 .Origin of T .test  Developed by William Seally Gosset in 1908 Pen name “Student “ – hence it is often called the Student’s t-test.

T-test  a basic test that is limited to two groups assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other gives an indication of the separateness of two sets of measurements   .

T-test assumes:  a normal distribution  underlying variances are equal .

t-test for comparing hypothesized and sample means and σ is unknown .1.

2. t-test for comparing two independent sample means and σ is unknown .

3. t-test for dependent or correlated samples and σ is unknown .

1)  The average height of 3rd year high school students in a certain school is 1. .example: (on formula no. Are the 26 students in the sample significantly taller than the rest? Test at 0. A random sample of 26 students were taken and were found to have a mean height of 1.56m with a standard deviation of 0.11m.05 level.52m.

11 in the formula.56 m.solution: the formula is: substituitng µ=1. . n=26 and σ=0. mean=1.52.


Origin of the Analysis of Variance  developed by Fisher in 1918  also reffered to as ANOVA or F-test .

Analysis of Variance  used to test the significance of difference between means of 3 or more sets of data simultaneously  provides a statistical test of whether or not the means of several groups are all equal .

Several procedures for performing ANOVA  One-way ANOVA Multi-factor ANOVA Variance components analysis    General Linear Model .

One-way ANOVA used when there is only a single categorical factor  the purpose is to find out whether data from several groups have a common mean   one-way ANOVA form of the model is .

Multi-factor ANOVA  used when there is more than one categorical factor arranged in a crossed pattern .

arranged in a hierarchical manner .Variance Components Analysis  used when there are multiple factors.

and when both categorical and quantitative factors are present .General Linear Model  used whenever there are both crossed and nested factors. when some factors are fixed and some are random.

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