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If the culture of the nation has multifacets, values, etc., it may be termed cultural pluralism. This theory, cultural pluralism, was developed by Horace Kallen. He describes it as to "allow for some degree of cultural diversity within the confines of a unified national experience" (Craig, 1999). Kallen attempts to express, with this theory, that each ethnic and cultural group in the United States is important and that their unique contributions add to the variety and richness of the American culture. His theory also recognizes that the dominant culture must be also recognized in the society (Kallen). The recognition of the dominant culture is not part of all multicultural theories, as you will see described in Banks' Afrocentrist group.
Robert M. Gagné
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Robert Mills Gagné (August 21, 1916–April 28, 2002) was an American educational psychologist best known for his "Conditions of Learning". Gagné pioneered the science of instruction during WWII for the air force with pilot training. Later he went on to develop a series of studies and works that helped codify what he and many others considered to be 'good instruction.' He was also involved in applying concepts of instructional theory to the design of computer-based training and multimedia-based learning [reference?]. Gagné's work is sometimes summarized as the Gagné Assumption. The assumption is that different types of learning exist, and that different instructional conditions are most likely to bring about these different types of learning.
 Events of Instruction
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (January 2011)
One of Gagné's major contributions to the theory of instruction was the model "Nine Events of Instruction".
Gain attention Inform learner of objectives Stimulate recall of prior learning Present stimulus material Provide learner guidance Elicit performance Provide feedback
Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer http://en._Gagn%C3%A9 Types of Multiculturalism Theory • Conservative multiculturalism • Liberal multiculturalism • Left-liberal multiculturalism Multicultural education From Wikipedia. Its neutrality is disputed. Its introduction may be too long. Tagged since April 2011. It may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.wikipedia. It may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Tagged since June 2011. Tagged since February 2011. Tagged since April 2011. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Critical pedagogy Major works Pedagogy of the Oppressed Theorists Paulo Freire · John Dewey Henry Giroux · Peter McLaren Joe Kincheloe · Shirley Steinberg Pedagogy Anti-oppressive education Anti-bias curriculum Anti-racist mathematics Multicultural education Curriculum studies Teaching for social justice Inclusion (education) Humanitarian education Student-centred learning Popular education Feminist composition · Ecopedagogy Queer pedagogy · . It needs additional citations for verification. Tagged since December 2010. the free encyclopedia This article has multiple issues.org/wiki/Robert_M.
society is pluralistic. Peter McLaren. Antonia Darder. cultures. Teachers find large numbers of English as a Second Language (ESL) students in their classes in both urban and rural areas such as Iowa and Utah. Joe L.S. describes five dimensions of multicultural education: (1) content integration. Many students do not share the middle-class. education that were developed to assist teachers to promote democracy while responding to the many issues created by rapidly changing demographics of their students. Multicultural classrooms promote decision-making and critical thinking while moving away from inequality of opportunity and toward cultural pluralism. (3) prejudice reduction. and contributions of diverse groups. one of the leaders in the field of multicultural education. Henry Giroux. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Multicultural education assumes that the future of U.Critical literacy Critical reading Critical consciousness Concepts Praxis · Hidden curriculum Consciousness raising Poisonous pedagogy Related Reconstructivism · Critical theory Frankfurt School Political consciousness v d e Multicultural education is a set of strategies and materials in U. Sonia Nieto. European American culture common to most college-educated teachers. Cherry A. (2) the knowledge construction process.S. Many universities offer multicultural education courses and modules as a part of their teacher preparation. Today. and (5) an empowering school culture and social structure. teachers in most urban areas face students from a variety of social classes and cultural and language groups. Rochelle Brock. Steinberg. McGee Banks. Ernest Morrell. in the job market. It helps students develop a positive selfconcept by providing knowledge about the histories. Multicultural educators seek to substantially reform schools to give diverse students an equal chance in school. Christine Sleeter. James . (4) an equity pedagogy. Multicultural education means to ensure the highest levels of academic achievement for all students. and in contributing to building healthy communities.
when teachers pay attention to cultivate a multicultural atmosphere. international students may feel being left out when teachers want to emphasize on multiculturalism. students will develop a positive perception of themselves by demonstrating knowledge about the culture. people started to improve the teaching methods. Multicultural education provides a relatively fairer learning environment for international students. Furthermore. Nelson Rodriguez. Consequently. This theory concentrates on the need of including notions of race. Culture meet. Additionally. which can help them easier to get involved in a new community. . This way. multicultural education is a dialectical issue with two sides.A. and grapple with each other as if in the contact zone. if teachers try to deliberately concentrate on providing multicultural examples. and contributions of diverse groups. it may confuse international students and it cannot guarantee a fair education environment. with the help of this education method. Globalization is a social trend which integrates people with different cultural backgrounds. class. multiculturalism is a tool for instilling students with pride and confidence in their unique and special backgrounds. but there is no standard benchmark for multicultural education and teachers usually add their own values to their education. Multiculturalism supports the idea that students and their backgrounds and experiences should be the center of their education and that learning should occur in a familiar context that attends to multiple ways of thinking. Under this circumstance. clash. history. If done correctly. However. Leila Villaverde and many other scholars of critical pedagogy have offered an emancipatory perspective on multicultural education. international students can receive more opportunities to better access to knowledge. it helps international students to gradually obtain global view. and diversity while teaching. Moreover. multicultural education may cause abandonment of original cultural for international students. Overall. Banks. The influence of multicultural education for international students shows on both positive and negative sides. which means the phenomenon of multicultural education is coming along with the development of globalization. Teachers sometimes use multiple examples to satisfy diverse students.
2 Liberal multiculturalism o 1.Q.4 Left-essentialist multiculturalism o 1.3 Pluralist multiculturalism o 1. 3. 3 References 4 External links 5 See also  Kincheloe and Steinberg's taxonomy of multicultural education An editor has expressed a concern that this section lends undue weight to certain ideas.S. and achievement tests used uncritically to measure student acquisition of content and student cognitive ability. Kincheloe and Steinberg's taxonomy of multiculturalism and multicultural education can be summarised as follows:  Conservative multiculturalism Assumptions: 1.1 Multicultural education in k-12 schools in the U. Common culture—WASP norms as invisible barometer for quality form the basis of the curriculum.5 Critical multiculturalism 2 Departments of multicultural affairs o 2. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. The existing social order is just. incidents. In an effort to clarify the conversation about the topic. 5. Non-white ethnic groups are studied in conservative multiculturalism as add-ons to the dominant culture. they developed a taxonomy of the diverse ways the term was used. 4. The authors warn their readers that they overtly advocate a critical multicultural position and that readers should take this into account as they consider their taxonomy. 2. I. Content of curriculum is decided by dominant cultural norms. . Unsuccessful minorities from culturally deprived backgrounds—undermined by a lack of family values. outsiders expected to melt into the Great Pot. These norms should be transferred to the next generation. controversies or matters relative to the article subject as a whole. (July 2011) Kincheloe and Steinberg in Changing Multiculturalism (1997) described confusion in the use of the terms "multiculturalism" and "multicultural education".1 Conservative multiculturalism o 1. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message.Contents [hide] 1 Kincheloe and Steinberg's taxonomy of multicultural education o 1.
and colonial oppression viewed as “divisive.6. Curriculum involves learning about Others. Education is a form of ethnicity striping for economic success. 4. 8. sexism. Critics believe that liberal multiculturalism in this context often tokenizes ethnicity with such add-ons. Everyone enters the competitive race of life from the same starting-line. 7. Social unfairness does exist and education should address prejudices and stereotypes. Studies of racism. homophobia. Multicultural education should be based on a notion of “sameness”—we are all the same. Race and ethnicity are viewed as private matters that hold little connection to the complex structures of patriarchy. Such a position. and patterns of behavior. .  Pluralist multiculturalism Assumptions: 1. Education should build pride in minority groups’ heritage. Pluralist multicultural education shares numerous features with liberal multicultural—it focuses more on difference than liberal multiculturalism. 11. 4. In abstract individualism we are free agents responsible for our own success or failure. Like liberal multiculturalism. Whiteness still viewed as “non-ethnic” norm. This discourse often has served as the mainstream articulation of multicultural education over the last 20 years. Abstract individualism is central to Western social organization. Racial inequality exists because of a lack of opportunity for minority groups. 8. 5. 6. 6. Diversity is intrinsically valuable to the dominant culture in a globalizing world with its free market economy. Kincheloe and Steinberg maintain. class-bias. Non-whites are gaining upward mobility and empowerment in ways not matched in reality. 5. Psychological affirmation is the equivalent of socio-political empowerment. 7. often serves as a form of regulation and decontextualisation that fails to problematise whiteness and the Eurocentric norm. 3. Subjugated knowledge might be studied as a quaint manifestation of diversity—not profound alternative insights that provide everyone new and consciousness changing perspectives on the world. 10. 2. Like liberal multiculturalism often ignores issues of social class. their knowledge. 3. beliefs. Whiteness is not included as an ethnicity—it becomes an invisible barometer of normality. values. 2. 9. In this context it is believed that all humans can succeed if given a chance. Celebrations of Black or Latino history month are positive ways of honoring ethnic groups. 7. often fails to account for hidden forms of racism and norms devised around dominant cultural traits. class elitism and economic colonialism. and white supremacy.  Liberal multiculturalism Assumptions: 1.” 9. It often studies members of such groups who have attained success (implies that anyone can make it).
4. Cultural differences are central to multiculturalism. 20. People with similar cultures usually come together and form bigger cultures. the society of the United States still contain behaviors that are derogatory to some ethnic. 14. One’s ethnicity or gender. genders. In order to provide a comfortable education environment to multicultural students. In this way it can be passed along as a new authoritarian canon. The coverage of harsh realities of race. 17. color. It also tends to isolate people in small individual groups that share the same cultural background. socially.” Such a position undermines our attempt to analyze the ambiguous ways that historical forces shape our lives and our education. These essential traits are romanticized. colleges should pay more attentions to care about vary cultures. More social unfairness is induced by the pluralistic approach to multicultural education. their politics of identity guarantees that their pronouncements will be “politically correct. even exoticized in a process that positions difference in a distant past of social/cultural authenticity. and creed. and The Hood are all formed from a blend of cultures.  Left-essentialist multiculturalism Assumptions: 1. Subjugated knowledge is important in this context. Thus. gender. cultural. The curricula that come from this assumption simply invert traditional stereotypes and truth claims. Little Italy. culture. 3. This removes various groups from history. As prejudice dose exist between different cultures. China Town. and preferential to others. In this multicultural society.” Thus. A caveat: racism. a multicultural education is created that constructs a seamless history that in its moralistic reductionism fails to understand the subtlety of racism and other forms of oppression. 7. the differences between cultures are usually being focused on instead of the places where the culture is in common. . 13. 15. sexism. child from multicultural families could play a role to build a bridge within diverse cultures and help to improve this situation.12. Even though there are laws. and sexual orientations possess a specific set of characteristics that make them what they are. age. but it is often romanticized as a pure manifestation of natural truth. 19. gender. For example. class. not by ethnic differences. and sexual oppression does not have to be “upsetting. That the “good guys” are now the “bad guys” and vice-versa. In a pluralistic multicultural educational society laws exist to prohibit discrimination based on race. In pluralistic multicultural education. class oppression. the horrors of such realities often become a form of cultural tourism instead of a rigorous analysis of human suffering. Main flaw in United States is the fact that pluralism usually separate people and isolate people racially. 5. Races. 18. people always get into the social groups with same cultures as them. and homophobia are all forms of right-wing essentialism and have a far more pervasive impact on society than left-essentialist multiculturalism 2. and culturally different. ethnic groups. and power relations and returns them to a primeval past. and social groups. These cultures usually are defined by economic differences. Pluralist multicultural education segregates people. 16. 6.
Subjugated knowledge becomes a living body of knowledge open to different interpretations. and sexual knowledges need to be studied as both separate and integrated phenomena—separate from white. Race. 10. middle/upper class. 13. such scholarship and such curriculum development is necessary. 8. http://en. Such ethnic knowledges as well as gender. class. but is viewed in relation to the old canon. pluralist. justice in Western societies already exists and only needs to be distributed more equitably. It is essential to make commitment to the legitimation of multiple traditions of knowledge. 4. and heterosexual experience and inseparable from them at the same time. Second caveat: Kincheloe and Steinberg in their critique of left-essentialist multiculturalism in no way imply a rejection of the dire need for African American/Latino/indigenous studies or African American/Latino/indigenous based curricula. Reform of cultural pathology often comes from the recognition of difference. gender. 9. 6. 7. Notions of whiteness and the effects of “being white” should be critically examined— multicultural curriculum in this context explores the social construction of whiteness as an ethnicity.org/wiki/Multicultural_education#Conservative_multiculturalism . A homogeneous community grounded on consensus may be unable to criticize the injustice and exclusionary practices that undermine it. as Paulo Freire put it. realizes lives of individuals in different groups are interconnected to the point that everyone is accountable to everyone else. A multicultural curriculum is part of a larger effort to transform the social.  Critical multiculturalism 1. class. It is not simply passed along as the new canon. Students come to see their own points-of-view as one of many socially and historically constructed ways of seeing. Unlike liberal. 5. cultural. In a multiethnic society that respects but does not essentialize differences. and institutional structures that generate these representations and perpetuate oppression. Because of the erasure of such knowledge in mainstream curriculum. it investigates both self and other. unity in diversity. great gains can be realized in the cultivation of critical thinking and ethical reasoning. Multicultural education is based on solidarity in difference: grants social groups enough respect to listen to their perspectives and use them to consider existing social values. and conservative positions. and sexuality are grounded on larger complex social struggles. male. 14. 11. their vision of what could be. Representations of race. gender.8. 2. White male experience must be problematised as the norm. sexual differences exist in the context of power and privilege. In this move the curriculum is dramatically changed. Community is not built simply on consensus but on.wikipedia. 3. class. the invisible standard by which other cultures are measured. 12. from the interaction with individuals who do not suffer from the same injustices. Difference in solidarity expands their social imagination.
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