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JIERD;HH IIO MATEMATHRE
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LITTLE MATHEMATICS LIBRARY P. Korovkin INEQUALITIES Translated from the Russian by Sergei Vruhel MIR PUBLISHERS MOSCOW . P.
First Published 1975 Ha aHeAUUCKOM !l3blKe @ M3l{aTeJIbCTBO «HaYRa». 1974 [975 @ English translation. Mir Publishers. .
. .4. .3. . .CONTENTS Preface 6 Chapter 1.3. . Mean Power of Numbers 7 7 12 19 23 27 Chapter 2.1. 2. 1.5. . The Holder Inequality . 2.1. Uses of Inequalities 2. . Bernoulli Inequality . . The Use of Inequalities for Calculation of Limits The Use of Inequalities for Approximate Calculation Quantities 32 32 40 43 of 49 Solutions to Exercises . Inequalities Whole Part of a Number Arithmetic Mean and the Geometric Mean Number . 1. . . . . .2. . . . 1. • •• 58 5 . 1. . . The The The The The 1. . 2.4. • . . . The Greatest and the Least Function Values . .2.
composing thus its main subject. the author has used only the properties of inequalities and limits actually covered by the curriculum on mathematics in the secondary school. one should not be disappointed if the obtained results differ from those of the patterns. For this reason we strongly recommend the readers to perform their own solutions before referring to the solutions given by the author at the end of the book. However. K orookin.4 as exercises for individual training. 35 of which are provided with detailed solutions. 6 . At the end of the book the reader will find the solutions to the' given exercises. 2. and 28 others are given in Sections 1.PREFACE In the mathematics course of secondary schools students get acquainted with the properties of inequalities and methods of their solution in elementary cases (inequalities of the first and the second degree). 2. The solution of some difficult problems carried out individually will undoubtedly do the reader more good than the solution of a large number of simple ones.1 and 2. The author considers it as a positive factor. The book contains 63 problems. When proving the inequalities and solving the given problems.1.3. P. In this booklet the author did not pursue the aim of presenting the basic properties of inequalities and made an attempt only to familiarize students of senior classes with some particularly remarkable inequalities playing an important role in various sections of higher mathematics and with their use for finding the greatest and the least values of quantities and for calculating some limits.
+ When solving practical problems.. and I'1x is an error of its measurement.e. Moreover. [x] is the integer (whole number) defined by the inequalities [ x]) + [xl~x <~Jx] +' 1. since the integral part does not exceed x. but only approximately. 7 . 1. the distance to the Moon. in accordance with the technical progress and the degree of complexity of the problem. It follows from this definition that [z] ~ x. Thus.g. landing spaceships on the Venus and so on). Considerable errors of measurement become inadmissible in solving complicated engineering problems (i.CHAPTER 1 Inequalities The important role of inequalities is determined by their application in different fields of natural science and engineering. then the real value y satisfies the inequalities xI I'1x 1~ y ~ x 1 I'1x I. its speed of rotation. it becomes necessary to improve the technique of measurement of quantities. On the other hand.) may be found not exactly. The Whole Part of a Number The whole (or integral) part of the number x (denoted by is understood to be the greatest integer not exceeding x. etc. The point is that the values of quantities defined from various practical problems (e. If x is the found value of a quantity. landing the mooncar in a specified region of the Moon. since [xl is the greatest integer. it is necessary to take into account all the errors of the measurements.1. satisfying the latter inequality. then [xl 1 > x.
The ability to find the integral part of a quantity is an important factor in approximate calculations. Furthermore. from the inequalities 3<31<4.[z ] = 1. since o:s. [xl + 1 [x 1 = 1. Problem 1. With large N the error will be small. If we have the skill to find an integral part of a quantity x. The integral part of a number is found in the following problems. then taking [xl or [xl 1 for an approximate value of the quantity x../ [Nx] +_1 N ~x~ N N• Thus. we shall make an error whose quantity is not greater than 1.1:= 1 + V2 + Va + V4 + V5 . Find the integral part of the number . Yet. it is important to note. 2<V"2<1. [Nx]. + o < [xl + + 1 .J=5. since + } [Nxl<Nx<[Nxl then + 1. [V2]=2. x . the number r [Nx] + 1 2N differs from the number x not more than by 2~. 5=5<6 it follows that [31]=3.For example. Indeed. that the ability to find the whole part of a number will permit to define this number and. [5]=5. ty permits the knowledge of the integral part of a quantito find its value with an accuracy up to } The quantity [xl may be taken for this value.x:S.[xl < [xl 1 .. [1. 111 1 8 . 5< ~ <6. with any degree of accuracy./ .
7 + 0. 0.+ V1000000 1 Solution.Solution. Find the integral part of the number + 0. since ~n <2Vn 2Vn1. Let us use the following inequalitres 1~ 1<1. 3.6.:: (1) 2Vn+12Vn .. Combining them we get 1 that is.=vn 2Vn+12Vn< Indeed. y=1+ V2 1 + vs + V4 1 1 + .. 0.5. To solve this problem.1 in excess or deficiency). 0.10 1 v2 + .1 < x < 3. +::. let us investigate the sum 1+ and prove that .5 + 0. In this relation.5. there were only 5 addends.5 + 0.15.25 differs from x not more than by 0.8 + 0.5<vi <0... Problem 2.5 (which are obtained by extracting roots (evolution) with an' accuracy to 0.6 + 0.Vii) (Vn:tI+ Vn+t+ lfri e . 000 addends).r v3 1 + .4. while in the second. = 2 eVii+1.r v4 1 1 + .7<V~ <0.8.t.4 < x < < 1 + 0. This circumstance makes it practically impossible to get the solution by the former method. hence. Vn+1+ lfri lfri) = 2 ::::::::. 1000.5<V! <0.4<V! <0. it is necessary to note that the number 3. 0. This problem differs from the previous one only by the number of addends (in the first.5 + 0. [xl = 3.
1 + Vii < 2. Yn+12 Y2+1 < 1 1 <1+ . we 1 to all parts of the obtained inequalities. 1 1 it follows from the 2 ~/V n2< 1+ V2 + V3 +.r vn 1 <2 ~/V n1. it follows that 2Yn+12 Vn <_2_=_1_. 2 () Since 2 < 3. 2Vn Vn Thereby proof has been made for the first part of the inequality (1).. 4. . its second part is proved in a similar way. n.rn:1. V 1 (3) . Y4. and inequalities (2) that Y2 V n + 1 > yri.r v4 1 + . Assuming in the inequalities (1) n = 2. . we get 2y32Y2< 2Y42Y3< 2V52 0 <2y32Y2.. I T . . < Y42y3. we get «r: V 2yn+12Y2< < 112 Adding find 2 1 + lis + 114 +"'+1/n 1 1 1 <2 n2. ~... Vn Vn2Y n1.114 + .3 + 2 v 1 ...'" +/.and yn+1> Vii. 2 V n+ 12 Vn < Adding these inequalities.~_<2 v4 <2 0 <2Y22.
..5.4.v~ + ' .6 differs from y not more than by 0.vr2 + . Thus. 3 4 5 6 < xy='2''3'"4'5"'!f''"1'" x< 1 2 99 100' 100 101 = 1 101 • Finding the square root of both members of the inequalities yields 1 VTIIT <0.02%.Vi) + .. Prove the inequality x='2'"4''6'" Suppose 1 3 5 99 100 < 10' 1 Solution.4 % = = 0.+:. Since '2 < '3' "4 < 5"' '6 < '"1' "" it follows that x<y x 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 99 100 < 100 101 ' and. and the number 1998..4 V1000000 < (3) n = 1 000000.1. if ./ 1 r < 2 V i 000000 1. we have calculated the number y with an accuracy up to 19~~.v3 + . consequently. Problem 3. Now let us examine the next problem of somewhat different pattern. taking in the inequalities t t < 1 + .:.Using the inequalities gral part of the number Y=1 2 t (3) we can easily find the inte1 1 + . Hence.+ .5 differs not more than by 0. we get Thus.:. v1000000 /"ii 2 Vi 000000 2 or 1998 <y< 1999. From the inequalities (2) it follows that the number 1998.~~ /<i3 17.v2 + . [yJ = 1998. The numbers 1998 and 1999 differ from the number y not more than by unity.
respectively. often used in solving problems.000.. Cauchy has established for these numbers the inequality s «.+xn a = ='=:.000 using the method of 1 Answer.. n XtX2'" Xn g=.. X2. 2..'::.Vn2 m1. Find [50z] .000 < < 1. then the numbers formed with them x1+x2+" . . Prove the following mathematical induction 2'4' 6'" 5.. Prove the inequalities 1800< .001 1 +.... the French mathematician O. 1 :::: V3n+1 99 2'4'6'" 1.000 + 1 1110.000. inequality 2n1 2n 5 4. 3.800. ••• . 1 1110. Prove the inequality 1 3 1 3 5 «. + 111. Xn are positive numbers.000.2. ••• ... + VB <2 V. + 111.. Before proving the inequality we have to establish the validity of an auxiliary assertion . The Arithmetic 100 <1"2' Mean 1 Mean and the Geometric If Xl' X2. m+1 1 .02. Prove the inequalities 11 m«...r Vm + Vm+1 + .Y are called. = 90.000 [50z] + 1 1110. where Z= 1 1110. Xn. At the beginning of the last century. 12 a. the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean of the numbers Xl.Exercises 2 VVn+12 1.001 + ..
Moscow. that XIX2 = 1.X2. First of all check up the validity of the theorem for n = 2. since Xl < 1 < X2. Xn is equal to 1. ••• . taking into account. then the sum of these numbers is not less than n: XlX2. we get Xl + X2 = 2 Xl) (X2  1). since  their product is equal to 1. that is. examine the two given cases separately: (1) In this case (2) Here Xl < 1. Xn = 1 =} Xl + x2 + . + X2 = 2. assume that the theorem is true for n = k. Nauka. Notice.e. 0 < 1) Xl < X2• > 1. At length. Thus. Sominsky "The Method of Mathemati cal Induction". 13 . then the last number is positive and Xl X2 > 2. Use the method of mathematical induction'. show that XIX2 = 1 =} Xl +x 2 ~ 2.. Theorem 1. S. 1974. that the equation + Xl = 2 Xl is realized only when Xl = But if =1= X2. (4) + X2 = XlX2 + 1 + (1 + (1 + X2 X2• X2 Xl) (X2  The equation (4) has been established without limitations to the numbers Xl and X2• Yet. sup1 More detailed information concerning mathematical induction is published in the book by 1.tl. and X2 From the equation (1 it follows that Xl Xl) (X2 Xl Xl = X2 = 1. 1/ the product n 0/ the positive numbers . Now. making use of the method of mathematical induction. then Xl + > 2. for n = 2 the theorem is already proved. ••• . Solving the question. and the theorem is proved. Proof. = X2 + Xl  XlX2  1 1).. + xn ~ n. i.
then (according to the assumption) their sum is not less than k. i. xl<. X3> 0. then their product as well would be less than unity). > 0. ~ If. + Xl< + Xh+l = = (YI+ x + xa + .Xh+lI there may be both numbers greater than unity and numbers less than unity (if all the multipliers were less than unity. First of all.. . Since here the product k of positive numbers is equal to uni ty.. occurs.e. XIX2 In the second case. it is necessary to notice that if XIX2X3 Xh. and prove the theorem for 0. For example. X2 > 0. for Xh. 14 .Xl<+1 = 1. + x + xa + ... Assuming YI = xlxh. ••• Xl> Xh+l > 0.+ 11 we get ••• Xl< YlX2Xa = 1. ~ k + 1.... their sum equals k 1. + Xh+l ••• Xh... + Xh.Xh+1 XIXZX3 = 1. suppose Xl < 1. + XI!. ••• Xl!.pose the inequality Xl + Xz + X3 + .. XIX2X3 = 1. .. that is Xl +X 2 + + Xa + . and Xh+l> 1. + Xl< + Xh+l and =k + 1.. + xl< ~ 2 k.XIXh+l) X2Xa ••• Xl< = 1.. ••• .. In the first case every multiplier is equal to unity. that is (2) when not all multipliers XII X2. Xa. We have (. that is But Xl YI 2 + x + xa + . Xh+l then there may be two cases: (1) when all the multipliers equal. if n=k if + 1. are are equal. prove that Xl + X2 + X3 + . + Xl<) + Xh+l ~ k + Xh+l YI + Xl = (k+1)+Xh+1 2  YI YI + Xl ~ + Xl  1. among the multipliers of the product ••• Xh.
1 .::!!. ~ 1) (1 X3... Xi then the inequality follows from Theorem equality holds only when . Problem 3. X2 X3 Xni Xn ·. ••• .. Prove that log a + loga for a> 1 10 ~ 2. X2... namely. and and. Prove... Prove the inequality x2+2 ~ 2 We have Solution. then their sum is not less than 2. _::g_ . hence.Xn  Xn_1 Xi  .. + »« + Xk+l ~ (k + 1) + (Xk+l is proved._~_ X2 X3 X2 ••• 1. 0 + X + X3 + .Remembering Xl + X2 + X3 + . The sign of equality holds only for X = o.. = Xn 2. the sign of 2=!.XIXHI + Xl = (k + 1) + (XHI XHI that YI = X1xHI we get 1  1) (1 Xl) Xl).. Xl 2 > 1... Xl... Xl) >k + Thus the theorem Problem 1..=!. 15 . then (XHI  1) (1  > 1... Since Xl < 1. that if numbers then Xn are positive the equality Solution. being valid only when Xi=X2=X3= ••• =Xn· Since . Problem when Xl = = X3 = ... Vx2+1 :?' • x2+2 x2+1 V':x=2+=1 = Vx2+1 +~ 1 = Vx2+1+ 1 Since the product of addends in the righthand member of the equality equals unity.=!.. + Xh + XHI ~ ~ (k + 1) + XHI .
Xn are not all equal. . we get a= 16 by g and Xt+x2+.. From the equality g =.. 10. x2 X2 = 1. Divide by X2 the numerator and denominator of the lefthand member of the inequality: Since _1_.. Multiplying both members of the last inequality dividing by n.Y XjX2 ••• Xn it follows that 1 "V. If the numbers Xl.·. The geometric mean of positive numbers is not greater than the arithmetic mean of the same numbers...:!.+~+ g g .. . 1  Since the product n of the positive numbers equals then (Theorem 1) their sum is not less than n. then Now let us prove the statement made at the beginning of the section. ~ g or .• +~~ g ?"n.. ~ g .Solution. oga Problem 4.:2.1og a log a = 1. g .. n +xn ' ::?"g. Prove the inequality x2 1+x4 <"2' 1 Solution.=!. then the geometric mean of these numbers is less than their arithmetic mean. Proof.10 = log a + 1>2. Theorem 2.. that is 1. then 1 + log. Since log. .. g X2 g .. X 3' ••. g _2.
Prove inequality n! < ( nt i r. Using Theorem 2._ g =~ = g But if the is Xl=x2=". an of the = n is the arithmetic I1l1mber mean of the numbers aI' a2.:l. ••• . n «. < . the \ ! I 20866 17 ..>2. we get the inequality (5). that is. 2 n f. n'. Particularly. . we get V'n!=. Problem 6..'~xn=g. + aa 1. ••• . The number _ ( a1 Ca rx.  1 n 2n Raising to the nth power both parts of the last inequality.. ••• .. =2=1. g that Xb X2. Solution..3 (n+1)n .2.7 3 . when the parallelepiped t he is a cube. numbers .. . an. Suppose m = a b edges and V = a be is the volume Since then V =b + +c is the sum of the of the parallelepiped. the number ada21··· +an Cl a2.'y1. (5) Solution.. Problem 5.. order ex. holds only when .. then a >g. 2n+1 1+2+3: . Definition. From all parallelepipeds with the given sum of the three mutually perpendicular edges. The 3/VV = 3/V abc < a+b+c 3 = 3" ' holds only when a= m sign of equality = c = '. that the equality .Notice. Xn are not equal.an a )a  1 is termed the mean power of numbers al. find the parallelepiped having the greatest volume.
an +at a2 ••• ... + an) (_1_+_1 at ••• ... the second is proved in a similar way. then (at + a2+ . Prove that if all a2.then ° an. Prove that if aI' a2... +a~ • _1_ Raising both parts of the last inequality taking into consideration.1)1 _. an are positive (6) c~:::. g=... an . in particular.. From the fact.) at a2 . Problem 7. an +at a2 +an) 1 1 n It follows from this inequality n2«at+a2+'" 18 ( that 1 1 1 ++ .Y n to a power j that _!_ a < n a and 0. an +an Ct· Solution. numbers.. that is... a2. . . we get ata2'" an > ( a~+a~+ .... ~. the mean power with a negative exponent does not exceed the geometric mean. that the harmonic mean C 1 does not exceed the arithmetic mean CI• Problem 8. numbers and a < < ~. and the number C_t _ (ai1+az1+ . e «. Solution. +a~ )a =Ca· So the first part of the inequality (6) is proved. +_1 ) >n2. that the geometric mean of positive numbers does not exceed the arithmetic mean.From the inequality (6) it follows.. a~< a~+a~+ n .. an are positive a2 + . and the mean power with a positive exponent is not less than the geometric mean. Since _ C_t  Ct<g<Ct. ctl..... +a. n  ++ .. +. then /' 1~ at+a2+'" n ++ .. 1 1 n 1 is called the harmonic mean of the numbers aI.is named the rootmeansquare. we have n/V a~a~ •..
From the inequality (7) it follows. Solution.*ty get the inequality (7). Solution. b. 12 Problem 2. Prove that with the increase of the number the quantities Xn = ( 1 + rand ! Zn = (1  !r 2* 19 . n by 12. Multiplying both members of this inequ. that 2ala2 4ala2aga4 we shall <: a~ + a. Since the geometric mean does not exceed the arithmetic mean. n an <: a~+a2+'" +a~ . Prove the inequality na1a2 ••• an ~ a~ + alI + .... Prove that for any positive numbers a. + a~. the doubled product of two positive numbers does not exceed the sum of their squares. an > 0.. (a Problem 1. We shall come to its determination after carrying out the solution of a number of problems in which only Theorem 2 is used.Problem 9. 3ala2a3 <: a~ + a~ + a~. . =1= b) the inequality n+y abn < a+ nb n+1 is true. . then ala2'" an=y n/ nn a1a2 . <: a~ + a~ + a! + a!.. a2 > 0.3. The Number e The number e plays an important role in mathematics.. We have = n a+nb n+1 ' and that suits the requirement. 1.. the trebled product of three numbers does not exceed the sum of their cubes and so on. (7) where a1 > 0. that is.
b = 1 _1_ ' we get n + of the previous prob 1·( 1 + n ~< 1 1 + n ( 1+ n +1 +) that n = n +2 1 + 1 ==1 + n + 1 .increase. Yn _ 3... + ~ < (1 r +n~1 r+ 1 . Raising both parts of the inequality we shall obtain (1 to the (n is xn + 1)th power.= < Xn+i 1. that is Yn>Yn+l=1+n 1 1) n+2 • Yn  _ (1 + _1) n+ n Solution.> Yn > .e. In Problems 2 and 3 we have proved that Xi = ( with 1 + +) 1 = 2 < X2 = ( 1 + ~)2 = <xn< . Since Zn increases the increase of the number n.:(==n~~") n+::l n+1 1 1 ( 1__ 1_)n+l n+1 zn+l (see designations of Problem 2).. 4 > Yz = = (1 20 =2. then Yn decreases. Xn i. = ( 1 + ~)2 =. Prove that _ (1 + _1 )"+1 n + ( decreases with the increase of the number n. u. (1 + n+1 )n+l ' Zn <Zn+1 = (1 n~ ( ) rt} 1 • n+v Solution.. < Xn+1' The second inequality Problem is proved in a similar way.375 + ~) 3 > v« > .. .. We have 1_  ( n + 1 ) n+1 _ 1 n . .25<X3<"· = 3. Setting in the inequality lem a = 1 . ~..
It is known. if the number n is high. lim Yn = lim ( 1 + Yn also !) n+ 1 =c lim ( 1 + !) ( 1 + !) n = =. then Xn is (8) + +r< It is not difficult to check that e < 3. Thus. Indeed. the variable Xn satisfies two conditions: (1) Xn monotonically increases together with the increase of the number n. that is Xn = (1 its limit. 21 . . Now.e·1=e. It is common knowledge that the numbers e and Jt are irrational.=(1tHence. It is used.eo lim Xn = lim ( 1 'ns oc + 1f n e. (2) Xn is a limited quantity. As the quantity xn increases reaching smaller than its limit. e ~ lim Xn ~ 2. the number e together with the number Jt of great significance. as the base logarithms. 2=XI<Xn= (1 ++)n < (1 ++ )n+l =Yn<YI=4.On the other hand... Indeed. Each of them is calculated with an accuracy of up to 808 signs after the decimal point.7182818285490 . there exists a limit of the variable quantity Xn. The logarithm the number N at the base e is symbolically denoted by N (reads: logarithm natural N). that is. ~)6=2. and is of of In e = 2. This limit is marked by the letter e. 2 < Xn < 4. then Xn<Yn<Y5. that monotonically increasing and restricted variable has a limit. for instance. In mathematics. Hence. e = ne.985984. let us show that the limit of the variable equals e. known as natural logarithms..985984 rtsco < 3.
> + (n)n ""3 . + 1. (1+*r < e. The inequality is easily checked for n = 1. We shall prove the inequality (10) using the method of mathematical induction. 'n e (Pro(9) n+ 1 »:». Prove the inequality (10) Solution. Problem 4. Thus the inequality (9) is proved to be true for all values of n.Since Yn diminishes blem 2). we get 300! > ( 3~O ) = 100300• 22 . then coming close to the number 1 ( 1 +. Actually. according to the inequality (k+1)!> (k~1 )k+1 r+ (8) (1 + 1 : = (k~1 r+ +r 1 . that is Multiplying we get both members of the last inequality k~1 by k (k+1)k!=(k+1)!>(:r(k+1)=( Since. 300! Indeed. it follows from the inequality (9) that I n. Assume. then that is the inequality (9) is proved for n = k 1.) . it is easy to prove that 300 • By means of the last inequality. setting > 100 300 in it n = 300. Since e < 3. that the inequality (10) is true for n = k.
bearing (12) in (11) and (12) holds only when x = 0. «1+x)+(1+x)+ ...= O. number. +1 = The sign of equality occurs only when all multipliers standing under the root sign are identical. Thus.m ' .m < n. when 1 x = 1.4.. we have proved the first part of the theorem considering the case.e.. a < 1.. Suppose that a is a rational mind that < a < 1. 1.Y(1+x)m..:: 1 and 0< if a < ° (1 +x)ct :::. in Proof. x .. The Bernoulli Inequality In this section. +(1+x)+1+1+ n .:: 0. 1 ° +x . (1+x).1.1 + ax. Since according to the condition.. But if x =1= 0.... where m and n are n positive integers. 23 . when a is a rational number. Theorem 3.. making use of Theorem 2 we shall prove the Bernoulli inequality which is of individual interest and is often used in solving problems.:: 1 + ax..1 ~ . then (1 The sign of equaliiu + x)ct . 1 :::.<e ( n+ 1 )n+l e is proved completely the same way as it is done with the inequality of Problem 4. nm 1:::.1n m= =.. then + (1 +: x)ct < 1 + ax. then m (1+x)ct=(1+xfn =. then (11) or a> 1. Let a = !:!:. i..Y(1+x)(1+x). However It x .The inequality I n.
that a is an irrational number. 3. it follows that (1 + x)a = lim (1 + x(n< rnCX r lim (1 /. From the inequalities ° (1 + xrn<1 + rnx.Assume now. move on to proving the second part of the theorem. Bear in mind that < < r. having for a limit the number a. be the sequence of rational numbers. since its left part is not negative. n = 1. Thus the first part of the theorem is proved completely. then as it has already been proved Hence. is already proved by us for the case when the exponent a rational number. For this reason.. r2.. Now. Obviously. a 1. Su ppose a > 1. If 1 + ax ~ 0. x ~ 1.. that is 1£ x =1= 0. .. and its right part is negative. we have Since ° < __::_ < r (1 + x)a = [(1 + xfry. < 1. 0 < a < 1. r r <1 + ax. (t + x)a< (1 + ~ x (1 +x)a r.. If 1 ax < 0. ax ~ 1.a Thus the inequality (11) is proved for irrational values of a as well. ••• . n . . then the inequality (12) is obvious.. then by virtue of the first part of the theorem proved above we have + (1 + ax)a <1 24 ~ 1 +.ax= ex 1 +x. that when x =1= 0 in (11).rnx) = 1 + ax. ° i.e. then let us consider both cases separately. 2.!!_x~c1+ax. . then (1+~x)r<1+r. the sign of equality does not hold. r n . What we still have to prove is that for irrational values of a when x =1= and 0 < a < 1 (1 + x)a < 1 + ax. take a rational number r such t hat a < r < 1. Let r1..
from these inequa25 . a < O. the theorem is proved completely.? 0. 1 then accord ing to the (1 _ Multiplying ! a~ 1 .::. Problem 1. (n+ 1)a+l_na+l a+1 O.? 1.. By virtue of the first part of the theorem we get . then select the 0. Since 0 < a inequality (11) we have (1 + +r+ < + 1 + 1 < 1. If 1 + ax < ax ~ (1 + ax . + 1)a+l < na+ + (a+ < na+l (13) easily follow The inequalities lities. Prove.r ::pi + ~X n ( the latter 'inequality is true. a~1 .. But if 1 positive + .< n 1 would a (1+x)n::p 1a 1.Here the sign of equality holds only when x = O.(a+ 1) na. x)n::p1 + n' that if 0> n"::" n X= 1 + ax. then (13) < w «: na+1_(n_1)a+l a+1 Solution. Raising both parts of the latter inequality to the nth power we get (1 + xt::P(1 +.::. = Notice. Raising both parts of the last inequality to the power a we get 1 + Now let us suppose quality' (12) is obvious.1')a. then the ine integer n. that the equality is possible only when x Thus. a> 1. since 1. .~:X2) . )a+l < 1 1 these inequalities (n (n _1)a+l by ncx+1. so that the inequality  be valid. we obtain 1) na...
Find the integral part of the number X= Vii + 111 V5 + VB + .000. a = 3' 1. .0003. n.0013 T' 3 4 <x<T·1" 000 0003T"3 33 3 Since 2. Adding these inequalities we shall get the inequality (14). then ~ V9> ~ VS=3.000...000= 15. (n+1ja+1_ma+1 ct+1 then < Setting in the ma <ma+(m+1)C(+ .000.. . = Setting 2 in the 2 inequality (14) m = 4.1. n = 2 2 1.000.996.. we get (m+1j1+a_m1+a 1+ct (m+2j1+a_(m+1j1+a 1+ct (m+3j1+a_(m+2j1+a 1+ct (n+1j1+a_n1+a 1+ct na+1 ~+~ (m '1ja+1 (14) Solution. +na< m+1.0013_43 2 we get <x< 2 1.000.Problem 2. +1 V1. Prove.000. it follows that [xl = 14.. inequalities m1+a_(m_1j1+a (13) n = m. 15..000 Solution.997.996<x< 14.0003 2 =T·10. 1 Problem 3. < < C( «m1) < 1+ct (m+1)1+a_m1+a 1+ct (m+2)1+a_(m+1)1+a 1+ct ' ' ' < (m+2) < <n a a < n1+a_(n_1j1+a 1+ct . that if 0>a>1. ~V 16=V54<4.0 00.1.0004< x< 15.000.0013 3  2 3 >2.0003 _33 2 that is 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 T·1. From these inequalities 26 that is 14. .000.
ex< ~.2 before Problem 7 we have already named the number the mean power of order ex of the positive numbers aI. Assume. 1. we get Now. an' In the same problem. Theorem 4. should be proved the validity of the inequality ca ~ c(3 any time when ex< ~. The Mean Power of Numbers In Sec..hen Ca t . a2.. when the numbers ex and ~ have different signs the theorem has been proved above (refer to Problem 7. we have to prove the theorem only for the case when ex and ~ have the same signs. that 0 < ex< ~. the mean power of order ex is monotonically increasing together with ex. .2 and the definition prior to it). c/3' and = c/3' only when al = a2 = . that Ca ~ c(3' if ex< 0 < ~. For the case. Thus.5. ••• . it has been proved.and let Dividing C(3 by k. ~ ••• Ca . .In other words. 1. Sec.1. an are positive numbers and Proof. = an' It au a2. supposing we obtain (15) 27 . Here.
= (1 +xn) Adding d1 +d2 these inequalities. On the basis of Theorem 3 (notice... _ 1 .Since ( dt + d2 ~ . + ..)a)a k k n . t . J ~ we get a !! !::.....•• + dn ) a = 1 ((~)a k + (~)a.:>n+(X1+X2+ ~ 1 . C(3::. _then d1+d2 _ 1 (a1 a+ aa+ 2 ••.1. (16) From the inequalities (15) and (16) it follows that C: 28 ::.an k n a ) a _ 1 ca.·+dn n Suppose dl = 1 +XI.!:!!:. From the equality d2 = 1 +X2. dn = 1 +xn. = .:>( : ) ~ = 1. __ _c 1 k a C a + .:>1 +aXn..:>k Ca. that !> 1) we have 1 ! a. +Xn)=n... +dn (*) !::. = +d + Xl +X2 + dl 2 + dn Ixn = n it follows that o. ••• . + . + (.
In this case d. 1. we shall assume g = co. that i. while the arithmetic mean does not exceed the rootmeansquare of positive numbers. But if the numbers aI' a2.: g = Co.. the harmonic mean does not exceed the geometric mean.:1 n 1. = an = = k. since (see Problem 7. Further on we shall name the geometric mean by mean power of the order zero. if 29 .. Theorem 4 is proved completely.. if a < 0. If a < ~< Thus Theorem 4 is proved regarding the case when 0. a1 = a2 = .. From the proved theorem it follows. 1. _i df +d~ + . hence.= d2 = = dn = 1 and. But. then <1. if ~ > 0. and cfl ). that Theorem 4 is applicable in this case as well. Notice. an are not identical. Reasoning the same way a as before.I t is necessary to note that C fl = k = Ca. that is when Xl = x2 = = xn = 0 (Theorem 3). Sec. since ~ < 0.. we get in (*) and (16) the opposite signs of inequalities. . then from the inequality ° °< <.t it follows that that is Thus. then <a< ~. For example. the geometric mean in its turn does not exceed the arithmetic mean.< 1.2) Ca ~ g = Co. +d..e. . only when the signs of equality occur everywhere in (*). that is. = . in particular.
4 = 2. .3 3/ 1+2+4 3 1 7 . 3 . Problem 2. Problem 1. z are positive numbers and x2 y2 Z2 = 8. then mean does not exceed that is x 2+ Y 2+ z..Co = y' Ci= 3/ ala2aS = y' 1.. Prove. then 1 +~~_3 + + )2< ( _x_3 +.::d6 Solution.6 .. < 2. Z2 ~ = c2• 12.+16 =117=2.... Since the arithmetic the rootme ansquare. =3=2. The sign of equality holds only when x = y = Z = 2.. C2= (ai+a. = c1 < 2.7 ..+a~ <2 )2 =V = x Co 1+.2. and therefore C 1 = 1... ~2 z2 V ~. that x2 +y + + y2 + 6.6 . 1 In our problem 30 .... if Z= Solution. then + + 62 + + XS+y3+Z3:.. Since ( X2 C2<CS. Prove.. that if x. y.? 2" (X+Y+Z)2 3 • In our problem x2 y2 Z2 ~3 = 12._z3_) 3....
then x + y3 + Z3 9.. (17) (at +a +· •. x>O. = y>O. (18) 2 1 Solution. 0< a<: 1. + ant:. The inequality (18) is proved in exactly the same way. the following inequalities are true aI. +y +Z ~ Solution. y>O.>2ttl(xtt+ytt). Z > 0. 81. + a~). x O<a<1. (x + y + Z)3 Since ~ 32 (x3 + y3 + Z3) ~ = 9. a:... (x+y)tt:. (the inequality (17)).. from the inequalities (17) and (18) it follows that (x+yt<:2ttl(xtt+ytt).that is a3.. + an)tt <:ntt1 (a~ + a~ + . that if x3 0.>ntt.. a2. + a~). that for positive numbers ••• .. a:. an. > Problem 4.. Prove. y > 0. In particular.. Prove..>1. (at + a2 + .>1.. Problem 3. then x y Z ++ Y 729 = 31 . If a> 1.> :.81 = 729 9.(a~ + a~ + . x>O. then The inequality (17) follows easily from this inequality.
making use of the inequalities.CHAPTER 2 Uses of Inequalities The use of inequalities in finding the greatest and the least function values and in calculating limits of some sequences will be examined in this chapter. Moscow. For example. Natanson "Simplest Problems for Calculating the Maximum and Minimum Values". some important inequalities will be demonstrated here as well.P. certainly.1. y. and its volume is v xyz. The Greatest and the Least Function Values A great deal of practical problems come to various functions. we shall solve a number of such problems. so that the area of the box surface should be the least. z are the lengths of the edges of a box with a cover (a parallelepiped). 2. it is desirable. studied in the first chapter".. if x. If the material from which the box is made is expensive. First of all. then. to manufacture it with the least consumption of the material. with the given volume of the box. 1952. 32 . then the area of the box surface is S = 2xy + 2yz + 2zx. =. Here. Besides that. 2nd edition. we shall prove one theorem.e. Gostekhizdat. 1 Concerning the application of inequalities of the second degree to solving problems for finding the greatest and the least values see the book by I. i. We gave a simple example of a problem considering the maximum and the minimum functions of a great number of variables. One may encounter similar problems very often and the most celebrated mathematicians always pay considerable attention to working out methods of their solution.
Theorem 5. If
a>O,
a>1,
x:>O, then
the junction
1
xu._ ax takes the least value
a
in the point
x = ( : ) 1 a ,
equal to (1 a) (aa )a=T"" . Proof. The theorem is proved case when a = 2. Indeed, since
x2 _ ax = (x _ ~)
very
2_
simply
for the
a: '
a ="2 > 0,
the function
has the least
a2
value when x
this
value being equal to  T' In case of arbitrary value of a > 1 the theorem is proved by using the inequality (12), demonstrated in Theorem 3. Since a > 1, then (1 z)a ~ 1 az, z ~ 1, the equality holding only when z = 0. Assuming hsre, that 1 Z = y, we get ya ~ 1 a (y  1), ya  ay ~ 1  a, y ~ 0,
+
+
+
+
the sign of equality holds only when y = 1. Multiplying both members of the latter inequality by cu., we get (cy)a  acat (cy) ~ (1  a) ca, y ~ 0. Assuming x=cy we get and acCG1=a, c== (a
a )a=T"" ..
1
1
here the equality occurs Thus, the function xCG  ax, a>
only
when
x
= c = ( : )a=T""
1
1, a>
0, x ~ 0, x
takes the least value in the point
(1 a) (aa
30868
= (~)
ia ,
equal to
)a=f" . The
a
theorem is proved.
33
In particular, . I t va Iue in eas
2
the function
tI ie
x2 
ax (a = 2) takes
1
the
to
. point
2
X=
(2"""
a)~
= 2""'
a
equal
( (12)"2
a
)2"1 = T. a
1
This result is in accordance with
the conclusion, obtained earlier by a different method. The function x3  27 x takes the least value in the point x_ ( 27
_ 3"" )"'3"='1 ,
3 equal to (13) ( 3 27
)3"1 = 54.
3
Note. Let us mark for the following, that the function ax
_XIX
= (xa.  ax),
where a > 1, a> 0, x ~ 0, takes the greatest value in the point
X=
.)a=t (a
a
1
f
equal to
Fig. 1
(ai)
(
a
a )a=t .
a.
Problem 1. It is required to saw out a beam of the greatest durability from a round log (the durability of the beam is directly proportional to the product of the width of the beam by the square of its height). Solution. Suppose AB = x is the width of the beam, BC = y is its height and AC  d is the diameter of the log (Fig. 1). Denoting the durability of the beam by P, we get P
=
kxy2 = kx (d2
1

x2) = k (d2x  x3).
The function d2x  x3 takes the greatest value when
X=
)3=1 (3
d2
=
va ' y2=d2X2=3d2,
d
2
Y=
34
d Va V V2=x 2.
Thus, the beam may have the highest (greatest) durability if the ratio of its height to its width will be equal to
~ 1.4=5'
7
y:r ~
Problem 2. Find the greatest y Solution.
=
value of the function
sin x sin 2x.
2 sin x cos x, then sin x sin 2x= = 2 (z  Z3), where z ::~cos x and, hence, 1 :s;; z :s;; 1. The 'function z  Z3 = ,.Z (1  Z2) takes a negative value 'when 1:S;; Z < 0,
= 2 cos x sin" x = 2 cos x (1  cos" x)
F
Since sin 2x
=
y
TC
.Fig, 2
is equal to 0 when z = 0 and takes a positive value when 0< z:S;;1. Therefore, the greatest value of the function is gained in the interval 0 < z :s;; 1. . It is shown in Theorem 5 that the function z  Z3, Z ;;:;::: 0, takes the greatest value in the point
( z="'3 1
)3=1 =
,
1
In this point
'
,1 ,,r.; • v3
sin x sin 2x = 2z (1  Z2) = ~3 So, the function in those points, equal to
3
(1 
;)
=
3 ~3
. value
y = sin xsin where z
2x takes the greatest x ';3
=. cos
and this value is of the function of the function y=
~3 ~ 0.77.
The
graph
= sin x sin 2x is shown in Fig. 2.
Problem 3. Find the greatest value y = cos x cos 2x.
cos x cos 2x = 1. 1J ~ 0. (cy)a  aca1 (cy) ~ Assuming a = aca\ x = cy... Find the least value of the function xa + ax. then according ty (12) (1 z)a ~ 1 az.Solution.a. that ya _ ay ~ 1. +2:n. we get + = 0. The graph of the function y = cos x cos 2x is drawn in Fig. From the last (1 a) ca. +2:n. Solution. the function y = cos x cos 2x takes the greatest value of 1 in the points x = 0. +4:n.. to the inequali + + and the sign of equality holds only when z 1 z = y. .1.. . ±4:n. The function y = cos x Cos 2x does not exceed 1. 3. since each of the cofactors cos x and cos 2x does not exceed 1. z = y . Thus.. a < 0. Since a < 0. But in the points x = 0. 3 Problem 4. 1 . where a > 0. t . = the sign of equality occurring only when y inequality it follows. Fig. Assuming ya ~ 1 +a (y  1). we get the equality 36 holding only when x = c""'" (a =ex )a=T . x ~ 0.
(_a )a=T" .ax (Z takes the least value in the 1 _ x.Thus. Solu tion. r =2nr2+.a) ( For example. Let V = nr2h be the volume of the vessel. if for a given volume the least amount of material is required for its manufacture. the vessel has the least surface area). that is. the function point xrx +. 37 . ~(Z ) rx1 • the function sr+27x. takes the least value in the point x~ C{ f'~ 3 1 2~' This value equals (1 +{)( y) _ 1 1 3 = 4. h is the height of the cylinder. Tho total surface area of the cylinder is Since h = 2 nr V S . r 2V 1 we get S=2nx2+2V.r=~n (X2+ : x). Find the optimum dimensions of a cylindrical tin having a bottom and a cover (dimensions of a vessel are considered to be the most profitable. o: equal to (1. = 2nr2 V + Zscrh. 11 x 1 1 1 x>O. Problem 5. then S=2:rtr2+2nr2nr Assuming X=. where r is the radius.
4). . +~ 31 X x.x2 t 5. height and diameter of the vessel are equal.x. Indication. Suppose y = 6 . Thus. x (6  X)2 7. according 1 to the solution of the takes the least value when (~)  231 21   V· 31r2h 231 V' Returning back to our previous _!_ = J r 3 1 designations. Exercises if the 6.!!_ 2' 231 r3 = ~ = V' 231 h = 2r = d. Find the greatest value of the function when 0 < x < 6. r __ 231' we find . What should the length of the side of the cutout squares be? 8. From a square sheet whose side is equal to 2a it is required to make a box without a cover by cutting out a square at each vertex and then bending the obtained edges. + S.The function x2 previous problem. Find the least value of the function ~6. 20 Fig. 4 Ie 2a2x so that the box would be produced with the greatest volume (Fig. the vessel has the most profitable dimensions.
value of the function 0< ex < 1. 14. x..' • ~9 . is true 12... a xcx.. 13.l)' n (19) + (anx . Find the least value of the function x6 10.. ~f') V "" V3..? 0. the following inequality Vx<:. + 16... n/V 5 V/'"i'.is true ax when > 0. Prove the inequality (1 + al) (1 +a 2) ••• (1 + an) . I.? 0. 17. are of the same sign and are not less + + + .... Indication.. when x . 11.) 2x (albl + a b + + (l"b. + b~) 2 22 ' " + cannot have two different real roots... Using the inequality (19).. (albl 22 ai ? 1 al a2 an. + b. + anbn? <: ~ (a~ + a: + .) + + (b: + b. . V·4. that the polynomial b2)2 + .? 3.? if the numbers than 1. Prove that. + a~) (b~ + bl)2 Indication. Vr: n. + ... when n .b )2 = = x (a~ + a~ + + a. +2x. 2 15.. (alx  + (a2x  b~ First prove. Find the greatest _ 8x2 + 5. Prove that. the following inequality yn>n+Yn+1. Prove the inequality + a b + . that the arithmetic mean is not greater than the rootme ansquare. prove. Find the greatest of the numbers 1. Make use of the inequality (8).9. n . 5. Prove the inequality n<1+ lin .
6x 10 .!. Theorem 6. > 0. 4 15 0.E_ 1 =(1P)yPl. x .. prove the inequa VVVn + 1+ n 2> 1+ V:( + 1/3 + .. If 1 1 »> 1. y>O. Answer. f lity 19. if a then xaax> Assuming in this inequality (1a)a < a 1..=1. The HOlder Inequality In Theorem 7. the Holder inequality is proved. V:X + Answer. += P q 1. a = py.. by means of Theorems 5 and 6. x>O. a . This inequality will find application in solving problems. Using the inequality of Exercise 18. By virtue of Theorem 5. Find the greatest x4 x 3 value of the functions x6  +5 ' ° . a = :2 equal to 2.2.. a a::T'" that a xP_(py)x:>(1p) Since (7 r = p. Prove the inequality 1 Vii < Vn+1 Vn1.!.57 8. At what value of a is the least value of the function 3 VIS.<+. 1 1 20.4.!.+_!_= p q q 1. then p .= 4Q p1 [p' q_P_ f1 ' p1=L.18. we get P . P xP yq q Proof. 2. then (20) xy. ~ . + V.:: 0. . 21. (21) .
+ a~ = A P.. + b~ + .. + a~) t P (bi b~ 1 + b~ + ... bt = Bdt... .. then atbt a2b2 anbn <: + + . q (21). + c~ = 1. If aI' a2. an... b2 =.. J 1 (*) .. it is checked that d~+d1+ . bI.. .. + c~). we get the inequality (20). 1 Then the right member of the inequality (22) will be equal to Now suppose at=Act. are positive numbers.. we get Dividing all the members of the latter inequality by p and transposing the negative members to the opposite side. . + <: (al + a~ + . AP (Cl + cg + . Theorem 7. + a~ = = APCl +APcg + . Suppose al + a~ + . + b~ = B"... b« Bdn. an=Acn. ci + cg + . +APc~= way. ••• ... ..Putting these values into the inequality xP_ pyx> _1!__yq.. + bit) q . and p and q satisfy the conditions of Theorem 6.. +~=1. + then al + a~+ ...... 1 (22) Proof.. .. Since AP = a2==Ac2' . In a similar Now .. b2.. Bd2.. b..
that is. cf + c~ + . +dh=1). + anbn< p it follows... in (22) the sign of equality is valid if b~ a'1 +.. that is. Indeed. c~ = d~. Cn = dl . that Cl+C~+.. = bg aN = . . Finally... the equality sign will be valid in each line of (*) only when Cl = d['.. Thus. the sign of equality holds in (21) only when X =( 7 r: = yPl _1_ C2 1 q =yp. difficult to mark the case when the sign of equality is valid in (22). multiplying Bq (AC1)P = AP (Bd1)q. . It is not. i.. = 1ft n a~ .. . +c~ (let us recall that P + q = 1. + c~= d'I+tfz+ ... 1. Thus.From these inequalities albl + a2b2 + . nqal = APb'I.. c~ = d'!.e.. we get these equalities by AP B". it is proved that the lefthand member of the inequality (22) does not exceed AB. xP = yq (refer to Theorem 6).. = d/. does not exceed the righthand member. 1 1.. Just in the same way... when Cl = d'I..
. Combining !) <In (1 +n ) 1 logarithm 1 <v (23) from (1+ ~) with (1 + ~ < e «. we get + . +""2n"' 1 Solution.. (1 + ~ Finding the logarithm we finally get n In ( 1 r the inequalities r+1.. 111 n .. (8) and (9). + ~) < In e = 1 < (n + 1) In ( 1 + !) .... q the inequality (19) (refer to Exercise 16): alb1 + a2b2 = 2. 1 (1 ) 1 n+1 <In 1 +n <i: Zl= 1+2.Note. Assuming 1 1 1 1 Z3="3+T+5+1f' z~ =4+5+6+7+8' find lim 1 1 1 1 1 .. Taking in the inequality (22) p = 2... . 1) n n~f n . +b. the limits of quite complicated sequences are calculated by means of previously proved inequalities. The Use of Inequalities for Calculation In the following problems. Substituting n1 the inequality (23). of Limits 2. + a. Z2=2+"3+"4' 1 1 1 1 Problem 2. Problem 1. Solution. . we get <In 1 Il for n in the first member 9f 1 ( +~=In1... 2122). zn =n+ n+1 + n+2+ .oo zn.) (b~+b~+ .. + anbn < <V(a~+a:+ ..3. Prove the inequality 1 n+1 In ( 1 + denotes the base e (see pp. we get of these inequalities with base e.)..
1 ) =In2. we get 1 n (n+1)(n+2)(n+3) n(n+1)(n+2) ••• (2n+1)<_!_+_1_+ 2n n n+1 1 +21i""< .... (2n1) that is 2n In<++1 n Since +1 1 n 1 n + . Adding them and taking into consideration that the sum of logarithms is equal to the logarithm of the product.. using the inequality lities In In In In n+1 n n+2 n+1 n+3 n+2 2n+1 (24). the mean term has also the same 41 . .. n~oo In ( 2+. the extreme terms of the . 2n _[_ 1 Iim In'=hm n .From this inequality and the second member ol the inequality (23) it follows that ln n+ n 1 < _!_ In _n_ < n n1 . In_n_ we write the inequa <_!_< n n1 ' n+1 n' <_1_<ln n+1 < 1 n+2 1 <In n+2 n+1 2n 2n 1 ' zn. (24) Now. n Exactly in the same way from lows. that trs n1 2n =2+ 2 n1 it Iol lim In~1 noc =ln2.< Tn < In ..• . In n(n+1)(n+2) .L 1 12 n <In1•n 2n (25) n~oo .. Hence. Thus.. 2n (n1)n(n+1) .inequalities (25) have the same limits.
+ 2n~ 1 + 2~ ) 1 .. + ~+ 1 + !+ !+ . Taking • • •. lim n>oo Xn = In 2. n But Zn = In 2 (refer to the lim = lim n ....( .. +. . n ..~ + 1 ~.. + + 45 . XZn = Zn  previous problem). . oo lim (X2n + 2 n +1 == In 2. + 2 n ) = 1+2+"3+4+"5+ 6 +'" + 2n1 +~ 1 1 1) 1 1 1 . xa = al a2 (!J' ••• ....= n+l + n+2 + '" +2n' =( 1 1 1 1 1 1 1) In the previous problem. It is necessary to note also. oo (Zn  ~) = In 2.2n = = ( 1+ .limit... +i) _+1 n n Xi = = lim zn = in 2.. 1) + Thus. .. X2n J:. 'necc Problem 3. + ~ ..( 1+2+3"+'" +. .! + .. 'ns cc X2n+1=X2n + 2n+1 .1t1.2 ( . that hence. that is ttsoc lim (_!_+n 1 + ...... x2n We have 11111 1 1 =1z+3"4+"5{f+'" + 2nl . X3 = 1. Note. Xz = 1 ... The numbers Xl = au x2 = al a2. calculate lim rtecc Xn• Solution. Xn = al a2 an are termed + + +.and. + !+ !+ . oo Thus... 1.. Xn = ~. +1n' lim n~oo 1 Therefore. 1 Zn=n+ we have supposed that 1 n+1 +" .{+ !. 1 lim X2n+i = n ..
(n+1) 1. . Solution.. n 1( =. .1 2n+'" 1 1 converges and its sum equals In 2..3 . that series diverges.partial sums of the series a1 2 + a + aa + . . In this case the number S = lim Xn is called the sum of the series.2.. dn + ..!.o o 12:+"3"4+"56"+'" Problem 4. The series 11111 + 2n. 2. inequality lim xn >lim In (n hence. it follows that the series n. . According to the inequality . 3.1 1 1 112+"3+4+'" +n+'" the harmonic (23) series 1 is called harmonic series.. if the sequence of its partial sums has a finite limit.>In n+1 • n n 4 Adding them.. It follows from this.!. write n inequalities 1>lnT' 2>ln2:' 1 1 2 3 "3>ln"3' .... we get Xn= 1 1 1 +2:+"3+'" 1 +n> I n 2·3·4 .: n n+ 1) . Prove that diverges... the harmonic 46 + 1) = 00. From Problem 3. . The series is said to be convergent.>In n+1 n n • Assuming n = 1. n..
.. sums (2()) of this series 1 +""""'(i""' 1 1 1 2 x3=1++2a.. (2n~1)a. saTa+ 4a.. . 5~ ) . . 1_+_1 4a. 1 = (1+_1_+_1_+_1_+_1_+_1_++ 2a. 1_+ . 5a...Problem 5. Y2n< 1. Prove that the series converges at any a> 1. < Xn < . 5a. 2a. 3a. 1 (2n)a.. (2n1)a. 1 40.6a. +.= (2n)a. that is Xl < x2 < X3 < X4 < .na.) .( 2~ 3~ ) ( 4~ '" . is monotonically increasing. if we prove that the sequence of numbers Xn is. 1 x.. Solution.. + (2n1)a... 3a.1+++~2a. . 1 +_1_)_ 47 .(2:)a. 60. 30..' Xn= 111 1+++ 3a. Therefore. The sequence of partial Xl= X2= 1+_1 +_1 + .... limited. + (2n1)a.' 1 3a. +~+ 20. On the other hand. 5a. Since Y2n= 1.+· •. n 1. then the convergence of the series (26) will be proved as well..' then (the numbers in each bracket are positive) On the other hand.•• C2n~2)o. Suppose Y2n=1 __ 1_+_1 2a. Y2n=1~+ 11111 3a.. 6a. 1 1 (2n)a. it is known that monotonically increasing limited sequence of numbers has a finite limit.
+..2 + 12 12 S = 12' n2 I. + Z12 + 3\ + .. it follows that Xn 2 2a_2 Za Xn... + (2n)a ) = = (1+~+~+_1_+_1_+_1_+.n >XnXn=Za Hence. + a a a a a 2 3 4 5 6 .. 2a 2a_Z if a = 2. since X2n> Xn... Indication..2 + .. 1 1 (za+ 41 +6U"+ a 1 (2n1)a 1 +_1_)_ (2n)a 2 11 za. + . 48 Use the equality .. Find the sum of the series S = 1.Xn· Now. + (_1)nl (27). the numbers Xn are limited when a> 1.. + na ) • . +_1 .... then 1 >Y'l. n . na then Y2n = x2n 2 za. Answer. +"/i2+'" 1 it is proved that In the course of higher mathematics S= 1 +'22+3"2+" 1 1 ="""6' n2 (27) Exercises 22. For example.( 1 + 2a +?+ Since Xn=1+~+~+ 2 3~ 1 .2 . it is proved that the series (26) converges and its sum is not greater than . <2.. Thus... Y2n< 1. < za 2a_2 ' that is.i2< 22 22_2 =2. . then xn=1+22"+"32+'" S = lim Xn = 1 nscc 1 1 1 +.
11 < 1 + 2 + 3 + . Assuming =n+ n .. +c~).. given in (22).23.. Use the method of solving Problem 2 of the present section.. +a~) (b~+b~+ .a> O. xn a a rx (n. + kn " re k is a positive integral number... Assuming prove that + 1 . A more accurate estimation of such quantities will certainly permit to decrease errors in solving problems... we are going to return to an approximate calculation of numbers of the form 1/2 40866 49 .. 1 24..oo 1 + 1 + . In the present section. as well. _I_neG.. a>O. I I 2. we have paid attention to the fact that practical problems require.+·1' 25.. prove that lim Xn = Ink. an ability to treat such approximately calculated quantities. as a rule.. +b~)(c~+c~+ are positive numbers. Ck Indication.. method whe bk.. The Use of Inequalities for Approximate Calculation of Quantities At the very beginning of Chapter 1. 1 + . an approximate calculation of quantities and.4. rrsco hm=neG + 1 ex. + anbncn)3< . 1 Xn «a~+a~+ ak..1f+1 ex.. + n < xn=1+2a+3eG . . Prove the inequality (ajbjcj if + a2b2c2 + . Use the . II Indication. Prove the inequalities na+1 ex. inequality n+1 (7) 1 n+f and the 26.
0< A = Lemma 1. that the indicated method of their solution yields much better results of calculation for greater values of k.000.. n = 1. since A = Xl . = Thus. k already with an accuracy of up to 0. for n = 106 and k = 10.. for ex. 1.I for ex. If 0 are true (2n+1)1CG_(n+1)1a 1 < ex. we could not find the integral part of the number Sn. 2n for n and ex. The comparison of these two examples shows. we shall improve the method of calculation of the quantity Sn. indicated in Chapter 1.(X2 . l' This improvement will make it possible to find similar quantities with a higher degree of accuracy quite easily.Xa xCG. then A < xl" Thus. In this section. the preceding positive terms are greater than the following negative term. lation of such quantities. we were able to find the number Sn. k for k = 4. Problem 2) when substituting n 1 for m. In the same section (see Exercises 2 and 3). (_1)n2 xn) and the quantity in brackets is positive too..4 for k = 1. 1 = 3 and n = 106 because the method of calcu• 1 f. = 2" (refer to Problem 2).. + + Lemma 2.01. Besides this. then Xn < Xl' Proof. (2n)a +< 1 (2n)1CG_n1a 1a . This proves that their algebraic sum is positive.4 (Problem 3) we found the integral part of the number Sn..1 we have succeeded in finding the number S n.In Sec. n = 106 and ex.5. k with an accuracy of up to 0. 1.. A > O. this number was also calculated with an accuracy of up to 0. The number of positive terms in the written algebraic sum is not less than the number of negative terms.4.. The inequality (28) follows from the inequality (14) (see Sec. > + X2 > Xa > x4 Xa  + + (_1tl > Xn. < 1. 1.000 and ex.000. However. On the other hand. + 50 . (28) Proof. then the following 1 1 inequalities a < (n+1)a + (n+2)a + . In Sec. . the lemma is proved. If Xl  X2 =. did not permit doing it.
G + . + (2n)a  1 1 nfY.Theorem 8. .'· 1 [ (n+1)a.2. += na (29) Proof.1=1~+~1 + . + 6a. + + (2n)a. (2n)a.. 1 1 T J (2n)a • Adding and subtracting the equality the number from the righthand member of 2 we get [_1 _1 _1+ ... 1 1 + (n+2)a.. ... + (n+2)a 1 [1 (n+1)a 1 + .. 3a.. We have Sn. + +_1)_ na. Sn. +_1_J. + _1_J' 2a + 4a. + + 1 .(1+_1 +_!_+ 2a.. (zn)a.t = 1~ + a=  +"3a"'" . 1 +2 [ ~+4a+6a+'" 1 1 1 ]  _[ (n+l)a.... t= 1 + 2a +"3(X . + 1 (n+2{. + .. (m)a. Taking it out of the brackets. we get 2 Sn. 1 1 1 (2n)a.. 1 1 1 4a.. J • 4* 51 .... 1 + (2n)a.. 1 + (n+1)a + . The numbers of the first square brackets have a common factor ~.. True is the equality Sn• 1=1+++ 2a 1 1 3a 1 .
V2 =0= + +"'+ + 1 V106+2 1 + V3 111 V6 10 1 .. The equality (29) is of interest because it brings the calculation of the quantity Sn.2.. Find the sum A=1+V 2 V3 accurate to 0. ' i=Sn 2(' ' l' by 2<X and dividing by 2 .2a. 1 V106+1 + ' )_ 2·. we know from Lemma 1.002.106 )= (V2 52 + 1) (1~+~V2 . after multiplying we get the equality (29).. Concerning the second quantity.. 2<X 3<X (2n)~ The first of these quantities for great n is calculated with a high degree of accuracy by means of the inequality (28).+.  1) V2.. + .106 (... ... it then 111 (n+1)<X + (n+2)<X . ~..Since in round brackets there 'is the number Sn. (the error) will be 2<X :::2_2<X In the following problems we shall perform the calculation of this quantity with a higher degree of accuracy as well.10 )... that it is less than zero and greater than _ quantity. Problem 1..V2 Vi( 1 Vz 1  . But if we find the sum of the first four summands of the latter less than zero and greater than .. 1 to the computation of the quantity Son n+l and i the quantity 1 __ 1_+_1_.. = ( 1 2<X 2) = 22<X 2<X . By virtue of Theorem 8 A_ Vi . (2n(' 1 + 3a . Solution. T V2.  1 ] Hence. = (V2 + 1) (BC).106 6 = (V2 + 1) (.[1 2<X 1 (2n)a. 1 V2..~v 106+1 t. ". V3 + Vi2. then the remaining quantity 1 5<x 2_2<X S...
:6=+=1+=Vr2='1=U6 ~ Vl 06 ..).:2=. 53 + Vm+3+ Vrn+l Vmf4+ Vm+2 .000 < 3.104• Now.2· 10 6 6 V 1Ot.=1 O::::. Let odd number.104. The extreme numbers of the inequalities other by less than 3. 104 . the number B satisfies the inequalities 2 (V 2· 10(. we get B = 828.106  V:2 1 V:2 • _1_ 1. Thus.=1=_ _ 2 1 V2.4269 + L1/.V2n .104• Indeed.:1= and E= Vk+1+Vkl 2 2 1/111+1+ Vm1 2 2 Vm+1+ Vm + + .104• Calculating the first number and subtracting from it 2. Estimate the quantity ni be an D=_1__ VmFor this reason.where According to Lemma 2. that 2 1 it is necessary 1/k+1V/. I L1[ I < 2.V 10 + 1) < B < 2 (V.VI0 6 =V.. 1 . " Vm+ 1 1 +  Vm +2 to notice.+ 1 . proceed to calculating the number C. the middle number will differ from the number B by less than 2. 12 differ from each V 106 + 11.
. that such numbers are positive and monotonically decreasing with the increase of m.  Vm+~+Vm  . Demonstrate. substituting m for the numbers m 1 and m . that all the numbers in the brackets are positive and monotonically decreasing. Hence. Here... we get Subtracting ED= ( (Vm+I~ Vm1 ~m)V~+1 ) + . . Thus.V m + 1.. 2Vm(V~+Vm=1) Vm (Vm+1+~) 2m2 Vm21 = Vm(Vm+1+Vm1) (2Vm+Vm+1jVm1) 2 __ Vm+1+ Vm1 Vm  1 __ = = 2 = Vm(Vm+1+Vm1) X (2Vm+Vm+1+Vm1)X (m+Vm21) .V2n+ 1.V2n 1 = V m.V2n + 1 1.. Indeed.V2n+1V2n1l 2 ( m+1v "1'.V m1 + V2n.1 in the denominator. the quantity D from the quantity E.( V2n + 1~ V2n1 % ). According to Lemma 1 O<ED< < Vm(~+ V m1) (2 Vm +V X (m + Vm 1) 2 2 m+1+ V mI) X We shall not make a great mistake.. 2m 1 8.m2 0 . it is proved. ."1'm1v m+2+ + Vm + V m + 3 . we get + O<ED< 54 V m ·2 V 2 m· 4 V m.V m + 4 + + V m + 2+ . the number E is quite easily calculated.
1710 + . we find C = 0.5. This proves.0. Thus.y4: + y5 .10 .1710 ± .12= V9 .VS+ V2. 55 .0003 +.YB + y"7.0003.5.y6 + VS+0.Yl.12 66 = 0.8226 = 1998. + V5 .yz + Y3 .0003 + .121 0.103.104 < 2.8226+.5. < D= E0.539.0006.12= 1 1 1 111 + 1 y"7 1 = 1.12 I) < 2. the calculation with an accuracy of up to 2.6035 + .1710+.12' 1.8226 + 2.V 2.C) = (V2 + 1) (827. We have 1 .104 it will be required to find only 5 roots and to produce a number of arithmetic operations. Using the tables and carrying out necessary calculations. for the calculation of the number C with an accuracy of up to 3.12' C.12.ys 1 1 1 111 C. Now let us return to the quantity C= = 1.1 +D = yz + Y3 . Taking into consideration the found quantities Band and returning to the quantity A.2"  yz 1 ( 1 +"2 ~_ 1) +0.13) = = where 1 2.12' 1 1 1 1 + Y3 + y5 . that when m = 9 and n = 106 ED = 0.5.11 1 + 1 .81.j< 1 0. we get A = (V2 + 1) (B .YB + Y7 + 3yZ + ~3 + 1~5_ ~ + \"7 + Thus.13 (V2 + 1) ·827.13' 1~ 2.10 + 1.5 (I .12= +0.103 will be A = (V2 + 1) 827.0003 + .Taking m = 9 we get 0<ED<8.1710+.
109.1012/~_(1012)4 1~ 4 = ~ .3 < 0.1012 1 1 1 ) is positive and is not greater than the first term.1 differs from A by less than unity. I ~ I < 1. . then 3. The first term can be easily found and with a high degree of accuracy by means of the inequalities (28). and from the number A by less than 2. By virtue 10~2+1 of Theorem 8 V2 A = 2V2 (V + 11 10~2_f2 + '" + t 11 1 2\012 )1) V2( . Since the term is less than two. is extremely high.. Notice that the accuracy of calculating the number A.2V2 V2 + V3 .. The middle number . 56 . The relative error is less than 100 : 1333333332. V2.. we get A = 1333333332.. Substituting this number. Calculate A=1 y the number 1 y' 4 .0000001 %. 3 By virtue of Lemma 1 the sum V2 2V2 (1 4 V2 + V3 . . + 1012 with an accuracy of up to unity.109 (y/S1) 3 21/2 V} _ """"~109.1092 <A 4 < 3. containing a trillion of addends. The extreme numbers differ from each other by 2... Solution.1012 .109 . ..V2.Problem 2.3 +~. By virtue of these inequalities the first term can he substituted by the number 212 t~_ 3 3 (2.4 r 1 + y2 + V 13 + ..
.[1__ _ + _1a __ 41a + .Exercises 27. + a = 1nct 1a  C + ~n lim Pn is 1 2a an infinitely small quantity. ~n= 0..z... 14... if 2 10 31') 6 2~. Calculate 1 Answer.. 3 n J 50866 .. l ..=.. + V. (with an accuracy of up to unity) the sum 1 1 + .+ v 13 + . Show that the equality 1+ a + a + 2 3 is true. 2_2a . where and C= 1 1 1 n . . + (1 t1 _1a + .999.
000200=1.999 = V 10. we obtain 2.OOO< ~ 10.000. 2Vl.000 + 1 +Since 1 Vi0. 2Vm+22Vm+1< 2Vm+32V m+2< Vm < 2 V m2Vm1. <2Vm+12Vm. Adding these inequalities we get 2 V n+12 V.000.000..SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES L Setting in the inequalities (1) (p.V1. y m+1 1 y m+2 1 <2V m+22V 2V n+12Vn< 1/ Vn <2Vn2Vn1. + Y1~. +.000199.999.OOO < < 2 V 1. 9) n m + 1.800< y 10. m+1.001> 2 V 1. + 1n ~<2Vn2Vm1.. the V 39.000 = 2.O~O..000 = 200. 2V m+12 V' m «..000 + 1 < 2.00i + .001+ .ym + Ym+1 +1 1 m«..98= 1800.OOO.000.000. extracting square root with an accuracy of up to 0.996 > 199. n: = m. = n = 1. 2 V 1.. Taking in the inequalities of Exercise 1 m 10.000. then 2.01).V1.98 (the last inequality can be easily checked..OOO < 58 . 2 2 V9.0012 VlO..02. +.0002 V9.000. +y1 m+2 + . . .000.
1 2k+ 1 '2k+2' What is left is to prove the inequality 1/3k+1 .::: 1.. Multiplying the inequalities shall get in our designation hence 4. prove that 1 prove that it is true for n 1 3 5 2' 4'"'6 ' . 5. that the inequality =_!_.:' 2k+2 <. 2 [50z] 1. 13 2n1 2'4"'~<1/3n+1 1 The latter inequality is obvious. we get (2k + + + + 1)2 (3k + 4) < (2k + 2)2 2 3 (2k 2 + 1). it is obivous. For n = of Exercise 2 by 50. we 90. _!_~ 2"" 1 113. .000. This proves that the inequality is true for all n.1 2k+ 1 k + 1.2k+1 2k+2 < 1/3k+4 Multiplying it by (2k 2) V3k 1 V3k 4 and squaring both parts of the obtained inequality. Z.1 2k+ 2 ~~!~ . Assuming in the inequality we get 1 3 of Exercise 4 that n = 50.h) li3k+1 1 .3. = 90.. or 12k3 + 28k + 19k + 4 < 12k + 28k + 20k + 4. since k .001. 2'4'" 99 100 < 1 1/3.50+1 = l/I5T < 1 1 1/144 1 =12' 5* 59 .000 < 50z < 90. that the inequality 3 5 (a) by 2'4'6'" 2k' 2kI2<1 2k..1+1 is true Assuming now that the inequality 1 3 5 is true for n 1 =' k 2'4'6'" zk< = 2k+ 1 1/3k+1 (a) is.1/3kH ' Multiplying 1 2k. we get .
u= 60 2a Vz=T' x=ay=aT=3· 2a a .2 1 _  (~) 3 2 . 3 The greatest in the point value of the function az 1 Z2 is obtained Z = (_!1:_)~ 3 . 34) is equal to ( ~ .x)2. 3 we shall get whose greatest value (refer to note on p.5.1) ( ~) ~ ~1 = 0. Assuming then. we shall bring the problem to finding the greatest value of the function (6 _ y) y2 = 6y2 _ y3 = Z. when 0 < y the function < 6. x = 6 . The volume of a box (see Fig. 38) equals V = x (2a . = Assuming y a x. 4. The function 6y2 . we get 3 4 (az  z2).2X)2 = 4x (a . The function x (6 .6.4 = 2.y. Vz 7. 0 < x < a. p.y = 6 . V y2 = = Z. Assuming y = 6 . Therefore. and this value equals 32.x.y3 takes the greatest value in the point y = = 4. that y2 6z 3 Z2 .x)2 attains the greatest value of 32 in the point x = 6 .4 = 32 3 and is obtained in the point Z= ( ~ r 1 ~ 1 =42.
Assuming y =. 61 a. a>O. we shall bring the problem to finding the least value of the function y3 _ 8y 5 for positive values of y.y_ya.8y +5 9+5= Y aya 1 a ~ 3203 3. is equal to The least value of the function y3 . is . hence. 8. (!1) ( Multiplying )aI 1 11 a. we shall find the greatest 1 value of the function a (~ (10:)""(.ya) ( which is..1 a (a) 0: _1_ a.' y . 0:> to.& we get the function 1 =a (1 y_ya 1) a 1 1. =(!1)(~)1a 1 c= 1:a ( : fa=T.6.. length of the side of the cutout square is ! that + if the of the side of the given square.Thus. 1 the last quantity by a. . Assuming y = X2. 9. equal to 1+_1_ a. the volume of a box will be the greatest.1 =(10:) a) a =(10:) a ( (i )a:T .. . By virtue of Theorem 5. the greatest value of the function . The least value of the function x6 8x2 5 equals 5 and is obtained when x = o.8y is equal to + + 3 (1 _ 3) ( ~ ) N =_ 2 8: = 32 32 3 r 6. In Theorem 5. we have proved that the least value of the fli notion y3 .
11. (8) in the form of (n+1t<enn. Raising to a power Assuming that basis. a= !' a = 2..." . Hence. . The function greatest value.<) 3/V v is the greatest of the numbers 1. 3/. we get (1 +an) 2 62 n n>2.yn. an> 0. 2 n2 .yr. y3 yrs.. to the power of n+Yn+1< Raising both members of the latter inequality n (n+ 1 1)' we get 13. V 2".2x <"8' 3 or 4/Vx < "8 + 2x. .. V 14.yr..yr. On the other hand.» ( 1 +Tan ) 2 = 1 +nan +Tan.... Write down the inequality (n~1r<e.. . V 3. equal to ~x . Since then is the greatest of the numbers 1. for all x>O the following 4/Vx inequality 3 is true . n n . .. ~3." . Suppose of n we get . 1 < V2 = ys < y"9 = Y3. 2. If n>3 > e. taking Theorem 3 as the n >iTan. . has the Therefore. 12. . then (n 1t + < en" < 3nn<nnn = nn+l. >1. x>O. .. . in the previous problem we have shown that the sequence of the numbers ~4. .. = 1 + an.2x. decreases.
. ak.... + al) (1 + a2) . !+ . (1 + aT. a2aHl + . + ak + aid = k + 1. > 1 + + !=n. a2.Hence... When n= 1 and +a al > 1. (( + V'... + ak) (1 + ak+l) = 1 + al + . (1 (1 1· Since the numbers sign.... + ak + aHl + alaHl + + a2aHl + . + aHl) ~ + al) (1 = ~ (1 + al + a2 + .. that the inequality that is (1 is true for n = k. ... therefore. is obvious Let us assume. inequality by (1 + aHl)... it follows that Yn<1+V! .) ~ + ak) ~1 Multiplying both members of the we get (1 + al + a2 + . 15.. 2 S an 2 4 < n' an 2 < vn' y »/": n= 1 + an < 1+ V1i .. (1 ~ 1 + al a2 that is. then alaHl aHl are of the same 1~ + .. + a2) .. + akaH 0 and... the inequality is proved also for n + al) (1 + a2) (1 + ali) (1 + aHl) ~ + + . + ak. + a"ald al. 1 l~ +a the inequality l.. it is easy to check that Indeed. Using Newton's binomial.!)= 1+ n nv !+ 1 Yn<1+J/! n (n 1) 2 . . n(n 1) 2 Hence. it follows that n n > 4" an. l! 63 . 2 Note.
: 1 al a2 for all n. + 22 + + ia.. (a: a~ a.b.: + a. + + + ...» . + bn)2 has a true root x + .e. then every number alxl .+ a~ ) n n lIii Vii 1  + ...'). (1 + + + + + + . o = alxl .) (b...) + + anbn) + + (b~ + b~ + . . ... (albl a2b2 anbn)2 . + b~ + . + _!_) n n n 1) vn < 2 = 64 .?. If the polynomial  (a1x  bl? + (a2x  + ... an b + (a x 2 = X2(a~ +  b2?  2x (albl + ab a.: . + + n = ( at :::.. b2)2 T an (a}xI .. Using the inequality (19).. a2x} . + !J~) + .b2 = .b2? (anxl .. . + + + .bn? .. ..b}. ...This finally proves the inequality to be true al) (1 a2) ••• (1 an) . we get 2_ ( at + a2 + .2 at a2 Thus we proved that the polynomial (alx bl)2 bt b n =.') (b~ b. + (anx 16. + C!  cannot have two different true roots and. + an ) 2 _ + + . b..(a~ a.bl? (a2xI . anxi .. Notice. + = Xl' that is Xt===··.b2.. :::. O From this follows the inequality (19) (a}b} a2b2 anbn? :::.bn? = 0. ai ( n + a~ + ... ••• . = anxi ..o. that is. when at a2 an bt=b... i....' 17.?.. . is equal to zero..."='" =1i... + lin (_!_ n an + _!_ + ' . + + .. therefore.. that the sign of equality holds only when the polynomial under consideration has a true root.) :::..bl = a2x} ....
1/ 1/3 .Vn 1) 2 by 2.. . Setting in the inequality of Exercise <V31 V2 1 1 1 ' 1/ Y3 < 1/ V 4 V 2. 1 to both parts of the inequality. Combining 1 1.. + yli < < y n+1 + Vn .. 1 we get 11 < 11' V nr1+v nv 11 21. it follows that C1 ~ C2 (the arithmetic not exceed the rootmeansquare). y. 18. Adding 1 1 1 1 1 1+ Y2+ Y3+ y7. Multiplying n1. .+ 115+ . we finally get 6!) . 3.. Vz+ V3""+YIi the written inequalities.(Yn+1+ vn=T) (Yn+1.<v5v. 18n= 2.. ~<Y6V4.1i <Yn+1Vn1.Hence.V2. we get 1 yn < 11v n+1v ll V n + 1+ V n 1 < 2Vn. From the inequality mean does (vn+I + V n1)2=n+1 +n1 = = 2n + 2 V n2. Vn 19.1 < 2n + 2 V n2 = 4n + 2Vn21 it follows that _1_< 2Vn 1 = yn+1+yn1 _ Y~~ _Y~Y~ .. .
.2v2.. Therefore. x + X3) . 6x10. The function we y0. value of this function is equal to ( (1 + 3)~ 1 2. The numbers V n + 1 + Vn .6 (10 TY ys) 10 . then the greatest value of the function same point in which the function . 3 The greatest value of the function 3 s x4x+ 5 is equal to 3 =20 154" 15 5.4.V2 and 2 V n + 1 . the greatest value of the function is obtained for positive values of x.1 that 1 1 1+l/2+Vg+1 . that the number V n 1 differs less from the number Zn. + lin .113 + .. + 1 1 1 vn = Zn Let us notice without proving. Each Note. ·+vn>2 V. value 1+ V2 +. It follows from Problem 4 Sec.O.of these numbers could be taken for an approximate of the sum 2.1 that is reached in the X _3 takes the least the least )=3="1 3 3 = 4 ( 115 f.6Ji6 66 10 = 0.V2 ++ + li2 + 3 20.2 V2 + 1 differ from each other less than by 0. x + value. Since x4 + 5 x3 1 = 5( ..( 115)4 To find the greatest value of the function x6 . The function x'~5 takes a negative value when x < O. than the number 2 V n 1.42. It was proved in Sec. get y = x6• It is clear that y>O.2 1.(n+1+1.
1 1 a=8. 1 1 (4a)5=2. ~ 10 610 to 04... we get as it follows v J + . 1 22.takes the greatest value (see the note on p. hence. )  .= y . + 1> (27)). Assuming 5 J.6 ( '~ 1) 21 A (~ '~1lming r.2 ( 212 + 12 + .. i.4 /.2+ =2 1( 12+ . 1 1 1 ~ UW)5.... ) = ~2 (1+ .. r 1 The least value of the lunct ion y4+ay. T(4a)5=2. Since a> 0.2 + .2 . Gt . S=1W+3242'+52"W+'" = ( 11111 1+"22+32+42'+52+62'+ .5. 34) equal 0...2 (we have used the equality 23. in this exercise that 1 y = . from Problem 4 See. we get 4a=32.1. . then a (1+ +) 1 and. ) )= .2 :1. .. ) 1 1 1+22'+32+ =2'""6=12 1 :1.ay. 2. 1+a > 1 + 1:: 1~ ( 1 _ ~ ) 1+a > 1 _ Gt • 67 .."..'< oq u»l to (1 +i) (4a).
. n: < 1< n1+a_(n_1)1+a a 1+a <n < (n+1)1+a_n1+a 1+a Adding them.. +c.. . +a~.. we get + 1)1+a> n1+a+ (1 +a) na.Multiplying these inequalities by n1+a. 68 . the mean a' member of the inequalities tends to the same limit as well. It follows from the inequalities of Exercise 2::1 that 1 1T a < 1+2CG+3a+ . Hence... +na n1+a < 1) ( 1In 1 1+a +a The lefthand member of the latter inequalities is a constant number equal to 1~a' 1 ! and the righthand member tends to a limit when n tends to infmi ty. 21+a_1 1+a ' 21+a_1 a 31+a_21+a 1+a < 2 < 1+a 1 1+a 2. we get _n_< 1Ta 1+a 1+2a+3a+ 24.. Let us introduce the designations A3=a~+a~+ B3=b~+b!+ C3=C~+C.+ +b. 3. that is 25. (n 1 From these inequalities it follows that n1+a_(n_1)1+a a (n+1)1+a_n1+a 1+a <n < 1+a Write these inequalities for the values n=1. (n_1)1+a > n +a _ (1 + a) na.
. we finally obtain (alblcl a2b2C2 anbncn? A 3B3C3= =(a~+a:+ .) (b~ b:+ . ABC.Xl=A' Yl=B' Zl=C' al b1 cl X2=A' Y2=B' a2 . Taking into consideration easy to calculate that X~ the introduced a1 t. alblCl ++ y~ + Y.. '3 T = A3 = 1. = i. an it is Hence. + z~ = 1.../ ABC ( xf+x~+ ~ < + + + anbncn < inequalities we get 3 +Xh + YHy~+·· ·+y~_I_zf+z~+ . xn=A' an b2 c2 . Write down the inequalities (24) for different values of n + 1 < __!__ < In _n_ n n n1 ' n+2 n+1 kn+l kn < _1_< n+1 1  In n+l n' In < Tn < In kn kn 1 . . A3 + a2b2C2+. Yn=B' bn Z2=C' .a2 3'31 designations.... Raising both members of the inequality to a cube.. +b. 69 . Zn=C·en (7) we have On the basis of the inequalities alblcl = ABCX1Y1Zl<ABC xr+ yr+zr 3 x~+y~+ z~ ' 3 x~+y~+z~ 3 • a2b2c2= ABC X2Y2Z2 ABC anbncn = ABCxnYnzn <ABC Adding the written alblcl a2b2c2 .. + + .z: + z: + . +c~).. +anbncn<ABC I1 1 \3+3+3 1) = + x... + In In n + < 26.. +Z~l ) 3 1 3 .. + X~ + y~ = 1. + a..) (c~+C~+ .
. . The first addend. + Y 3/106)1.106 1)  V2( 1 1 V2 + V3 . according to the inequalities (28).. knk~1]' < In [ that is In kns.  1) V2.106_  15000 .1. satisfies the inequalities 2V2 V. > < 2V2 70 V2 V106+1 + 1 V106+2 Y + .Adding these inequalities... . + 3/10 v 2 V 6 = = 2V2 V2(  ViD6 I...1 2V2 1 + 1 V106+ 2 1 + .106 < ~ <2V2 V2 (3/2.._ V2.. ~~~(++n~1 + ... 27. In (n+1)(n+2) n (n + 1) we get ••• (kn+1)<_!_+_1_+ kn n n+ 1 + kn < 1 ..1 n':'1 • n~1 n c= In ( k 1 1 + n) < 1 <n+ n+1 + n+2 1 + +_1 kn (k +~) <In~= n1 In(k+n~1)· If n tends to infinity. then In In tends to In k and (k + n~1 ) tends to the same limit as well. . Therefore.106 The second addend is negative but greater than . + V2.9... 1 +k n)=lnk. By virtue of Theorem 6 1 + 3~+ .
Its remainder (by absolute value) is not greater than the absolute value of the first term of the remainder.1).000.. then 15. Since this number tends series converges and that is. to zero when then the 71 . 28. 6 106 The mean number 14. the number n+ 00.999 differs from ~ 11=1 ~k less than by 1. By virtue of Theorem 6 where .t'I..= The number Bn is a partial sum of the series This series is signalternating with monotonically decreasing (by absolute value) terms.Since the extreme terms of the latter inequalities· from each other very slightly (less than 0.2 < 1 differ + V2 + 1 + V 110 < 15.000 .
< An < [(2n)ia_niaJ =_n__ ia 2a <__ 2_2a iex. GSP Pervy Rizhsky Pereulok.C is an infinitesimally using the inequalities (28). Since the difference between the extreme terms of the inequalities tends to zero when n + small value. TO THE READER Mir Publishers welcome your comments on the content. we get 2~a2a [(2n_1)ia_(n+ 1)iaJ small value. c+ ~n' + Y1I is an infinitesimally small value. 1+_1 a 2 + ~n = 6n +=AnBn a n 1 = 6nC+Yn =_n ia =_n__ where ia iex.that is Yn = Bn . translation and design of this book. Now. . Our address is: USSR. Moscow 1110. then 6n = An _ n ia 1ex. We would also be pleased to receive any proposals you care to make about our future publications. is an infinitesimally Thus. Mir Publishers 2 Printed 'in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . iex. 129820. 00.