MSc.

Information Technology

Basic Mathematics
Semester I

Amity University

Preface
It gives me immense pleasure in bringing out the book "Basic Mathematics ", as the Mathematics subject is taught in most Indian Engineering Institutions at the undergraduate level. The matter is represented in an easy way and covers particularly the need of undergraduate students.

Any suggestions for improving the book will be highly appreciated.

Mrs.Archana Singh

Index
Subject Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 SET THEORY MATHEMATICAL LOGIC MODERN ALGEBRA GRAPH THEORY DATA ANALYSIS Page no.

Chapter-I SET THEORY
Contents: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Introduction to Set theory Operation on Sets Types of Sets Venn Diagrams Fundamental Laws of Set Operation

SET THEORY

1.1 Introduction to Set theory: Set theory lies at the foundation of all modern mathematics. It gives a very general framework in which almost every branch of mathematics can be discussed.A set is a collection of objects, numbers, ideas, etc. The different objects are called the elements or members of a set. Each element of a set can be listed, or they may be represented using builder notation. Give some examples of sets below. V = {a, e, i, o, u} A = {5, 10, 15, 20, ...} C = {x | x

N, 0

x 1000}

P is the set of all students in Math Studies. Numerical Sets :So what does this have to do with math? When we define a set, all we have to specify is a common characteristic. Who says we can't do so with numbers? Set of even numbers: {..., -4, -2, 0, 2, 4, ...} Set of odd numbers: {..., -3, -1, 1, 3, ...} Set of prime numbers: {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, ...} Positive multiples of 3 that are less than 10: {3, 6, 9} And the list goes on. We can come up with all different types of sets. There can also be sets of numbers that have no common trait, they are just defined that way. For example: {2, 3, 6, 828, 3839, 8827} {4, 5, 6, 10, 21} {2, 949, 48282, 42882959, 119484203} Are all sets that I just randomly banged on my keyboard to produce.

Basic symbols:

, \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to

, @ : empty set U, : universal set

, \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset

, \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union

Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection

Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A

, X : Cartesian product

Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets

1.2 Operation On Sets:

Union: The union of sets A and B, denoted by A U B , is the set defined as A B={x|xєA xєB} B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} . B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} .

Example 1: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {4, 5} , then A

Example 2: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 4, 5} , then A Note that elements are not repeated in a set.

Intersection: The intersection of sets A and B, denoted by A A B={x|xєA xєB}

B , is the set defined as

Example 3: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 4, 5} , then A

B = {1, 2} .

Example 4: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {4, 5} , then A

B=Ø

Difference: The difference of sets A from B , denoted by A - B , is the set defined as A-B={x|xєA x B}

Example 5: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 4, 5} , then A - B = {3} . Example 6: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {4, 5}, then A - B = {1, 2, 3}. Note that in general A - B ≠ B - A Complement: For a set A, the difference U - A, where U is the universe, is called the complement of A and it is denoted by . Thus is the set of everything that is not in A. Example 7: Suppose U = set of positive integers less than 10, And A = {1, 2, 5, 6, 7} Then, = {3, 4, 8, 9,} The fourth set operation is the Cartesian product we first define an ordered pair and Cartesian product of two sets using it. Then the Cartesian product of multiple sets is defined using the concept of n-tuple. Ordered pair: An ordered pair is a pair of objects with an order associated with them. An ordered pair <a, b > is defined in terms of sets as follows: <a, b > = {{a}, {a, b}}. Similarly an ordered n-tuple can be defined as <a1, a2, ..., an > = { { a1 }, { a1, a2 }, ... , { a1, a2, ..., an } }. Two ordered pairs <a, b> and <c, d> are equal if and only if a = c and b = d. For example the ordered pair <1, 2> is not equal to the ordered pair <2, 1>. Cartesian product: The set of all ordered pairs <a, b>, where a is an element of A and b is an element of B, is called the Cartesian product of A and B and is denoted by A×B .The concept of Cartesian product can be extended to that of more than two sets. First we are going to define the concept of ordered n-tuple. Ordered n-tuple: An ordered n-tuple is a set of n objects with an order associated with them (rigorous definition to be filled in). If n objects are represented by x1, x2, ..., xn, then we write the ordered n-tuple as <x1, x2, ..., xn> . Cartesian product: Let A1, ..., An be n sets. Then the set of all ordered n-tuples <x1, ..., xn> , where xi є Ai for all i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n , is called the Cartesian product of A1, ..., An, and is denoted by A1×...×. An . Equality of n-tuples: Two ordered n-tuples <x1, ..., xn> and <y1, ..., yn> are equal if and only if xi = yi for all i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n . For example the ordered 3-tuple <1, 2, 3> is not equal to the ordered n-tuple <2, 3, 1>.

1.3 Types Of Sets: 1.Finite Set –has a finite number of elements; you could list all elements in the set. Example: (a) A = {x:x is the river in India} (b) C = {2, 4, 6, 8, .... ,1000000} 2.Infinite Set – has infinitely many members; you could not list all elements in the set Example: (a) Z = {-1, -2, -3, -4, ... } (b) B = {all real numbers between 2 and 5} Hint: Infinite sets are those which include all R, Q, or Q’ between two values or end with ... 3.Null or Empty Set – the set with no elements; { } or Example: D = {x:x 2 = 5 and x is an integer} = , since there is no integer whose square is 5 The null set is a subset of every set, including the null set itself. 4.Equality of Set – Two sets are equal if they have precisely the same members. Now, at first glance they may not seem equal, you may have to examine them closely! And the equals sign (=) is used to show equality, so we would write: A=B More formally, for any sets A and B, A = B if and only if x[xєA xєB].

Thus for example {1, 2, 3} = {3, 2, 1}, that is the order of elements does not matter, and {1, 2, 3} = {3, 2, 1, 1}, that is duplications do not make any difference for sets.

5. Equivalent Sets–Two sets are equivalent if it is possible to pair off members of the first set with members of the second, with no leftover members on either side. To capture this idea in set-theoretic terms, the set A is defined as equivalent to the set B (symbolized by A ≡ B) if and only if there exists a third set the members of which are ordered pairs such that: (1) the first member of each pair is an element of A and the second is an element of B, and (2) each member of A occurs as a first member and each member of B occurs as a second member of exactly one pair. Thus, if A and B are finite and A ≡ B, then the third set that establishes this fact provides a pairing, or matching, of the elements of A with those of B. Conversely, if it is possible to match the elements of A with those of B, then A ≡ B, because a set of pairs meeting requirements (1) and (2) can be formed Example: Let A= {a, b, c, d} and B= {1, 2, 3, 4} be two sets. Clearly A is not equal to b. However, the elements of A can be put into one-to-one correspondence with those of B, therefore we write A ≡ B.

6.Subset –If every member of set A is also a member of set B, then A is said to be a subset of B, written A B (also pronounced A is contained in B). Equivalently, we can read as B is a superset of A, B includes A, or B contains A. The relationship between sets established by is called inclusion or containment. If all the members of a set M are also members of a set P, then M is a subset of P: M *Note: M could be exactly the same as P.

P.

Example (a) If A
A A C A B C B A

1,2 and B

2, 1,0,1,2 and C

2, 1,0,1,2 then.

(b) Every set has at least two subsets, itself and the null set. List all the subsets of a, b, c . Use proper notation

7.Proper Subsets– If all the members of a set M are also members of a set P and M is a smaller set than P, then M is a proper subset of P: M P . Example: {1, 2, 3} is a subset of {1, 2, 3}, but is not a proper subset of {1, 2, 3}.On the contrary, {1, 2, 3} is a proper subset of {1, 2, 3, 4} because the element 4 is not in the first set. 8. Power set– The set of all subsets of a set A is called the power set of A and denoted by 2A or Example: (a) A = {1, 2}, (A) = {Ø, {1}, {2}, {1, 2} } . (b) B = {{1, 2}, {{1}, 2}, Ø } , (B) = { Ø, {{1, 2}}, {{{1}, 2}}, { Ø }, { {1, 2}, {{1}, 2}, Ø }, { {{1}, 2}, Ø }, {{1, 2}, {{1}, 2}, Ø } } . 2 }}, { {1, (A).

9.Universal Set–The set which contains all the available elements for a particular problem. The complement of a set A is defined to be the set of all elements of the universal set which are not in A. Note that A U Ac is always the universal set, while A Ac = Ø

The set U is the superset of every set

10. Family of Sets– a collection F of subsets of a given set S is called a family of subsets of S, or a family of sets over S. More generally, a collection of any sets whatsoever is called a family of sets. Example: If A = {1, 2} then the set {Ø, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}} is the family of sets whose elements are subsets of the set A.

1.4 Venn Diagrams: Venn diagrams are used to represent sets. Here, the set A{1, 2, 4, 8} is shown using a circle. In Venn diagrams, sets are usually represented using circles. The universal set is the rectangle. The set A is a subset of the universal set and so it is within the rectangle.

The complement of A, written Ac, contains all events in the sample space which are not members of A. A and Ac together cover every possible eventuality.

A B means the union of sets A and B and contains all of the elements of both A and B. This can be represented on a Venn Diagram as follows:

A B means the intersection of sets A and B. This contains all of the elements which are in both A and B. A B is shown on the Venn Diagram below:

An important result connecting the number of members in sets and their unions and intersections is: n(A) + n(B) - n(A B) = n(A B)

1.5 Fundamental Laws of Set Operation : i. Identity Laws AUØ= A A ii. U= A

Domination Laws AUU= U A Ø= Ø

iii.

Idempotent Laws AUA= A A A= A

iv.

Commutative Laws AUB=BUA A B=B A

v.

Associative Laws (A U B) U C = A U (B U C) (A B) C= A (B C)

vi.

Distributive Laws A U (B A C) = (A U B) (A U C) C)

(B U C) = (A

B) U (A

Proof: x ε A U (B ∩ C) x ε A or x ε (B ∩ C) x ε A or (x ε B and x ε C) (x ε A or x ε B) and (x ε A or x ε C) x ε (A U B) and x ε (A U C)

x ε (A U B) ∩ (A U C) Hence: A U (B ∩ C) = (A U B) ∩ (A U C) Similarly, the second distributive law can also be proved. vii. De Morgan's Laws a. Complement of the intersection of two sets is the union of their complements, i.e.

Proof:

or or

Therefore b. Complement of the unions of two sets is the intersection of their complements, i.e.

Proof: same as above

Chapter-I SET THEORY
End Chapter quizzes :I
The freshman science classes were surveyed to see whether they wanted to visit the local natural history museum or a nearby state park. They could choose the museum, the park, both, or neither. The results of the survey are shown in the Venn diagram at the right. If 96 students were surveyed, how many wanted to go only to the state park?
Ques 1.

a. b. c. d.

9 10 11 12 A = {x is an even number, x > 1} B = {x is an odd number, x > 1}; then A U B is defined as a. b. c. d. A U B ={ x is an even number, x > 1} A U B ={x is an odd number, x > 1} A U B = {2,3,4,5,6,…. } A U B ={ 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,…} The intersection of the sets {1, 2, 3} and {2, 3, 4} is

Ques 2.

Ques 3.

a. b. c. d.

{2, 3}. {1,2, 3,4}. {3}. {1,2,2,3,3}. A = {1,2,3}and B = {3,4,5}; then A - B is defined as {2, 3}. {1,2, 3,4}. {3}. {1,2, 4,5}.

Ques 4.

a. b. c. d.
Ques 5.

If A and B are any two sets and AUB=A∩B then a. A=B b. A≤B c. A B

d. A U B = Ø
Ques 6.

a. b. c. d.

If the intersection of two sets A and B is empty, the two sets are said to be Universal set Disjoint set Finite set Infinite set

De Morgan's Laws; Complement of the intersection of two sets is the union of their complements, i.e.
Ques 7. According to

a. b. c. A U B = A ∩ B d. None

Ques 8. According to the

Identity Laws,which one is correct

a. b. c. d.

AUØ AUØ AUØ AUØ

= Ac =U =Ø =A

Ques 9. A

U Ac is always the universal set

a. b. c. d.

True False Depends on the set None
c c

Ques 10. (A ) = A

a. b. c. d.

True False Depends on the set None

Chapter-II MATHEMATICAL LOGIC
Contents: 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Basic concepts of Mathematical logic Propositions or Statements Combining Propositions Truth Table Conditional and Biconditional Propositions Reverse, Converse, Inverse, and Contrapositive of an implication Tautology Logical Equivalence Switching circuits

MATHEMATICAL LOGIC
2.1 Basic concepts of Mathematical logic: Mathematical logic is the application of mathematical techniques to logic. Logic is commonly known as the science of reasoning. The emphasis here will be on logic as a working tool. We will develop some of the symbolic techniques required for computer logic. Some of the reasons to study logic are the following: At the hardware level the design of ’logic’ circuits to implement instructions is greatly simplified by the use of symbolic logic. At the software level a knowledge of symbolic logic is helpful in the design of programs. Logic is a language for reasoning. It is a collection of rules we use when doing logical reasoning. Human reasoning has been observed over centuries from at least the times of Greeks, and patterns appearing in reasoning have been extracted, abstracted, and streamlined. The foundation of the logic we are going to learn here was laid down by a British mathematician George Boole in the middle of the 19th century, and it was further developed and used in an attempt to derive all of mathematics by Gottlob Frege, a German mathematician, towards the end of the 19th century. A British philosopher/mathematician, Bertrand Russell, found a flaw in basic assumptions in Frege’s attempt but he, together with Alfred Whitehead, developed Frege’s work further and repaired the damage. The logic we study today is more or less along this line. In logic we are interested in true or false of statements, and how the truth/falsehood of a statement can be determined from other statements. However, instead of dealing with individual specific statements, we are going to use symbols to represent arbitrary statements so that the results can be used in many similar but different cases. The formalization also promotes the clarity of thought and eliminates mistakes. There are various types of logic such as logic of sentences (propositional logic), logic of objects (predicate logic), logic involving uncertainties, logic dealing with fuzziness, temporal logic etc. Here we are going to be concerned with propositional logic and predicate logic, which are fundamental to all types of logic.

2.2 Propositions or Statements: The smallest unit we deal with in propositional logic is a sentence. We do not go inside individual sentences and analyze or discuss their meanings. We are going to be interested only in true or false of sentences, and major concern is whether or not the truth or falsehood of a certain sentence follows from those of a set of sentences, and if so, how. Propositional logic is a logic at the sentential level. Thus sentences considered in this logic are not arbitrary sentences but are the ones that are true or false. This kind of sentences is called propositions. If a proposition is true, then we say it has a truth value of ―true‖; if a proposition is false, its truth value is ―false‖. A proposition is any meaningful statement that is either true or false, but not both e.g.
p:1+1=3 to define p to be the proposition 1 + 1 = 3: The truth value of a proposition is true, denoted by T, if it is a true statement and false, denoted by F, if it is a false statement. Statements that are not propositions include questions and commands.

2.3 Combining Propositions: Simple sentences which are true or false are called basic propositions. Larger and more complex sentences are constructed from basic propositions by combining them with connectives. Thus propositions and connectives are the basic elements of prepositional logic. In English, we can modify, combine, and relate propositions with words such as ―not‖,―and‖,

―or‖, ―implies‖, and ―if then‖.For example, we can combine three propositions into one like this: If all humans are mortal and all Indians are human, then all Indians are mortal The propositions and connectives are the basic elements of prepositional logic. A few of connectives are as follows: Mathematics Symbol or Meaning not and or implies if and only if exclusive or p T F truth variable true false

¬

Example Consider the following propositions p : It is Friday: q : It is raining: Construct the propositions p ^ q and p v q: Solution. The conjunction of the propositions p and q is the proposition p ^ q : It is Friday and it is raining: The disjunction of the propositions p and q is the proposition p v q : It is Friday or It is raining: A truth table displays the relationships between the truth values of propositions. Next, we display the truth tables of p ^ q and p v q: pqp^q

Let p and q be two propositions. The exclusive of p and q; denoted p © q; is the proposition that is true when exactly one of p and q is true and is false otherwise. The truth table of the exclusive ’or’ is displayed below

2.4 Truth Table : A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, Boolean function and propositional calculus—to compute the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments Example: Constructing a Truth Table Construct the truth table for ~ (p q). Solution: Whenever we encounter a complex formula like this, we work from the inside out, just as we might do if we had to evaluate an algebraic expression, like - (a+b). Thus, we start with the p and q columns, then construct the p q column, and finally, the ~ (p q) column:

p T T F F

q T F T F

p q ~(p q) T F F T F T F T

2.5 Conditional and Biconditional Propositions :

Let p and q be propositions. The implication p q is the the proposition that is false only when p is true and q is false; otherwise it is true. p is called the hypothesis and q is called the conclusion. The connective is called the conditional connective. Example: Construct the truth table of the implication p Solution The truth table is

q:

2.6 Reverse, Converse, Inverse, and Contrapositive of an implication

By definition, the reverse of an implication means the same as the original implication itself. Each implication implies its contrapositive, even intuitionistically. In classical logic, an implication is logically equivalent to its contrapositive, and, moreover, its inverse is logically equivalent to its converse. Comparisons: name form description

implication

if P then Q

first statement implies truth of second

inverse

if not P then not Q negation of both statements

converse

if Q then P

reversal of both statements

contrapositive if not Q then not P reversal of negation of both statements

Take the statement "All quadrilaterals have four sides," or equivalently expressed "If a shape is a quadrilateral, then it has four sides."

The Contrapositive is "If a shape does not have four sides, then it is not a quadrilateral." This follows logically, and as a rule, contrapositives share the truth value of their conditional. The Inverse is "If a shape is not a quadrilateral, then it does not have four sides." In this case, unlike the last example, the inverse of the argument is true. The Converse is "If a shape has four sides, then it is a quadrilateral." Again, in this case, unlike the last example, the converse of the argument is true. The Contradiction is "There is at least one quadrilateral that does not have four sides." Since the statement and the converse are both true, it is called a biconditional, and can be expressed as "A shape is a quadrilateral if, and only if, it has four sides." That is, having four sides is both necessary to be a quadrilateral, and alone sufficient to deem it a quadrilateral. 2.7 Tautology : A formula of propositional logic is a tautology if the formula itself is always true regardless of which valuation is used for the propositional variables. There are infinitely many tautologies. Examples include: ("A or not-A"), the law of the excluded middle. This formula has only one propositional variable, A. Any valuation for this formula must, by definition, assign A one of the truth values true or false, and assign A the other truth value. ("if A implies B then not-B implies not-A", and vice versa), which expresses the law of Contraposition. ("if not-A implies both B and its negation not-B, then not-A must be false, then A must be true"), which is the principle know as reduction ad absurdum. , which is know as de Morgan’s law ("if A implies B and B implies C, then A implies C"), which is the principle know as syllogism. (if A or B is true and both implies C, then C must be true), which is the principle know as proof by cases.. The problem of determining whether a formula is a tautology is fundamental in propositional logic. The definition suggests one method: proceed by cases and verify that every possible valuation does satisfy the formula. An algorithmic method of verifying that every valuation causes this sentence to be true is to make a truth table that includes every possible valuation. For example, consider the formula

There are 8 possible valuations for the propositional variables A, B, C, represented by the first three columns of the following table. The remaining columns show the truth of subformulas of the formula above, culminating in a column showing the truth value of the original formula under each valuation. A T T T B T T F C T F T

T T F

T F T

T F T

T F T

T T T

T F F F F

F T T F F

F T F T F

F F F F F

T T T T T

T T F T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

Because each row of the final column shows T, the sentence in question is verified to be a tautology.

Example:

Example:

2.8 Logical Equivalence: Two propositions whose truth tables have the same last column are called logically equivalent. This means that no matter what truth values the primitive propositions have, these two propositions are either both true or both false. To test whether or not two propositions are logically equivalent we make a truth table for each of them and compare their last columns.

Example: The proposition (p ^ q) ^ r is logically equivalent to p ^ (q ^ r). This is why the expression p ^ q ^ r is invalid, wherever the parentheses go the result is equivalent. p T T T T F F F F q T T F F T T F F r T F T F T F T F p^q T F F F F F F F (p ^ q) ^ r T F F F F F F F p T T T T F F F F q T T F F T T F F r T F T F T F T F q^r T F F F F F F F p^ (q ^ r) T F F F F F F F

Similarly, the proposition (p ^ q) ^ r is logically equivalent to p ^ (q ^ r) so the expression p ^ q ^ r is invalid. Wherever the parentheses go the result is equivalent. De Morgan's Laws state that (p ^ q) is logically equivalent to p^ q. p V q and that

(p V q) is logically equivalent to

2.9 Switching Circuits: A switching network is an arrangement of wires and switches which connect two terminals. A switch can be either closed or open. A closed switch permits and an open switch prevents flow of current. The simplest kind of network in which there is a single wire containing a single switch p is shown in the figure: P If P denotes a switch, then p' denotes that switch which is open when p is closed, and is closed when p is open. Let P be the statement: "switch p is closed", then lp will be the statement: "switch p is open." If x denotes the state of the switch p, then x' will be the state of the switch p', x will be called the state variable or Boolean variable. It is a binary variable.

If the value x=l denotes that the switch is closed or the current flows. Then value x=O denotes that the switch is open or the current stops. , Switch p Proposition Truth State of p Boolean Value of x al Value Variable Variable Closed x P T 1 (on) Open x ⌐P F 0 (off) Let 'in series' connection be represented by /\ [i.e. a/\b denotes' switches a and bare connected in series']. Also let aV b denote 'switches a and b are connected in parallel'. Consider the system ({O,l} /\, V ); B={O,1}

Then B is a non-empty set and /\ and V are two binary compositions on B, by tables: /\ 0 1 v 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 The conditions of idempotency, commutativity, associativity and absorption are clearly seen to be satisfied, Hence B is a distributive lattice in which each element has a complement, i.e., it is a Boolean algebra. Thus the system ({O,l} /\, V, `) is usually called switching algebra. Representation of Circuits We now illustrate how a given Boolean function can represent a circuit and how a circuit can be represented by a Boolean function. Simplification of Circuits Simplification of a circuit would normally mean the least complicated circuit with minimum cost and best (convenient) results. This would be governed by various factors like cost of equipment, positioning and number of switches, type of material used etc. Simplification of circuits would mean lesser number of switches, which we achieve by qsing different properties of Boolean algebras. Example Draw the circuit representing the Boolean functions: (i) a/\b, (ii) aVb, (iii) a/\(bVc) .

Solution

Example: Find the Boolean function representing the circuit:

Solution The Boolean function for the given circuit is a/\[(b/\c)v(d/\(e/\f))]

Design of Circuits Here we explain with the help of examples how with given requirements, corresponding circuits are designed. Example In a committee of three members, each member indicates his agreement by closing a switch. A bulb is lighted when a majority agrees. Construct a suitable arrangement. Solution Let A, B, C denote agreement by member number 1, 2, 3 respectively. The bulb is lighted when current flows. Current flows when at least two members agree. Hence the logic statement describing agreement is f = (A/\B/\C)V(A/\B/\¬C)V(A/\⌐B/\C)V(¬A/\B/\C)........................ (i)

The circuit diagram- for the Boolean function: [here a stands for A, b stands for B and c stands for C]

Chapter-II MATHEMATICAL LOGIC
End Chapter quizzes :II
Ques 1.Which of the following are propositions? Give the truth value of the propositions. a. The difference of two primes. b. 2 + 2 = 4: c. Washington D.C. is the capital of New York. d. How are you? Solution . a. Not a proposition. b. A proposition with truth value (T). c. A proposition with truth value (F). d. Not a proposition. Ques 2.The symbol of if and only if a. b. c. d. Ques a. b. c. d.

¬
3. p ^ q implies p and q p or q

exclusive of p and q
p not q

Ques 4. For two statements a. if not P then not Q b. if Q then P c. if not Q then not P d. if P then Q

P and Q, implication implies

If a formula itself is always true regardless of which valuation is used for the propositional variables,the propositional logic is called
Ques 5.

a. b. c. d.

Tautology Biconditional Propositions Combining Propositions Contrapositive of an implication

Ques 6. , means a. A or not-A b. if A implies B then not-B implies not-A c. if not-A implies both B and its negation not-B,

then not-A must be false, then A must be

true

d. Ques a. b. c. d.

if A implies B and B implies C, then A implies C
7. De Morgan's Laws state that True False Not always true Depends on the variable value

(p ^ q) is logically equivalent to

pV q

p: "There is life on Mars." q: "There is life on Jupiter." ~ (p q) is a. There is no life on Mars and there is no life on Jupiter b. There is no life on Mars and there is life on Jupiter c. There is neither life on Mars nor on Jupiter d. There is life on atmost one of Mars or Jupiter
Ques 8. Ques 9.For the implication formula A →B ;

¬ A→ ¬ B is

a. b. c. d.

Reverse Inverse Contrapositive Converse

Ques 10.Which one of them is not dealt in the topic a. Venn Diagram b. Logical Equivalence c. Truth table

d. Contrapositive

Chapter-III MODERN ALGEBRA

Contents: 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Binary Operations Properties of Binary operations Semigroup Monoid Group Groupoid

MODERN ALGEBRA
3.1 Binary Operations: A binary operation is simply a rule for combining two objects of a given type, to obtain another object of that type. Through elementary school and most of high school, the objects are numbers, and the rule for combining numbers is addition, subtraction, multiplication or division.

Binary operation on a set S. A binary operation on a set S is a rule which assigns to each ordered pair a,b of elements in S a unique element c = ab. Closure. A set S is closed with respect to a binary operation for every a,b in S. if and only if every image ab is in S

3.2 Properties of Binary operations: Commutative operation: A binary operation on a set S is called commutative if xy = yx for all x,y in S. Associative operation: A binary operation on a set S is called associative if (xy)z = x (yz) for all x,y,z in S. Distributive: Let S be a set on which two operations ∙ and + are defined. The operation ∙ is said to left distributive with respect to + if a ∙(b + c ) = (a∙b) + (a∙c) for all a,b,c in S and is said to be right distributive with respect to + if (b + c)∙a = (b∙a) + (c∙a) for all a,b,c in S

Existence of identity elements and inverse elements: Identity element: A set S is said to have an identity element with respect to a binary operation on S if there exists an element e in S with the property ex = xe = x for every x in S. Inverse element: If a set S contains an identity element e for the binary operation element b S is an inverse of an element a S with respect to if ab = ba = e . Note. There must be an identity element in order for inverse elements to exist. , then an

Theorems : Theorem 1. A set S contains at most one identity for the binary operation . An element e is called a left identity if ea = a for every a in S. It is called a right identity if ae = a for every a in S. If a set contains both a left and a right identity, they are the same. Theorem 2. An element of a set S can have at most one inverse if the operation is associative.

In general, in regular algebra, when one multiplies several real numbers together, a product of several numbers is assumed to have a particular value independent of how the multiplications are performed (i.e. where parentheses are placed): x1x2x3 ... xn = x1(x2x3)(x4 ... xn) = (x1x2)(x3x4)(x5 ...xn) or, in terms of numbers, 5∙3∙8∙7∙3∙9 = 5(3∙8)(7∙3)9 = (5∙3)(8∙7)(3∙9) = ... The product is unique, independent of the placing of the parentheses. This rule is true in the case of the multiplication of real numbers. It is not, however, in general true with an arbitrary operation . Under what conditions is it true? It is true on a closed set S which has an operation which is associative. The operation of multiplication on the real numbers is associative and so this product is unique for the multiplication of real numbers. Theorem 3. Let a set S be closed with respect to an associative binary operation . Then the products formed from the factors , multiplied in that order, and with the parentheses .

placed in any positions whatever, are equal to the general product

Note that the theorem refers to the grouping -- the order of the numbers remains the same. The concept of a binary operation is a very general one, and need not be restricted to sets of numbers. In fact, an operation can be specified on any finite set simply by presenting a table that shows how the operation is performed, when you are given two elements of the set. For example, consider the set and an operation, denoted by *, defined by the following table:

We interpret this operation table in much the same way that we would interpret an addition table. Using the operation symbol * as we would use + to mean addition, the table shows us, among other things, that

and so on. The table summarizes 16 such calculations, telling us how to combine each of the four elements of A with each of the four elements. Not All Operations Have the Same Properties You should be familiar with various properties of the arithmetic operations on numbers. Addition of numbers, for instance, is a commutative operation -- meaning that for all numbers x and y. The operation on the set A defined by the operation table above, however, is not commutative, and there are several instances of this lack of commutativity. For instance, since the table shows that . In general, commutativity is a property of an operation, so it takes only one instance of lack of commutativity to spoil that property for the operation. It is easy to check whether an operation defined by a table is commutative. Simply draw the diagonal line from upper left to lower right, and then look to see if the table is symmetric about this line. In the illustration below, we see a lack of symmetry: the table entries colored yellow do not match, and the table entries colored blue do not match.

Either one of these mismatches would be sufficient to make the operation non-commutative. Addition of numbers is an associative operation, meaning that for all numbers x, y and z. To check to see whether the operation * defined above is associative, however, is a somewhat tedious task. We would need to compute all combinations of the form in two ways -- once as shown, and then again in the form -- and then check to see that they are equal. This must be done for each selection of elements to fill the placeholders. In the case of a 4-element set such as A above, there are choices of the elements to be used, and each must be computed in two ways. Thus, to verify that a binary operation on a 4-element set is associative, we would have to do 128 computations! There is no easy shortcut as there is for checking commutativity. On the other hand, if a given operation fails to be associative, all we need to do to verify this is to find one instance of the lack of associativity. For the operation * defined on the set

above, we find that so the operation * is not associative

, while

. Thus

,

3.3 Semigroup: A mathematical object defined for a set and a binary operator in which the multiplication operation is associative. No other restrictions are placed on a semigroup; thus a semigroup need not have an identity element and its elements need not have inverses within the semigroup. A semigroup is an associative groupoid. A semigroup with an identity is called a monoid. A semigroup can be empty. 3.4 Monoid: A monoid is a set that is closed under an associative binary operation and has an identity element such that for all , . Note that unlike a group, its elements need not have inverses. It can also be thought of as a semigroup with an identity element. A monoid must contain at least one element. A monoid that is commutative is, not surprisingly, known as a commutative monoid. 3.5 Group: A group G is a finite or infinite set of elements together with a binary operation (called the group operation) that together satisfy the four fundamental properties of closure, associativity, the identity property, and the inverse property. The operation with respect to which a group is defined is often called the "group operation," and a set is said to be a group "under" this operation. Elements A, B, C, ... with binary operation between A and B denoted AB form a group if 1. Closure: If A and B are two elements in G, then the product AB is also in G. 2. Associativity: The defined multiplication is associative, i.e., for all 3. Identity: There is an identity element I (a.k.a. 1, , or ) such that . , .

for every element

4. Inverse: There must be an inverse (a.k.a. reciprocal) of each element. Therefore, for each element A of G , the set contains an element such that . A group is a monoid each of whose elements is invertible. A group must contain at least one element, with the unique single-element group known as the trivial group.

The study of groups is known as group theory. If there are a finite number of elements, the group is called a finite group and the number of elements is called the group order of the group. A subset of a group that is closed under the group operation and the inverse operation is called a subgroup. Subgroups are also groups and many commonly encountered groups are in fact special subgroups of some more general larger group. A basic example of a finite group is the symmetric group Sn, which is the group of permutations (or "under permutation") of n objects. The simplest infinite group is the set of integers under usual addition. For continuous groups, one can consider the real numbers or the set of n X n invertible matrices. These last two are examples of Lie groups. 3.6 Groupoid: There are at least two definitions of "groupoid" currently in use. The first type of groupoid is an algebraic structure on a set with a binary operator. The only restriction on the operator is closure (i.e., applying the binary operator to two elements of a given set S returns a value which is itself a member of S ). Associativity, commutativity, etc., are not required. A groupoid can be empty. An associative groupoid is called a semigroup. The second type of groupoid is an algebraic structure first defined by Brandt (1926) and also known as a virtual group. A groupoid with base B (or "over B ") is a set Gwith mappings α and β from G onto B and a partially defined binary operation , satisfying the following four conditions: 1. is defined whenever , and in this case and and .

2. Associativity: if either of 3. For each . 4. Each has an inverse

are defined so is the other and they are equal. and respectively, satisfying

, there are left- and right-identity elements

satisfying

and

.

Any group is a groupoid with base a single point. The most basic example of groupoid with base is the pair groupoid, where , and , , and with multiplication . Any equivalence relation on defines a subgroupoid of the pair groupoid. A useful way to think of a groupoid is as a parametrized equivalence relation on , as follows. Given a groupoid over , define an equivalence relation on by for each . This equivalence relation is "parameterized" because there may be more than one element in which give rise to the same equivalence, that is, and such that and .

Chapter-III MODERN ALGEBRA
End Chapter quizzes :III
Ques. 1 The a. 6 b. 4 c. 8 d. 3 Ques.2 a. b. c. d. Ques.3 a. b. c. d.

greatest common divisor of 42 and 60 equals to

If ea = a for every a in S, then e is called right identity left identity right inverse left inverse There must be an identity element in order for inverse elements to exist
Always true False Depends upon the elements of the set None called

Ques.4 An algebric structure (G,*), satisfying only the closure property and the associative law, is a. Semigroup b. Monoid c. Group d. Groupoid

Ques.5 A monoid each a. Semigroup b. Cyclic group c. Group d. Groupoid

of whose elements is invertible, is called

Let S be a set on which two operations ∙ and + are defined. The operation ∙ is said to left distributive with respect to + if for all a,b,c in S
Ques.6

a. a ∙(b + c ) = (b + c)∙a b. (b + c)∙a = b + c + a c. a ∙(b + c ) = (a∙b) + (a∙c) d. (b + c)∙a = (b∙a) + (c∙a)

Ques 7 a. b. c. d.

A semigroup with an identity element, is called Cyclic group Monoid Group Groupoid

Ques.8 Which one of the following is true a. A group must contain at least one element b. A monoid must contain at least one element c. A semigroup can be empty d. All are true Ques 9 a. b. c.

An associative groupoid is called a Cyclic group Monoid Group d. Semigroup

A subset of a group that is closed under the group operation and the inverse operation is called a subgroup a. Cyclic group b. Subgroup c. Abelian group d. Semigroup
Ques.10

Chapter-IV Graph Theory

Contents: 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Graph Multigraph Complete graph Bi Graph/Bipartite Graph Degree Degree Sequence

Graph Theory
4.1 Graph : In mathematics a graph is an abstract representation of a set of objects where some pairs of the objects are connected by links. The interconnected objects are represented by mathematical abstractions called vertices, and the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called edges. Typically, a graph is depicted in diagrammatic form as a set of dots for the vertices, joined by lines or curves for the edges. A graph is an ordered pair G: = (V, E) comprising a set V of vertices or nodes together with a set E of edges or lines, which are 2-element subsets of V. To avoid ambiguity, this type of graph may be described precisely as undirected and simple.An undirected graph G consists of a set VG of vertices and a set EG of edges such that each edge e 2 EG is associated with an unordered pair of vertices, called its endpoints. A directed graph or digraph G consists of a set VG of vertices and a set EG of edges such that each edge e 2 EG is associated with an ordered pair of vertices. We denote a graph by G = (VG; EG):Two vertices are said to be adjacent if there is an edge connecting the two vertices. Two edges associated to the same vertices are called parallel. An edge incident to a single vertex is called a loop. A loop is an edge (directed or undirected) which starts and ends on the same vertex; these may be permitted or not permitted according to the application. In this context, an edge with two different ends is called a link. A vertex that is not incident on any edge is called an isolated vertex. A graph with neither loops nor parallel edges is called simple graph. If multiple edges are allowed between vertices, the graph is known as a multigraph. Vertices are usually not allowed to be self-connected, but this restriction is sometimes relaxed to allow such "graph loops." A graph that may contain multi edges and graph loops is called a pseudo graph.

Example Consider the following graph G

a. Find EG and VG. b. List the isolated vertices. c. List the loops. d. List the parallel edges. e. List the vertices adjacent to v3:. f. Find all edges incident on v4: Solution. a. EG = fe1; e2; e3; e4; e5; e6g and VG = fv1; v2; v3; v4; v5; v6; v7g: b. There is only one isolated vertex, v5: c. There is only one loop, e5: d. fe2; e3g: e. fv2; v4g: f. fe1; e4; e5g: Example Which one of the following graphs is simple.

Solution. a. is not simple since it has a loop and parallel edges. b. is simple. A complete graph on n vertices, denoted by Kn; is the simple graph that contains exactly one edge between each pair of distinct vertices.

4.2 Multigraph: The term "multigraph" is generally understood to mean that multiple edges (and sometimes loops) are allowed. Some references require that multigraphs possess no graph loops, some explicitly allow them whereas there are others who uses the term "multigraph" to mean a graph containing either loops or multiple edges.

Where graphs are defined so as to allow loops and multiple edges, a multigraph is often defined to mean a graph without loops, however, where graphs are defined so as to disallow loops and multiple edges, the term is often defined to mean a "graph" which can have both multiple edges and loops, although many use the term "pseudograph" for this meaning

4.3 Complete graph: A complete graph is a graph in which each pair of graph vertices is connected by an edge. The complete graph with n graph vertices is denoted Kn and has (the triangular

numbers) undirected edges, where is a binomial coefficient.The complete graph on n vertices has n vertices and n(n-1)/2 edges, and is denoted by Kn. It is a regular graph of degree n − 1. All complete graphs are their own cliques. They are maximally connected as the only vertex cut (A vertex cut of a connected graph G is a set of vertices whose removal renders G disconnected) which disconnects the graph is the complete set of vertices.In older literature, complete graphs are sometimes called universal graphs. A complete graph with n nodes represents the edges of an (n-1)-simplex. Geometrically K3 relates to a triangle, K4 a tetrahedron, K5 a pentachodron,

etc. 4.4 Bi Graph/Bipartite Graph: A bigraph graph, also called a bipartite, is a set of graph vertices decomposed into two disjoint sets such that no two graph vertices within the same set are adjacent. A bipartite graph is a special case of a k-partite graph with k=2. Bi graphs are equivalent to two-colorable graphs, and a graph is bipartite iff all its cycles are of even length

U

V

The two sets U and V may be thought of as a coloring of the graph with two colors: if we color all nodes in U blue, and all nodes in V green, each edge has endpoints of differing colors, as is required in the graph coloring problem. In contrast, such a coloring is impossible in the case of a nonbipartite graph, such as a triangle: after one node is colored blue and another green, the third

vertex of the triangle is connected to vertices of both colors, preventing it from being assigned either color. All trees are bipartite, e.g.

4.5 Degree : The degree (or valency) of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges incident to the vertex, with loops counted twice. The degree of a vertex v is denoted deg (v). The maximum degree of a graph G, denoted by Δ(G), is the maximum degree of its vertices, and the minimum degree of a graph, denoted by δ(G), is the minimum degree of its vertices. 1 3 3 2

1

3 2 0 . In the above graph, the maximum degree is 3 and the minimum degree is 0.

In this graph all of the vertices have degree three.

4.6 Degree Sequence: Given an undirected graph, a degree sequence is a monotonic non increasing sequence of the vertex degrees (valencies) of its graph vertices. The number of degree sequences for a graph of a given order is closely related to graphical partitions. The sum of the elements of a degree sequence of a graph is always even due to fact that each edge connects two vertices and is thus counted twice .For the above graph degree sequence is (3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1, 0). The minimum vertex degree in a graph G is denoted , and the maximum degree is denoted . A graph whose degree sequence contains only multiple copies of a single integer is called a regular graph.

It is possible for two topologically distinct graphs to have the same degree sequence.

Chapter-IV Graph Theory
End Chapter quizzes :IV
Ques 1. A graph which starts and ends on the same vertex is called a a. Line b. Circle c. loop d. Vertices

Ques 2. A graph with neither loops nor parallel edges is called a. multigraph b. simple graph c. pseudograph d. Complete graph Ques 3. A complete graph with n nodes represents the edges of an a. (n-1)-simple b. (n)- simplex c. (n+1)- simplex d. 0 Ques 4. A triangle is a a. bipartite graph b. non-bipartite graph c. Loop d. None Ques 5.All trees are bipartite a. Always True b. Always False c. Not defined d. None Ques 6.The degree (or valency) of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges incident to the vertex, with loops counted. a. Once b. Twice c. Thrice d. Four times Ques 7.The complete graph with n graph vertices is denoted Kn and with undirected edges

a. n b. n (n-1)!

c. d. n (n +1)!

Ques 8 For any graph the minimum degree could be a. 3 b. 2 c. 1 d. 0 Ques 9. A trivalent graph is one that is regular of degree a. 3 b. 2 c. 1 d. 0 Ques 10.

a. b. c. d.

simple graph with four vertices non simple graph with four vertices simple graph with three vertices non simple graph with three vertices

Chapter-V Data Analysis
Contents: 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Data and Statistical data Frequency Distribution Graphical presentation of Frequency distribution Measure of Central tendency Measure of Dispersion

Data Analysis
5.1 Data and Statistical data: Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parametersStatistical methods can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data; this is called descriptive statistics. Data: A collection of values to be used for statistical analysis. A dictionary defines data as facts or figures from which conclusions may be drawn. Data may consist of numbers, words, or images, particularly as measurements or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as a lowest level of abstraction from which information and knowledge are derived. Thus, technically, it is a collective or plural noun. Datum is the singular form of the noun data. Data can be classified as either numeric or nonnumeric. Specific terms are used as follows: Types of Data I. I Qualitative data are nonnumeric. 1. {Poor, Fair, Good, Better, Best}, colors (ignoring any physical causes), and types of material {straw, sticks, bricks} are examples of qualitative data. 2. Qualitative data are often termed categorical data. Some books use the terms individual and variable to reference the objects and characteristics described by a set of data. They also stress the importance of exact definitions of these variables, including what units they are recorded in. The reason the data were collected is also important. II Quantitative data are numeric. Quantitative data are further classified as either discrete or continuous. Discrete data are numeric data that have a finite number of possible values.
o

A classic example of discrete data is a finite subset of the counting numbers, {1,2,3,4,5} perhaps corresponding to {Strongly Disagree... Strongly Agree}. When data represent counts, they are discrete. An example might be how many students were absent on a given day. Counts are usually considered exact and integer. Continuous data have infinite possibilities: 1.4, 1.41, 1.414, 1.4142, 1.141421... The real numbers are continuous with no gaps or interruptions. Physically measureable quantities of length, volume, time, mass, etc. are generally considered

continuous. At the physical level (microscopically), especially for mass, this may not be true, but for normal life situations is a valid assumption. Data analysis is a process of gathering, modeling, and transforming data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.

5.2 Frequency Distribution: The distribution of empirical data is called a frequency distribution and consists of a count of the number of occurrences of each value. If the data are continuous, then a grouped frequency distribution is used. Typically, a distribution is portrayed using a frequency polygon or a histogram. Mathematical distributions are often used to define distributions. The normal distribution is, perhaps, the best known example. Many empirical distributions are approximated well by mathematical distributions such as the normal distribution. Grouped Frequency Distribution A grouped frequency distribution is a frequency distribution in which frequencies are displayed for ranges of data rather than for individual values. For example, the distribution of heights might be calculated by defining one-inch ranges. The frequency of individuals with various heights rounded off to the nearest inch would be then be tabulated. 5.3 Graphical presentation of Frequency distribution: Histogram: A histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies. A histogram is the graphical version of a table that shows what proportion of cases fall into each of several or many specified categories.

Example of a histogram of 100 values Advantages Visually strong Can compare to normal curve Usually vertical axis is a frequency count of items falling into each category Disadvantages

Cannot read exact values because data is grouped into categories More difficult to compare two data sets Use only with continuous data Frequency Polygons: Frequency polygons are a graphical device for understanding the shapes of distributions. They serve the same purpose as histograms, but are especially helpful in comparing sets of data. Frequency polygons are also a good choice for displaying cumulative frequency distributions. To create a frequency polygon, start just as for histograms, by choosing a class interval. Then draw an X-axis representing the values of the scores in your data. Mark the middle of each class interval with a tick mark, and label it with the middle value represented by the class. Draw the Y-axis to indicate the frequency of each class. Place a point in the middle of each class interval at the height corresponding to its frequency. Finally, connect the points. You should include one class interval below the lowest value in your data and one above the highest value. The graph will then touch the X-axis on both sides.

Advantages Visually appealing Can compare to normal curve Can compare two data sets Disadvantages Anchors at both ends may imply zero as data points Use only with continuous data Frequency Curve: A smooth curve which corresponds to the limiting case of a histogram computed for a frequency distribution of a continuous distribution as the number of data points becomes very large.

Advantages Visually appealing Disadvantages Anchors at both ends may imply zero as data points Use only with continuous data

5.4 Measure of Central tendency: Central Tendency is the center or middle of a distribution. There are many measures of central tendency. The most common are the mean, median and mode. The center of a distribution could be defined three ways: 1. the point on which a distribution would balance, 2. the value whose average absolute deviation from all the other values is minimized, and 3. the value whose squared difference from all the other values is minimized. From the simulation in this chapter, you discovered (we hope) that the mean is the point on which a distribution would balance, the median is the value that minimizes the sum of absolute deviations, and the mean is the value that minimizes the sum of the squared values. Arithmetic Mean: The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency. For a data set, the mean is the sum of the observations divided by the number of observations. Basically, the mean describes the central location of the data. For a given set of data, where the observations are x1, x2,….,xi ; the Arithmetic Mean is defined as :

The weighted arithmetic mean is used, if one wants to combine average values from samples of the same population with different sample sizes:

Example 1:

Observations Weights Find the mean. Observations 12 15 20 22 30 Total

12 2

15 5

20 7

22 6

30 1

Weights 2 5 7 6 1 21

xiwi 24 75 140 132 30 404 Mean =401/21 =19.10

Mean Advantages can be specified using and equation, and therefore can be manipulated algebraically is the most sufficient of the three estimators is the most efficient of the three estimators is unbiased Disadvantages is very sensitive to extreme scores (i.e., low resistance) value is unlikely to be one of the actual data points requires an interval scale anything else about the distribution that we’d want to convey to someone if we were describing it to them? Median: The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle one. If there is an even number of observations, the median is not unique, so one often takes the mean of the two middle values. For Odd number of observations: Median = (n+1)/2 th observations. For Even number of observations: Median = Average of (n/2) th and (n/2 + 1) th observations. Here are the sample test scores you have seen so often: 100, 100, 99, 98, 92, 91, 91, 90, 88, 87, 87, 85, 85, 85, 80, 79, 76, 72, 67, 66, 45

The "middle" score of this group could easily be seen as 87. Why? Exactly half of the scores lie above 87 and half lie below it. Thus, 87 is in the middle of this set of scores. This score is known as the median. In this example, there are 21 scores. The eleventh score in the ordered set is the median score (87), because ten scores are on either side of it. If there were an even number of scores, say 20, the median would fall halfway between the tenth and eleventh scores in the ordered set. We would find it by adding the two scores (the tenth and eleventh scores) together and dividing by two. Median Advantages is unbiased is unaffected by extreme scores (i.e., high resistance) doesn’t require the use of an interval scale, as long as you can order the scores along some continuum then you can find the median Disadvantage can not be specified using an equation so can’t be manipulated algebraically is the least sufficient of the three estimators is less efficient than the mean

Mode: The mode is the most frequently occurring value. It is the most common value in a distribution: The mode of 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 8 is 5. Note that the mode may be very different from the mean and the median. With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals, the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same. Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution. The grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600-700, the mode is the middle of that interval (650).

Range Frequency 500-600 3 600-700 6 700-800 5 800-900 5 900-1000 0 1000-1100 1 Table 3: Grouped frequency distribution

Mode Advantages represents a number that actually occurred in the data represents the largest number of scores, and so the probability of getting that score is greater then the probability of getting any of the other scores if an observation is just chosen at random is unaffected by extreme scores (i.e., high resistance) is unbiased doesn’t require an interval scale Disadvantages the mode depends on how we group the data can not be specified using an equation so can’t be manipulated algebraically is less sufficient than the mean is less efficient than the mean

5.5 Measure of Dispersion: Measures of Dispersion provide us with a summary of how much the points in our data set vary, e.g. how spread out they are or how volatile they are. In measuring dispersion, it is necessary to know the amount of variation and the degree of variation. The former is designated as absolute measures if dispersion and expressed in the denomination of original variants while the latter is designated as related measures of dispersion. Absolute measures can be divided into positional measures based on some items of the series such as (I) Range, (ii) Quartile deviation or semi – interquartile range and those which are based on all items in series such as (I) Mean deviation, (ii) Standard deviation. The relative measures in each of the above cases are called the coefficients of the respective measures. For purposes of comparison between two or more series with varying size or number of items, varying central values or units of calculation, only relatives measures can be used. The following are the important methods of studying variation : 1. 2. 3. 4. Range Mean deviation Standard deviation and Variance (which is closely related to standard deviation) The Coefficient of Variation

Range :Range is the simplest of the summary measures of variation .It is also the crudest and most prone to error .It is computed as the difference between the largest and the smallest value in a data set: Range = H- L

Absolute range H-L Relative range; Coefficient of range = ——————————— = ——— Sum of the two extremes H+L For example, for the data set {2, 2, 3, 4, 14} Range = 14-2=12 Coefficient of range = 14 – 2 12 ———— = —— = 0.75 14 + 2 16

Example : You are given the following data:

Compute the sample range Solution : H = 11, L = 3 range = H - L = 11 - 3 = 8

MeanDeviation: Mean Deviation can be calculated from any value of Central Tendency, viz. Mean, Median, Mode. Accordingly, Mean Deviation can be of the following types: Mean Deviation about Mean Mean Deviation about Median Mean Deviation about Mode

Mean Deviation about Mean =

Properties of Mean Deviation about Mean :The average absolute deviation from the mean is less than or equal to the Standard Deviation. The mean deviation of any data set from its mean is always zero. The mean absolute deviation is the average absolute deviation from the mean and is a common measure of Forecast Error or Time Series Analysis. For example, for the data set {2, 2, 3, 4, 14}:

Measure of central tendency Mean = 5

Absolute deviation

Variance and standard deviation: Variance and standard deviation are the most common of all of the measures of variation Variance is a measure of statistical dispersion, indicating how its possible values are spread around the mean. Thus, variance indicates the variability of the values. A smaller value implies a smaller variation from the mean

The positive square root of Variance is called the Standard Deviation.

Let us consider an example: Values 4 6 5 5 Total =20 , mean=5 Variance = ¼ .2 =1/2 S.D = The Coefficient of Variation:

Xi - Mean(x) -1 1 0 0

[Xi - Mean(x)]2 1 1 0 0 2

The Coefficient of Variance is a measure of variation expressed as a percentage the sample mean:

Chapter-V Data Analysis
End Chapter quizzes :
Ques 1. Singular a. Datum b. Stratum c. Date d. Data

form of the data is

Ques 2.

a. b. c. d.

Graphical presentation of Frequency distribution can be done by Histogram Frequency polygons Frequency Curve All the three

Ques 3.

a. b. c. d.

Which one is unaffected by extreme scores Mean Median Mode Range Measures of Dispersion

Ques 4.Which one is not the a. Range

b. Mean deviation c. Histogram d. Standard deviation

Ques 5.Chaya took 7 math tests in one marking period. What is the range of her test scores? 89, 73, 84, 91, 87, 77, 94 a. b. c. d.
25 21 13 15

Ques 6.In

a crash test, 11 cars were tested to determine what impact speed was required to obtain minimal bumper damage. Find the mode of the speeds given in miles per hour below. 24, 15, 18, 20, 18, 22, 20, 26, 18, 26, 24 a. 18

b. 20 c. 18.6 d. 15

Ques 7. A survey conducted by an automobile company showed the number of cars per household
and the corresponding probabilities. Find the standard deviation. Number of cars X Probability P(X) a. 4.24 b.0.63 c. 0.79 d.1.9 1 2 3 4

0.32 0.51 0.12 0.05

Ques 8.

The given data shows the number of burgers sold at a bakery in the last 14 weeks. 17, 13, 18, 17, 13, 16, 18, 19, 17, 13, 16, 18, 20, 19 Find the median number of burgers sold. a. 18.5 b. 17 c. 18 d. 17.5 a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. Discrete data Continuous data Both none Mean Median Mode None

Ques 9.Histograms can be constructed for

Ques 10.Which is called positional average

Key to End Chapter Quizzes.
Chapter-I SET THEORY Key 1. c 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. a 6. b 7. a 8. d 9. a 10. a 1 (b); 2(d); ……………………………………………10(c) Chapter-II MATHEMATICAL LOGIC
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. b and c c a d a b a c c a

Chapter-III MODERN ALGEBRA Key 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. a 5. c 6. c 7. b 8. d 9. d 10. b

Chapter-IV Graph Theory Key 1. c 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. a 6. b 7. c 8. d 9. a 10. b Chapter-V Data Analysis Key 1. a 2. d 3. b 4. c 5. b 6. a 7. c 8. b 9. b 10. b

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful