# Powers Refresher

GRE
base Æ

2

5

Å exponent

= 2×2×2×2×2

Examples:
52

34

= 5×5
= 25

= 3×3×3×3
= 81

Practice: Evaluate the following

106
= 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10
= 1,000,000

a) 3 3 =

a) 3 3 = 27

b) 2 4 =

b) 2 4 = 16

c) 10 5 =

c) 10 5 = 100,000

d) (-2) 6 =

d) (-2) 6 = 64

e) 5 3 =

e) 5 3 = 125

f) 7 1 =

f) 7 1 = 7

Practice: Find the value of x
a) 4 x = 64
b) x

3

=8

c) 10 x = 10,000
d) x

3

= 27

e) 13 x = 13
f) x

2

= 1,000,000

a) 4 3 = 64
b) 2 3 = 8
c) 10 4 = 10,000
d) 3 3 = 27
e) 13 1 = 13
f) 1000 2 = 1,000,000

1

Powers Refresher

GRE
Product Law

Quotient Law

x ⋅x = x
a

b

Examples:

10
6

a b

9

⎛4⎞ ⎛4⎞
⎛ 4⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⋅⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟
⎝7⎠ ⎝7⎠
⎝7⎠

19

(11 )

3 5

511
= 57
4
5

10

⎡( −3.9 ) 2 ⎤

3 7

30

a) 6 4 ⋅ 63 ⋅ 62 ⋅ 6 =

( −5 )
3
( −5 )

10

( 84 )

( −2.8 )
20
= ( −2.8 )
10
( −2.8 )

Practice: Simplify the following

= x ab

Examples:

49 ÷ 46 = 43

⋅ ( −3 ) = ( −3 )
4

(x )

Examples:

85 ⋅ 87 = 812

( −3 )

Power Law

xa
x a ÷ x b = b = x a−b
x

a+b

= 1115
= ( −3.9 )

20

= 8421

a) 610

21

b)

=

b)

8

⎛2⎞ ⎛2⎞ ⎛2⎞
c) ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟
⎝3⎠ ⎝3⎠ ⎝3⎠

10

=

( −5 )

⎛2⎞
c) ⎜ ⎟
⎝3⎠

d)

(5 )

e)

85 ⋅ 8 4 ⋅ 8 3
=
86

6
e) 8

f)

⎡ ( 23 ) 4 ⎤ =
⎣⎢
⎦⎥

f)

260

g) 7 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 7 =

g)

79

5
4
13
h) x ⋅ x ⋅ x =
6

16
h) x

4 11

=

18

19

d) 5 44

5

x

x ⋅ ( x5 ) ⋅ x7
2

i)

(x )

4 3

=

i)

x6

2

Powers Refresher

GRE
Negative Powers

x −n =

1
xn

Examples:

1
1
=
4
3
81
1
1
10−2 = 2 =
10
100
1 1
7 −1 = 1 =
7
7
3 −4 =

Practice: Evaluate the following

a) 5 -2 =

a) 5 -2 =

1
25

b) 2 -5 =

b) 2 -5 =

1
32

c) 10 -4 =

c) 10 -4 =

d) (-3) -1 =

d) (-3) -1 = −

e) 4 -3 =

e) 4 -3 =

1
64

f) 11 -1 =

f) 11 -1 =

1
11

Practice: Find the value of x
a)

2x =

1
128

1
1,000,000

b) x −3 =

1
625

c)

5x =

d)

x −2 =

e)

x −83 = 1

49
25

1
10,000
1
3

2 −7 =

a)

1
128

b) 100−3 =
c)

5 −4 =

⎛5⎞

⎝7⎠

d) ⎜

1
1,000,000

1
625

−2

=

49
25

e) 1−83 = 1

3