MULTIPHASE FLOW PRODUCTION MODEL
THEORY AND USER'S MANUAL
MAURER ENGINEERING INC. 2916 West T.C. Jester Houston, Texas 77018
Multiphase Flow Production Model (PROMODl) Velocity String Nodal Analysis G s Lift a
Theory and User's Manual DEA-67, Phase I
Project to Develop And Evnluate Slim-Hole And Coiled-Tubing Technology
MAURER ENGINEERING INC. 2916 West T.C. Jester Boulevard Houston, Texas 77018-7098 Telephone: (713) 683-8227 Telex: 216556 Facsimile: (713)6834418 January 1994
This copyrighted 1994 confidential report and computer program are for the sole use of Participants on the Drilling Engineering Association DEA-67 project to DEVELOP AND EVALUATE SLIM-HOLE AND COILED-TUBING TECHNOLOGY and their affiliates, and are not to be disdosed to other parties. Data output from the program can be disclosed to third parties. Participants and their a ~ l i a t e are free to s make copies of this report for their own use.
. . . .3
. . . . . .. . .4 2
. . . . . . . . . . . .. 1-3 COPYRIGHT . . . .. 3-2
. . . . . . . . . 2-27 2. . .. . .. . . . . . . . 2-10 Hagedorn-Brown Correlation (Brown and Beggs.. . .. 1977) . .. . . . . . . ..2 1. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . ..5 MULTIPHASE CORRELATIONS FOR FLOW IN WELLBORE OR SURFACELINES . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .5. . ... . .1 BEFORE INSTALLING 3. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2
. . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . .2 2.. . .1 Gas Well Load-Up Process . . . . . . . . .. . . 2-25 Gas Well Liquid Loading-Up Process and Identification . . . . . . .. . . .6 Beggs-Brill Correlation (Beggs and Brill. . . . 1-1 REQUIRED INPUT DATA . . . . . . . . . 2-29
2.. . . . . . . .3
.1 INTRODUCTION 2. ... . .. . . . . .5. . . .. . . .. . .1 PI Equation for Oil Reservoirs . . . ... 1973) . . . . . 2-28 2. . . 2-27 2.. . . . . . ..2 Gas Well Load-Up Identification .. . . ..4 RESERVOIR INFLOW PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS 2. . . 2-8
2. .. . .. .
3. .4. . . . . . . . 2-9 2. .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .5. .6 MULTIPHASE CORRELATIONS FOR FLOW IN CHOKES (BRILL AND BEGGS. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2-8 Fetkovich's Equation for Gas Reservoirs .. ... . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents
Page 1 INTRODUCTION .1 3. . . . . . .. . 2-18 Gray Correlations (1974) . .3 Critical-Rate Theory (Liquid-Droplet Model) . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .4 2. .1. . . 1-3
. . . . . . Backup Disk . .. .2 3. . . . . . . .
2. ... . .
1.. . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SOLUTION PROCEDURE FOR BOITOM-HOLE NODE .. .. .5. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . 1-2 DISCLAIMER . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . .3 2. . . .1.. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.. 2-1
2-1 2-3 2-5
. . . .. . . .. . . .. ...2-15 Duns and Ros Correlation (Sixth World Petroleum Congress) . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . 2. .. . THEORY AND EQUATIONS
2. . . . . . . . . .. .2 2. . . . . SOLUTION PROCEDURE FOR WELLHEAD NODE . . 2-6 2.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2-6
Vogel's Equation for Oil Reservoirs . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. ... . . .. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . .5. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 2-13 Hasan-Kabir Correlation (Hasan and Kabir. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1992) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .5. .. . . . . . .. . . . . .5 2. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. ..31
. . . . 1-1
. ..1 MODEL FEATURES OF PROMOD 1. . . .. ....6. . . . . . . . . . . .. ...
PROGRAM INSTALLATION 3. . . . . Hardware and System Requirements .. . .2 INSTALLING PROMODl
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Check the Program Disk . . . .. . . . .. .4. .5. 1991) . . . .
5-3 5. ... 5-1 PDIDATA .. . . .2 Fluid Properties Input Block . ... .. . . .. . ... . . . . . . ..3. .. . .. . . . .3. .. . . 5 4 5.. . .3. .. . . .. . . .. . . .. 5-10 .. . .. . . .1
. . .. . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .
3-3 3-3 3-3 4-1 4-1
.. . . . ... . .3 STARTING PROMODl 3.2 4
. . . .. . . .3. . . . . . . . . ... .. .)
3. . . . . . . . 5-1 TDIDATA . ... . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
. .1 3.. . .. . .. . . . ..1 Production Rate Block and IPR Curve Block . . .. . . .3
. . . .. . .. .. .
RUNNING THE PROGRAM 4. ... . ... . . . .... . . . .. . . . . Use Command-Line Option from Windows . .. . .
BUG REPORT OR ENHANCEMENT SUGGESTION FORM
.. .. . . .. . . . . ..Table of Contents (Cont'd.. . .. . . .1 SDIDATA 5.. . . ... . . . .. . . . ... . . .. . .. . . .3. . . . . . . .... . . . . . .. .. . . .
DATA FILE PREPARATION 5. . . . . ... . . . . ... . . . . . . ... . .. ..
. . .. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. .. Start PROMODl from Group Window . .. .... . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . ... . . . . . . .. . . . .2 5. ... ... . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . ..3 Gas Lift Input Block . .. . . . . . 5-9 5. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
the liquid hold-up distribution. The production point is determined by the cross point between these two sets of curves. It can be used for 1) velocity string design. the program calculates and displays the minimum production rate required for continuous removal of liquid from the wellbore. 2) nodal analysis. Hagedorn-Brown. based on the wellbore configuration and reservoir properties. In addition. A few other empirical correlations are used to describe the multiphase flow through the choke.r
PROMODl calculates production rate by solving reservoir and wellbore flow equations simultaneously. and surface pipe lines. respectively. The injection depth can be specified anywhere along the wellbore. It uses Fetkovich's equations for flow in gas reservoirs and Vogel's or PI equations for flow in oil reservoirs. Two types of inflowloutflow performance curves are provided. gas and liquid velocities. and gas production rate. When the wellhead node is selected.
1. the program displays two sets of wellhead pressures against production rates calculated from reservoir plus tubing equations and choke plus surface line equations. the program displays two sets of bottom-hole pressures against production rates calculated from reservoir and tubing equations (including choke and surface line). A gas lift option is also included with the program. based on the solution node the user chooses. Deal with 3-D wellbores 3. and 3) gas-lift calculations.
rc." The program calculates oil. based on the droplet model developed by Turner et al. Hasan-Kabir. If the bottom-hole node is selected. respectively. and flow regime map along the wellbore. These results are displayed both in tabular and graphic forms. Introduction
The PROMODI program was developed as part of the Drilling Engineering Association's DEA67 project to "Develop and Evaluate Slim-Hole and Coiled-Tubing Technology. wellbore. The multiphase flow in wellbores and pipe lines is handled by several multiphase flow equations including Beggs-Brill. Handle both oil and gas wells 2. Select 1 of 4 correlations for multiphase flow 5.1. 1%9. Select 1 of 2 solubility correlations for oil wells
.. It also outputs the pressure profiles along the wellbore.1
MODEL FEATURES OF PROMOD
The key features of PROMOD are its ability to:
1. water. The program describes the complex multiphase flow in reservoir. choke. as well as pressure drop along the wellbore. and Duns and Ros. Handle 15 sections of tubing strings and 10 well intervals (including casing strings and openhole sections) 4.
1. Survey Data File (. Include the gas lift option for oil wells 8. and zero inclination
3. Tubular Data File (. Oil and gas properties d. Survey must start with zero depth. Length. deviation. Directional survey data for the well. Temperature data
. and ID d.2
REQUIRED INPUT DATA
There are five data files associated with PROMODl.WDI) a. Company and project name b. Date and comments
2. Rate data c. Length and ID of casing string and open-hole section c. Surface line length. Choke size e. ID and OD of tubing string b. Perforation depth f.
Parameter Data File (.6.VPI) a. Liquid and gas velocities 6. Inflow/outflow performance curves with the bottom-hole or wellhead as the node 7. Input up to 3 reservoir pressures or production rates for comparison 9. Well locations c. Choice of unit systems: English or Metric
The output window is a compilation of "child" windows of text reports and graphs. Minimum gas rate for continuous removal of liquid from gas wells 1. which includes: Tabulated results Flow regime profiles Pressure distributions Liquid hold-up profiles 5. 2. 4. Select 1 of 3 choke flow correlations or no choke at all
7. zero azimuth. 3. Flow path either through tubing or annulus
4. Well Data File (. Well type: oil or gas well b.VTI) a.SDI) a.
. but are not to give copies of the program or this manual to third parties.VJl)
a. Productivity data f. Project Data File (.e.
All input data saved on disk or in memory are in the English system of units. Stores the names of the four files mentioned above and the units used. performance.
Participants in DEA-67 can provide data output from this copyrighted program to their affiliates and can duplicate the program and manual for their in-house use. Gas lift data (optional)
No warranty or representation is expressed or implied with respect to these programs or documentation including their quality. or fitness for a particular purpose.
Flow through 4. the well component includes the annulus between the tubing and casing. nodes are placed to segment the portion defined by different equations or correlations. In doing so. Well Production System
Two nodes are used in the program to segment the production system: 1) node No. When the bottom-hole node is used. a gas well or an oil well. 3 at the wellhead. the system is segmented into a reservoir component and a well component which includes tubing.1
A typical well production system. 5 at the bottom of the hole and 2) node No. consists of several components including:
1. choke and surface line. A systematic approach has to be used to solve the total producing system.
surface line choke well head tubing bottom hole rese~oir
. Theory and Equations
2. Flow through 2. When flowing through the annulus. Flow through porous medium vertical or directional wellbore choke surface line
Figure 2-1 shows a schematic of a simple producing system. the choke and the surface pipe line (Figure 2-2). Flow through 3.2. Each component affects the well production rate and pressure loss in a different way.
System Segmentation with Bottom-Hole Node When the wellhead node is selected. S
choke well head
Figure 2-3. The sub-surface component includes the reservoir and tubing or ~ M U ~ U (Figure 2-3).bonorn hole
Figure 2-2. The surface component includes the choke and surface pipe line. the system is segmented into a surface component and a subsurface component. System Segmentation wt Wellhead Node ih
depending on the multiphase flow correlations used. and surface lines. the following equation gives the relationship between production rate and bottom-hole pressure:
f2(Q) = pressure loss across tubing f3(Q) = pressure loss across choke f4(Q) = pressure loss across surface line A plot of Pwf against Q from this equation is called the outflow performance curve (Figure 2 4 . Equation (2-1) can take different forms depending on the fluid produced and the reservoir properties. four of them are included in the current version of the program.2
SOLUTION PROCEDURE FOR BOTTOM-HOLE NODE
Figure 2-2 shows the two segmented components when the bottom-hole node is selected: reservoir and tubing components. the bottom-hole pressure can be calculated in two ways: 1) from the reservoir component using inflow equations and 2) from the tubing component using multiphase flow correlations for pipes and chokes. Suppose the reservoir inflow is represented by the following equation:
where fl(Q) is the pressure loss across the reservoir.2. open data points). A plot of Pd against Q from this equation is called the inflow performance curve. Equation 2-2 can take quite different forms. Another way of determining PWfis to use multiphase correlations for flow in tubing. There are several correlations available. choke. For a known outlet pressure. an example of which is shown in Figure 2 4 (solid data points). Pout. For a given production rate. All of the correlations used in the program are presented in a later section.
. Detailed descriptions are provided in later sections.
Inflow and Outtlow Performance Curves with Bottom-Hole Node These two different ways of calculating Pd result in two curves as shown in Figure 2-4. This inadequacy can be the result of declining reservoir pressure or too much energy loss in the tubing.4000
Figure 2-4. A recompletion or an artificial lift method is required for such conditions. If there is no cross point between these two curves (Figure 2-5). choke. the production system ceases producing any fluid because reservoir pressure is inadequate to lift the fluid out of the well. or surface line.
. The cross point of these two curves gives the production rate and the corresponding bottom-hole pressure for the production system.
Inflow and Outflow Curves do not Intersect
2. Accordingly. For any production rate. Surface components include the choke and the surface line with known outlet pressure. for a given production rate. the wellhead pressure is then calculated using the multiphase correlations for flows in tubing or annulus. the wellhead pressure can be calculated in two different ways from the surface and sub-surface components. The calculation begins with the reservoir pressure. when the wellhead node is used. For the given rate. (2-3) is called outflow performance curve (Figure 2-6). the wellhead pressure can be calculated by adding the pressure loss across the surface line and the choke to the outlet pressure:
A plot of PWh against Q from Eq.
' . Details will be presented in a later section.4000
V R @Pr=1500. surface and sub-surface. It consists of two sections: 1) the reservoir flow. and 2) the flow in tubing or annulus. Another way of determining the wellhead pressure is to use the sub-surface component. Once the bottom-hole pressure is hown. bottom-hole pressure can be determined using the reservoir equation.3
SOLUTION PROCEDURE FOR WELLHEAD NODE
Figure 2-3 shows the two segmented components. The process is described in the following equation:
. It can be determined using different empirical correlations for flows in the surface line and the choke.A
. the design and optimization of the piping system becomes difficult. The production can be calculated using Darcy's equation from a vertical well with closed outer boundary (Brown. If there is no cross point between these two c w e s .
2. This section presents two flow equations for oil reservoirs and one equation for gas reservoirs.
= Pr .4
RESERVOIR INFLOW PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS
The preparation of inflow performance relationship (IPR) curves for oil and gas wells is extremely important in production systems analysis.
Figure 2-6. Inflow and Outflow Performance Curves with Wellhead as the Node The cross point of the inflow and outflow performance curves provides the production rate and the wellhead pressure shown in Figure 2-6.Ph .1 PI Eauation for Oil Reservoirs
When the bottom-hole pressure is higher than the bubble-point pressure. single-phase liquid flow results. 1984).
2. Unless some idea of the productive capacity of a well can be established.f l (Q)
A plot of Pwh against Q from Eq (24) is called the inflow performance c w e (Figure 2-6).4. A recompletion or a lift method is required. since all of the gas dissolves in the oil. the well ceases production.
Joshi's equation can be used (Joshi.PI =
7. PI can be estimated using Eqs. 1986). 90
P I (P. The user can modify those equations as necessary since only the input of PI is required.Pwf) 2*kHh
= Vertical Permeability
Horizontal Permeability Horizontal Well Length
Equations (2-5) and (2-7) are denoted as PI equations in the program for solution gas driven oil wells. .
productivity index stbldlpsi effective permeability (md) effective feet of oil pay (ft) average reservoir pressure (psia) wellbore sandface flowing pressure at center of perforations (psia) oil flow rate (stbld) radius of drainage (ft) radius of wellbore (ft) total skin turbulent flow term (The a'q term is normally not significant for low permeability wells and low flow rates)
viscosity (cp) at average pressure of (P.08 x
pO BO ( I n r.lrw .
B.75 + S" + a'q)
p pwf % re rw
. (2-6) or (2-8) for vertical and horizontal wells.
= formation volume factor at average pressure
For a horizontal well. respectively.
It is noted that in the current version of the program. which takes the form of the following:
. It appears to work reasonably well for water percentages up to 50%. Inflow Performance Relationship for SolutionGas-Drive Reservoirs (After Vogel)
2. An improvement in this area is p l a ~ e d later for versions when appropriate. He gave the following general equation to account for two-phase flow in the reservoir (saturation effects):
He arrived at this equation from a computer solution to several solution-gasdrive reservoirs and for different fluid properties. Figure 2-7 may also be used to arrive at a solution.2 Vo~el'sEauation for Oil Reservoirs
A simplified solution to the two-phase flow problem was offered by Vogel (1968).
2. However.4. all production is assumed to be from a single perforation point.
PRODUCING RAE(qo/tqo ).3 Fetkovich's Eaustion for Gm Reservoirs
One of the most common equations for gas rate prediction is the back-pressure equation. This assumption may be appropriate for a vertical well.
Figure 2-7. the assumption may lead to erroneous results.4. if the pressure loss in the horizontal section is small. For a horizontal well.I. the error should not be significant. His solution has been found to be very good and is widely used in the prediction of IPR curves where twophase flow exists (liquid and gas).
One such method is that of the Fetkovich equation shown below (SPE 4529):
P. in order for the test data to be meaninm.
2. the well would have to be put into an unloaded condition and maintained in that condition for the duration of the testing. it is often felt that it is adequate to apply a method for predicting future IPR curves.where:
gas production rate MSCFD P. the modeling of production systems involves a large amount of calculation of multiphase flow in wellbores and surface pipe lines. psi c = coefficient from well data = exponent obtained from well tests n
Q . Once the IPR curve has been determined. Economic practicality is hampered by the fact that the well is probably already in the loaded condition. There is a number of correlations available in the industry for this purpose. which may not be practical from an economic viewpoint. it can be cross plotted on the tubing performance curve plot. psi Pwf = bottom-hole pressure. none of the multiphase flow correlations works well across the full range of conditions encountered in oil and gas fields. The intersection of these two curves indicates where the well will produce with that particular set of tubulars and conditions. Thus.5
MULTIPHASE CORRELATIONS FOR FLOW IN WELLBORE OR SURFACE LINES
As discussed earlier. = average reservoir pressure. The pressure drop calculated from these correlations has to be converted to English units before being used.
Note that c and n are usually determined based on the well testing data. = current average reservoir pressure Pwf = bottom-hole pressure Pi = initial reservoir pressure = coefficient from testing data when pressure is at Pi c = exponent from testing data when pressure is at Pi n
Using a method such as this allows any testing to be limited to a bottom-hole pressure build-up test to determine the current reservoir pressure. Thus. great care should be taken to ensure that the input variables are as realistic as possible.
. Rather than go the expense of this type of testing. in order to get a realistic tubing performance curve. However. The correlan'ons described belo~vuse SZ units.
and L2 <NFR <Lj
.<0. L3.01 and NFR < L. 2 0. 19731
This empirical correlation was developed from airlwater two-phase flow experiments. The following is the procedure to calculate the liquid holdup: (1) Calculate total flux rate Vm = "sl+ Vsg (2) Calculate no-slip holdup (2-1 3)
(3) Calculate the Froude number. L1. NFR
&20.1 Bepes-Brill Correlalion ( B e e s and Brill. It applies to pipes of all inclination angles.01 and NFR < L 1 or
h.!. L.5. calculate the correlating parameters.
(4) Calculate liquid velocity number
(5) To determine the flow pattern which would exist if flow were horizontal. and L4:
(6) Determine flow pattern using the following limits: Segregated: h.2.
2 0 . and g are determined for each flow condition from the table: Flow Pattern Segregated uphill Intermittent uphill Distributed uphill All flow patterns downhill d e f g
0.0173 0.4846 0.5824
(8) Calculate the inclination correction factor coefficient.<0. and c are determined for each flow pattern from the table: Flow Pattern Segregated Intermittent Distributed a b
0.011 -3.539 -0.3692
-0.70 -0.0868 0.614 0.
.01 4A. 4 and L3<NFR 4L4
L ~ 0 .Intermittent:
where a.5351 0.845 1.768 2.0609
(9) Calculate the liquid holdup inclination correction factor
where 0 is the deviation from horizontal axis.1244
-1. b. 4 and NFR>L4 (7) Calculate the horizontal holdup A.96 0.4473 C=O 0.4
and L3 < N F R 4 L 1
h. f. and NFR>L1 4
L 2 0 .
where d. e.305 No Correction 4.98 0.
'.0. the function S is calculated from
< y < 1. The two-phase friction factor will be
.541 .= e6
In (Y) -0.918 * A X = 0. A2 is the liquid holdup assuming the flow is intermittent. f.0523 + 3.$
(1 1) Apply Palmer correction factor: for uphill flow for downhill flow
(12) When flow is in transition pattern.. using Moody's diagram.8725 [ln
+ 0.(10) Calculate the liquid holdup
A = 0. then convert it into Fanning friction factor.2. f. (13) Calculate frictional factor ratio
tP . take the average as follows:
where A1 is the liquid holdup calculated assuming flow is segregated.182111 (y) . = ~ ' 1 4 .*v.01853 [ln (y)?
S becomes unbounded at a point in the interval 1 interval. and for y in this
(14) Calculate frictional pressure gradient
Use this no-slip Reynolds number to calculate no-slip friction factor.A
Check the flow regime to determine whether to continue with the Hagedorn-Brown correlation or proceed to the Griffith correlation for bubble flow.13. 1977)
The correlation used here is actually a combination of two correlations: Hagedorn-Brown correlation for slug flow and Griffith correlation for bubble flow. then A = 0.
If A < 0.5.
If B-A is positive or has a value of zero. They apply only to vertical wells. Griffith correlation:
. If B-A is negative. continue with the Hagedorn-Brown correlation.The frictional pressure gradient is
2.13. proceed with the Griffith correlation.2 Haeedorn-Brown Correlation lBrown and Beeps.
gas velocity number.0115
(2) Calculate liquid.
.0019 If NL > = 0. CNL = 0.4. then. and pipe diameter number. then CNL = 0.002.Hagedorn-Brown correlation:
(1) Calculate liquid viscosity number and coefficient.
If NL < = 0.
Determine the secondary correction factor correlating parameter
Calculate liquid holdup
Calculate frictional pressure gradient.
f = Fanning friction factor p, = no-slip average of densities
slip average of densities
Hasan-Kabir Correlation (Hasan and Kabir. 19921
This correlation is a recent development in multiphase flow technology. It was established based on hydrodynamic conditions and experiment observations. It applies to flow in annuli of inclination up to 80".
Flow pattern identification. The flow occurs in four different patterns depending on the superficial velocities and properties. Figure 2-8 shows a typical flow regime map for wellbores.
SUPERFICIAL GAS VELOCITY ( m h l
Figure 2-8. Typical Flow Regime Map for Wellbores a) Boundary A: transition from bubbly flow to slug or churn flow v sg
(0.429 v,l + 0.357
8: deviation from horizontal axis. b) Boundary B: transition from bubbly or slug flow to dispersed bubble
When d < dc and when superficial gas velocity stays on the left of Boundary C. Then the flow is in dispersed bubble. c) Boundary C: transition from slug to dispersed bubble. v sg = 1.083 v,,
d) Boundary D: transition from slug to annular flow.
Liquid holdup calculation. For bubbly or dispersed bubble flow
For slug or churn flow vt
A = 1 - (a
0.25 vsg) if vSg < 0.4
For annular flow
Frictional pressure gradient calculation. For bubble, slug, or dispersed bubble flow
For a ~ u l a flow r
~f vsgc < 4 x lo4, then E = 0.0055 (lo4 v,,,)~-*~ If vsgc 2 4 x lo4, then
E = 0.857
. log (lo4
Duns and Rm Correlation (Sixth World Petroleum Conmess]
The Duns and Ros correlation is a result of an extensive laboratory study in which liquid holdup and pressure gradients were measured. Correlations were developed for slip velocity (from which holdup can be calculated) and friction factor for each of three flow regimes. 1. Calculate the liquid viscosity number
Find the liquid and gas velocity number
in Figure 2-9.
Find the Pipe diameter number N'. L.
50 + 36 NLv
0. r L. + L .75 = 75 + 84 NLv
7.. r . Bubble flow
F1 and F 2 are found in Figure 2-10.
Determine the proper slip factor using the region found in the last step: a. L-Factors Against Diameter Number Nd (after Ros) Determine flow regime Bubble flow = Slug flow = Mist flow = Transition =
. > L ..
N. + L NLv r N. N. s La .where F3 and F4 are found in Figure 2-10. < L . L.
Calculate dimensionless quantities L.
I F4 F3 = F3 . L. < N. = d
F3. F6 and F7 can be found in Figure 2-11 where F6'
. F1.For annular flow Nd is based on the wetted perimeter. thus: d
(d. F2. Slug flow
F5. and F4 Against Viscosity Number NL (After Ros).
Determine the slip velocity for bubble or slug flow regime:
Determine the liquid holdup: HL
I/(Vs . F6 and F7 Against Viscosity Number NL (After Ros)
c.Vsg . HL
8.Figure 2-1 1 . Mist flow
Therefore. F5.VSL) 2 vs
~ V VSL S
10. Determine the liquid Reynolds number:
Determine the friction gradient according to the flow region:
a.11. F1 Against Reynolds Re (After Ros)
. For bubble and slug flow
fl is found in Figure 2-11 f2 is found in Figure 2-12 The abscissa must be determined in Figure 2-12 and is flR N~~ where:
. This process is governed by a form of the Weber number:
and is also affected by liquid viscosity. The ripples of the wall film cause a drag on the gas. Nwe Nfi. Bubble Friction Correction (After Ros) b. Thus.
Since there is no slip. the friction factor is given in a Moody diagram.Figure 2-13.
. This influence was accounted for by making Nwe a function of a dimensionless number containing liquid viscosity. but as a function of a Reynolds number of the gas:
Duns and Ros noted that the wall roughness for mist flow is affected by the film of liquid on the wall of the pipe. the friction term is based on the gas phase only. h
The functional relationship is shown in Figure 2-14 where the coordinates are Nwevs. For mist flow In this region.
At the transition zone t slug flow.5. Mist Flow Film Thickness
= gas-liquid interfacial tension. eld may approach 0. In this case. since the diameter open to flow of gas is d-E. the determination of roughness.
.The value of roughness may be very small but eld never becomes smaller than the value for the pipe itself. lbmlf?
v sg = superficial gas velocity. e. is iterative. the actual area through which the gas can flow is decreased. ftlsec.005 from
As the wave height on the pipe walls increase. Duns and Ros suggested that the v dZ prediction of friction loss could be refined by substitution of d-e for d and for vSg throughout
the calculation of friction gradient. Between these limits. dyneslcm
= gas density.
Figure 2-14. eld o can be obtained from the following equations which were developed from Figure 2-14. and d = pipe diameter. ft Values o f f for the mist flow regime may be found for cld>0.
included in the vertical flow package in the computer program described in API 14b for sizing subsurface safety valves.0
. This means that when N.-
. L..E. R+l
205. This g modification accounts for some of the liquid entrained in the gas. and &. and L. Duns and Ros suggested linear interpolation between the flow regime boundaries. the gas volume fraction obtained from a fit of a few condensate data systems to build a simplified empirical model of a retrograde phenomenon requiring only specific gravity.Gray. The pressure gradient in the transition zone is then calculated from
Increased accuracy was claimed if the gas density used in the mist flow pressure gradient calculation was modified to
where p is the gas density calculated at the given conditions of pressure and temperature...2314 N. h
In the transition zone between slug flow and mist flow. t . falls between L. It is
. This program uses a pressure balance with a term. the gas volume fraction. pressure gradients must be calculated using both the slug flow correlations and the mist flow correlations. is:
-0. to obtain the pressure gradient.5
Grav Correlations (19741
A vertical flow correlation for gas condensate wells was developed by
H. The pressure balance equation used is:
where 5.5. and temperature data for input. pressure.
3. Any calculations beyond the following acceptable guidelines should be viewed with caution:
1.ID of flow conduit two-phase flow friction factor mass velocity depth pressure flow rate superficial liquidlgas ratio specific gravity
gas gravity temperature velocity density mixture surface tension
f g i 1
= gas phase = inertia effect
o s w
liquid phase = gaslliquid ratio = hydrocarbon condensate
= superficial value
The following indicates data ranges over which the Gray correlation was developed.
Flow velocities below 50 fps Tubing sizes below 3% in. Condensate production 50 bbl/MMscf Water production 5 bbl/MMscf
. The remainder of the liquid phase is present in the form of a flowing film on the pipe wall. These liquids accumulate in the wellbore over time. This flow pattern is characterized by the presence of a fast moving core of the gaseous phase carrying with it entrained droplets of the liquid phase. if this condition is allowed to continue.
. depending on the specific reservoir. This transport energy eventually becomes low enough that flow rates are reduced and fluids produced with the gas are no longer carried to the surface.The program was compared to 108 sets of well data. This phenomenon is known as gas well load-up (Figure 2-15).
2. As the reservoir energy declines. The results were found superior to dry-gas well predictions.6. Although the above restrictions should be considered. gas velocity decreases.08-wO.5. 1991) The liquid held in the wellbore comes from two sources: 1) liquids condensed from the gas. which results in continued reduction of the available transport energy. gas flows at a velocity high enough that an annular flow pattern develops (Figure 2-15a).
-COLUMN GRADIENT COLUMN
0. the energy available to transport the produced fluids to the surface declines.1 Gas Well Load-UD Process As natural gas is produced from depletiondrive reservoirs. and 2) free liquids produced into the wellbore with the gas.
COLLAPSED COLUMN + LIQUID LEVEL
I . In most cases. under normal production conditions.5. several calculations made with up to 300 bbllMMscf indicated less than a 10% error compared to data. As Figure 2-15 illustrates. The Gray correlation can be used to evaluate gas condensate wells by generating tubing performance J curves and comparing them to reservoir performance. Gas Well Load-Up Process (Coleman et al.
. the wellbore will accumulate sufficient fluids to balance the available reservoir energy completely and cause the well to die. and cause additional hydrostatic back pressure on the reservoir. Both liquid hydrocarbons and water may be present.04
Gas Well Liauid Loading-UD Process and ldentification
. The liquid film starts to thicken and move downward at a higher velocity. further reducing the gas production rate.5. then the liquid will load-up in the gas well. 1969) 2. 2. The rising liquid column increases the bottom-hole pressure. The continuous film model assumes that in order to keep a gas well from loading up. If the liquid droplets cannot be carried upward. in 1969. This model predicts the minimum gas flow rate required to move the liquid droplets upwards. Two models were developed by Turner et al.and the entrained liquid droplets in the gas core start to drop instead of being carried upwards.2
Figure 2-16. Liquid Film Movement (Turner et al. the annular liquid film must be moved upward along the walls. Gas Well Load-UD Identification The liquid exists in the wellbore in two forms: 1) the liquid film along the wall of the pipe and 2) liquid droplets entrained in the high velocity gas core.6. The liquid droplet model assumes that the liquid droplets in the gas core are the controlling factor. These factors cause the liquid column at the bottom to rise. no liquid can be carried upward to the surface and the well will die (Figure 2-15c).. The well begins to load-up with liquid (Figure 2-15b).. Eventually. This model calculates the minimum rate of gas flow required to move the film upward. to predict the onset of load-up based on two different assumptions: 1.
causing the film to break up into drops. and density and of the fluid-medium density and viscosity (Figure 2-18). Turner et al. shape.
. i.. showed. Entrained Drop Movement (Turner et al. which will be carried up the hole by the gas (Figure 2-18). a free-falling particle in a fluid medium will reach a terminal velocity that is a function of the particle size. Therefore.3 Cri tical-Rate Theory (Liauid-Droolet Model) As Turner et al.5.Figure 2-17. when the liquid film begins to fall back down the well.e.. found that the liquid film movement does not represent the controlling liquid transport mechanism. the transport of entrained drops is the controlling mechanism and the minimum gas rate calculated from the entrained drop model is best used to identify the onset of the load-up. 1969) After comparing the results from these two models with field data.6.
Figure 2-18 Fluid Movement Field Results
2. the film will thicken and bridge the pipe.
= 3. for the continuous removal of liquids from a wellbore can be determined: q. tubing with water as the droplet fluid. ft2 Temperature.e. the well is not loading liquid at the bottom.Applying this concept to liquid droplets in a flowing column of gas. the terminal velocity. also known as the critical rate. If the gas production rate is above this critical rate. "C" in Eq. ftlsec Interfacial tension. of the drop is vt = c 1.. state that for wells with wellhead flowing pressure lower than 500 psi. Coleman et al. Applying this terminal velocity equation to wellbores and correcting to standard conditions. (2-74) is an adjustment factor.. showed that an upward adjustment of 20% (i.06 pvt AlTz Critical gas velocity. and drag coefficient and includes the +20% adjustment suggested by Turner et al. Ibmlcf Wellhead flowing pressure.e. psi Cross-sectional area for flow.2) is needed to conform with the field data. However. the adjustment is not needed (i. MMscfd This rate. lbmlcf Gas density. c = 1. Turner et al.6
( [o"jpL -
l: p )
which assumes a fixed droplet shape. (2-76)
. vt. the minimum gas flow rate. G. can be used to predict the onset of gas well load-up. c = 1).. Figure 2-19 plots this critical rate for typical 27/e-in. O R Gas compressibility Critical gas flow rate. size. dyneslcm Liquid density.
(2-74) can be simplified assuming: c = 1.. pressure or compressional wave). (water) = 5. (condensate) =
4. given the choke diameter. Gas density is a function of pressure. and the gaslliquid ratio.Figure 2-19 Wellbore Critical Rate: 2%-in. Most publications involving multiphase flow through chokes have been for critical flow. The alternate case is to calculate the liquid production rate given the upstream pressure.62(67 . p~ (water) = 67 lbmlcf.0.0031 p)U (0.0031 p)'h
V. The problem solved in these works has been to calculate the pressure upstream from a choke. the velocity of the fluids through the choke reaches a level identical to the velocity of sound.0031 p)'h
2. 1991) Eq. Flow then becomes independent of downstream disturbance of pressure. temperature. a (condensate) = 20 dyneslcm. The equations andlor figures used to predict critical flow behavior through chokes are given below together with other information where pertinent. the liquid production rate. The simplified equations are as follows:
V.02(45 .6) and gas temperature (120°F).. Tubing (Coleman et al. a (water) = 60 dyneslcm.e. or density because the disturbance cannot travel in the upstream direction. Further simplification is possible by using an average value of gas gravity (0. temperature and gas gravity. p~ (condensate) = 45 Ibmlcf. 1991)
Chokes are frequently installed in wells to restrict flow rates to desired levels.0031 p)' (0.0.
MULTIPHASE CORRELATIONS FOR FLOW IN CHOKES (BRILL AND BEGGS. They normally operate in "Critical" or "Sonic" flow conditions (i.
Ros. scf1STBL choke diameter in 64th'~of an inch empirical coefficients given in Table 2-1 TABLE 2-1. Also.546 0. Finally. Equation (2-78) is also very sensitive to the choke size.546
= = = = =
upstream pressure liquid production rate. Gilbert stated that an error of 11128 in. Gilbert stated that his formula (or coefficients) applies only when the upstream pressure (tubing pressure) is at least 70% greater than the line pressure (downstream pressure).
.00 17. he pointed out that gas-liquid ratios are frequently reported only to the nearest 50 or 100 scf1STB and are frequently difficult to determine because of fluctuations which occur in many wells.88
Analysis of Eq. (2-78) clearly shows that the production rate or fluid throughput is independent of the pressure downstream from the choke. in bean size can cause errors of 5 to 20% in pressure estimates.00 1.56
0.89 2.40 9.The equations proposed by Gilbert.650
1. this is a characteristic of critical flow. When this percentage is less than 70%.500 0.93
3. As mentioned previously. the bean size indicated will be too small for the given conditions. Baxendell and Achong are all of the form
qL Rp d A.82
0. Empirical Coefficients for Two-Phase Critical Flow Correlations Correlation
Gilbert Ros Baxendell
10. These fluctuations can require changing choke sizes several times in a well's production history to obtain desired production rates.B. stbld producing gaslliquid ratio.
3. EGA. Telephone: (7 13) 683-8227 Fax: (713) 683-6418 Telex: 216556
3. or compatible display. VGA. (EGA or higher resolution is recommended) MS-DOS version 3. Hercules.44 MB disk containing twenty-one files. 29 16 West T. Jester Boulevard Houston. Program Installation
3.1 or higher Windows version 3.It runs in either standard or enhanced mode of Microsoft Windows 3.1.1 Hardware and Svstem Reauirements
PROMODl is written in Visual ~ a s i c @ .0 or higher.C.0 or higher in standard or enhanced mode For assistance with the installation or use of PROMODl contact:
Weiping Yang or Russell Hall Maurer Engineering Inc. 8514. Texas 77018-7098 U.A. 4 megabytes is recommended
Hard disk Mouse CGA. 1.3.S. The basic requirements are: Any IBM-compatible machine built on the 80286 processor or higher (with math co-processor)
2 megabytes of RAM. These twenty-one files are as follows:
.2 Check the P r o a a m Disk
The program disk you received is a 3%-inch.
It is recommended that the original diskette be kept as a backup. This minimizes the probability of all disks developing operational problems at the same time. 3. and that working diskettes be made from it.DLL COMMDLG.2. All these procedures will be done by a simple setup command explained in Section 3.VBX GRID. This applies to all the .LST CMDIALOG.EXE~ P PROMOD 1.1.e.DLL VER.*. the user must install all of the files into the appropriate directory on the hard disk.2
The following procedure will install PROMODI from the floppy drive onto working subdirectories of the hard disk (i.DLL GSW.VBX GAUGE.2 to setup PROMODl. or the COPY DISKETTE on the disk menu in the File Manager in Windows.DLLs included here.. The user can use the COPY or DISKCOPY command in DOS.VBX MDICHLD.VBXs and . In order to run PROMODl.VBX and . 3.VPI
We recommend that all . copy from A: or B: drive onto C: drive subdirectory PROMODl and WINDOWS\SYSTEM).EXE) file should be placed in its own directory (default "C:\PROMODlW) along with the example data files TEST.3 Backu~ Disk
It is advisable to make several backup copies of the program disk and place each in a different storage location.VBX TEST. Please see Section 3. The PROMODl executable (PROMOD1.EXE SmUP. DLL GSWDLL.EXE S ~ U .DLL files that have the potential to be used by other DEA-44/67 Windows applications be installed in your Microsoft WINDOWS\SYSTEM subdirectory.VBX THREED.EXE SmUP.SmUPKlT.VI~ TEST.^^
TEST.WD~ TEST.DLL VBRUN~OO.
3. 4.3. or when the icon is focused. there will be a new Program Manager Group which contains the icon for PROMODI as shown in Figure 3-1. After setup.
MlamoR Visual Baor
V m l Bm~c Plaza PLa lor
NeunWndowrMerdt TmIr Dam
M~aosoR n d E 40
Figure 3-1. choose Run from the File menu. menu. press <ENTER>. 2. Then type
. choose Run from the File C:\PROMODl\PROMODl.
This is all the user needs to setup PROMODI. Insert the program disk in drive B:\. Type B:\setup and press Enter. DEA APPLICATION GROUP Window Created by Setup
Start Windows by typing "WIN" <ENTER> at the DOS prompt. the user simply double-clicks the "PROMODI" icon.1.2 Use Command-Line Oution from Windows In the Program Manager.3.EXE <ENTER > .1 Start PROMODl from G r o w Window
To run PROMODl from Group Window. 3. Follow the on-screen instructions.3
STARTING PROMODl 3. In the File Manager of Windows.
as shown in Figure 4.
Call up Windows and make DEA APPLICATION GROUP the active window. the program returns to the program manager. which are included on the program disk and which are stored in directory C:\PROMODl during the SETUP process in Section 3. It is assumed that the user is familiar with Windows.
In this quick start.*. This displays the screen shown in Figure 4-2.
Double click on the PROMODl icon. is recommended.1. 1 Minute Guide to Microsoft Windows 3 by Katherine Murray and Doug Sabotin. To save time and space.4.
Figure 4-1. If the [Exit] button is clicked on instead.0 or a later version. step-by-step instructions take the user rapidly through the program. and that his or her computer is equipped with Windows 3. TEST. published by Sams.2.2
1. DEA APPLICATIONS GROUP Window
0 For information about Windows in a concise and convenient form. Running the Program
. 4. Click on the [OK] button and this opens the PROMODl front window shown in Figure 4-3. data will be input from the prefabricated files.1
PROMODl runs in a Microsoft Windows environment.
Data output from the program can be disclosed to the third parties. or fitness for a particular purpose. including their quality. merchanability. This copyrighted 1994 confidential report and computer program are for the sole use of Participants on the Drilling Engineering Assodation DEA-67 R o j e d and their affiliates.01 jVclodty String " Nodal Analysis * Gas Lift] DEA-67 Project to Develop And Evaluate Slim-Hole And ColledTublng Technology BY Maurer Englneerlng Inc. makes no warranty or representation.-
DISCLAIMER MULTI-PHASE FLOW PRODUCTION MOOEL IPromod 1.
Figure 4-2. and are not to be disclosed to other partles.lei
Figure 4-3. either expressed or implied..O
1. Front Window
. performance. Maurer Englneerlng Inc. Disclaimer
PROMOD1. Partidpants and their affiliates are free to make copies of this report and program for their in-house use only. with respect to the program or documentation.
The "File" menu facilitates the operation of the project files. There are two ways to access the WDI file (Figure 46): 1) by clicldng on the Input menu
as shown in Figure 4-5. and PDI files.
. Before any calculation begins. WDI.3.
6. The data in the WDI file do not go into any of the calculations.
Figure 4-4. the user can utilize either a mouse or the keyboard. Click on individual items to perform the corresponding task. File Pull-Down Menu 5. Three of them are absolutely required for any calculation. The four buttons on the left of the screen are used to speed access to the four data files. the data have to be entered by reading an existing file or entered manually. They are SDI.
4. the name of the file is displayed in the grid on the right.
The menu bar at the top of the screen facilitates all operations of the program. is for information only. Click on the "File" menu and the "File" pulldown menu is displayed as shown in Figure 4-4. or 2) by clicking on the [Show WDT] button only. When a data file is ready. The fourth file. TDI. The percent complete indicator shows the percentage of computation finished. To access individual menu items. then clicldng on WDI. Four data files need to be prepared.
Field N m e .
-MU DATA INPUT
Well Data Input Window
Figure 4-6. WDI Window
1-1. "Input" Pull-Down Menu
Company Nnmm Pmjed N m e .PROMOD1 .Parameter Data
' w add Analysis '
I o i s d File Name
WDl Film Name
SDI File Name
TDI File Name
W I Film Name
Figure 4-5.S u ~ Data y ID1 -Tubular Data Wl.
Open WDI Fllc
Rmatalr. click on "open. shown in Figure 4-9. click on the menu "File" for the pulldown menu box as shown in Figure 4-7.-
The user can input all pertinent dam manually at this point or retrieve an existing file.. Then. To do that. s. n .
-WELL DATA INRlT ( D W b
S w e A. File Dialog Box
Well Data Input Window
Cw/state Date Commsntr
= = =
L. Click on the [OK] button and the WDI window is filled with the data from the file.
c\ p d
hs m d l s
be na d h a II-.." This opens the file dialog box as shown in Figure 4-8 and highlights the file name to be retrieved. WDI File Pull-Down Menu
-WELL DATA INRlT ( D W b
fib ~ n .
or 2) clicking on the "Input" menu and then clicking on "SDI.
7. SDI Window
. click on "File" and click "Return.a
Well Data Input Window
Company Name: Rojen Name:
International Oil EBP Co. Dspth
Figure 4-10. Texas
12-1 7-1 993
G a s Well
We11 # 5
Austin." Either procedure will
open the SDI window as shown in Figure 4-10.-
-WELL DATA INPUT Wit C1PROMODl\TEST. Similarly.WDI
I l .o. WDI Window Filled To exit from the WDI window. there are two ways to access the SDI file (Figure 4-10): 1) by clicking on [Show SDI].
-SURVEY DATA INPUT (SO+
p t a ~ o n M.
IaUon M. as shown in Figure 4-12." This opens the file dialog box. SDI Window Filled
. Highlight the SDI file name to be retrieved. Dcpth
Figure 4-1 1. click on "File" at the top of the screen.C
To retrieve an existing file. Dcpth
tatlon M. The SDI Window is filled with the data from the File. This opens the "File" pulldown menu as shown in Figure 4-11. Click on [OK] button. SDI File Pull-Down Menu Click on "Open.
To access the TDI window. click on the [Show TDI] button or click on "Input" menu. click on "File" in the menu bar at the top of the S w e y Data Input window. click on "Return.
Figure 4-13.Now. "
8. then click on TDI. Either procedure will display the TDI wiradow as shown in Figure 4-13. TDI window
. When the "File" window opens.
m . click on "File" in the menu to open the "File" pulldown menu (Figure 4-14).
Figure 4-14. click on "Open" to display the file dialog box as shown in Figure 4-15. Then. TDI File Dialog Box
. TDI File Pull-Down Menu
To retrieve an existing file.
and click on the [OK] button.k.VT1
C. TDI Window Filled To go back to the Main window.
-TUBULAR DATA INPUT ~DI]-CWFtOMODl\TEST. The TDI window is filled with the data from the file as shown in Figure 4-16."
. lnlard Ill)
Sualrs Chokm Silo
Figure 4-16.Highlight the file to be retrieved. click on the "File" menu again and then click on "Return.
la 83 L a d d l
6s.. I 1 1 ~ 4 1 RA p . Mow
Is poducba #.lI bwd R a m IYlcllilbl
l L e d 6. n d o 1 2 p t l ad a R d c 13 mrsldl
61a+ 6.la LqdR a m
0 Lurd I q
e pi w a d u p t i ]
:R."".r u e d I R IMaddlpml S
E.Lqa R d o Wlclldbl W a r LsuidR d ' i
-PAWMETER DATA I N W T [PDIJ-
Irn C u m
01 W d Enta
0S D u a 6
@ . Sp&
01A l l 61-
W d r Sp& O d d R.
as Dri*an Oil W d
R: R n r m i p " M s 82 R: R n r m i -a 13 [ e l
P i Ililml. I 2 b*q) Pr R a m paw.n
R Ra paw.9. PDI Window To retrieve an existing file.
The last file to be retrieved is the PDI file.
W d rSp& Od." Either procedure will display the PDI window as shown in Figure 4-17.-e
~ .5 Ie h t R d e IMaclKI! rc a
1 . ti-
Lmud F l h o IM*c(/SU. T -
0 Fvnl I r i .cl $E t
w to om 3 rdms. To access this file.
6 8 4
bm. 13 -1 R imml moap a ~ Ipql a C Y .l. as shown in Figure 4-18 and then click on "Open.1
H d c IMsclAJl
W." A file dialog box appears (Figure 4-19). click on the [Show PDI] button or click on the "Input" menu and then click on "PDI.l R-un
6.lum *I H& T-. d e ~
Figure 4-18... a. op .la I 1 [Msddl P. click on the "File" menu to open the pulldown menu. 1 2 waddl :R. PDI File Pull-Down Menu
il k l m
w to 3 putu.
ll0. PDI File Dialog Box Highlight the file to be retrieved.k
a m 6a.ipl
-1% po&mm r a l o h ?
R Rmaanw -6 .dr~u.L& F I ~ In.dl.le I3 W d d l
G. . Figure 4-20 shows the data from the sample file..
-PARAMETER DATA INPUT
C~OMODl\TEST. Drirsn Oil W.mI
S d r s 1owa. 6-
W R d o lU. R I -
m a m e 13 -1
R: R P. il *an a.l S U dpi
a mmiR-zw-zr.rp l o 3 l .r Spaetic G a d ?
t i l a #cur.I ~ O
Figure 4-20. and click on the [OK] button. HO* T .
a: R d a 1 1 Lddl
Q: Rala 1 2 W .h. PDI Window Filled
. 4 I ) F
Q r r EU IWANWI ndrt I M S C I ~ I ud 0 r d IW r. The PDI window is filled with the data from the file.l
w 10 3 m a a M . bdol:
m s u v a 12 Ip.ps-a hi. d d l a: A._ I
-PARAMETER DATA INPUT P O )
Oil All G I
W d w S p d G~a i l 9 r
Gas Lqid flalio I l l d l a l b l
1.] C: -d a l Pi l d l .a IF1 B.
G l lI
Walw S p d r 6 m h
Odd h m . p
-1m C u m
IPR M O M 1 ~ d .
click on the "File" menu." to the front window as shown in Figure 4-21. then click on "Return. PROMODl Front Window
To exit the PDI window.
This returns the user
PAOMOD1. all four data file boxes in the front window are filled with the names of the four chosen files.O Help
~ulti-Phase Flow Production Model
Nodal Analysis * Gar LIR)
Show T I D
Prqed F~le Name C\PROMODl\TESTWDI C.
.\PROMODl\TEST S I D
WDI F~le Name
S I File Name D T I File Name D P I FIIS N m m ~ O
C \PROMODl\TEST V l T
u n ~ Systsrn t
Percent Complete lndlcator
St. Click on "File" at the left end of the menu bar. the user can create a project file which contains all four of the input data files.
Figure 4-22.At this time.r(
rn0MODl . Calling up this project file will simultaneously input all four data files for future computation.O Help
Figure 4-23. Project File Pull-Down Menu This opens the file save dialog box as shown in Figure 4-23. When the pull-down window appears. click on "Save project" (Figure 4-22). Project File Dialog Box
. The project file is established as follows:
type the name of the project file without the extension.. Front Window: Filled
. the file name is TEST and the extension VJl. .
Gss ~ i l t )
Multi-PhaseFlow Production Model
PROMOD1..In the box directly below File Name.O
. Click on the [Ow button to close the dialog box. For this example. The project file designator has been added to the list of titles in the boxes at the top of the window. This is shown in Figure 4-24.
W I File Name
C:\PROUODl\TEST. . the program brings out the "Output" window automatically as shown in Figure 4-26. Click on "Start" from the menu bar to display the "Start" pull-down menu..
WDI File Name SDI File Hams
Figure 4-25.. The percent complete indicator at the bottom of the window monitors the calculation process..O
. as shown in Figure 4-25. When calculation is complete. "Start" Pull-Down Menu
Unit Systern imtor
Project file Name WROMODl\TEST. Click on "Calc and Output" and calculation begins. . "Output" Window
including choke model. The results are recalculated if the choke model changes. A horizontal bar under the plot box monitors the calculation process. solubility model. as shown in Figure 4-27. Click on the appropriate model and the pulldown box disappears and the selected model is displayed in the choke model bar.12. Choke Model Selection
. and two-phase flow correlations. The graphics plot in the "Output" window shows the inflowJoutflow performance curves.
13. The option box on the right of the screen provides available calculation options. To select a choke model. click on the down arrow to the right of the choke model bar to pull down the available choke models. The grid under the plot shows the production parameters at the crossing of inflowJoutflow performance curves.
To select either one of these. There are two models available. The graph is then updated automatically when the calculation is finished. make the selection by clicking on the name of the model. inclined. Make the selection by clicking on the appropriate model. a solubility model is required. simply enter the number of poinls in the graph points field.14. The selected model is displayed in the model box. as shown in Figure 4-29. 16. To select multiphase correlations for vertical.
. The graph is replotted once the recalculation finishes. Solubility Model Selection
15. The user can customize the inflow/outflow performance curves by specifying the points
plotted. The horizontal bar under the plot box monitors the calculation process. first click on the down arrow to pull down the selection box (Figure 4-28). To do this. If the reservoir is under solution gas drive. click on the down arrow beside the correlation box to pull down the selection box. or horizontal flow.
Hole Node> button: Clicking on this button switches the solution node from the wellhead node to the bottom-hole node. InflowlOutflow Performance Curves with the Bottom-Hole Node
. These are: a. as shown in Figure 4-30. <B.Figure 4-29. There are several buttons in the bottom corner at the right of the screen. Correlation Selection Box 17.
Figure 4-30. The inflowloutflow performance curves plots bottom-hole pressures against production rates accordingly.
Inflow/Outflow Performance Curves with the Wellhead Node
18. as shown in Figure 4-31.b. Click on the <Critical Rate Analysis> button to open a window with critical flow rate plotted against the tubing ID. Critical Rate Window
Figure 4-32. The inflow/outflow performance curves plot the wellhead pressures against the production rate accordingly.
Figure 4-31. Head Node> : Clicking on this button switches the solution node from the bottornhole node to the wellhead node.
<W. as shown in Figure 4-32.
type in the tubing ID. To return to the previous window. Clicking on the <Profile> button displays a group of "child" windows as shown in Figure 4-33.
00 W d Q
14m2 56l. The corresponding critical rate is then displayed in the critical rate field. Output "Child" Windows
. Clicking on a particular row in the table will switch the "+ " on or off.6
Figure 4-33. liquid hold-up.In this window there are three white fields where the user can enter the wellhead pressure. This is determined by the number of " +" signs in the table under the plot box. To read a particular point on the plot.g) 34m. Before clicking on the <Profile> button decide the number of curves to be plotted in each graph. If the critical rate is entered. velocity. the critical rate curve is updated based on the new input. and pressure distribution. When a new wellhead pressure is entered. tubing ID and critical rate. the maximum tubing ID is then displayed.
R 1p. click on the < Go Back> button. These windows display several types of output.
19. including flow regime.
cascade. There are two ways to bring a particular "child" window to the screen.20. "Child" Windows Cascaded
. click on the title of the individual plot. then. then click on "Cascade. click on the "Window" menu at the top." (Figure 4-35). either in "Cascade" or "Tile.
Figure 4-34. One way is to click
on the particular window when a mouse is available. "Window" Pull-Down Menu
21. The "child" windows can be arranged in two ways. Another is to click on the "Window" pulldown menu at the top to display the "Window" pulldown menu (Figure 4-34).
Figure 4-37. InflowlOutflow Performance Window 4-23
." The program titles the "child" windows as shown in Figure 4-36.
Figure 4-36. then click on "Tile. To arrange the "child" windows in Tile. click on the "window" menu. "Child" Windows Titled 23. as shown in Figure 4-37. click on "Return" to go back to the inflow/outflow performance window.22. To return to the previous window. click on "File" at the top of the screen. then.
and About. PROMODl Main Window
. which gives phone and FAX numbers and individuals to
contact for assistance with the program.24... Clicking on Assistance opens the window shown in Figure 4-39. Clicking on the <Go Back> button causes the program to return to the Main window as shown in Figure 4-38. . The Help option at the right end of the menu bar opens the Help window.
~ulti-phase Flow Production Model
Figure 4-38. The two options available in this window are Assistance.
.S.? d 1. Jester Houston. 7701 8 U.C. When the "File" window opens. Assistance Window Clicking on About.Ol
DEA-67 Project to Develop And Evaluate Sllm+lole And Coiled-Tublng Technology BY Maurer Enqlneerinq Inc. To leave the program. TX.1 0 5679 KB
Figure 440. in the Help window opens a window with information about the program.
. CPU : Coprocessor : Windows Mode : Windows Verslon : Free Memory : Intel 00406 pnsent Enhanced Mode 3. click on "File" on the menu bar.-
ASSISTANCE For assistance with this program.
click on "Exit. and a listing of the equipment you are using to run the program (Figure 440).. Phone: Fax: Telex:
71 3-683-8227 71 3-683-641 8 21 6556
(Vela:: k n p * Nodal Analysls *
OW PRODUCTION MODEL lPro Gas
.. 291 6 West T. About Window
26. contact: Weiping Yang or Russell Hall Maurer Engineering Inc.
SDI Data Input Window Note the three sets of options that are available. click on the desired option. Data File Preparation
5.5.Feet or Meters Inclination . set these three options to suit your needs. respectively. 3. Decimal.1
SDI DATA The SDI Data Input window is shown in Figure 5-1. Default choices are Feet. and use the arrow keys to move within a field. the highlight will move accordingly.Decimal Degrees or Degrees and Minutes Azimuth . 2. As the user moves from one value to another. use the tab key to move from one field to another. Before leaving this Survey Data Input window.2
TDI DATA The TDI Data Input Window is shown in Figure 5-2.
. They are:
Figure 5-1. and Angular.
5. If not using a mouse.
-SURVEY DATA INFW [SOIi-
tadon M.Angular or Oil Field Measure
To change any of these.
OD and length are all required for a complete definition of a tubing section. The tubing ID. The deviation is positive when flow is uphill. negative when flow is downhill.
Input errors can be deleted only by pressing the <Back Space > key. The user can leave this block blank if there is no surface line in the system. the input starts at the bottom and moves upward. The ID. and length of each section are required. The input to the casing and open-hole data block is basically the same. zero when flow is horizontal. however. deviation. The capacity of the tubing (volume) is calculated automatically by the program once the necessary data become available.
. Surface pipe line data block in the lower right corner 4. Deviation is the angle relative to the horizontal line. 2. TDI Data Input Window There are four blocks of data in this window: Tubing string data block in the upper left corner Casing and open-hole data block in the lower left corner 3. calculation interval and choke size
1. Only letters and numbers are accepted as the input for this column. The surface pipe line input starts from the wellhead. The total length and volume of the tubing is updated every time a change is made to the tubing string.Figure 5-2. the casing OD is not required. However. The first column in the tubing string data block is the tubing section description. Also note that the casing and open-hole data input starts at the top and proceeds downward. Perforation depth. These two values are displayed at the bottom of the block. for tubing string.
. The user has to decide what interval to use according to the well length...
--B... Calculation interval is used to partition the flow line into a number of blocks.....
E n l r 14 l 3 I ...... .... .. ...... For a horizontal well...... ...... .. 2..
rw*1 TR. u d p pi lU. and the time available.. R u r r d I1 -1 W.. therefore..3ruum..d/ubl
W a r LqidR o a
S v l uT4..rb 0JI.. whether the well is equipped with a choke or not.....
6a Lipid Raio W. computer CPU speed. the perforation depth is the measured depth of the horizontal well end.
. ..... ....IJ
PDI DATA The PDI Data Input window is shown in Figure 5-3......
5...... . .aa-sIpdD)
.lm... . 3.........
d d i 6 9 Dairn Oil W d
0 v. .... ...~..
Well type block Production rate input block IPR curve input block Fluid properties block Gas lift option block in the lower right corner
.I". o -
Q: 81 a1 8 . ... They are:
1..... An interval between 50 to 300 ft should be good in most cases.. It is required so that later the user can choose to see how the production changes when a choke is added to the system.......
w m .... it is assumed that all the flow enters the well at the well end. .Ib"kh
1mn. r r r r i mesame (12 bid
-... ... ..
noc T -
Perforation depth is the mid-point of the perforation section for a vertical well. 4. .....Rorroi-rn13~1
RInli...... A shorter interval usually means slower calculation.....ddlpll~ YuudPPi
..l h " . ..... ..S p r i F r 6w.......bJsr:
W... I* L
Figure 5-3... Choke ID is a required input. . but better accuracy..... A longer interval usually means faster calculation but less accuracy.... ..
0 1 M 61 6W d r S p d c 6r.. ........
@. . .... ... ...cM1
6...... . PDI Data Input Window The PDI Data Input window is divided into 5 blocks.... R .. 1 m a: R a m a2 Illodd) a: Rao 13 81...
a: R I I [urn] . . . .
.S p c i l i i Gra*ily 6... I
p~... .r i R
. .. . I a: R 1 2 i m . rate block is enabled and IPR curve block is disabled. . . When the production rate is unknown.. .... .. .W d TR. I n1 a: R. .ipl
6. . ...t i &
In*slm 6. ...bbr*
l w 11 m 11
W d r Sm&c 61aril) olltla Pte~tun [p. .1
Only one of either the production rate input block or the IPR curve input block can be enabled.. PDI Window with Gas Lift Option Enabled
5.. When the well lype is switched to a solution gas driven oil well. .. . ..t a r * o i p a 83 @PDl I Equah
I. . the gas lift option is enabled as shown in Figure 54. .. .....
PC: . ..
8 lo 3 pmuuer Wow...Sp&
O i l l P l 61&9
P l u . .a*oi I
p a 81 IBPDI e
PM 1 2 1
.e I) F s a o r H I T . a o i p a w e I1 bid R A a s m i p a u u a I2 bid .. 3 I
. The input fields of the disabled block have a gray background. l p lFl
Figure 54.. . then IPR curve needs to be defined and rate block is disabled. . ...
P l r u . ... When production rate is known...3. .IC 8 3 mml
6. .I+& D q l h Il l)
w a r Liaa R a m
SufrrT 4 . .....
.... .. .
. . .The gas lift option block is dimed because it is inappropriate for a gas well. . .D m m 001 d W
~mhuri~. m R: R m .~(~rll~~)-~...o. .. I .
Gas Lift Data Input
. . .)
and is not described in detail here. depending on the data available. .aish
w b 3 p n m balm u u
wal 12 Ip. They are used to predict IPR curves for reservoirs with a different pressure than Pi. . .
-PdanrtE?ER DATA INPUT (POC
The production rate input is straightforward.aI 13 Lpcigl
.. The user can input 1.
C and n are both constants determined from well testing results when reservoir pressure is at Pi.
.L~1 3 w o d a
CRIP~~R^Z-PII-Z~~. m o i
R Reanoi patar. .
Pil&id fcrndr purue Ip.
R: R .. or 3 pressures. B l
0 Yrp 10 3 m a . IPR Input for Gas Wells The three reservoir pressures are the pressures of the reservoir at different stages of production.. The IPR curve input depends on the well type selected and the IPR model chosen. The prediction equation is displayed at the bottom of the block. m o i puu.*sl Ol W d i
I~a(~. Figure 5-5 shows the input requirements for a gas well using Fetkovich's IPR model (note: only one IPR model is available for gas wells). .
1ol md u.igl
9: R a e 1 1 IYddl a: R.
0S a * h
Figure 5-5.. '
R: R . .. 2. B Z W d d l * a: R.l
IW c * u.
0 1 M 61 6W d r Sped= 6. . ... .I T p 0 6uw. . . IPR input requirements are different when the reservoir is under solution gas drive.
PARarrETER DATA INPUT IPI3q
TR.. ... respectively.. -
G r S p d i && a... IPR Curves The curves can be saved or printed by clicking on the <Save> or <Print> buttons...
.a3 lsPD1 .
11 IP. IPR Curve Input for Oil Wells and Vogel's IPR Model 5-6
.Click on the <IPR Curve> button after the relevant data are entered to open a window with the IPR curves displayed... .... .n
0 Ya: Rd.. . ... . .. . .. . L . R R .. .
-W.lhkm Oil Wol .. .
Gas Lift Data Input
I L ~ n W i l m w Y t l I
e r i 61a-d~
6. . .... ...
E F j
E: R.. 0
h (Ip 0 3 m. . r r d p-e ...... . H d .lq
0S . .l b . as shown in Figure 5-6. .. .41 12Lpiipl 1 3 Ip.. ..
+ M E T E R LIATA INPUT
a h a u o * t r r o i m a u ism)
-. . Selecting solution gas driven oil well under well type displays the IPR input shown in Figure 5-7..R. . a 1 Dm1 Q Ad. .. ..R-3600..... ... ....
-1..uroi . ..clml 0 F d I r i 6. ...rr*r p : I R.-b O a r R-rue Lpdpl
P R.. ... .. 1. ....
Irn h " #m
IPR Y d d l ~ a t k o r t h Inflow Perlonn~ncc Curves
@ 6olV.... Po
x R-3400.1 L i d R d a (Yid/Slbl
d 6. . .
N...I + d b
LsidR d h
a i mu
e~ 1 l s m ~ 1
Ivop. The user can return to the previous window by clicking on the <Go Back> button.ilvlllrn
. . .. ....
P: R# a:Ru
M o w Performance Curves
.. l 2 ism) : a: R d s a 3
Edrw103tUm.Lsa Ratio IWidldbl
...... IPR Curve for Oil Wells with Vogel's Equation
. .. . WmI
Inflow kdonnanct C u m s
Inflow Performance Curves
... . as shown in Figure 5-8.lr O d d
Vogel's equation requires a current reservoir pressure and the maximum production rate
..... The user can enter up to 3 pairs to evaluate the production at different stages of reservoir depletion. ....
A A R-3800..
R-3600. Again. .
-PAMM€ER DATA INPUT VI)-
S r Sg
O IA m
. . . .. .. clicking on the <IPR Curve> button opens a window displaying the IPR curve....
Figure 5-8.. -
under the current reservoir pressure. ... ...
I& b ?
...Another equation that is available for oil wells is the PI equation......4 TR..il fl d-nr pa 13
a: Rae 8 3 IBPDI
... IPR Input for Oil Wells with the PI Equation
Figure 5-9.. ... ... (0
soclH a1 s .......... ....... L
0 va: R-O
8 1 IBPDI
E M r up lo 3 # b ....... R w r r o i PO*T I 1 Lp..LDUO*
War........." The input fields for the PI equation are displayed in the IPR curve block.....
P W E T E R DATA INPUT PI)-
El= l.... To activate the PI equation. h . ...... p a 12 Ibbhml~~i...e
p u I 1 IbbWDlpui
0: R d a 8 2 @POI
nard. It is useful for reservoirs with pressures above the bubble point pressure. These conditions result in single liquid-phase flow in o the reservoir.. .*l R R w r r o i p w u ..
@ F~WI 60 F i I*
lripta Gor S@rr
G u Ligid R d o I M d l d b l W a r Lipid R * i i
Pr R--........ p
W d r Spsirc 6 m *
Gas Lift Data Input
.. click on the down arrow beside the IPR model t pull down the IPR model selection box............
-1. 0 6 a Wel
JRe q d n
ro b 3 U.. as shown in Figure 5-9.I
lnbstia D w l h [Ill
I R*C w R&
s v l u 1 q . ... il tnan ... I 2 lpripl ...... then click on "PI equation.
... Surface temperature 8.. .
A FI-3800.W d T....l
R f wPerlormanee Curvea Il
-1. Waterlliquid ratio 7. Outlet pressure 5. .. ....
Figure 5-10.. .. .. ...
The PI equation requires a current reservoir pressure and the corresponding productivity index at the current pressure..p8
IPR Cw. ..
.. Up to 3 pairs can be entered into the IPR block to evaluate the performance at the different stages of production.. Oil API gravity 3. .. Gaslliquid ratio 6..n
0 6 r Wml
1PRYd....... IPR Curves for Oil Wells with the PI Equation
The following are the input parameters for this block: 1..
FI-1600.. .. Water specific gravity 4.I ::
.. Bottom-hole temperature
The outlet pressure can be separator or wellhead pressure when no surface line or choke is present in the production system...Sg
O l *PI
. Gas specific gravity 2..
". .. An example of the IPR curves with the PI equation is shown in Figure 5-10
o EMd U: R a:Rd
Inflow Performance Curves
x FI-MOO... ...
fim ~ i r Walr 5J m 9*or
5 6 ':....
and 2) tixed injection gasfliquid ratio.5 3 3 Gas Lift Input 'Black . There are two options available for specifying gas injection amounts: 1) fixed gas injection rate.. i.
.e. Note: Injection gaslliquid ratio refers to the amount of gas injected per barrel of liquid produced. To select either one. click on the radio button preceding each option. it does not equal the produced gashquid ratio.
This block lists all of the parameters required for a continuous gas lift operation. It is available only when oil well is selected.. The user has to specify the injection depth and the injected gas specific gravity. It does not include the formation solution gas.
P..." Journal of Energy Resources Technology. et al. pp." 6th World Petroleum Congress. pp.. 1973: "A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes. Caetano.: "The Isochronal Testing of Oil Wells. Subsurfhce Controlled Safety Valve Suing Computer. Gray. Shoham. March. and Annular Flow.: "Vertical Flow of Gas Liquid Mixtures in Wells.D. Published by Pennwell Books. Fetkovich..6. 114. and Beggs. et al.. Vol.B. D. H. and Flow Pattern Prediction. and Ros." Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Vol. March.B. S. Brill. 4. J. 13. pp. pp.Part 11: Modeling Bubble. 1993: "Design and Installation of Deep Coiled-Tubing Velocity Strings.J. S. L. 1." User Manual fir API 14B. Slug. 1993 .." Journal of Petroleum Technology. M. 1991: "Applying Gas-Well Load-Up Technology. Vol..D.: "Vertical Flow Correlation in Gas Wells..Part I: Single-Phase Friction Factor. 1-12. Beggs. 1992: "Upward Vertical Two-Phase Flow Through an Annulus .
i? Brown. i . Caetano. 1984: The Technology of Artificial Lifr Methods. S. 1991: "Understanding Gas-Well Load-Up Behavior.
. May." Journal of Petroleum Technology. Vol.. H. 1991: %o-Phase Flow in Pipes..E." Journal of Petroleum Technology.J. March. 329-333.
Brown." International Journal Multiphase Flow. 1987: "A Unified Model for Predicting Flow-Pattern Transitions for the Whole Range of Pipe Inclinations. K. N. Frankfurt. and Brill." Proceedings of World Ol 5.Coiled-Tubing Operations and Slim-Hole Drilling Practices Conference and Exhibit. References
Adams. J. H. H.E.. and Brill.P.B. and Brill.S. Sixth Edition. Germany." SPE 4529. et al.B.D. 334-338. Jr... March. March.1. H.D. O. March. 114. and Beggs. 339-343." Journal of Petroleum Technology.F. 1991: "A New Look at Predicting Gas-Well Load-Up.. O. and Beggs. H. Published by Pennwell Books.. 1991: "The Blowdown-Limit Model. 344-349.. Vol. S. Coleman. Shoham. Coleman.F. J. Duns. January. 1992: "Upward Vertical Two-Phase Flow Through an Annulus .. E. E.E. et al. K.C.. Coleman." Journal of Petroleum Technology. J. Coleman.P. Barnea. Taylor Bubble Rise Velocity. No. pp.P. 1977: The Technology ofdrtificial Lj Methods.
" World Oil's Coiled Tubing Handbook. November. February.R." Journal of Petroleum Technology. Wesson.Part 5 Wells With Lighter Fluids. Operations and Services . C. A. 1992: "Two-Phase Flow in Vertical and Horizontal Annuli.. J. 1986: "Augmentation of Well Productivity Using Slant and Horizontal Wells. Alexander 11.
. Sas-Jaworsky. January. a Vogel." Journal of Petroleum Technology. 1993: "Coiled Tubing. 1968: "Inflow Performance Relationships for Solution Gas Drive Wells.G.. 279-293.." SPE 15375. No.
. 1993: "Coiled Tubing Velocity Strings Reduce Liquid Loading.. Vol.Hasan. R. et al." International Journal Multiphase Flow.. 1969: "Analysis and Prediction of Minimum Flow Rate for the Continuous Removal of Liquids from Gas Wells. and Kabir.Unloading
Turner.D. pp.R. S." 7he Americun Oil & G s Reponer.. Joshi. H.S. 2..V. 18.
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.: OS2 Other Data Causing Bug
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