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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ... 3

1. Shuffle de-Funk ... 5 2. Blues Shuffle ... 8

3. Easy Groove • • . 12
4. Simply Stated ... 16 19

5. Blues With A Bridge ... 6. Siammin' ... 25

7.

Church Song •..

28

8. BeBop Special ••• 32 9. Relaxed ... 36
10.
11. Blues For Days ••• 38 See Forever •.. 44

12. lyrical •.. 48 13. Weirdo-Funk ••. 52 14. Rhythm Check ••• 54

Recorded by Special thanks to Jim Russ and Will for their beaulilul

Bob Mintzer, tenor sax; Russell Ferrante, keyboardS; Jimmy Hasllp, bass; Williem Kennedy, drums Michael Brorby, Brooklyn, NewVork, and Chuck Loeb, Irvington, New York to Jack Bullook, Larry Clark, and Dave Olsen at Warner Bros. Publioations, their impeccable musiolanshlp and dedication, to Michael Brorby and Chuck Loeb for engineering, to my family, Carla and Paul, and to all the lunksters out there who played the music which inspired this book. Editor: Larry Clatk

1996 M1NTZER MUSIC CO. (ASCAP) All Rights Reserved Exclusive Worldwide Distributlon by WARNER BROS. PUBUCATlQNS, Miami, FL 3M14 Any duplication. adaptation or arrangement 01 me Compooillcns contained in lI1is colledon rS1:JlJjre~ the written consent or the Publi:lhBr. No part of this book may btl photocopied or reproduced In any way wIthout permission. Unauthorized uses are an infrlr,gement of the U.S. COpyright Act and are punishable by law.

e

INTRODUCTION
This is the second collection of etudes I have written for those who wish to work on improvisation, composing, sight
reading, and generaJ muslclanshlp. melodic, and harmonic, and rhythmical While the first book (14 Jazz & Funk Etudes) dealt with some of the more complex aspects of Jazz & R&A music, this book's focus is more about plClying melodically

simply over a variety of funk & blues settings. Playing funk & blues music calls for a less chromatic approach at times, and these etudes enable the player to delve into this language. this is a viable direction and a good option to have at your disposal, there are other areas whi as well. These are: 1. Playing a simple melody slowly, smoothly, and beautifully with character and style.
..... 1l"' 1

As a young aspiring jazz saxophonist and composer, I spent a good amount of time trying to play fast, slick, and .
complex. Although need to be covered 2. 3.

,

Playing a simple melody in a groove-style which swings hard. Playing solos which interact with the rhythm section (meaning-knowing what the rhythm section is dclng,

and being able to "speak their language").
Listen to Lester Young, Stan Cetz, Miles Davis, John Coltrane, and Charlie Parker. Despite all the complexity in these great improvisers' approaches, there was always this amazing ability for them to take a simple melody and turn it into beautiful gem This book,

of an idea.

then, attempts to demonstrate how a simple, to-the-point solo might be constructed on a variety of funk & blues settings. This is done in such a way that the solos are logical extensions of the tunes and the soloist becomes a

"member of the rhythm section" by playing the groove.

The way the book works is: 1. Learn each etude slowly (use the 1st CD to see how they go).

2. Play the etude with the CD accompaniment (the version without melody is the 2nd CO) 3. Read the text for each etude which deals with concept, style, and theoretical matter'>.
You can also: 1. Solo over the whole etude as a means of working on improvisation. 2. Play any of the etudes with a live rhythm section.

3. Use any of the tunes as models for new compositions.

BOB MINTZER
Bob

Mintzer is a saxophonist, composer and arrilnger from New York. He wears several differenl hats in the music

scene today. Bob is probably best known for his work with big bands. After spending time with Buddy Rich, Thad Jones, and Mel Lewis, he went on to form his own big band which, over the last decade has recorded 8 CD's (with 3Crammy nominations) for the D.M.P. label. He has written some 150 big band arrangements, most of which are published and perfo all over the globe by student and pro bands alike. The -Bob Mintzer Big Band has bridged the gap between lhe big ba

or the
Bob

swing era and contemporary

music. In fact, most of the band's performances

are attended by young people.

spends 4 months of the year working with the contemporary jazz band, Yellowjackets. I lis compositions and

phone playing have become an integral port of the bond's sound.

Bob has recorded and/or performed with over 200 jazz and pop artists over the years. Some of the more notable are:
jaco Pastorious, Mike Manieri, The Spinners, Aretha Franklin, Diana Ross, Joe Williams, Minelli, Steve Winwood, Michael Franks, Don Grolnick, Sam Jones, Donald Fagen,

Lila

Peter Erskine, Dave Sanborn, Queen and Bobby McFerrin,

has also performed with the New York Philharmonic. His arranging credits include the CRP big band, Mel Lewis, Ur. [ohn, Michael Franks, the American Jazz Philharmonic, the St. lukes Chamber Ensemble, the WDR big band in Cologne, and the Metropole Orchestra in Holland. Bob is very active as an educator as well. He does workshops all over the world and has written several educational

music books and articles.

5

I. SHUFFLE DE - FUNK
_ The first piece is written in a shuffle-funk style in which the 16th notes are played with a swing inflection I heard this melody in my head one day while flying cross-country The melody itself implies a strong groove and stands up pretty well without rhythm section accompaniment. The form of the tune is MBAC. Letter {8} is a third section which precedes the solo section {C}. The solo form consists of two A sections, and one C Section. Solo length on this one is fairly short, so you have to get in there, say something meaningful, and get out gr<lcp.flJlly and quickly. The melody returns at {F}. A solo needn't be long to say what needs to be said. Frequently I am called upon to play an eight or 16 bar solo on a record. This etude deals with playing that short, concise solo. The overall harmonic setting of this etude is in the well throughout. In

(fifiFin }.

-

fact, the D pentatonic scale

14 .

D7s1I5 zone. Blues-related melodies and pentatonic melodlcs work
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·1 can be played over all the changes in the piece.

I use both the major 3rd and minor 3rd in many nf the melodies here.

Ex.

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The solo begins at letter {C}. You

will notice

that the first 8 bars of the solo are quite sparse. I do this for two reasons. The first

is so that the solo has a place to go and can become more intense through adding notes or other intensity-related devices. The second reason ls 50 the soloist can establish a relationship with the rhythm section. By leaving space in the early part of - your solo/ you invite the piano, bass, drum, and guitar to join in your conversation. There is nothing worse than trying to talk

to someone who never stops talking, and doesn't listen to what YOLI have to say. Letter {E} uses a device which creates some intensity in a subtle way. I wrote several short notes over a three bar duration using a three note motif (8. D, F) which creates this angular and rhythmically intense moment. In the fourth bar the line smootbes OUl by gOill!:; back to I~Lo 16lh notes. Not a particularly flashy 5010. but one which fits with the tune, has a nice groove, and says what needs to be said, Sometimes a few words can say a lot. Use the blowing section on the and ro try some of your own ideas.

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B7~' - ~11f&J ! JJ ~ c. i~ ~i B) 1 P3 [ ~ & @ ~. This is a nice way to "hook-up" with the rhythm section.8 II. To play any of this music without would be like trying to build a house without any knowledge of carpentry some understanding of blues This next etude is a blues line followed by seven choruses of solo. . Jazz. but mostly we're dealing with simple "tuff that swings hard and is to the point.7 ~__. A good rhythm section will hear you play the first two bars and then join you in playing that rhythm in the next six bars. ~) n I r r ~.l~ IIt. Each chorus of 5010 takes the listener a little further along the journey and winds up at the seventh chorus with a fl urry of 16th notes. .~ - e. A7~9) j J I- JJ V V - 07(46) !I ~. ~ :. Letter {B} is the first solo chorus and begins with some stop-time in the rhythm section.1 ~7 . Thisleads nicely to {H}. J~ F' 1 - ~7 I '''' 4J cr fi1 I Flf rr% J ¥ ~k:J r k EX- I rr ff ~dn ! J. This will create excitement in a very simple and direct way. which moves along rather quickly and creates quite a bit of intensity. ~. C7 ~ ~. the listener will enjoy hearing everyone playing this idea together. Also. variation on the blues chord Changes. and Funk music. There are a few little chord substitutions and turn-arounds. Letter {G} goes somewhere totally different. The triplet groupings sets up an unusual kind of swing with some ranslon and energy in it.~91 ~ -- ~ ~ ~- J I rr £7(~) i::::J . The overall vibe is traditional blues.. BLUES SHUFFLE Blues is the foundation of R&B. t J ~. This type of playing needs to be mastered before any of the more modern or advance music can be played properly. Here's an opportunity to make Sure your time is good and that those first 4 bars of {6} are played in the right time feel even though the rhythm section is laying-out.J 0". rr ~ U • C7 I~ ~r r e. letter {C} has a reoccurring Letter {E} has a common familiar with them. melody which happens four times with slight variations. This section can wind up ~oundiflg like a little "shout chorus" or ensemble passage in a spontaneous way..(~l ~ If pqr r > J r:r J J I~ J (ID ifO' 11101' tff1r r·J I r A ~ g7(f9) r ~ 11Ai~.) c. Play these chords on the piano to become more Letter {F} is one way of creating a high point and some variety in your solo. I simply sustain the tonic note with a bit of embellishment for the whole churus.

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~ I *!l f ~ rjFft f~EiTF) E bt . Olo4H7 ~Acot/fi ~1oI' f - f d. This takes us back to the theme and then to a short coda..16 IV.--. Letter {F} is an ensemble section based on the harmonic structure of the "blowing" section. There is a gradual build into letter {F}. ! F t o ~ renfrew ..1 . r. This is done by playing legato and connecting the notes.pa . r· l .. yet effective tune. All 0 ~Aocf.{fs) Fcd' Eksd • .~ . The key to making this one work is to keep the intensity in the line and have forward motion present at all times. The solo begins at {O} and starts in a low-key fashion.~ ~1oI' Co' .'7 CMMi ~Mi If ~r r [ - Co' o./S AAoct/o. which requires the ability to make a melody "sing.RJ 0. A very simple. which is to be played strong with lots of emotion. Forward motion can also be accomplished by crescendoing when the line ascends and de-crescendoing when the line descends... SIMPLY STATED This etude is a rock-ballad style piece with a melodic and diatonic theme.

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thus adding some energy and forward momentum. and one more chorus of blues. the general tone is one of blues-shuffle. Although there is some be-bop type language in this piece. I go up a tritone to F7 .O. I even repeat the frag- ment in the third bar of the next chorus (third bar of {Ell. and groove. In the fourth bar of letter {G}. This serves as a. Letter {I} has a "shout chorusfquality to it. This is a good opportunity to work on timing. . A BRIDGE Here's a nice way to make a 12 bar blues a bit more dressed up . I use a tritone substitution. This is i:l nice way of going outside the traditional blues changes. The phrase in the first bar repeals is the first solo chorus and it takes a fragment of the theme and works it inside out. an eight bar bridge..E7. {K} is the last statement of the theme. other bar throughout Letter {O} the whole 'wad (A.B~7.S. nice connection between the head and the soloing which is to follow. swing. The piano player doesn't have to play the tritone changes for it to work either. Letter {H} breaks into double time.add a bridge! You wind up with two choruses of blues. This is a good opportunity to hook-up with the rhythm section in the moment and create a little ensemble passage. BLUES WITH ever. Instead of B7 .19 v..

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C) in this section to start things off. Beat three of bar two uses the ~9 and ~6 in a chromatic run wedged in between two pentatonic melodies. Letter {O} uses a similar organizational tool. Letters {E} and {F} break into double-time. third. although this book is not supposed to deal with in great depth. On chromatic lines/ please refer to 14 JAZZ & FUNK ETUOES" . thus making for a cohesive eight bar phrase. ~ Sa # . and fifth bar start with the same C. SLAMMIN' This IS a typical R&B piece which has an underlying 16th note groove in a more eighth note type setting_ Consequently.25 VI. Letter {C} is the first chorus of solo.' • -I+ . I use a three note motif (C. Most of the melodic material is based on the pentatonic scale. make for a nice lift in a funk solo of this kind. This serves the purpose of tying the phrases togethp.:r. The second bar of {F} incorporates some chromatic type lines which. You will notice that the first. For more ideas. ThE:! he<\d i~ AAB with a unison melody played in the B section. there are many syncopated 16th note figures in both head and solo. which ups the intensity quite a bit. A.

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funky tune like this is a nice addition to any program. The inspiration for the 5010 section comes from listening to blues guitarists. 1 ] J 1 ] 1 . The solo starts at {C}. eighth note triplets. Letter {F} breaks into a triplet section. It is somewhat tricky to find the groove at this slow tempo. down and dirty. This is down-home J J ] elghth notes. You will hear a lot of blues words in this piece. This does an interesting thing to the groove and lifts the mush: up. VIbrato is appropriate here. CHURCH SONG This piece is a slow six gospel-flavored tune which needs to be played with equal amounts of swing anri a lyrical approach. You will notice I leave lots of space. The second eight bars of {C} get a little more busy. but I always leave a pause between phrases to let the music breathe. and 16th notes to swing at their respective tempos. ] blues.28 " VII. This allows the music to settle and the rhythm section to ease into a nice groove. The tricky part of playing this piece will be getting the quarter notes. A slow. The melody needs to be connected in a legato fashion.

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32 VIII. although a good pianist and bassist wuuld probably catch the change in harmony and respond accordingly.-7 EJ. by players like Sonny Stitt. and Grant Green..7. (I E-71A71 E-7181. There is another tritone substitution in the bar before {F}.-j This is a nice way to color an otherwise simple harmonic progression. and #11 of 07. I ~". Again. They return in the ninth bar.7)_ letter {C} (second chorus of solo) starts out with a string of D's that are accented in a syncopated way.l 10M' G.. If he or she plays the D7 the notes in the Ofi7 [)fit run wind up being the ~9.' I ~jl.r G. who always swung .. ~9. Gene Ammons. C1 I Cfll1 ~j. Letter {II} is a sequence of tri-tone substitutions. And the beauty of it is the piano doesn't have to play the tri-lone changes..l I A~' I 01 I c. in the audience) and launches into The solo starts at {D} and is in the typical swing idiom. Letter {E} bars one & two utilize a tritone substitution. BE-BOP SPECIAL This piece starts with a be-bop type line (there's always 1 be-hopper a solo which favors blues-oriented melodies in a swing context. the pianist need not play the trltone chords. This idea of repeating the same note can really swing and make for an interesting diversion from the more scalu\ar and arpeggiated melodies in a solo. This piece was inspired so hard in this style.

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A band called "Swff"pl. There's not a whole lot in the way of inflection to making this piece work. kier somehow. . r r '"~U F 01017 ~..r EJ EN c:t/£ CJ. You don't need to playa whole lot of flashy stuff all the time. ~~7Ifill . ~fl c I f .1'~/~ EM' AM' f 1 I. RELAXED This etude was inspired by a form of groove pl<!.. m This etude is a nice exercise in restraint. Sometimes subtlety speaks louder than nash. easy groove..lyed tunes with this slow.'r r f r a...ying which was popular in New York City in the [ate 70'5. This makes it h.. ~~ ~1oI" OH1~11 -_:! tg OJ t~--r ~ Q. I lend to leave space between phrases..iEL.%.[} (-Uel e7(f9) AIo'.t/£ IT Gt/S ~. U r "."r irV r f~r clol'~f'(fffi ~It a/~ ~~..... Richard Tee. r&..f. ... Just let the notes come out nice-and-easy with a nice round tone.CR rY tftJW ~\I~' E/~t A 1017 1 ] If rtf a. j: t!/~ ~ 1f . (!'/~ ~.' (!'/S AIJ. As in the previous funk pieces../~ ~1U1i c.~i tj .(+I~ 'r ttr ~W. and Cornell Dupree were "throwing down" this kind of groove. mlF r f f r~f ro r ~ [) e ~/a ~H fbi C. ~1'J. E7(f6) Alol l7(f9) A~i + O~i/~ I .36 IX. Players like Steve Gadd. C~9 ~tI e ~II @ ~OLO o! ~/$ '1 A 101 01-19 li~tJ [1 r !~ Urf~r J d-_I If" br u ej f 11'9_n.li Ow' ~/Gt ~i F C.A ~£O - - $@ ~ oil ~4 u~ Co 1 . The solo begins at letter {C}. . Relax and gmove! l. .

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Th is tech ni que wi II give th e 50 loa sense of purpose and forward momentum. This rhythm gets the solo instrument and rhythm section together and gives the tune a S€nse of arrangement. Bf" sure to doubles up. The':if' melodies can be played over the regular chord changes. The first two choruses (8&0 are setting up the groove and letting the soloist hook-up with the rhythm section. I take a few notes from the theme and put them in the first few phrases. Theambiguous quality of these kind of melodies creates a feeling of tension. although a pianist who is listening will undoubtedly respond it he hears where you are going. although it would sound better if the pianist responded With fourth interval chords or some kind of altered dominant chords.38 l x. Letter {H} has another common variation on the blues progression. back to the head. The This piece is a blues shuffle inspired by the great organ trios. On this one. Letter {D} uses a. and take the listenEr on a journey. One thing that spruces up the head is the 11 th & 12th bar figure. Remember . r-l) . The first four notes comprise a motif which repeats every other bar with variation. . which goes into be-bop world momentarily.occurs every other bar (1. Letter {G} utilizes a descending II-V progression which adds some variety to the blues harmony. 3. a motif which creates a sense of suspension. BLUES FOR DAYS (r--l. so-to-speak.1 and eases U5 chorus is quite melodiC and open sounding. This The last four bars of {J} uses two notes fA & q to form The suspended feeling busts loose into a series of 16th maintain the quarter note groove even though the line Letter {L} returns to the original fe·e.the idea is to have yOUJ solo evolve. (lotted 8th . note runs in rhe jazz-blues tradition. The piano player need not play those changes. It also is a nice contrast to the next chorus. J Letter {J} goes in a completely different direction.16th feel is used on most eighth note lines TI~ehead is fairly typical of this style blues. 7). 1he solo starts at letter is}. this one starts out with space in between the phrases. This ties the "blowing" to the head nicely. Letter {I} uses fourth intervals in a variety of way~. grow. which is released nicely in the next chorus (lett~r {J}). groove is everything. motif wh ich re. 5. As in the other solos in this book. Each progressive chorus should build and change [rom the previous one.

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:u of {O}. Most of {C} is in the A dorian or mixolydian sound. you can see that a little story unfolded in this piece. utilizes my favorite diminished pattern (discussed in etude #3). or the B section of the tllne goes to 07. the superimposition looks like this: Coltrane progression 07 F7 [31. If the pianist is on top Letter {G} breaks into a more funky rhythmical approach in the A7 blues zone . I break into a G pentatonic scaJe. and major and minor 3rd. The head of the tune starts with an eight bar phrase based on a pentatonic scale corresponding to A7 M9. a 0 triad is introduced momentarily. This technique creates excitement in the way of tension. In this case. alternating light & dark. Letter {H} super-imposes a Coltrane-type progression over the more static 07 tonality. part of the arrangement. which adds even (I bit more tension and color to the improvisation. G). (A. For seven bars all the melodic material revolve around this F. Then a quick turn around Ol-V) gets us back Lo A7. In the fifth bar. 0. This is the basis for many of the contemporary improvisers when going "outside the changes".42 44 G XI. optirnistic note. The fourth bar of {G} uses an F pentatonic scale and momentarily sounds pretty "outside the tonality". b9. .7 eN7 D7 A7 07 G7 07 07 07 Letter {I} goes back into blues-funk world and closes on an uplifting. The solo starts at letter {C}. Letter {F} emphasizes the note F. C. Letter {D}. which is the ~_]of A. bS. Letter {E} (first bar) incorporates two triads (D and C) to give the line CI "sus" sound. This approach adds dissonance and tension to the solo. I emphasize the same pentatonic scale found in the theme. Looking back. SEE FOREVER This piece focuses on plrlying off of one chord vamps'(as in A7 forever). open and closed.a nice release from the tension and suspense created in the previous section. In the third b. As a soloist you can take the music to this place which will sound like an intentional of things. E. and ambiguous and direct. Letter {B}. Letter {D} uses melodies which add the b6. he will play a A7~5 to support your line.

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almost in a pop style. Try not to over-do the embellishments though.~ + Whenever you play the three half notes in a row in the melody be sure La connect the notes (legato) and build slightly in intensity and volume. wh ich sets it apart from the head of the tune.~~91 If gii f~KA S1!(~91 ~ ~JoIM'7 It tm cit I t' t (!t 9 'f'j r (!~ I r' c.. The last A after the bridge is slightly changed and elongated. There's nothing worse than a sax player with hudladuh-itis (when a melody is played with lots of Q @r ~ J .48 XII. letter {B}.~1~~J - r e M 5" r ~~ at~' r' r' p1 eH ~ I t:!fj ~r ~1W7 O~. The piece closes out with J short vamp which alternates between a sus chord and minor chord. a variety of attacks. and style by way of tempering the melody with grace notes. t -~ rd ~r e1l 1t t J ·!f 1 . S. The solo is on a new set of changes.9 r' 4149 $)0\9 £' Ft". or the bridge. lYRICAL The key to making this fairly diatonic and simple piece work will be to interject dynamics. continues the idea of the repeated note. forward momentum.7 A~~ c. The solo seques to the bridge and one last A section. The form of the tune is AABA.wW1 I _ 1- r c. j U· -J j. This will give the melody a sense of motion and style. Th is is a short solo. Short and sweet and to the point.. and whatever embellishments you see fit to use. This tune will give you the opportunity to practice playing a simple melody with conviction and style.

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Pay particular attention to the dynamics. You will notice the use of many major 7th intervals throughout this etude. as this will be crucial in making the piece work.. . the melodies are in the style of classical contemporary music by way of large intervals and a fairly dissonant harmonic scheme.52 XIII. @ II ~ l I . I like this sound for the open and mysterious quality which the major 7th creates. WEIRDO-FUNK This etude is a dissonant and angular piece to be played as a duet with the drums.. There is more work to be done with combining styles of music.. Mixing and matching in all unusual way has always been the basis for innovation in music. However.j1 ~Gl¥! ~I ~:~ ¥ rr F~Ff ff t--J gIf t If I ~[ f l tP . . Someone who is adventurous might try writing a piece in this melodic style over a Latin or Brazilian groove. The rhythms are typical to R&B or Funk music.

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1 I was wrong! There are always two be-boppers etudes in this book. Letter {G} utilizes a series of triads which make for a colorful approach to the A section changes. is to play this etude in as funky and bluesy a style as is possible. its got to swing and be funky! . Letter {J} uses a series of tritone substitutions and adds some nice color to the bridge of rhythm changes.a I ( . however. However. I purposely left the traditional chord changes for the piano & bass to play to demonstrate how (I nice dissonance is created by implementing the alternate t1"" ~i: - I •. not one. upside-down.g. outside.S4 XIV.9 of the dominant (:i 7th chords and have a nice. I used rhythm changes as the crowd. - changes as an arc over the original changes. 11 3. this first B bars has a lot of space and serves as an introductory of section the 5010. and 5 contain the !. inside. The focus. RH'ITHM CH ECK i". Thus.. rich texture Letter {H} uses the Coltrane changes. Letter {E} is the bridge changes and has a motif which occurs in bar 1 and 5. a The triads in bars to them. As usual.l" lL ~L'rJ . or inside-out. there must be two be-bop the vehicle for this particular line and en~ui~g ~mprovisain tion. The solo starts at {D}.1 "'!:. 1\ r r' - 1. how one note can be used to generate excitement. blues. Trane G7 B~7 97 F#7 B7 D7 C7 Ell A7 D71 87 E71 A-7 A7 D7 D7 craata variety. and make Letter {I} demonstrates the groove funky. This adds focus to these bars. Remember .whether you are playing jazz. E.

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