligned .

The switch is lever operated by the bellows lever. Fuel Filter Clogging Indication The fuel filter clog indication is provided on the lower ECAM display unit.5 psid from the filter clog energizing pressure. This causes: • • The engine page to come on the lower ECAM DU with the caution signal FUEL CLOG. One housing contains a bellows and the other a switch. the pressure switch is energized. The differential pressure switch signal is fed directly to the SDAC through the hardware B. This time difference is directly proportional to the fuel mass flow rate and is used to calculate the fuel flow. The associated caution message to come on the upper ECAM DU. (2) Operation . The switch housing contains the switch and an electrical connector.and there will be a time difference between the pulses generated in the drum and impeller pick-off coils. 1. Fuel Filter Differential Pressure Switch (1) Description The pressure switch is bolted to the fuel filter housing and connects to ports in it. The bellows is connected to the filter inlet side and the housing (vent side) is connected to the filter outlet side. The switch is in two housing held together with screws. When the pressure loss in the fuel filter exceeds 5 ± 2 psi. When the pressure loss in the filter decreases between 0 and -1. the pressure switch is de-energized which causes the caution to go off.3 Fuel Filter Clogging Indication A.8. The bellows housing is connected to the fuel supply with two ports. A lever connects the bellows to the switch.

The switch will then transmit a message signal of a clogged filter to the cockpit. This will cause the bellows to extend. If the filter element gets clogged or not fully clogged.The bellows and bellows housing filled with fuel at the pressure of the system. the filter inlet pressure will increase. 2 IGNITION . The pressure in the bellows and bellows housing is thus the same so the bellows do not move. At the pressure set point the bellows will extend sufficiently far to push the lever and close the switch contacts.

2 igniter plugs.1 IGNITION – GENERAL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 2. The purpose of the system is: • to produce an electrical spark to ignite the fuel air/mixture in the engine combustion chamber during the starting cycle on ground and in flight.4.2.1. • to provide continuous ignition (manual or automatic selection) during take off.1 General Fig.1 Component Location The ignition system consists of 2 independent subsystems : 2 high energy ignition exciters for which the energization is controlled by the EEC. landing and operation in adverse weather . and 2 coaxial shielded ignition leads.

2.400 Hz input. The other providing the return path from the igniter body to the case of the exciter. Each ignition system can operate independently. ignition system B comprises the lower ignition exciter and its associated cable and igniter.conditions.2 Description The 2 ignition exciters are mounted on the outer surface of the HP compressor. The igniter plug has 3 sections: • • • the Sparking end with the surface gap the Main body with the plug thread. Ignition system A comprises the upper ignition exciter and its associated cable and igniter. Both ignition systems are used for manual starts (alternate mode). . 2. the Connector to connect the ignition lead The ignition leads have two conducting paths. The power is transformed. one carrying the current between the exciter and the center electrode of the igniter.1. The two igniter plugs are installed on the diffuser case. Each unit has one power input circuit. The ignition systems are selected alternately by the EEC (for auto start only) in order to have no failure on ignition channel for more than one flight and to increase overall system life. Continuous ignition will also be automatically selected when the EIU has failed.1. rectified and discharged in the form of capacitor discharge pulses through the ignition leads to the igniter plugs. (4 joules stored) and a high voltage output circuit to the igniter.3 Operation The ignition exciters operate with 115 V . The selection of the system (A or B) is made by the EEC in auto start only.

Ignition Exciters (1) General There are 2 ignition exciters which are mounted on the right hand side of the high pressure compressor front casing. The availability of this 115VAC power to relay box is controlled by the EIU according to: • • The MASTER control switch position: no power is supplied to the relay box when the MASTER switch is set to OFF. A.2.2. The igniter A is powered from the 115VAC ESS bus 401XP or from the 115VAC STAT INV BUS 901XP in the emergency configuration. The output voltage is 22 to 26KV. (2) Description The ignition exciter is a capacitor discharge type exciter requiring an input of 115V (106 to 120 volts AC) at 400Hz (370 to 430 Hz).1 Description The ignition system requires 115 VAC – 400 HZ power supply.2 ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 2. and the igniter B is powered from normal bus (103XP for engine 1 and 204XP for engine 2). . The power is delivered via the EIU to the FADEC system and associated relay box. ENG FIRE pushbutton switch position: no power is supplied to the relay box when the ENG FIRE pushbutton switch is pushed. The exciters provide starting and continuous duty ignition on demand.

The approximate length of the leads is three feet (‘0’. The igniter plug has three sections: • • • The sparking end with the surface gap.400 Hz power supply into high voltage pulsating current. When the exciter discharges the stored energy. The air-cooled ignition lead is connected to the output end of the exciter and to the input end of the igniter plug.1 Description The ignition for each engine is carried out by means of one or both ignition exciters which transform(s) the 115 V . the other is the return path from the igniter body to the case of the exciter. The . The main body with the plug thread.3. B. The high voltage flows through the ignition lead (shielded and ventilated) and delivers to the igniter plug the power required to initiate the fuel/air mixture combustion by a series of sparks. Igniter plug (1) General The igniter plug is one of the components of the ignition system. Ignition Leads The air-cooled ignition lead is a part of an ignition system having two separate channels. ignition system B comprises the lower ignition exciter and its associated cable and igniter. the energy goes through the ignition lead to the igniter plug. the surface gap is ionized and becomes conductive.3 DISTRIBUTION – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 2.2. Ignition system A comprises the upper ignition exciter and its associated cable and igniter. ‘90’ meter). The connector to connect the ignition lead. A. The air-cooled ignition lead has two conductive paths: one connects the exciter and the centre electrode of the igniter plugs. (2) Operation When a high voltage pulse from the ignition exciter is delivered to the igniter plug. Two igniter plugs are installed on the diffuser case.

This gives off a spark with high energy at the sparking end.capacitor (in the ignition exciter) discharges the stored energy across the surface gap. .

. 2.This position is selected by the pilot at the end of starting sequence or after engine shutdown on ground. In flight.4 SWITCHING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 2. when there is an engine flameout or stall. It is composed of: • ENG/MODE selector switch It is common to both engines and can be placed in any of the three positions CRANK. IGN/START position.In CRANK position no ignition system is supplied but an engine dry motoring is allowed. ENG Panel (115VU) Engine start panel is located on the centre pedestal in the cockpit.1 General The ignition system is controlled by: the EEC upon commanded signals from ENG START panel 115VU through the EIU.4. The engine is running and the air intake cowl antiicing is selected to ON or the EIU controlled ignition is failed or during take-off or during flexible take off or when the approach idle has been selected. NORM. normal starting procedure (automatic) 2. This position is selected for: 1. and IGN/START. alternate starting procedure (manual) 3.2 Description A. NORM position . CRANK position . 2. In this position the EEC selects automatically the continuous ignition in some specific configurations: 1.4.2. continuous ignition after starting sequence • Two ENG/MASTER control switches There is a MASTER control switch for each engine.

the HP fuel shut off valve is closed. one for each engine. There are two pushbutton switches. ENG/MAN START Section of Panel 22VU It is located on the overhead panel in the cockpit. the engine is stopped. Two FIRE legends on the ENG1 and 2 annunciators one red FIRE legend dedicated to each engine is supplied by the FDU (Fire Detection Unit) when a fire occurs.With the MASTER control switch in OFF position. This position of the MASTER control switch overrides any EECfunction. Each pushbutton switch serves for the manual starting procedure only. . Two FAULT legends on the ENG1 and 2 annunciators one amber FAULT legend dedicated to each engine is supplied by the EIU when: • a starting failure is detected in AUTO MODE Or a disagreement occurs between the HP fuel shut off valve actual position and the commanded position. B. • • The MASTER control switch in ON position enables: normal starting procedure (automatic) alternate starting procedure (manual) wet crank procedure Normal operation.

For in- .5 IGNITION STARTING AND CONTINOUS RELIGHT – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 2.1 Description The ignition circuit is supplied with 115 VAC – 400 Hz. then. A dormant failure of an ignition exciter is not possible for more than one flight because: • • the two ignition systems are independent The EEC selects alternately ignition system A or B. the EEC energizes automatically the appropriate ignition exciter and keeps it energized until N2 reaches 43%. Automatic Start Sequence When an automatic start sequence has been activated by the EEC (ENG/MODE selector switch in IGN/START position and MASTER control switch to ON) an automatic dry crank sequence of 50 seconds is performed. Ignition system A comprises the upper ignition exciter and its associated cable and igniter.4. 2.2. The electrical power is supplied via the EEC and EIU which control the ignition of the igniter plugs.5. ignition system B comprises the lower ignition exciter and its associated cable and igniter.5.2 Operation Fig.3 Ignition and Starting System A.

takeoff (determined by TRA) or flex takeoff is performed. C. (2) Automatic selection The EEC automatically selects continuous ignition when: The ENG/MODE selector switch is turned to IGN/START while the • • • engines are at or above idle. Positioning of the MASTER control switch to ‘OFF’ during that starting sequence.flight restart the EEC selects simultaneously both ignition exciters. . the selector must be placed in NORM position. after engine start. the EEC aborts automatically the sequence by closing the starter shut-off valve and the HP fuel shut-off valve and deenergizing the igniters. In case of incident during an automatic starting on the ground. then back to IGN/START to select continuous ignition. Continuous Ignition (1) Manual Selection When the engines are running on the ground or in flight the continuous ignition is obtained by positioning the ENG/MODE selector switch in IGN/START position. On the ground. Alternate Start Sequence When a manual start sequence has been activated by the EEC (ENG/MODE selector switch in IGN/START position and the ENG/MAN START pushbutton switch selected to ON) the EEC opens the starter valve and a dry crank sequence of 50s is performed. In flight after engine restart. flameout is detected. results in ignition exciter deenergization. The deenergization of the ignition exciters is automatically commanded by the EEC. if the selector is maintained in IGN/START position. Then the MASTER control switch is placed in ON position (the EEC opens the HP fuel shut off valve and energizes the ignition exciters). the EEC selects the continuous ignition on the corresponding engine. B.

The test will be performed by selecting the corresponding IGNITOR TEST page in the MENU and positioning the MASTER control switch to ON to have the 115VAC power supply on the relevant engine. engine not running. Igniter Plug Test The operation of the igniter plugs can be checked on the ground. through the maintenance MENU mode of the FADEC.• • • • engine anti-ice is selected. approach idle is selected. EIU fails (except during cranking). D. . Master Lever is inadvertently cycled from ON to OFF then back to ON position.

. secondary (bypass) and parasitic (cooling and pressurizing) airflows and the systems used to control the airflow. Engine Section The airstream flowing through the IAEV2500 turbofan engine supplies 2 majors systems: • • The internal air system. which consists of the following subsystems: HP/LP turbine active clearance control.1 AIR – GENERAL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. A. High-energy igniter harness cooling air. B.1 General The air system covers primary. The external air system. which consists of the following subsystems: Propulsion airflow (secondary and primary flows). It is composed in 2 major sections. Engine bleed air. Bearing compartments pressurizing air. Cooling air.1. Nacelle Section The nacelle installation is designed to provide cooling and ventilation air for engine accessories mounted along the fan and core casing.3 AIR 3. The distribution and circulation of the air in the components is such that the temperature limit for specific components is not exceeded.

2 Description All engine air enters the front mounted fan through the engine air intake cowl.A small portion of the bypass air is used for HP/LP turbine active clearance control and environmental control system cooling through the precooler. A. the airflow is divided into primary and secondary (bypass) airflows by the flow splitter in the fan frame.1. B. to ensure satisfactory sealing. (2) Primary flow A portion of fan air passes into the 3-stage booster and enters the core by a converging duct formed by the fan frame.3. Bearing Compartments Pressurizing Air (1) The bearing compartment pressure. After being compressed by the fan. When the thrust reverser is deployed.The compressed air enters the combustion chamber and is ignited with the fuel. is obtained from the 6th stage compressor manifold for the N⁰_s 1. The exhaust gases flow through the high pressure turbine (HPT) and the low pressure turbine (LPT) and are discharged through the Common Nozzle Assembly (CNA). The air then enters the HP compressor which is provided with 7th and 10th stage bleed valves (required for engine stability during starting and transient conditions). the bypass air is directed outward through the thrust reverser cascades to provide reverse thrust. This duct is provided with Booster Stage Bleed Valves (BSBV). 2 and 3 bearings. . Bypass air is discharged through the Common Nozzle Assembly (CNA) during normal engine functioning and provides the major portion of engine thrust (approximately 4/5 of the total airflow of the engine). Propulsion Airflow System (1) Secondary flow Fan air passes through the Outlet Guide Vanes (OGV) and the fan frame struts.

F. An on-off valve controls the air supply to the air intake lip. (2) The HP turbine cooling air system which uses 10th stage HP compressor bleed air to cool the HP turbine case.C. D. the LP turbine support rails for the diffuser duct outer segments and the stage 2 vanes. HP/LP Turbine Active Clearance Control The HP and LP turbines are cooled by fan air drawn from a common HP/LP ACC air scoop in the fan duct and distributed to both turbine casings. (2) The environmental control system (ECS) pneumatic installation collects bleed air from either the engine 7th stage manifold or the engine 10th stage manifold and delivers bleed air through a pressure regulating valve to the pylon/nacelle assembly interface (3) ECS air cooling is provided through the precooler by air taken in the fan discharge. Engine Bleed Air Two customer bleeds are available at stages 7 and 10 of the HPC. Engine Internal Cooling Air System The engine internal cooling air system consists of two subsystems: (1) The HP turbine cooling controlled air system which uses 10th stage HP compressor bleed air to cool the stage 2 turbine blades. in response to EEC command. . High Energy Igniter Harness Cooling Air The ignition system is cooled by fan air which is directed to the exciter. E. the lead and igniter plug. (1) The air intake cowl anti-icing system consists of ducting routing from a 7th stage engine dedicated bleed port to the air intake cowl. both HP turbine disk bores and the LP turbine cavity.

.3 Nacelle Temperature indication This system enables the nacelle core zone ambient temperature indication to be displayed.3.1.

Cowling pressure load limiting in the event of pneumatic duct failures. Ventilation of compartment during engine shutdown.2 COOLING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. Nacelle Compartment Cooling The nacelle is divided in three major areas • • • the engine air inlet fan compartment core compartment. Aircraft and Engine Accessories Cooling The nacelle installation is designed to provide cooling and ventilation air for engine accessories mounted on the fan and core casing. B. Cooling of Engine Parts . The distribution and circulation of the air in the compartments is such that the limit for specific components is not exceeded.3. LPT) A. • • • • Cooling of temperature critical components.2. Ventilation of combustible fluid vapors to preclude fires.1 General The power plant cooling system consists of: • • • cooling of the nacelle compartments cooling of the aircraft and engine accessories cooling of engine parts (HPT. C. The last two compartments only are cooled to fulfil the following functions: • Sufficient airflow to offset the effects of engine case heat rejection and engine flange air leakage thereby maintaining an acceptable compartment temperature level.

Location of HP/LP Turbine Active Clearance Control System Fig.4 HPT / LPT Active Clearance Control System Location .5. 3.Differents parts of the IAE V2500 engine are cooled by air bled in the primary flow (HP turbine cooling).5.3 HP Turbine Cooling System Location B. Location of HP Turbine Cooling System Fig. and secondary flow (HPT/LPT ACC).2 Component Location A.2.

3 NACELLE COMPARTMENT AND ACCESSORY COOLING – DESCRIPTION AND O[ERATION 3. Ventilation of compartment during engine shutdown. There are three cooling systems: • • • Fan and core compartments. • • • Cooling of temperature critical components. thereby maintaining an acceptable compartment temperature level.3. A duct from this scoop goes to a Y-shaped outlet duct on the cowl aft bulkhead. The nacelle cooling and ventilation systems provide the following functions: • Sufficient airflow to offset the effects of engine case heat rejection and engine flange air leakage. Air cooled oil cooler vent. (3) Core compartment ventilation is provided by fan air through holes in the inner wall of the c ducts. 3.3.1 General The nacelle compartment and engine accessories are air cooled .2 Description A. Engine gearbox breather vent.The cooling air is taken from the air flowing in and around the nacelle cowls. Ventilation of combustible fluid vapours to preclude fire. Fan and Core Compartments Cooling (1) Fan case compartment accessories are cooled by air which enters through a scoop in the air intake cowl. This is supplemented by air . Air circulates through the core compartment and exits through the exhaust orifice located in the lower bifurcation of the C ducts. The air comes out of this duct into the fan compartment.3. (2) The air in the fan compartment is vented overboard through two outlet vents in the bottom of the fan cowl (one in each fan cowl door).

5 Fan Case compartments cooling (4) During ground running local pockets of natural convection provide some ventilation of the fan case zone. Fig. (6) The maximum permitted air temperatures are: . ACOC outlet vent to right fan cowl junction. Fan cowl door split line. (5) The fan compartment is sealed to keep the air in. Seals are installed at the following locations: • • • • • • • Air intake cowl to fan cowl junction. Gearbox breather to right fan cowl junction. Fan cowl to thrust reverser C-ducts junction. 230 degrees F (110 degrees C) at the top of the fan compartment 255 degrees F (124 degrees C) at the bottom of the fan compartment.5.exhausting from Active Clearance Control System around the turbine area.

A seal is installed at duct junction. C. . B.• 797 degrees F (425 degrees C) in the core compartment. The hot air goes overboard from the cooler through an outlet grille in the right fan cowl. Air Cooled Oil Cooler Vent System The air cooled oil cooler (ACOC) is cooled with air from the fan duct. The gas goes through a breather duct on the gearbox and then a duct in the right hand side fan cowl. Engine Gearbox Breather Vent System The engine gearbox breather lets the gas from the gearbox go overboard from the nacelle.

The rear bearing compartment.3. The combination of a brush seal and a carbon seal rear of No. No. The compartment is sealed against the high spool shaft and the low spool shaft with two brush seals. The wall of the front bearing compartment is made up of the inner wall of intermediate case and the No. Compressor air is also used to keep the N⁰4 bearing compartment cool. 3 bearing seals the compartment against the high spool shaft.4 BEARING COMPARTMENT COOLING AND SEALING – DESCRIPTION 3. two carbon seals and a hydraulic seal.1 General A. Pressurizing air to the space rear of No. B. The N⁰4 bearing compartment.4. Operation Pressurizing air from 6th stage compressor goes through two tubes to the space in front of No. The engine main bearings are contained in three bearings compartments: • • • The front bearing compartment. 1 bearing support. 3 bearing . 1 bearing and between the brush seal and the carbon seal. Each compartment has seals installed to prevent oil leakage.2 Description A. Description The front bearing compartment contains three bearings. 3. The seals are pressurized by air taken from stage 6 and 8 of the compressor. B. The combination of a brush seal and a carbon seal in front of No. 1 ball bearing and No. 1 bearing seals the compartment against the low spool shaft. The hydraulic inter-shaft seal is used to seal the compartment against 8th stage compressor bleed air in the annulus between the high and low rotor shaft.4. 2 roller bearing for the low spool shaft and No. 3 ball bearing for the high spool shaft.

4. The matrix of cooler is made of 283 dimpled hairpin stainless steel tubes. Air in the compartment is vented to a de-oiler to keep proper seal differential pressure. 4 bearing compartment where it is distributed between the compartment walls forming a thermal barrier. This system prevents ingestion of hot 12th stage compressor air in the diffuser case inner cavity from entering the bearing compartment should a carbon seal fail. Before entering the No. Description The No. The remainder flows into the diffuser case inner cavity.4. 4 Bearing compartment cooling and sealing A. 3. 4 bearing compartment air cooler is installed on the turbine casing. . 4 bearing compartment the 12th stage air passes through an air cooled air cooler to be cooled. Upper and lower casing side plates are strengthened by five (5) attached baffles. This air in the annuli flows in two directions. 4 bearing compartment is cooled by 12th stage air.4 Air Cooled Air Cooler A. Some air flows past the front and rear carbon seals into the bearing compartment. Internal diffuser case plumbing carries the cooled air to the No. General The No. through which the tubes may move freely to agree with thermal expansion. A restrictor in the venting line controls the air flow to prevent air leak at the seals 3. An external plumbing carries this air from a single diffuser case port through an air cooled air cooler and back to the diffuser case at three locations.3 No. The exchanger is held by its coolant air duct flanges. vacuumfurnace brazed to a stainless steel tube sheet and contained within a stainless steel casing. rounded to match the fan air routing radius.and between the brush seal and the carbon seal is supplied through a routing in case casting from 6th stage compressor. The air exhausts through holes into the front and rear annuli formed by the HP rotor shaft and the bearing compartment.

Bleed air from 12th stage compressor goes through tubes .B. 4 bearing compartment air cooler and makes a single pass over the tubes. Operation Fan air goes into the No.

5 HP TURBINE COOLING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3.5. This air is supplied to the diffuser case through the 10th stage to HP turbine air valve mounted on the HP compressor case and two external pipes which connect to the valve.1 General A. 3.3. The source of this air is 10th stage compressor bleed.2 Description (1) General The HP turbine cooling controlled air system consists of: • a control valve . HP Turbine Cooling Make-up Air System Fig. The pipes pass through two diffuser case struts into the diffuser case internal cavity. Here the air mixes with air from various sources and continues through internal cavities to the stage two blades and HP 1 turbine disk bores.8 HP Turbine Cooling Controlled Air System A cooling system is provided to supply supplemental air to cool the stage 2 turbine blades and HP 1 turbine disk bores during all power settings except cruise.5.5. At cruise power settings the valve in this system is shut off to improve engine performance.

. A visual position indicator on the valve is provided for maintenance purposes. It also incorporates 2 position indication switches to provide a signal to the EEC (channels A and B) for fault detection purposes. When energized the solenoid supplies high pressure compressor discharge air to the control valve which shuts-off the flow of cooling air. De-energizing the solenoid opens the control valve allowing full cooling air flow.• • a valve solenoid (controlled by EEC) 2 tubes (2) Control Valve The external piping incorporates a cooling air control valve which is either fully closed or fully open. It is energized/deenergized in response to EEC signals. The control valve is normally open. The valve is operated by a solenoid valve controlled in response to EEC signals. (3) Solenoid valve The solenoid valve is mounted on the fan case. Scheduling by the EEC is a function of high rotor speed and altitude.

Fan air is drawn from a common HP/LP turbine ACC air scoop in the fan duct.6. Cooling air passes through the tube perforations. Normal Operation The torque motor of the ACC actuator has springs to hold the jet pipe at neutral bias position. The cool air reduces the temperature and the thermal expansion of the cases under some operating conditions.6.1 General The HP/LP Turbine Active Clearance Control (ACC) system uses fan air to cool the HP and LP cases for blade tip clearance control in order to improve engine performance and maximize the turbine cases life time.3. 3. located on the inner surfaces of the tubes.6. The torque motor current from the EEC .6 HP / LP TURBINE ACTIVE CLEARENCE CONTROL (ACC) SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. This air is divided into HP and LP cooling air and passes through individual short ducts to the Active Clearance Control Valves which direct air for both HP and LP turbine case cooling. and impinges on the case outer surface. The LPT/HPT ACC system consists of the following components: • • • • • • • one HP turbine ACC manifold two LP turbine ACC manifolds Four HPT ACC perforated tubes height LPT ACC perforated tube one LP turbine supply pipe one LP/HP turbine valve (composed of a HPT control valve and a LPT control valve) one LP/HP turbine ACC actuator 3.2 Description The LP and HP Turbine ACC Systems function in the same manner.3 Operation A.

The pressure difference between two sides of the actuator piston and the spring load moves the actuator piston to the required position. Fail Safe Operation When there is no torque motor current or no fuel servo pressure. the EEC controls the position of the actuator piston between point B and point E. This direction change of the jet pipe makes a higher pressure on one side of the servo valve. C. (2) Engine operation During engine operation. This higher pressure moves the servo valve and it changes the fuel passage to the actuator piston. Mode of Operation The butterfly valves of the ACC valve are driven by the same actuator in the modes given below (1) Engine stop With the engine stop. (3) Take-off During take-off.changes the jet pipe direction. the actuator piston moves to the point A. The LVDT_s transmit the valve position to the EEC. The actuator piston remains at this point at all defective actions. The butterfly valves thus control the airflows for the HP/LP turbine ACC manifolds. the position of the actuator piston is at point A At this point: The butterfly valve for the HP turbine ACC is closed. The butterfly valve for the LP turbine ACC is not less than 45 per cent opened. the position of the actuator piston is at point C At this point: The butterfly valve for the HP for the HP turbine ACC is closed The butterfly valve for the LP turbine ACC is not less than 70 per cent opened. B. The actuator piston drives the butterfly valves in the ACC valve. .

7 IGNITION SYSTEM COOLING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3.1 General The ignition cooling system uses air from the fan stream to cool the ignition exciter. Cooling air passes over the exciter and exits through a connector cooling jacket surrounding the ignition lead connector and enters a flexible conduit which surrounds the lead. Cooling air then flows around the lead to the igniter plug and excits through the igniter cooling jacket. the lead and igniter plug. Fan air is directed to each exciter through a flexible conduit where it enters the exciter cooling box. .3.7.

3. The variable stator vane and the 7th and 10th stage bleed valves control the HP compressor airflow. This variation of vane position changes the effective angle at which the air flows across the compressor blades and vanes. The system varies the angle of the inlet guide vanes and stator vanes to aerodynamically match the low pressure stages of compression with the high pressure stages. The booster stage bleed valve controls the LP compressor airflow.8. The VSV angle determines the compression characteristics (direction and velocity) for any particular stage at compression.8. the variable stator vane and HP compressor bleed valves systems are controlled by the EEC.8.8 COMPRESSOR CONTROL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. To match the booster discharge airflow to the core engine requirements at low speed.3.2 Variable Stator Vane System (VSV) The VSV system maintains a satisfactory compressor performance over a wide range of operating conditions. excess air is bled off through booster stage bleed valves (BSBV) into the fan discharge air stream.4 HP Compressor Bleed Valves The 7th and 10th stage bleed valves maintain a more stable operation of the Compressor .1 General The booster stage bleed valve. At higher engine speeds the BSBV are closed so that all the booster discharge (primary air flow) enters the core engine. 3.3 Booster Stage Bleed Valve At low LP spool speeds the booster provides more air than the core engine can utilize. . 3.8.

The two actuators are mechanically attached to each actuating rod and. LPC Bleed-Master and Slave Actuators Description • The two actuators are hydraulically connected units which operate together.2 Description A. the bleed-valve and actuating mechanism. is supplied from the two actuators. General the airflow control system includes: • • • • An LPC bleed-slave actuator An LPC bleed-master actuator Two bleed-valve actuating rods A booster bleed valve and actuating mechanism The airflow control system automatically operates to control the air bled from the LP compressor.1 General The primary function of the LP compressor airflow control system is to control the airflow thus ensuring compressor stable operation during: • • Engine start. 3. The force to move the synchronizing and its linkage through the actuating rods.9. The two actuators are connected hydraulically and operate together by command and feedback signals from/ to the EEC. • The two bleed-valve actuating rods connect each actuator fork end to the synchronizing ring. B.3.9 LP COMPRESSOR AIRFLOW CONTROL SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. Engine transient operation. Each of them is attached to a bracket on the intermediate structure. .9.

The bleed valves are closed during takeoff and cruise operations. The master actuator also gives an electrical output signal (the positions of the actuator piston fork end) to the EEC. • • • • The bleed valve and actuating mechanism is a sub-assembly which includes: 27 bleed valves which are attached to the support ring. The two actuating rods connect the two power arms to the two actuators.• The master actuator gives an accurate control in relation to an electrical input signal (command signal) from the EEC. The master actuator also gives an electrical output signal (the positions of the actuator piston fork end) to an electrical input signal (command signal) from the EEC. Operation The 27 bleed valves open during the engine start and other scheduled flight operations. the synchronizing ring which is connected to the 25 link arms and the two power arms. . C. in relation to the positions of the two actuators. 27 links which connect the bleed valves to the 25 link arms and the two power arms. Operation the two actuators open or close in relation to the input signal from the EEC. Booster Bleed Valve and Actuating Mechanism Description • The bleed valve and actuating mechanism operates to make each bleed valve synchronized. This permits some of the LP compressor airflow (which normally go into the HP compressor) to go through the fan airstream.

in response to electrical signals provided by the EEC. The variable stator vanes and the 7th and 10 t stage HP compressor bleeds are used to improve engine performance and stability during engine starting. the HPC bleed air tubes and the HPC stage 7 and 10 solenoid valves and bleed valves. The piston has an externally adjustable low speed stop at the extended end of its travel. The high speed stop is formed by a collar which limits piston retraction. B.2Description A. using a fuel driven hydraulic actuator. The 7th and 10th HP compressor bleed valves are pneumatically actuated by two position air shut-off valves which are actuated by EEC solenoids.10. (2) Description The stator vane actuator accurately controls vane movement with respect to a torque motor current supplied by the EEC. Variable Stator Vane System (1) General The purpose of this system is to position the Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) and stator vanes. HP Compressor Bleed Valves System (1) General HP compressor bleed valves are required for stability of engine operation during starting and transient conditions. acceleration and deceleration. A control servo valve and piston type pressure drop regulator regulate the flow to either side of the piston.1General This system consists of the Variable Stator Vane Actuator.3.10 HP COMPRESSOR AIRFLOW CONTROL SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. 3.10. Provision is made to lock the piston with a rigging pin for setting purposes. Operation of the stator vanes in regulated by accurate control of high pressure fuel flow to one or other side of a differential area piston. Three bleed valves . The variable stator vanes are modulated open or closed by a hydraulic actuator controlled by the Electronic Engine Control (EEC).

When the P3 pressure is released by the controlling solenoid valve. When the valve is closed the piston is held against a plate which is part of the valve body. . The piston is held in the open position by spring and compressor delivery (P3) pressures. (2) Description/Operation The bleed valves are mounted onto the outside of the HP compressor case. Each valve has a spring loaded open position. the bleed valve is closed by compressor air pressure. The piston has holes to permit a flow of air through the valve when it is open. This shuts off the air bleed from the compressor.for the seventh stage and one for the tenth stage of the HP compressor redirect a portion of HP compressor air into the fan stream.

2 ºF to 626 ºF).11.11. When the value reaches 320 ºC the indication is displayed and flashes (greenadvisory). 3.1General A nacelle temperature probe provides indication of nacelle core zone ventilation air exit temperature. . The nacelle temperature probe has a measurement range of -54ºC to 330 ºC (-65.3. It indicates over temperature resulting from loose or broken air ducts or from loose flanges. The signal is fed to the EIU which transforms the analog information into digital form. worn VSV bushings etc.11 NACELLE TEMPERATURE INDICATING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 3. Below 320 ºC the nacelle temperature indication is not displayed. In order to allow early maintenance corrective action.2Description The nacelle temperature indicating system is composed of a probe and an indicator on the ECAM. Then the EIU transmits the data to the ECAM system.



1 General The engine control system consist of: • • • the throttle control the HP fuel shut-off valve control the LP fuel shut-off valve control A.4.1 ENGINE CONTROL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 4.1. Throttle Control Lever .

The throttle control lever drives several position detectors. The position detectors are located under the cockpit center pedestal. Two of them are resolvers dedicated to the FADEC system. LP Fuel Shut-Off Valve Control The LP fuel shut-off valve is electrically controlled: • • either by the ENG/MASTER control switch on the ENG panel or by the ENG FIRE pushbutton switch . In parallel an analog signal informs the EIU of the position of the MASTER control switch. ENG/MASTER Control Switch The MASTER control switch interfaces with the HP fuel shut off valve and the Engine Interface Unit (EIU).The throttle control system is fully electrical. It controls directly the closure of the fuel shut off valve when it energizes the valve solenoid. The EIU transmits then the information to the EEC in digital form. The EEC uses this information in addition to the ENG/MODE selector switch position and manual start pushbutton switch to control the starting sequence C. B. Each channel of the Electronic Engine Control receives the position signal from one resolver in the analog form.

The EEC: (2) Automatic thrust setting mode (the autothrust function is active) The throttle control lever controls: • • EEC.The EEC receives the throttle lever angle and adjusts the actual engine thrust parameter according to ambient conditions. When the alpha floor protection is activated the throttle control lever represents the lower limit of the autothrust demand. B.4.1 General A.2 POWER CONTROL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 4. EPR Mode (1) Manual thrust setting mode (the autothrust function is not active) The throttle control lever in the cockpit center pedestal controls: • • • • • the actual engine thrust setting the selection of the thrust limit mode receives the throttle lever angle computes the engine thrust limit parameter and adjusts the actual engine thrust parameter accordingly. the limitation of the actual thrust the selection of the thrust limit mode.2. The throttle control lever in the cockpit center pedestal controls the actual thrust setting. N1 Reversionary Mode When N1 reversionary mode is selected. The FMGC computes the target thrust parameter and sends it to the . The EEC adjusts the actual engine thrust parameter according to this Value The top limit value of the target thrust parameter is the actual position of the throttle control lever (this is applicable when the alpha floor protection is not activated). the automatic thrust setting mode (autothrust active) cannot be activated.

1 General The throttle control system consist of: • • • • the throttle control lever the throttle control artificial feel unit the throttle control unit the electrical harness In addition each throttle control lever is fitted with an instinctive disconnect pushbutton switch.3 THROTTLE CONTROL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 4. The throttle control lever moves over a range of 65 º from: . The design of the throttle control is based upon a fixed throttle concept: this means that the throttle control levers are not servo motorized. This idle stop is reset as soon as the lever is selected back to forward thrust area.3. This stop is overriden when the reverse latching lever is pulled up for selection of the reverse power.This pushbutton switch is used for the de-activation and disengagement of the autothrust function. An intermediate mechanical stop is fitted at 0 ºTLA.2 Throttle Control Mechanical Parts A.3. In the forward thrust area. 20 º TLA (Full Reverser Throttle stop) to 45 º TLA (Full Forward Throttle stop). Throttle Control Lever The throttle control handle comprises: • • • • • a throttle control lever which incorporates stop devices a graduated fixed sector and autothrust instinctive disconnect pushbutton switch a reverse latching lever.4. 4. there are two detent points: • • MAX CLIMB detent point set at 25 º TLA MAX CONTINUOUS/FLEX TAKE OFF detent point set at 35 º TLA.

one left and one right. Each mechanism is composed of: • • • • a friction brake assembly a gear assembly a lever assembly a bell crank assembly Throttle lever travel is transmitted to the to the artificial feel unit and to the throttle control unit. This range corresponds to the selection of MAX CLIMB or MAX CONTINUOUS thrust limit mode. In the forward range (35 deg. the engine control is manual. TLA). the autothrust function can be active if engaged. The artificial feel unit is a friction system which provides a load feedback to the throttle control lever. TLA. This artificial feel unit comprises two symmetrical casings. B. the auto thrust function cannot be activated (except in alpha floor condition). TLA corresponds to the selection of MAX TAKE OFF/ GO AROUND mode. Throttle Control Artificial Feel Unit The Throttle control artificial feel unit is located below the cockpit center pedestal. TLA). Each casing contains an identical and independent mechanism. This rod drives the input lever of the throttle control artificial feel unit. In the middle throttle range (0 deg. there is one detent point set at -6 º TLA : this corresponds to the selection of the thrust reverser command and the Reverse Idle setting From -20 deg. the autothrust function cannot be activated. to 35 deg. This toothed quadrant causes inverse rotation of a gear equipped with a disk which has four . This movement rotates a toothed quadrant integral with the shaft. This artificial feel unit is connected to engine 1/2 throttle control lever and to the engine 1/2 throttle control unit by means of rods. TLA to 0 deg. to 45 deg. The linear movement of the throttle levers is transformed into a rotary movement at the bell crank which turns about the friction brake assembly shaft.In the reverse thrust throttle range. The range over 35 deg. except the FLEX TAKE OFF mode. If the auto thrust is not engaged. The throttle control lever is linked to a mechanical rod.

The electrical harness is a triplex twisted shielded pair of wires: • • • one pair for sine one pair for cosine one pair for excitation. It connects the throttle control artificial feel unit to the input lever of the throttle control unit. . Throttle Control Unit A mechanical rod transmits the throttle control lever movement. The throttle control unit comprises: • • • • • • • • an input lever mechanical stops which limit the angular range 2 resolvers whose signals are dedicated to the EEC (one resolver per channel of the EEC) 6 potentiometers fitted three by three. Electrical Harness There is one independent electrical harness dedicated to each TLA signal with its associated output connector. Their signals are used by the flight control system a device which drives the resolver and the potentiometer a pin device for rigging the resolvers and potentiometers a safety device which leads the resolvers outside the normal operating range in case of failure of the driving device two output electrical connectors. D.detent notches. C. Each notch corresponds to a throttle lever setting and is felt as a friction point at the throttle levers.

Each coil provides the ON and OFF function depending upon the current polarity sent from the EEC. Two coils of the latching torque motor are operated by the EEC (1 per channel). One additional coil is controlled by the hardwired fuel-off input from the cockpit.2 LP Fuel Shut Off Valve Control A. • closure of the HP fuel SOV: This is controlled directly from the MASTER control switch in OFF position. The valve is located on the engine fuel supply system in the wing leading edge.4.1 HP Fuel Shut OFF Valve Control A. the ENG panel.4. Valve Operation The aircraft provides 28 Volt DC power to the EEC for operation of the engine HP fuel shut off valve latching torque motor. B. It is performed from the engine panel in the cockpit as follows: • opening of the HP fuel SOV: This is controlled by the EEC : the EEC receives the commands from the MASTER control switch and ignition selector switch. General The function of the LP fuel shut-off valve is to control the fuel supply at engine-to-pylon interface.4 ENGINE MASTER CONTROL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 4. General The HP fuel shut off valve control is fully electrical. . B. The MASTER control switches are part of the panel 115VU.4. 4. Valve Operation The LP fuel shut off valve is controlled: • • From the cockpit overhead panel 20VU by means of the ENG FIRE pushbutton switch From the cockpit center pedestal 115VU by means of the MASTER control switch on.


.1 General The engine power management indicating is performed by means of: • • • • • • the ECAM system (upper and lower display units) the warning and caution systems. The engine monitoring is carried out by means of: This system description note deals only with: 5.1. Upper ECAM Display Unit • • • • • • • N1 EPR LIMIT EPR THROTTLE EPR MAX EPR REF EGT N2 B.1 ENGINE INDICATING – GENERAL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 5. the EEC and the ECAM the vibration monitoring system with a display on the ECAM. If the advisory level is reached.1.5.3 s normal). the indication flashes (0. EPR MAX. the engine management main parameters (N1. EPR THROTTLE.6 s bright and 0. EPR LIMIT. Lower ECAM Display Unit The VIB indication is normally green.2 Indicating A. EPR REF) the engine vibration monitoring system.

2.2. The pressures from these sensors are routed to the EEC pressure transducers. The signals are then converted into a digital format. .2. N2 and EPR indications.3 N2 Indicating System The N2 indicating system provides the signals proportional to the High Pressure (HP) shaft rotational speed to the EEC for use in engine control computation.4 EPR (Engine Pressure Ratio) Indicating System The Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR) indicating system consists of one combined P2/T2 sensor and eight pressure ports located in three LP turbine exhaust case struts (24 total).2.5.2 POWER – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 5.9/P2) and transmits the EPR value to the ECAM system through it digital data bus. The other engine indications related to the power management parameters 5. 5. Each of the two EEC channels performs this operation independently. to the ECAM for visual display in the cockpit and to the Engine Vibration Monitoring Unit for use in processing engine vibration data. The Electronic Engine Control (EEC) processes the pressures to form actual EPR (P4.1 General This chapter deals with the N1.2 N1 Indicating System The measurement channel for the low-pressure rotor speed is designed as follows: • • the speed sensor on the engine sends a signal to the EEC. the EEC uses this signal in engine control computation and also transmits it to the ECAM through the ARINC 429 data bus 5.

The indication is normally green.5.3. 5. in digital form.2 EGT Indication Four thermocouple probe assemblies are located at station 4.C: . When : 610 deg.5.3 TEMPERATURE – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 5.5 and 2 o’clock viewed from the rear.1 General The measurement channel for the exhaust gas temperature is designed as follows: • • • Four probe assemblies each comprising 2 thermocouples.95 (LP turbine exhaust case strut) at 9. The remaining four thermocouples (one from each probe assembly are used to form an averaged signal sent to the channel B of the EEC. • The EEC uses the Exhaust Gas Temperature in the engine start control logic and also transmits the EGT signal to the ECAM through the ARINC bus. The ECAM provides the EGT indication: • • in analog form with a pointer which deflects in front of a dial.3. 4. 5.5. Four thermocouples (one from each probe assembly) are used to form an averaged signal sent to the channel A of the EEC.3 Indication The EGT indication appears on the upper ECAM display unit.3.C < EGT < 635 deg. in the lower section of the dial. 7.C: • • • the indication becomes amber the MASTER CAUT light comes on accompanied by the single chime the following message appears on the ECAM : EGT > 610⁰ When : EGT > 635 deg.

• • the indication becomes red the MASTER WARN light comes on accompanied by the repetitive chime .

Two channels come from each engine. To give broadband filtered data with threshold indications for each engine for maintenance purposes. 5. To communicate with the CFDS for maintenance. Monitoring is performed by a vibration transducer on each engine fan case. the N1 speed sensor (TRIM balance probe signal) and the N2 speed sensors of each engine.2 Engine Vibration Transducer The system monitors engine vibration for engine 1 and engine 2. The EVMU receives analog signals from: • • the 4 engine accelerometers 2 per engine (A and B).4.4.1 General The EVMU located in the electronics bay provides the following functions by means of accelerometer and tachometer signals and ARINC 429 lines. To give automatically or upon request a frequency analysis for maintenance.4 ANALYZERS – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 5.5. This produces an electrical signal in proportion to the vibration detected and sends it to the cockpit.4. • • • • To give data to rebalance the low-pressure rotor. It also receives digital input from the CFDS through the ARINC 429 data bus. 5. • To give data on the unbalance conditions of each rotor of each engine (with narrow-band tracking filters) and to transmit them for display in the cockpit with advisory levels based on fixed maximun limits and in some conditions on initial levels.3 Engine Vibration Monitoring Unit (EVMU) The Engine Vibration Monitoring Unit (EVMU) is located on the avionics compartment shelf 86VU. .

The EVMU sends signals through the digital ARINC 429 data bus to: • the SDAC1 and 2 for cockpit indication .


1.1 General The air entering by the fan is divided into two parts.GENERAL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 6. which are mixed through the common nozzle assembly (CNA) before exhausting to the atmosphere.2 Description The exhaust system consists of the common nozzle assembly and the thrust reverser system. Thrust Reverser System The thrust reverser system uses part of the engine exhaust power to provide additional aerodynamic braking during aircraft landing. . turning the engine airflow forward and providing a braking effect for the aircraft on the ground. The engine exhaust section directs fan discharge air to either normal or reverse thrust operation. Each engine is equipped with a reverser system which reverses cold fan air by means of translating sleeves and cascades. In the forward thrust mode. A. Thrust reversers can be operated on the ground only.1. the fan airflow and burnt gases are evacuated directly at the back. The thrust reverser system is hydraulically operated by hydraulic pressure from the aircraft hydraulic system.1 EXHAUST . the cold and hot airflows. Common Nozzle Assembly (CNA) The common nozzle assembly forms the rear part of the engine. It is controlled through the FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) from the cockpit by a lever hinged to the corresponding throttle control lever.6. B. 6. The aircraft hydraulic system is pressurized by pumps mounted on each engine. It consist of a common nozzle exhaust collector and the engine exhaust cone.

an attachment ring and a closure cone. (4) The lower center strut lines up with the vertical center line. . which is the fan bypass air. The front flange of the duct is used to install the exhaust collector to the outer rear turbine case flange. • The common exhaust collector admits the hot and cold gas outflows.2.1 General The mixed exhaust system collects two flows of air. These struts support an outer duct.6.2 MIXED EXHAUST SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 6.2. It is riveted to the inner duct. The second is the hot airflow which comes from the engine core. Two side struts are positioned horizontally and are riveted on either side of the inner duct. The mixed exhaust system is made up of the common nozzle exhaust collector and the engine exhaust cone.2 Description (1) The common nozzle exhaust collector is made up of an inner duct with four radial struts. The nozzle forms a convergent duct which increases the speed of the mixed gas to give forward thrust. The unit is installed on the outer rear flange of the engine turbine case. 6. The first is the cold airflow. These gas outflows then go out to the atmosphere through the common nozzle. It is made of a welded inconel panel. The strut is attached to the outer duct by eight bolts with captive self-locking nuts. (3) Four support struts. (2) The inner duct forms a ring around the core outlet nozzle. • The engine exhaust cone forms the inner contour of the common nozzle exhaust collector. hold the exhaust collector outer duct assembly. Each of the struts is attached to the outer duct by two bolts and captive nuts. positioned radially around the inner duct.

These seals are made in sections to suit the directional changes in the seal run. It prevents leakage of fan air to ambient during forward thrust operation. 6. Block seals are attached to the left and right front corners of the upper support strut.2.(5) At the top center position. This gives a streamlined profile for the cold stream air which enters the collector. It is riveted to the inner duct and to the outer duct. the thrust reverser and the pylon. They complete the seal between the aircraft pylon.3 Interface Sealing Seals are installed around the front of the inner duct and upper and lower support struts. the C-ducts. The fairing tapers to a pen nib profile at its trailing edge. This seal gives an interface seal between the collector and the rear edge of the translating cowl. The leading edge of the fairing is against the rear of the cold airflow thrust reverser case. . The translating cowl trailing edge overlaps the outer duct leading edge. an upper strut assembly straddles the inner duct across the vertical center line. (6) The collector outer duct is made up of a conical duct to which a sheet metal forward fairing is riveted. (8) Interface seals provide sealing between the exhaust collector. They seal the inner duct with the thrust reverser C-ducts. the upper strut and the outer duct seals. A circumferential seal is installed around the outside of the forward section of the exhaust collector. (7) A common nozzle fairing is attached to the rear of the upper support strut and to the inside of the outer duct along its upper edge.

The thrust reverser system is synchronized by means of a flexible synchronizing shaft connecting all four translating sleeve hydraulic actuators. 6. stowed and deployed. Thrust reverser shutoff valve (TRSOV) is designed to isolate the Thrust reverser shutoff valve (TRSOV) is designed to isolate the thrust reverser from the aircraft hydraulic system.3.3 THRUST REVERSER SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 6. The thrust reverser is designed to be used at two extreme positions. When deployed.1 General The thrust reverser system for the V2500 engine is designed for use on the ground to reduce aircraft landing roll. the thrust reverser provides an aerodynamic fairing between the fan cowl and the core nozzle. the translating sleeves are hydraulically moved rearward exposing the cascades .6.2 Description The thrust reverser system comprises: • a hydraulic control unit (HCU) including: • • • an isolation valve an isolation valve solenoid a directional control valve a directional control valve solenoid a pressure switch a filter and clogging indicator a lockout lever four actuators with internal lock for lower actuators three flexible shafts two linear variable differential transformers located on each upper actuator . the blocker doors are positioned to close the fan duct downstream and the fan air exhaust flow is diverted forward through the cascades providing a braking effort for the aircraft. In the stowed position.3.

3 Operation The thrust reverser is actuated in response to signals from the Engine Electronic Control (EEC).3.4 Thrust Reverser Manual Opening/Closing Thrust reverser system can be operated manually on the ground for maintenance purposes using a manually operated drive shaft. A manually bypassable non return valve is used to allow movement of the translating sleeves without any hydraulic blockage. 6.3. . 6. supplies signals to the thrust reverser hydraulic control unit. Selection of either stow or deploy from the cockpit generates a signal to the engine EEC which in turn. one thrust reverser shutoff valve.• • two proximity switches located on each lower actuator two thrust reverser cowls comprising a fixed structure and 2 translating sleeves latched together.

2 Component Location .4. A thrust reverser latching lever. allows the throttle control lever to be moved rearward in the reverse thrust selection area and the thrust reverser to be controlled by the Engine Electronic Control (EEC).4. when actuated.1 General The thrust reverser is controlled from the cockpit by means of the throttle control lever. 6.6.The EEC incorporates a thrust reverser feedback position and ground/flight configuration which generates a command signal to the isolation valve and the directional control valve.4 THRUST REVERSER CONTROL AND INDICATING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 6. The signal from the EEC to the directional valve is fed to the avionics compartment where it passes through an inhibition relay (also called permission switch) controlled by the Engine Interface Unit (EIU) and the spoiler/elevator computer (SEC) according to the throttle control lever position.

the blocker doors and the cascades. 6. Translating sleeve outer skin is constructed of a graphite panel composed of four layers of graphite skin with aluminium core frames. These hinges are integral with a machined aluminium beam which runs along the upper section of the thrust reverser.4 Removal / Installation The thrust reverser incorporates hoisting points for removal and installation of the thrust reverser C-duct assemblies with the use of a three point handling sling.5.2 Description Each thrust reverser half is supported from the pylon by four hinges.5 THRUST REVERSER HALVES – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 6. The blocker door drag links and cascade aft rings are made of aluminium. two plies of back skin and three plies of perforated skin.3 Material The C-duct inner barrel is constructed of an aluminium face sheet bonded to an aluminium honeycomb core. The reverser is constructed in two halves which are hinged at the top to the pylon and latched together along the bottom centerline.5. 6. . The blocker doors are machined aluminium.5. 6.6. The translating sleeve inner skin is constructed of Dyna Rohr acoustic material which consist of 3/8 inch titanium core all with graphite skins .5. The thrust reverser consists of four parts : the C-duct fixed structure. the translating sleeve. The cascades are constructed of moulded graphite.1 General The thrust reverser is attached to the pylon (immediately aft of the engine fan case) and to the fan case by the vee blade-vee groove system.

General The thrust reverser opening mechanism consists of two parts for each C-duct door : the opening actuator and the hydraulic tube. Fan air from the precooler is brought into the area between the hose and the cover to cool the hydraulic fluid.6. The opening system is manually operated by a GSE hydraulic hand pump. The door hold open rods must be positioned to support the door. C. B. Hydraulic Tubing The hydraulic tubing is made up of three parts : a flexible hose. As the hydraulic pressure builds up in the actuator.1 General The purpose of the thrust reverser opening mechanism is to open the C-duct doors to permit access to the engine for maintenance.The flexible hydraulic hose is inside a larger conduit. The actuator is not designed to hold the weight of the door for a long time. The two ends of the cover are half-shells made of firm fiber-glass. The half-shells at the opening actuator can be separated to permit access to the hydraulic tube connection. • The flexible hose connects to the opening actuator to absorb the rocking movement of the actuator as the C-duct door opens and closes.6.6. the piston extends to move the door outward. a hard tubing and a manifold connector. Opening Actuator The opening actuator acts as a piston with the base attached to the top of the C-duct door and the end to the pylon.6 THRUST REVERSER OPENING MECHANISM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 6. The single half-shell at the lower .2 Cowl Latch A. 6.

6.6. D. Rear latch is a double latch but the two latches must be released/latched individually. .3 Operation The thrust reverser cowls can be opened to a 45 degree position for engine removal or other maintenance purposes. Near the bottom of the door the tubing connects to the manifold. Cowl Latch A total of six latches are used to secure the two _C_ ducts to each other. Access to front latch is through the left and right fan cowls. Three latches are located under a hinged access panel. • The hard hydraulic tubing connects to the flexible hose and runs down the forward edge of the C-duct door.end can be raised to permit access to the hydraulic tube connection.


7 OIL .

After leaving the FCOC. to the scavenge pumps.3 Lubrication System Components The lubrication system consits of four subsystems.1. an air cooled oil cooler. From the scavenge pumps all the oil is pumped in a common line to a fine scavenge filter and sent to the oil tank where it is de-aerated.1 General The lubrication system provides lubrication and cooling to the engine components. 7. 5 bearing compartment and to both the main and angle gearboxes. 4 bearing compartment.1. The scavenge oil is then piped. a fuel cooled oil cooler. the No. The oil is piped through a pressure filter to the air cooled oil cooler (ACOC) and then to the fuel cooled oil cooler (FCOC).2 Operation The oil leaves the tank and is routed to a one-stage pressure pump.1. 7. the No. an oil tank and associated valves and filters. either directly or through the deoiler. the oil is delivered to the No. The oil system includes separate pressure and scavenge pumps. 3 bearing compartment.1 OIL – GENERAL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7.7. each of which accomplishes a specific function to ensure adequate lubrication for the bearings and gears of the engine: • • • • the lubrication supply system the lubrication scavenge system the oil seal pressurization system the sump venting system. . 1. 2.

This de-aerates the oil which comes from the scavenge filter.2. All the scavenged oil returns to the tank to maintain the oil level during the time the engine is operating. (5) An internal de-aerator: (3) A tank pressurization valve: . 7. The oil tank has: (1) A mounting boss for the quantity transmitter (2) Oil servicing: • • • • • A gravity fill port with a scupper drain Remote fill and overflow ports A prismatic oil level indicator A usable oil capacity of 25 US quarts This valve supplies adequate inlet pressure to the inlet of the oil pump lubrication stage. (4) A filler neck valve: • • This valve prevents rapid oil loss through the oil filler neck.2 Description • • The oil tank is attached to the LH side of the external gearbox at the 7 o clock position on the fan case. The oil tank capacity allows a maximum of 40 flight hours without any replenishment.1 General The oil tank contains the oil to be delivered under pressure to the engine and external gearbox.2.2 STORAGE – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7.7.

4 bearing compartment and to the No. 7.7. General . 5 bearing compartment. 1. and to both the main and angle gearboxes. 7.3.3 Supply The oil leaves the tank through a strainer and is routed into a onestage pressure pump.3. to the No. It is pumped through a pressure filter to remove any large debris.2 Description The oil distribution system includes the following components: • • • • • • • • • • an air cooled oil cooler a fuel cooled oil cooler a pressure oil filter element a scavenge oil filter element a one-stage pressure pump a five-stage scavenge pump a deoiler a two-position scavenge valve a filter bypass valve magnetic chip detectors 7.1 General The function of the oil distribution system is to provide lubrication and cooling to the essential components of the engine.3.4 Scavenge A. 2 and 3 bearing compartment.3. After leaving the FCOC.3 DISTRIBUTION – DISCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7. the oil flows to the No. The oil is then piped to the air/oil heat exchanger before entering a fuel cooled oil cooler.

The oil (which has lubricated the engine bearings and the angle and main gearbox) is piped either directly or through the deoiler to the scavenge pumps. The line to each scavenge pump incorporates a strainer and a magnetic chip detector. The chip detector for the No. . five scavenge pumps. The combined flow from all the scavenge pump outlets is returned to the oil tank via a cyclone type deaerator mounted within the tank. 4 bearing compartment is in the deoiler scavenge outlet. B. Description The scavenge circuit main components are: • • • • five scavenge filters with chip detectors. A 2-positions scavenge valve. one common scavenge filter.

5 quarts in analog form (the normal max-usable oil quantity in the tank is 25 US quarts.6 US quarts. Specification: • • • • Output voltage : 1VDC to 9VDC varying linearly with the usable oil quantity from 0 to 25.5 to plus or minus 0.8 quarts. Oil Quantity Indicating . B. 33 K OHMS less than charge impedance less than 100 k OHMS Accuracy : plus or minus 0.1 General A. The DMC’s process the information received as a priority order from the EIU’s through FWC 1 and 2. the maximum oil tank capacity is 30. C. 0 to 99. Scale:The oil quantity displayed in green on the ECAM display unit is graduated from: 0 to 27. SDAC1. SDAC2.7. The analog signal from the oil quantity transmitter is sent to: • • the SDAC1 the SDAC2 the EIU which transforms the analog signal into a digital signal.4 OIL QUANTITY INDICATING SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7. D.4. Oil Quantity Transmitter • • The oil quantity transmitter is located in the oil tank.9 in digital form. The system is supplied with 28VDC from busbar 101PP through circuit breaker 1EN1 (1EN2). Description : The oil quantity tranmitter is a tank probe with a capacitor (tube portion) and an electronic module (on the top of the transmitter) for probe enrgizing and signal output.5 US quarts).

. • Overfilling of the oil tank can be generate an out of range feedback to the EIU.• Advisory level:The oil quantity flashes green when the oil level quantity is lower than or equal to 5 quarts (decreasing) and stop pulsing at 7 quarts (increasing). This may result in amber XX’s being displayed in place of the oil quantity.

Advisory level : the oil temperature indication flashes green when the temperature is higher or equal to 156 deg. C.5. C. . C for 15 mm. C (with the throttle above idle and the engine running).7. the oil temperature is higher than 165 deg. Scale : the ECAM oil temperature indication is graduated from 0 deg. wire-wound resistance element.1 Scavenge Oil Temperature Thermocouple The scavenge oil temperature thermocouple is located in the combined scavenge line between the master magnetic chip detector and the scavenge filter for indication in the cockpit.5 OIL TEMPERATURE INDICATING SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7. C and becomes steady amber beyond 165 deg. C to 250 deg. The warning message ENG 1(2) OIL HI TEMP is displayed on the upper ECAM display unit associated with the amber MASTER CAUT light and the single chime when: • • the oil temperature is higher than 156 deg. Temperature measurement range: .60 deg. The EIU transforms this signal into a digital signal. This element causes a linear change in the DC resistance when exposed to a temperature change.5.2 Oil Temperature Indicating The analog signal from the scavenge oil temperature thermocouple is transmitted to the EIU. This digital signal is then transmitted to the lower ECAM display unit through the FWCs and the DMC. The oil temperature is sensed by a dual resistor unit.C to 999 deg. The unit consists of a sealed. 7. C. C. The warning message ENG 1(2) OIL LO TEMP is displayed on the upper ECAM display unit associated with the amber MASTER CAUT light and the single chime when the oil temperature is lower than -10 deg.

In the strain gauge. 4 bearing oil scavenge tube (to the oil scavenge pump). The other tube connects to the No. Output voltage : 0. Accuracy : plus or minus 1%.7VDC to 9. One tube connects to the oil supply tube (to the engine and gearbox bearings). This is the output signal .1 Oil Pressure Transmitter A. the voltage causes an excitation of the circuit. As the diaphragm moves it changes the condition of the attached strain gauge.1VDC varying lineearly with pressure from 0 to 400 psid. B. Thus the voltage is in proportion to the oil pressure at the diaphragm.7. Operation The 28VDC supply goes through the electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter to the DC/DC converter which changes the voltage to 15VDC. The excitation voltage goes from the strain gauge to the amplifier regulator. Pressure range : 0 to 400 psid. C. This decreased voltage goes to the strain gauge and amplifier regulator. Each diaphragm moves by oil pressure from the inlet port. General The oil pressure indicating system gives a cockpit in indication of the engine oil system working pressure.6.6 OIL PRESSURE INDICATIND SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7. This causes a change in the associated excitation voltage. The amplifier increases the voltage to between 0 and 9VDC (changes as the oil pressure changes). for 0 to 400 psid. The indication of this pressure comes electrically from an oil pressure transmitter on each engine. The oil pressure transmitter is connected to the engine oil system by two steel tube. • • • • Power supply : 28VDC from busbar 101PP (202PP). Operation • • The oil pressure transmitter is bolted to a bracket on the top left side of the engine fan case.

.2 Oil Pressure Indicating • The analog signal from the oil pressure transmitter is sent to the SDAC1. 7.6. The order of priority has been defined as follows: SDAC1 SDAC2 EIU. The signal voltage of 0 to 9VDC gives a pressure range of between 0 and 400 psi (2720 kPa). • • The digital signal is then transmitted to the ECAM through the FWCs and the DMC. SDAC2 and the EIU which transforms the analog signal into a digital signal.voltage which goes through the EMI filter to the cockpit.

Actuation of the low pressure switch is at 60 psid decreasing pressure.7. The ENG page appears on the lower ECAM display unit: The oil pressure indication flashes red. The audio warning is activated. As a result of this: • • • • The red MASTER WARN light located on the glareshield comes on. The warning messages disappear on the upper ECAM display unit. These warning messages appear on the upper ECAM display unit: ENG1 (2) OIL LOW PRESS* THROTTLE 1 (2) IDLE* • Activation on the ground of the following circuits: WN (Emergency Escape Slide Release Warning)* CC (Engagement and Internal Monitoring)* CA (Electrical Power Supply). The audio warning is deactivated. The low oil pressure switch is connected between the oil supply tube and the No.1 Low Oil Pressure Switch The low oil pressure switch is installed on a bracket at the top left side of the engine fan case. When the oil pressure reaches 60 psid increasing.7.7. the low oil pressure switch opens. The set point range is between 45 psi and 75 psi.2 Low Oil Pressure Indication (Warning) When the oil pressure drops below 60 psid plus or minus psid (decreasing) the low oil pressure switch closes. As a result of this: • • • • The MASTER WARN light goes off.7 LOW OIL PRESSURE WARNING SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7. 4 bearing scavenge tube. The oil pressure is indicated in green. 7. .

8. . The differential pressure switch is set to operate when the differential pressure increases and gets to 12 psi plus or minus 2 psi 7. As a result: • • On the ENG page on the lower ECAM display unit: The amber OIL FILTER CLOG indication appears.1 Scavenge Filter Differential Pressure Switch The scavenge filter differential pressure switch is installed on a bracket at the top left side of the engine fan case.7. the switch closes.8. On the upper ECAM display unit: The warning message ENG 1(2) OIL FILTER CLOG appears.8 OIL FILTER CLOGGING WARNING SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7. The warning message on the upper ECAM display unit disappears. When the differential pressure through the scavenge filter drops below 12 psi. As a result: • • The OIL FILTER CLOG indication on the ENG page on the lower ECAM display unit disappears. the switch opens. The switch is connected to ports on the filter housing.2 Oil Filter Clogging Indication When the differential pressure through the scavenge filter is higher than 12 psi plus or minus 2 psi.

plus or minus 1 percent below 100 PSID Linear output 1VDC to 9 VDC (0 To 300 PSIG). an amber indication appears showing the position of the failed valve. 7.4 bearing 2-position scavenge valve and to detect a No.5 percent above 100 PSID. 7. No.9.4 bearing outlet line.4 bearing indicating system is to monitor the correct operation of the No. At engine high power.3 No 4 Bearing Indication The EIU incorporates three logics allowing the monitoring of the scavenge valve operation as well as a No.4 bearing compartment scavenge line.2 Description A. B.1 General The purpose of the No.7.4 Bearing Scavenge Valve Position Indicator. . the valve is open and the switch closes providing a ground signal.9.4 bearing carbon-seal failure. Accuracy : plus or minus 2.4 bearing carbon-seal failure: • • • When a No.4 bearing scavenge valve which is located in the No. Impedance 33k ohms to 100k ohms. No.9.4 Bearing Pressure Transducer The No. the valve closes and the switch opens.4 bearing scavenge valve failure (stuck close or stuck open) occurs: an ECAM warning is displayed.9 NO 4 BEARING INDICATING SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 7. At engine low power. The position indicator is integral with the No.4 bearing pressure transducer is installed on the right side of the deoiler and senses pressure at the No.

When a No.• • • • The EIU elaborates a label used to set a message on the CFDS.4 bearing carbon-seal failure or a scavenge valve restrictor clogging occurs: A message appears on the maintenance part of the ECAM status page (activated at landing). The EIU elaborates a label used to set a message on the CFDS. .



8.dia. duct. . This duct is attached to the engine before the precooler inlet. applies a torque to the HP shaft.1.1 General The starting system of the engine utilizes pressurized air to drive a turbine at high speed. The air necessary for the starter is supplied by either: • • • the other engine through the crossbleed system the APU and in that case. all the air bled from the APU is used for starting an external source able to supply a pressure between 30 and 40 psi. The turbine turning through a reduction gear. thus driving the engine and the aircraft accessories. The air necessary for the starting is bled from the duct connecting engine bleed and the precooler via a 4 in.1 STARTING – GENERAL – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 8.

C.1 Air Supply The air necessary for the starting comes from the duct connecting engine bleed and the precooler via a 4 in. After three cycles or 4 minutes of continuous cranking. Automatic Dry Cranking An automatic selection of dry cranking is accomplished during the engine start procedure (when the ENG/MASTER control switch is set to ON) and when the starting sequence is aborted by the FADEC. The air necessary for the starter is supplied by either: • • • the other engine through the crossbleed system the APU and in that case. An engine dry motoring can be performed for a maximum of three consecutive cycles (2 of 2 minutes and 1 of 1 minute with a cooling period of 15 seconds between each cycles). This can be interrupted at any time by placing the MASTER control switch in OFF position. stop for a cooling period of 30 minutes. the starter is engaged and the engine is motored but the HP fuel shut off valve remains closed and both ignition systems are OFF.8. To perform this operation.2. Dry cranking control (1) A selector switch is located on ENG panel 115VU.dia. Requirement (1) A dry motoring of the engine will be needed when: • • it is necessary to eliminate any fuel accumulated in the combustion chamber a leak ckeck of engine systems is needed.2 CRACKING DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 8. duct.2. 8.2 Dry Cracking A. B. all the air bled from the APU is used for starting an external source able to supply a pressure between 30 and 40 psig. .

the MASTER control switch will be returned to OFF and the engine motored for at least 30 seconds to eliminate entrapped fuel or vapor. The wet motoring can be performed for a maximum of three consecutive cycles (2 of 2 minutes and 1 of 1 minute with a cooling period of 15 seconds between each cycles).2. both ignition systems are off and the starter is engaged to raise N2 up to the required speed of 20%. B.8. .3 Wet Cracking A. Wet Cranking Control (1) A selector switch is located on the ENG panel 115VU. If such a test is performed. The MASTER control switch is moved to ON and the exhaust nozzle of the engine carefully monitored to detect any trace of fuel. stop for a cooling period of 30 minutes. In all cases. After three cycles or 4 miutes of continuous cranking. Requirement A wet motoring will be needed when the integrity of the fuel system has to be checked.

8. D. and the overhead panel via the EIU. Engine wet motoring. Alternate Engine Start Sequence The alternate start procedure is achieved by a dedicated logic module in the EEC which allows separate control of: • • the pneumatic starter valve through ENG/MODE selector switch positioning and MAN START pushbutton switch the HP fuel SOV through the MASTER control switch.1 Starter The starting control signals are acquired by the FADEC Engine Electronic Control (EEC) from the ENG panel (115VU). the EEC identifies windmilling or starter-assisted relight conditions according to flight environmental parameters or engine parameters.3 CONTROL AND INDICATING SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 8. C. • When the automatic start is selected in flight. Engine dry cranking. Engine starting (manual and automatic) B.2 Operation A.3. This causes: • • • the direct closure of the HP fuel SOV the starter pneumatic valve closure via the EEC the ignition exciters de-energization. 8.3. . Start interruption The interruption of automatic starting can be achieved if: (1) You place the MASTER control switch back to OFF. The ENG panel (115VU) initial configuration is: • • ENG/MODE selector switch in NORM position both MASTER control switches in OFF position. Engine Relight The automatic and alternate start procedures are both available for engine relight with the same procedure as on the ground.

. Continuous ignition is selected whenever the selector switch is placed in IGN/START position. Transmit a message for cockpit display indicating a probable flameout condition. Engine Flameout In case of engine flameout the EEC is designed to: • • • Detect unscheduled sub-idle engine operation. Activate the continuous ignition. E.• • When the alternate start is selected in flight the EEC always commands a starter assisted relight.

(3) The steel butterfly valve is installed on a stainless steel shaft. Quick Attach Detach (QAD) clamp. output shaft assembly.2 Pneumatic Starter Valve The pneumatic starter valve is installed on the air duct on the lower right side of the LP compressor. The starter consists of a drive turbine assembly housed in steel/ containment housing. It is provided to control the supply of the starter with air. A carbon seal assembly is used to prevent external oil leakage from the rotor/bearing system. hub. shaft. The turbine blades. a mounting adapter. . The shaft is supported by the bearing cartridge which utilises two preloaded angular contact ball bearings. The drive turbine rotative assembly consists of the rotor. (2) The starter valve controls the flow of air from the air duct to the engine starter. which is held in PTFE bushes. (1) The starter valve is a butterfly type valve. are integral with the turbine inlet housing.1 Starter The starter is attached to the forward face of the gearbox using a cast aluminium adapter and Quick-Attach-Detach (QAD) clamp. 8. It is designed to rotate and accelerate the HP rotor of the engine to allow the starting. a gear reduction system. The valve is installed on the air duct on the lower right hand side of the LP compressor case.8. from an order given by the EEC.4 ENGINE STARTING SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 8. a clutch.4. Steel nozzles which direct air into the rotor. Steel inlet housing provides the starter air inlet flange and provides containment for the turbine rotor. pinion gear and bearing cartridge. Flow paths are shaped to minimise inlet and outlet losses.4. and shaft are integral and machined from a titanium forging. pneumatically operated and electrically controlled.

The extension includes a switch and a visual position indication device. This can be done with a 0.(4) An extension on the valve shaft can be used to manually operate the valve. (5) Pneumatic control is given by a two-function diaphragm type actuator and a solenoid valve. the switch operates and transmits a position indication to the EEC. (6) The solenoid valve has an electrically operated solenoid. The actuator has two pistons of different areas which are installed on the same shaft. As the valve opens more than 7 degrees. square socket. a ball valve and a plunger loaded by a spring. Actuator movement is linked mechanically to the butterfly valve shaft.375 in. .