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SOLAR PANEL MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKER

Undergraduate Thesis By Thanh Phu Nguyen 19 October 2001

Abstract

“Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker”. As the name implied, it is a

photovoltaic system that uses the photovoltaic array as a source of electrical power supply and since every photovoltaic (PV) array has an optimum operating point, called the maximum power point, which varies depending on cell temperature, the insolation level and array voltage. A maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is needed to operate the PV array at its maximum power point. The objective of this thesis project is to build two MPPT in parallel to charge a 12-volts lead acid battery by using a field wired 83 Watts PV array.

The design consists of a PV array, a 12-volts lead acid battery, DC_DC Boost converters (also known as step-up converters) and a control section that uses the PIC16F873 microcontroller. The control section obtains the information from the PV array through microcontroller’s Analog and Digital (A/D) ports and hence to perform the pulse width modulation (PWM) to the converter through its D/A ports. Battery’s state of charge is also controlled by the microcontroller to protect the battery from overcharged.

The Incremental Conductance method is used as an algorithm to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The performance of the Incremental Conductance algorithm in tracking maximum power point is better than the Perturbation and Observation algorithm. By using Incremental Conductance algorithm the MPPT is able to track the maximum power point of the PV array quickly under rapidly changing in sun light intensity. While the Perturbation and Observation algorithm

tends to deviate from the maximum power point under this condition.

Thanh Phu Nguyen 65 Kersley Rd Kenmore QLD 4069 19 October 2001

The Dean School of Engineering University Of Queensland St Lucia, QLD 4072

To the Dean,

In accordance with the requirements of the University of Queensland Bachelor of Electrical and Electronic Engineering degree, I hereby submit my undergraduate thesis entitled “ Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker” for your consideration.

Yours faithfully

Thanh Phu Nguyen

Peter Allen for his assistance in providing me the experimental equipment. Without his assistance. Dr.Acknowledgements I would like to take this opportunity to thank my supervisor. this project would not be possible. Geoff Walker for his generous and enthusiastic guidance. . Special acknowledgement must also go to my family who has constantly supported me throughout the year. I would also like to thank Mr.

......3Incremental Conductance Algorithm.....................4................................2..........................................1 PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS AND ARRAYS .4 CONTROL SECTION .................... 12 3.6............................ 14 3... 11 3...............................................................2 Boundary between Continuous and Discontinuous Conduction......... 23 4........... 25 4.............. 9 2......... 19 3......... 6 2....................................i List of Tables………………………………………………………………………….... 5 2..................................5......3 Diode...................................................... 4 2............................................2...........................................................TABLE OF CONTENT Section Page List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………........................................................................5 Voltage and Current Ripple .................................................................. 19 3...........2 Output Capacitor ......................5.................6.............1 DC-DC CONVERTER ..........................................3 SWITCH MODE CONVERTER ......................................................................... 3 2............................................... 6 2........5 MPPT CONTROL ALGORITHMS .................................................... 1 2...........2.............................2......... 17 3......................................... 9 CHAPTER 3 .......2 THE ROLE OF MPPT..6 BATTERY ....2.....2..2.................2...2 Output Voltage Ripple ..............................4......5.....INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW 1 3 1.................2....3 Battery charging ....... 6 2...3 Discontinuous-Conduction Mode........6..............ii Abbreviation…………………………………………………………………………......iii CHAPTER 1 .............................. 25 4......THEORY 11 3............................................1 Perturbation and Observation Method.................. 21 CHAPTER 4 – IMPLEMENTATION 23 4...... 17 3..............................2 HARDWARE DESIGN ........................4 Effect on Parasitic Elements ...........................1 Inductor ...........1 BACKGROUND TO THE RESEARCH .......................................................... 15 3......................................2 Starting and Deep-cycle batteries ................................................3 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER .........................4 Battery life.................... 6 2..... 26 ......................................................... 8 2............................................... 5 2...................................1 General battery chemistry .........................2 Dynamic Approach Method ...................................................................... 18 3...3 Power consumption in the Boost Converter...........................5................... 26 4..........................5.....................................................................................5.........1 DESIGN OVERVIEW ...........................1 Voltage Feedback Control ............ 9 2...........................................................6................2 BOOST CONVERTER ............. 12 3......................................................................2 Power Feedback Control................2.....................................................1 Continuous Conduction Mode. 8 2.............2.....................................1 Inductor Current Ripple .................. 5 2.............................................. 5 2.

............... 35 5........ 37 5........................................2......7 Microcontroller............................................................................ 30 CHAPTER 5 – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 35 5..............................3 Power Budget ....................MPPT SCHEMATIC APPENDIX B .......................................2 FUTURE WORK ... 28 4................................................................................................ 27 4..................1........1 Switching Frequency vs..........................1.....................2........... 43 APPENDIX A ....................1................. 27 4. Duty Cycle Ratio ..4 Voltage Regulator.. Power Efficiency .................................................2 Power Efficiency vs..............2....9 Current-Sensing Circuit ......................................................1.............4 Evaluation of the Product...................1 CONCLUSION .................. 35 5..................8 Voltage divider network ................ 29 4..................................C CODES APPENDIX D .............3 SOFTWARE DESIGN ...........................................COMPONENT DATA SHEET REFERENCES 44 45 46 51 53 54 .....4......2.............2................................................PSPICE SIMULATION APPENDIX E ................................6 MOSFET Driver ....1 EVALUATION OF THE BOOST CONVERTER ...................................2.............................. 43 6........PCB LAYOUT APPENDIX C .......................... 27 4............................................................5 MOSFET ........... 27 4... 42 CHAPTER 6 – CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 43 6......... 38 5.............

10 3. Duty Cycle Ratio 15 17 18 19 19 22 25 33 34 35 37 39 -i- .4 5.2 Schematic of a typical p-n junction solar cell The I-V curve of the typical solar panel The P-V curve Ideal Switch voltage v.3 4. Power Efficiency Power Efficiency vs.2 4.3 3.2 2.5 3.Incremental Conductance method Control Flow Chart for S2.1 3.9 3.1 5.8 3.11 4.2 3.7 3.1 4.List of Figure Figure Title Page 2.1 2.Incremental Conductance method Switching Frequency vs.6 3. Duty ratio D.3 3. and switching period Ts DC-DC Boost converter Continuous Conduction mode Waveforms at the edge of the continuous conduction 3 4 8 11 12 13 14 Average Output Current at the Boundary of continuous-discontinuous 15 Converter Waveforms at Discontinuous Conduction Step-up converter characteristics keeping Vo constant Effect of parasitic elements on voltage conversion ratio Ripple Inductor current Boost converter output voltage ripple Differential Amplifier Block Diagram of Maximum Power Point Tracker Program Flow Chart Control Flow Chart for S1.4 3.

List of Table

Table

5.1 5.2 5.3

Title

Switching Frequency vs. Power Efficiency Power Efficiency vs. Duty Cycle Ration Power Budget

Page

37 38 43

- ii -

Abbreviation

∆Vo C D ID Ids Idso IL ILB

peak to peak output voltage ripple capacitance duty cycle ratio average diode current drain saturation current drain source leakage current average inductor current average inductor current at the boundary between continuous and discontinuous mode

IOB

average output current at the boundary continuous and discontinuous conduction mode

IOB MAX

maximum average output current at the boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction modes

L MPP MPPT PWM PV RL Rds tc td to toff ton tr ts ts Vd

inductance maximum power point maximum power point tracker pulse width modulation photovoltaic effective series resistance of the inductor drain to source on resistance conduction time turn on delay time turn off time off time on time turn on rise time storage time switching period of the pulse width modulation input voltage to the Boost-Converter

- iii -

Vdd V ds,sat Vf VL Vo CMMR Vcm Vdiff

MOSFET supply drain voltage saturated drain to source voltage forward biased diode voltage average inductor voltage output voltage of the Boost-Converter common mode rejection ratio common mode signal differential signal

- iv -

Chapter 1 . particularly fossil fuel. When lighting conditions change. Variation in lighting intensity causes these trackers to deviate from the maximum power point. can reduce the load on the environment. a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used. As the world's energy demands rise and resources become scarce. Therefore. or from energy stored in the Earth. The goals of this thesis are: a) Tracking maximum power point with an algorithm suitable for rapidly changing atmospheric condition. -1- .1 Background to the Research Energy is the most basic and essential of all resources. To get the maximum power from the PV. the tracker needs to respond within a short amount of time to the change to avoid energy loss. PV array has an optimum operating point called the maximum power point (MPP). The problem with both fission and fusion is that they have dangerous radioactivity and side effect [1].INTRODUCTION 1. particularly for simple application like low and medium temperature water heating. the search for alternative energy resources has become an important issue for our time. Use of solar energy instead of fuel combustion. Solar energy can be harvested by the use of photovoltaic (PV) array. For many applications it is so technically straightforward to use. All the energy we use on Earth comes from fission or fusion of atomic nuclei. most of the generation of energy in our modern industrialized society is strongly depending on very limited non-renewable resources. which varies depending on cell temperature and the present insolation level. Very much exploitation and research for new power has been done not only in the area of nuclear power generation but also in the area of unlimited energy sources such as wind power generation and solar energy transformation. The most effective and harmless energy source is probably solar energy.Introduction CHAPTER 1 .

but are more problematic to control. and others that use a microprocessor to maintain control of the maximum operating point. the use of a tracking algorithm allows for additional control modes to cope with certain system states such as a fully charged battery. -2- . The digitally controlled MPPT systems have the advantage that a power point tracking algorithm will not be influenced by changes in temperature and therefore will always be very reliable. There are two main groups of MPPTs: those that use analog circuitry and classical feedback control.Chapter 1 . Analog systems have the advantage of having low cost components. which is able to maintain its accuracy even under extreme operating conditions such as the wide temperature variations that occur in an outdoor vehicle. Additionally.Introduction b) Battery charging A 12-Volt lead-acid battery is used as an energy storage unit. An over voltage protection loop is needed to protect the battery from over charged. It is difficult to develop a stable system.

This is called the photovoltaic effect. In photovoltaic energy systems. this voltage will cause a current to flow through the load. If exposed to radiation. When a load is connected to the cell.1 Photovoltaic Cells and Arrays A solar cell is a semiconductor device that absorbs sunlight and converts it into electrical energy. Figure 2. It consists of a moderately p-doped base substrate and a thin heavily n-doped top layer.1 Schematic of a typical p-n junction solar cell -3- . and hence the name “Photovoltaic Arrays”.Chapter 2 – Literature Review CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Thin metal contacts on the surface and a plain metal layer on the back connect this photovoltaic element to the load (Figure 2. Today's most common cell is a mass manufactured single p-n junction Silicon (Si) cell with an efficiency up to about 17% [2]. electron-hole pairs are created by photons with energy greater than the band-gap energy of the semiconductor. This leads to a forward bias of the p-n junction and builds up a voltage potential. single cells are combined into solar cell arrays.1). The created charge carriers in the depletion region are separated by the existing electric field.

Hence. Either the operating voltage or current needs to be carefully controlled. A MPPT is required to meet the following goals [3].2 below shows the typical silicon cell I-V curve.2 The role of MPPT Photovoltaic (PV) arrays are used to provide energy for many electrical applications. and even if the two were equal initially. as the output voltage rises. Make sure that the system operates close to the Maximum Power Point (MPP) when it is subjected to changing in environmental condition. a device is needed that finds the maximum power point (MPP) and converts that voltage to a voltage equal to the system voltage. Figure 2. This maximum power point is seldom located at the same voltage the main system is operating at. the power point would quickly move as lighting conditions and temperature change. To get the maximum power from the PV array. the PV produces significant less current. -4- .Chapter 2 – Literature Review 2. Figure 2. so that the maximum power from the array can be obtained. a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used to control the variations in the current-voltage characteristics of the solar cells. The I-V curve will change depending on the temperature and illumination. Provide high conversion efficiency. Maintain tracking for a wide range of variation in environmental conditions.2 The I-V curve of the typical solar panel.

while allowing the output to match the battery voltage. A general approach to power feedback control is to measure and maximize the power at the load terminal. this has the following drawbacks [4]: a) The effects of the insolation and temperature of the solar array are neglected.4. Therefore. This has an advantage of unnecessarily knowing the solar array characteristics. such as a satellite system. but for a bad converter. The system keeps the array operating close to its maximum power point by regulating the array’s voltage and matches the voltage of the array to a desired voltage. the full power may not be delivered to the load due to power loss.2 Power Feedback Control Maximum power control is achieved by forcing the derivative (dP/dV) to be equal to zero under power feedback control. 2. this method maximizes power to the load not power from the solar array. Normally. stored as magnetic energy in an inductor. the design of a high performance converter is a very importance issue [4]. By setting up the switch-mode section in various different topologies. the goal is to provide a fixed input voltage and/or current.4. Most commonly voltage and power feedback controls are employed to control the system and hence to find the MPP of the array. In power trackers. This allows energy at one potential to be drawn. 2.3 Switch Mode Converter The switch-mode converter is the core of the entire supply.4 Control Section The control section is designed to determine if the input is actually at the maximum power point by reading voltage/current back from the switching converter or from the array terminal and adjust the switch-mode section such that it is. b) It can not be widely applied to battery energy storage systems. -5- . and then released at a different potential. Although a converter with MPPT offers high efficiency over a wide range of operating points. different feedback control parameters are needed to perform maximum power tracking. 2.Chapter 2 – Literature Review Provide an output interface compatible with the battery charging requirement. However. Depending on the application. this control is only suitable for use under constant insolation conditions. However. 2. either high-to-low (buck converter) or low-to-high (boost) voltage converters can be constructed. Therefore. because it cannot automatically track the maximum power point of the array when variations in insolation and temperature occur. The MPPT consists of two basic components: a switch mode converter and control section.1 Voltage Feedback Control The solar array terminal voltage is used as the control variable for the system. such that the array is held at the maximum power point. the goal of a switch-mode power supply is to provide a constant output voltage or current.

The output voltage and current from the source are monitored upon -6- . The algorithms that are most commonly used are the perturbation and observation method. 2. It operates by periodically perturbing (i. If the perturbation leads to an increase (decrease) in array power. The product of the derivatives p’ and v’ is negative if the current is below that for optimum power and positive if the current is above the optimum and zero when the maximum power point is being tracked [5]. Since p’ v’ is a chain rule derivative. 2. It is more efficient than Perturb and Observe method and independent on device physics.5.3 Incremental Conductance Algorithm This method uses the source incremental conductance method as its MPP search algorithm. power will be effectively maximized.2 Dynamic Approach Method This method employes the ripple at the array output to maximize the array power by dynamically extrapolate the characteristic of the PV array. The array performance is reflected in both shapes and phase relationships.5. This implies that by driving dp/dv to zero. it is actually equal to dp/dv.5 MPPT Control Algorithms There are many algorithms that are used to control the MPPT. current i and power p can be grouped into three cases: current below that for the optimum power. the peak power tracker continuously seeks the peak power condition [4]. In this manner. the subsequent perturbation is made in the same (opposite) direction. 2.1 Perturbation and Observation Method Perturbation and Observation (P&O) method has a simple feedback structure and fewer measured parameters.e. dynamic approach method and the incremental conductance algorithm. The instantaneous behavior of array voltage v.5. current near the optimum and current above the optimum [5]. incrementing or decreasing) the array terminal voltage and comparing the PV output power with that of the previous perturbation cycle.Chapter 2 – Literature Review 2.

and to make its decision (to increase or decrease duty ratio output).5).(2. if G > ∆G --------------------------(2. Mathematical of the Incremental Conductance algorithm is discussed below. The job of this algorithm is therefore to search the voltage operating point at which the conductance is equal to the incremental conductance.(2. The output power from the source can be expressed as P = V× I----------------------------------------.(2.2) Let’s define the source conductance: G = I/V ------------------------------------------. (27). and vice versa. Equation (2.2.7) -7- .(2. and graphically shown in Figure2.4) In general output voltage from a source is positive. if G = ∆G --------------------------(2.Chapter 2 – Literature Review which the MPPT controller relies to calculate the conductance and incremental conductance.2) explains that the operating voltage is below the voltage at the maximum power point if the conductance is larger than the incremental conductance.1) The fact that P = V × I and the chain rule for the derivative of products yields dP/dV = d (V I) / dV = I dV / dV + V dI / dV = I + V dI / dV ∴ (1/V) dP/dV = (I/V) + dI/dV-----------------------. These ideas are expressed by equation (2.6). dP/dV > 0.3) And the source incremental conductance: ∆ G = dI/dV ------------------------------------.5) dP/dV = 0. (2.6) dP/dV > 0. if G > ∆G --------------------------(2.

2. The electrolyte is the solution of sulfuric acid in water.6. The output of a lead-acid cell is a little over 2 V and also depending on the state of charge. Therefore. lead (Pb) and leadoxide (PbO2). A battery stores electrical energy by forcing electrons into positions in which they contain more energy by applying a voltage on the battery connectors. among others.Chapter 2 – Literature Review Figure 2. use and construction. There are several different battery types. A battery consists of a series of cells. but nickel-cadmium nickel-iron and nickel-hydride are also available.3The P-V curve 2. For most solar applications the lead-acid battery is the best choice. discerned by size. water (H2O).+ 3 H+ + 2 e → PbSO4 +H2O On the negative electrode: -8- .1 General battery chemistry A lead-acid battery contains sulfuric acid (H2SO4). connected in series. to provide the desired output voltage. The storage is realized by the following chemical reactions [7]: On the positive electrode: PbO2 + HSO4.6 Battery A battery is a device capable of storing electrical energy by means of a reversible chemical reaction. for a 12 V lead acid battery there are 6 cells connected in series. The most common battery is the lead-acid battery.

6. -9- . voltage is reduced. current is limited as internal resistance of the battery increases. while when mistreated. The plates of the deep-cycle batteries are up to 35 times thicker than those of starting batteries.2 Starting and Deep-cycle batteries Basically there are two types of batteries. the highest charge current is sent to the batteries until the battery is 80-90% charged. The main difference between the two batteries is the plate-thickness. During float charge. 2. 2. Batteries are rated for a certain number of cycles to a certain depth of discharge.6.3 Battery charging Batteries are best charged in 3 different steps. absorption charge and float charge. Hence deep cycle batteries can survive a number of discharge cycles and it is suitable for use in application where power supply standby is needed. Different use asks for different battery designs. they can die prematurely. During absorption charge. When taken care of. is designed to deliver a large current during a short time.→ PbSO4 + H+ + 2 eOverall reaction: Pb + PbO2 + 2 H+ + 2 HSO4. the reaction is reversed. 2. Absorption charge lasts until the battery is fully charged. A deep cycle batteries that can withstand deep discharges. they are namely starting and deep cycle batteries. A starting battery.6.Chapter 2 – Literature Review Pb + HSO4. During bulk charge.4 Battery life Since the storage and release of energy in batteries involves solving and dissolving the plates in the electrolyte. bulk charge. The applied voltage is a little higher. batteries do not last forever. It has less instant energy but greater long-term energy delivery. and the electrons release the stored energy. thus enhancing battery life. The purpose of float charge is to keep a charged battery from discharging. The capacity of a battery (how much energy it can store) is measured in AH (Amp Hour). as used in most cars.→ 2 PbSO4 + 2 H2O When a load is connected to the battery. batteries can last for decades.

Chapter 2 – Literature Review Main causes for premature battery death are overcharging. The first two causes can be prevented by a charge controller. Sulfating is sometimes (partially) reversible by controlled charging of the battery. and the batteries will provide reliable and convenient energy storage for years or decades. and occurs when the battery is left in a low. In a well-designed system that's being used the way it was designed for. . depending on battery quality [7].10 - . Sulfating is the formation of large lead sulfate on the battery plates. charging with a too high charge current. these problems will not occur.or uncharged state for a longer period of time. and sulfating.

It is switched on and off by the driving square wave signals at the gate. In practice. the voltage drop across it will be close to zero and hence the dissipated power will be very small [8]. the switch will be switched at a constant frequency fs with an on-time of DTs. and a switch. If the device is in the on state (i. and an off-time of D’Ts. If the semiconductor device is in the off state. e.D) (see Fig 3. inductor current never falls to zero in one switching cycle. its current is zero and hence its power dissipation is zero. All these devices ideally do not consume any power. a converter may operate in both modes. Whereas in discontinuous conduction mode. The DC-DC converters can have two distinct modes of operation [9]: (1) continuous current conduction and (2) discontinuous current conduction. where Ts is the switching period 1/fs. an inductor.1 DC-DC Converter In this section the principles of switching power conversion are introduced and details of the DC-DC boost converter circuits are discussed in steady state. which is the reason for the high efficiencies of switching converters.1).11 - . usually a MOSFET. and switching period Ts . D is the duty ratio of the switch and D’ is (1 . In continuous mode.Chapter 3 – Theory CHAPTER 3 .THEORY 3. During the operation of the converter. saturated). the inductor current falls to zero before completing one switching cycle. Figure3. Ts. Duty ratio D. Ts or at least one the switch or diode is conducting. A switching converter consists of capacitors. which have significantly different characteristics.1 Ideal Switch voltage v. The switch is realized with a switched mode semiconductor device.

Chapter 3 – Theory 3.2. thus isolating the output stage. Figure3. This results in a positive voltage across the inductor in Figure 3. the inductor voltage becomes vL = Vd – Vo---------------------------------( 3.(3. the output stage receives energy from the inductor as well as from the input.2. as shown in Figure 3. is also known as the step-up converter. After the switch is opened in the second time interval D’Ts of the switching period. the closed switch connects the input through the inductor to ground and current starts to flow. As the name implies its typical application is to convert low input-voltage to a high output voltage. When the switch is closed the source voltage Vd is applied across the inductor and the rate of rise of inductor current is dependent on the source voltage Vd and inductance L.3a. 3. The diode is reversed biased so no inductor current flows through the load. the current through the inductor increases and the energy stored in the inductor builds up.1) When the switch is opened in Figure 3b.2) .1 Continuous Conduction Mode Figure 3 [9] below shows the operation of the boost converter in the continuous conduction mode where the inductor current iL (t) > 0. the output capacitor is assumed to be large to ensure a constant output voltage vo (t) ≅ Vo.2 Boost Converter The Boost Converter. vL = Vd -------------------------------------. In steady state analysis.12 - .2 DC-DC Boost converter During the first time interval DTs of the switching period Ts.

Vd × ton +( Vd – Vo) × toff = 0 ---------------.13 - . to the next.(3.(3.5) . the input power (Pd) and output power (Po) are the same. Io / Id = (1 –D) -----------------------------.e. Ts. (Pd = Po). i. ∴ Vd × Id = Vo × Io Hence.3) Dividing both sides by Ts. Since in steady state operation the waveform must repeat from one time period.3 Continuous Conduction mode: (a) switch on.(3. the integral of the inductor voltage vL over one time period must be zero [9].4) Assuming the circuit is 100% efficiency. where Ts = ton + toff. Therefore. (b) switch off. and rearranging all terms yields Vo / Vd = Ts / toff = 1 / (1-D) -----------------. This implies that the areas A and B in Figure 3.Chapter 3 – Theory Figure 3.3 must be equal.

peak = 1 / 2 × Vd/L × ton -----------------------(3.8) In most applications. the average output current at the edge of continuous conduction is IoB = Ts × Vo × D(1 . with Vo constant.D) / 2L ----------------(3.3) and (3.5 [9] as a function of duty ratio D. Therefore.2. the output voltage Vo is kept constant. The average inductor current at the boundary is ILB = 1 / 2 × i L.14 - .7) Figure 3. Being at the boundary between the continuous and the discontinuous mode. by definition.D)2 / 2L ----------------(3. By using equation (3.4 Waveforms at the edge of the continuous conduction In steady state the average capacitor current is zero.4).4 [9] shows the waveforms for vL and iL at the edge of continuous conduction.Chapter 3 – Theory 3.6) Substitute equation (3. IoB are plotted in Figure 3. .2 Boundary between Continuous and Discontinuous Conduction Figure 3.5). therefore for the boost converter the inductor current and the input current are the same (id = iL).3) into (4. the inductor current iL goes to zero at the end of the off period. gives ILB = Ts × Vo × D(1 .

maximum output current occurs at D = 1/3 = 0. Vo. the current conduction will become discontinuous [9]. is assumed to be constant (although.max = Ts × Vo / 8L ----------------------------(3. this is not the case.5 shows that for a given duty cycle. in practice.074 × Ts × Vo / L --------------------(3. at D =0. and duty ratio.6 Converter Waveforms at Discontinuous Conduction Figure 3. .5.5 Average Output Current at the Boundary of continuous-discontinuous From Figure 3. 3. the input voltage.2.333: IoB. constant). with constant Vo.10) Figure 3. the average inductor current below ILB). Vd.5 inductor current reaches its maximum value. To understand the operation in this mode.max = 0.Chapter 3 – Theory Figure 3.3 Discontinuous-Conduction Mode Figure 3. since D would vary in order to keep the output voltage. D.15 - .9) Also. if the average load current drops below IoB and (hence. D.6 shows the discontinuity of inductor current as the result of the load power decreases. ILB.

of a boost converter are equal. and the inductor current.10) and (3.14) Using the equation (3. the average output current can be found: Io = D × ∆1 × Ts × Vd / 2L -----------------------------------(3.16) Figure3.11) and (3.13) As mentioned before.15) In practice.16 - . the average input current. Po. Combining equation (3. IL.(3. the integral of the inductor voltage over one time period is zero.8). Io / Id = ∆1 / (∆1 + D) ------------------------------------------(3. Pd. D varies in respond to the variation in Vd while Vo is held constant. Id = Vd × D × Ts (D + ∆1) / 2L ------------. is equal to the output power. Id can be obtained by using Figure 6.e. Vd × D × Ts + (Vd – Vo) × ∆1 × Ts = 0 --------------------(3.12) Assume the circuit is 100% efficiency.max)]1/2 ---.12).-----------------(3. the input power.Chapter 3 – Theory Similar to the analysis of continuous conduction mode. (3.7 Step-up converter characteristics keeping Vo constant . It is useful to obtain the required duty ratio D as a function of load current for various values of Vo / Vd [9].11) ∴ Vo / Vd = (∆1 + D) / ∆1 --------------------------------------(3. i. Hence. Id.13) yields: D = [(4 × Vo × Io )(Vo / Vd –1) / (27 × Vd × IoB.

Chapter 3 – Theory In Figure 3. This is due to the fact that very poor switch utilization at high values of duty ratio. in practice the ratio between input and output voltage declines as the duty ratio approaches unity.5 Voltage and Current Ripple While the output voltage ripple amplitude ∆Vo usually ranges within 1% of the dc component Vo. 3. Increase in size would result in and increase in weigh and higher cost.8 Effect of parasitic elements on voltage conversion ratio 3.2. the inductor.17 - . because the inductor current ripple is determined by the value of the inductance L.2) as D approaching unity the ratio between input and output voltage would increase to infinity.8 as the dashed line. the amplitude of the inductor current ripple ∆IL varies by as much as 10% to 20% of its dc value IL [9]. If the ripple gets too large.8 [9] shows the effect of these parasitics on the voltage transfer ratio. This is important to know. D is plotted as a function of Io / IoB. Figure 3. The dashed curve is the boundary between the continuous and discontinuous conduction mode.4 Effect on Parasitic Elements The parasitic elements in a boost converter are due to the losses associated with the diode. In ideal situation. Figure 3.7. according to equation (3. the size of the switching semiconductor device must be increased to handle the high current peaks. the capacitor and the switch. .max for different values of Vd / Vo.2. It can be seen from Figure 3. However. The curves in this range are shown in Figure 3.7 that by vary the duty ratio and the change in the output current will keep the output voltage constant at all time.

18) Where diL / dt represent the slope of the inductor current during the first time interval DTs of a switching period.2.Vo) / L ------------------(3. D’Ts with equation (3. For the second time interval.9 Ripple Inductor current Since the converter is assumed to be in steady state and 100 % efficiency.5.19) The slopes diL / dt are shown in Figure 3.18). the following expression is obtained: diL / dt = vL / L = (Vd .20) Figure 3.9 With the linear expression for diL / dt (3.18 - .Chapter 3 – Theory 3.1 Inductor Current Ripple By definition. . the voltage drops across the inductor is vL = L × diL / dt ------------------------------------(3. it does not make a difference if DTs or D’Ts is chosen to determine the current ripple amplitude. the follow expression is obtained: diL / dt = vL / L = Vd / L -------------------------(3. the equation for the peak to peak ripple can be derived: ILp-p = 2 ∆iL = Vd × D × Ts / L ----------------(3.17).2).17) Using equation (3.1) and (3.

are the diode conduction loss. the output capacitor acts like a filter.19 - . MOSFET conduction loss and switching of the MOSFET.10 Boost converter output voltage ripple For a continuous mode of operation. flows through the capacitor and its average value flows through the load resistor. . the peak to peak output voltage ripple could be calculated by considering the waveforms shown in Figure 3.5.22) that for a large value of capacitor. C.22) It can be seen in equation (3.5.Chapter 3 – Theory Equation (3.10 [9].21) 3. the output voltage ripple can be minimized. inductor conduction loss. the shaded area in Figure 3.20) now can be solved for the inductance L so that desired current ripple amplitude can be achieved: L = (Vd × D × Ts) / (2 × ∆iL) ----------------(3. It can be assumed that all the ripple current component of the diode current.2. iD. fsw. Hence.3 Power consumption in the Boost Converter The components. Hence. the peak to peak voltage ripple can be determined by [9]: ∆Vo = ∆Q / C = Io × D × Ts / C = (Vo × D × Ts) /(R × C) = (Io × D × Ts) / C --------------------(3.10 represents the charge ∆Q.2.2 Output Voltage Ripple Figure 3. 3. which cause power loss in the Boost-Converter when operating at high switching frequency.

is equal the input current. PMOSFET. The conduction loss in the MOSFET. The overlapping of the current and voltage waveforms during the turn-on period accounts for the switching loss and is given by [11]: Pturn-on = (Idso × Vdd × td × f) + f × Ids × tr [ Vdd /2 + (Vds.27) The MOSFET switching loss can be found by considered four different switching periods.conduction. (3. Idso is the drain-source leakage current of the MOSFET. Pdiode. Pinductor. Id is the input current and D is the duty ratio. They are namely the turn-on. turn-off and off period.24) The conduction loss in the inductor.26).20 - .Chapter 3 – Theory The conductance loss in the diode.25) where RL is the effective series resistance of the inductor.24). the total conduction loss the BoostConverter is: Pconduction loss = IL × Vf × (1 –D) + IL 2 × RL + IL 2 × Rds × D --------(3. is given by: Pinductor = IL 2 × RL ----------------------------(3.28) where f is the switching frequency. is given by: PMOSFET. . is given by [11]: Pdiode = Id × Vf × (1 –D) --------------------(3. Since for the Boost-Converter the inductor current. equation (3. conduction.23) can be rewritten as: Pdiode = IL × Vf × (1 –D) --------------------(3.sat is the saturated drain-to-source voltage.26) Where Rds is the MOSFET’s drain-to-source on resistance. From equation (3. IL. Id. Vdd is the drain voltage.conduction = IL 2 × Rds × D ------------(3.23) where the Voltage Vf is the forward bias of the diode. tr is the turn-on rise time and Vds.25) and (2. td is the turn-on delay time.sat – Vdd) / 3] -(3.

during the conduction period is given by [11]: PCond.21 - .Chapter 3 – Theory The overlapping of the current and voltage waveforms during the turn-off period accounts for the switching loss and is given by [11]: Pturn-off = (Ids × ts × Vds.32) 3.30) where tc = D/f . . = Vds.td -tr is the conduction time of the MOSFET.sat × f) + (Vdd × Ids × tf × f / 6) -------------(3.11 is used as a transducer that converter the current signals into voltage signals. The average power PCond.3 Differential Amplifier Figure 3. is: PMOSFETswitching =Pturn-on + Pcond.31) where to is the off time of the MOSFET. Hence. the total switching loss in a MOSFET. The average power during the off period is given by [11]: Poff = Vdd × to × f × Idso -----------------------------------------------(3. + Pturn-off + Poff ----------------------------(3.sat × Ids × f × tc ----------------------------------------------(3. The voltage signals that provide the information about the current therefore can be fed back to the microcontroller for processing.29) where ts is the storage time of the MOSFET. PMOSFETswitching.11 Differential Amplifier A differential amplifier shown in Fig 3.

The CMRR is defined as [10]: CMRR = 20 log (|Ad| / |Acm|) --------. G.26) From the circuit theory. then the output voltage of a differential amplifier is given by [10]: Vo = AdVdiff + AcmVcm----------------. A quantitative specification is the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR).(3.27) From equation (3.(3. is G = (R2 / R1) ------------------------------(3.28) .(3.(3.23) The common mode signal is the average of the input voltages and is given by: Vcm = 1 / 2 (V1 + V2) ------------------.25) For a well-designed differential amplifiers have the differential gain Ad that is much larger than the common-mode gain Acm.24) If the gain for the differential signal is denoted as Ad and the gain for the common-mode signal as Acm. the output voltage of a differential amplifier is given by the following expression: Vo = (R2 / R1) (V1 –V2) -----------------.Chapter 3 – Theory The circuit consists of two input sources V1 and V2. which is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the differential gain to the magnitude of the common-mode gain. It responds to both the differential signal Vdiff and common-mode signal Vcm.22 - .(3.27) differential amplifier gain. The differential signal is the difference between the input voltages and can be defined as: Vdiff = (V1 –V2) -------------------------.

The tracker can be designed to either increase (known as a boost topology) or decrease voltage (known as a buck topology) from the array going into the battery.1 Volts and give rise to a maximum power of 83 Watts. The incremental conductance method is used as a MPPT algorithm.55 Volts. Choosing boost converter topology will maximized the efficiency of the PV array in a cloudy day. There will be a trade off between the power efficiency and reliability of tracking MPP. The control section is involved the design of both analog and digital system. the input and output currents are such that the power into and out of the tracker are equal. The PV array used in this project is the MSX-83. With 36 polycrystalline silicon solar in series. The research problem states that the PV array is field-wired into two halves and hence two MPPT will have to be built in parallel. the maximum power of 41. Because a tracker is essentially a specialized switching power supply. It will take in analog voltages and currents proportional to measured quantities. it can generates high current up to 4. The switch-mode topology is usually determined by the input and output voltages desired.85 Amps and a voltage of 17.e. digitize them.Chapter 4 – Implementation CHAPTER 4 – IMPLEMENTATION 4. and then convert a number back to a voltage proportional to what the system believes is the maximum power point voltage of the array and the state of charge of the battery. process them in a micro-controller.1 Design Overview The two important things in power tracker design are the switch-mode topology and the control mechanism. and since boost converter are technically easier to build and also guarantee continuous current through the array. The advantage of using this method to track MPP is because it is more efficient than the P&O method in a way that it is able to correctly locate the operating point of the PV array. and durability. Since the P&O method will . While the current will stay at the same value of 4.85 Amps and the voltage is reduced by half i. When the PV array is field-wired into two halves. a product line which is the industry standard for reliability.5 Watts can be delivered on each side of the PV array. 8.23 - . It is most powerful of Solarex’ Megamodule™ series of photovoltaic modules.

then runs a conversion on the battery via the A/D converter. This will leads to the inefficiency use of the PV array and hence this will effects the whole system performance of tracking MPP. The main program will turn off the Boost Converters.24 - . and to make its decision (increase or decrease duty ratio output).Chapter 4 – Implementation move away from the power operating point under rapidly change in light condition and not be able to go back to the maximum operating point quickly. . Two sensors for each side of the PV array. Figure 4. Then the main program is then returned to continue tracking MPP. The information obtained is then processed and then compared to the predefined values to determine the next stage of charge.1.1 Block Diagram of Maximum Power Point Tracker The block diagram of the MPPT is shown in Fig. The output voltage and current from the source are monitored upon which the MPPT controller relies to calculate the conductance and incremental conductance. Other advantage of using this method is it does not depend on the device physics. 4. They are namely: voltage and current sensors. By using this method four sensors will be used. It consists of: • • An 83-Watts Photovoltaic Array. Voltage divider network and current sensing circuitry. The battery voltage is measured by using a fifth sensor.

every additional inch of wire adds milliohms of resistance. ∆iL = Io × 0. . Since this converter has all of the array energy flowing through it.5 Amps As discussed in section 3.Chapter 4 – Implementation • • • DC-DC switching converters . at this stage. Pin = Pout. the amplitude of the inductor current ripple can be varying between 10% and 20% of its dc value.25 - . can be calculated by using equation (3. it can be assumed that the converter output voltage is constant at 12 Volts and the converter is 100 % efficiency. The schematic and the PCB layouts for the MPPT are in Appendix A and B respectively.5. That is when the PV array operates at its maximum capacity i. Equation (3. However. i.5 × 0.2 Hardware Design The most critical section of the power tracker is switching converter section. any resistance or loss.2. It is this section that operates the PV array at its maximally-efficient point while converting the energy provided up to a voltage that is usable by the rest of the system.e. Ts = 10 µs). will contribute to the power loss of the system. To find the value of inductance needed for the converter. Io = Po ÷ Vo = 41. Therefore the output current can be calculated by using the equation Pout = Vo × Io: Hence. 4. no matter how small.1 = 0. 41.e. A12 volt lead acid battery as a load. and the inductor current is assumed to be equal to the output current and its current ripple is 10% (i.1 Inductor Inductor losses are the hardest to eliminate.e. It is also in this section that optimal component choice is important.e.2. Control Section.35A).5 ÷ 12 ≅ 3.The two Boost Converters connected in parallel.21) gives: L = (Vd × D × Ts) / (2 × ∆iL) The duty cycle ratio. And also that the converter is assumed to operates in continuous conduction mode.2 = 3. If the converter is assumed operating at frequency of 20kHz (i. D.5 Watts. extreme case has to be considered.4). because it has a certain number of turns on the coil to maintain the necessary inductance for the converter to function. 4.

the output current is 3. hence D = 0.2875 × 10 × 10-6) / 0. which has 45 V reverse breakdown. In case of these transients and the possibility of large output voltages if the load is suddenly disconnected. speed.26 - . and forward voltage.12V.2875 × 10 × 10-6) / (2 × 0.57 V of forward drop at the expected currents of 7. . The best combination of these features that could be found was the MBR745 from Fairchild Semiconductor. the diode also must have a high breakdown voltage. 4. the more power that will be dissipated and lost. 4.12 ∴C≅ 84 µF The minimum capacitance value needed for the converter is 84 µF.35) ∴L ≅ 35 µH Since. Ts = 10 µs.e. the inductor must at least be able to handle current of 3. Therefore. the right value of capacitance is required.5A. C = (Io × D × Ts) / ∆Vo C = (3.2875 The minimum inductance value is L = (8.5 Amps.2875. As before. Once again.Chapter 4 – Implementation Vo / Vd = 1 / (1-D) Knowing that Vd = 8.5A. the extreme case is considered.5 × 0. The higher the forward voltage.22) gives: ∆Vo = (Io × D × Ts) / C After rearranging. an inductor of 220 µH and its rating current of 5. However. and 0. Hence. If the diode is slow to react.2 Output Capacitor To obtain a desired output voltage ripple. Equation (3. fast diode is needed to act as a switch for the energy in the inductor. ∆Vo = 0.55 Volts.2.55 × 0. the efficiency of the converter will lower and damaging high voltage transients will develop.5A with resistance of 63mΩ is chosen for the converter.2. Assume that the output voltage ripple is 1% of its dc value (i. a 2200 µF is chosen for the design. D = 0.3 Diode Diode choice is a trade off between breakdown voltage.

27 - . A step down voltage regulator LM2936-5.5mA and is capable of supplying two independent output channels up to 1.2. operating the ADCs and DACs that deal with .4 Voltage Regulator Since the microcontroller requires a supply voltage of 5V. 40 V operating voltage limit . hence it allows a better conversion efficiency of the boost converter. It has a low output impedance and capable of sourcing and sinking a large gate current for a short duration.0 is chosen.Low power consumption. It has a maximum leakage current of only 100n Amp and very low on state resistance of 0. 4. 4.2.5 MOSFET An n-channel enhancement mode power MOSFET RFP3055LE is used as a high speed-switching device for the Boost-Converter. Its features are: • • • • Ultra low quiescent current .2.7 Microcontroller PIC16F873 is chosen as a microcontroller for the design. 4.5A. It is not suitable to drive a large capacitive load such as a MOSFET with high slew rate. This MOSFET driver is a suitable choice since the design required two PWM signals to switch the two power MOSFETs. This microcontroller is responsible for all tracker functionality. In order to achieve high speed switching in power MOSFET. Since the rating of this device is rated at 60V and 11A.107Ω and hence small conduction loss that makes it a highly efficient switching device.6 MOSFET Driver Since the PWM current signals generated by the microcontroller can only deliver maximum current of 25mA.Chapter 4 – Implementation 4. And since it is operating at current as low as 10. Internal short-circuit current limit .the microcontroller will be protected if there is a short.It is capable of stepping down the voltage from the battery (12V) to 5V. Internal thermal shutdown protection – This will protect the regulator from over heat if there is a short-circuit in the circuitry.circuit in the circuitry. a MOSFET driver MC34152P is used. this rating is well above maximum operating voltage and current which are 12 V and 3.5 A of the converter.2.

Hence. two are used to monitor the PV array’s currents. the resistance values chosen are 22kΩ and 8. voltage divider network is needed to lower their voltages. and monitoring the state of charge of the battery.0 voltage regulator. either the voltage from the voltage divider network or from the differential amplifier must be converted to binary numbers that is digestible by the PIC16F873.55 = 3. 368 x 8 bytes of data memory (RAM) two D/A and five A/D channel. The two D/A converter pins are used to send the analog voltages (PWMs) back out to set the two DC-DC switching converter to the maximum power point voltage of the PV array. Analog signals.76V. and low power consumption for this application.2kΩ) = 0.27 and therefore gives the maximum input voltage to the A/D conversion channel is 0. the resistance ratio need to be smaller. to monitor and sample the voltage from the PV array or from the battery. A/D conversion is required. It has 8K x 14 bytes of flash memory.28 - . performance.44 × 8. and the last one is used to monitor the battery voltage.Chapter 4 – Implementation the analog section. Therefore.27 × 13. hence the maximum voltage that the PIC16F873 is able to sample is 5V.2. This gives the resistance ratio of 12kΩ / (15kΩ + 12kΩ) = 0.2kΩ / (22kΩ + 8. 4. For the five A/D converter channels.55V). The PIC16F873 is a perfect combination of features. Since the A/D reference voltage is the voltage supplied to PIC16F873 from the LM2936-5. . The resistors used for the voltage divider network for the PV array voltage are the15kΩ and 12kΩ.73V.8 Voltage divider network Since the PIC16F873 can only process digital information. which is less than 5V.8 = 3.8V at fully charge) is higher than the PV array voltage (8. Since the battery voltage (13. This gives the resistance ratio of 8. two are used to monitor the PV array’s voltages.44 and therefore gives the maximum input voltage to the A/D conversion channel is 0.2kΩ. computing what the power point of the array is.

52 W.Chapter 4 – Implementation 4. the resistance value can be determined.022Ω resistor.85A flowing through the 0.9 Current-Sensing Circuit The current signals from the PV array are monitoring by using the current sensing circuit.amp = 0. the current from the PV array passing through the resistor and gives rise to a voltage drop across it. the maximum voltage drop across it will be 4.28) gives.1067V. the maximum output current is 4.0213 Ω A 0.2.022 Ω surface-mount resistor is chosen for the design. therefore the common mode signal at the input will not be amplified in a great extent that affects the design.5W dissipation is allowed for the current sensing resistor. The sensing circuit that acts as a transducer that convert the current reading to the voltage signals so that the microcontroller can understand and use the information to process and hence performs the PWMs. By connecting a current resistor at the inputs of the differential amplifier.95V . The operation amplifier that is used for the differential amplifier is the LM358N. the equation (3. Hence the maximum amplified voltage that will be seen at the microcontroller A/D converter channel is Vmax. The resistance value chosen for R1is 15kΩ and R2 is 560kΩ. 0.85A.852 × R ∴ R = 0. If the solar panel is assumed operating at its maximum capacity. Hence. G = (R2 / R1) = (560k / 15k) ≅ 37 with the maximum current of 4. It has a high common mode rejection ratio of 70dB.85 × 0. the power dissipation in the resistor is therefore depending on the resistor value to be used and hence this will contribute to the power loss of the whole system. The voltage is then amplified by the differential amplifier.1067 × 37 = 3.022 = 0. And if 0.5 / 4.852 = 0. Since the power dissipation in the resistor is P = I2 × R.29 - .5 = 4. the maximum power loss is estimated to be 0.

The measured voltage is then compared to the predefined values to determine the state of charge of the battery.8V the program goes to the high current charging mode. Only the first halves of the PV array program flow charge will be discussed. the Incremental Conductance algorithm is employed.6) is false.5) and (2. The Incremental Conductance method is chosen as a tracking algorithm for the MPPT. if dP/dV = 0 (i.Chapter 4 – Implementation 4. The operating output current (I(k)_S1) and voltage (V(k)_S1) from S1 are measured by using A/D channels RA0 and RA1.1)_S1) and (I(k .3 equation (2. the next step in the design is the on-board software control. If the battery voltage is less than 13. If equation (2.7) . First. The program flow chart for this algorithm is shown in Figure 4. Then G and ∆G are computed.3.5.30 - . then the system operates at the MPP and no change in operating voltage is necessary.6). At this speed each instruction set will be executed at 1µ second. The program then runs the Incremental Conductance algorithm on S2.8V the program goes to sleep for 1 second and then goes back to measure the battery voltage again. The program starts by initializing the A/D module and the D/A (PWM) module and sets the duty ratio at 50%. the program is running the Incremental Conductance algorithm on the first halves of the PV array (S1) and then the second halves of the PV array (S2). The PWM module is turned off at this stage and the program runs A/D conversion on channel RA5 to measure the battery voltage. The program flow chart is shown in Figure 4. equation (2. From section 2. The incremental changes dV_S1 and dI_S1 are approximated by comparing the most recent measured values for (V(k)_S1) and (I(k)_S1) with those measured in the previous cycle (V(k .2 for the first halves of the PV array and the program flow chart for the second halves of the PV array is shown in Figure 4. In this mode. thus the adjustment step is bypassed (no adjustment for the duty ratio) and the current cycle ends.1. The PIC16F873 microcontroller operates at speed of 4MHz is used to carry out the algorithm.e G = ∆ G) is true. since it is likely that the MPP can be found. since the other is exactly the same. If the battery voltage is greater than the 13.1)_S1).3 Software Design With the hardware circuit design completed. The program is written in C and then is compiled by a freeware version C compiler “CC5X” from B Knudsen Data.

this is impossible for calculation.31 - .Chapter 4 – Implementation are used to determine whether the system is operating at a voltage greater or less than the MPP and hence to increase or decrease the duty ratio by 1 accordingly. ∆G_S1 = dI_S1 ÷ dV_S1 = dI_S1 ÷ 0. If dI_S1 > 0. the operating conditions have not changed and therefore the adjustment of the system voltage is bypassed. a delay time of 20 µsec is required at the beginning of each A/D conversion since this allows for the A/D to acquire the data. and hence contributes to the inefficient power transfer of the converter. the incremental change of the operating voltage will be zero (dV_S1 = 0). The actual C codes are included in Appendix C. This would lead to a division by zero i. The maximum duty cycle ratio is set at 90% and the minimum is at 10% to avoid power loss. . Since the voltage (dV_S1 = 0) that means it has not changed. The program then returns and starts tracking again until the MPP is reached. If dI < 0. the condition (dV_S1 = 0) is checked first and leads to another branch if true in the algorithm with further tests on possible changes of the panel's operating conditions. After 1 minute the program goes back to measure the battery voltage again to determine the state of charge of the battery. To avoid this. now the only useful information about possible changes can be found from the current measurement. the duty ratio is increased by 1.e. The tracking process using Incremental Conductance algorithm is then repeated. The tracking process duration is 1 minute. This will be further discussed in Chapter 5. If the system was operating at the MPP during the previous cycle. If dI_S1 is equal to zero. For the A/D conversion to work correctly. the duty ratio is decreased by 1.

Delay 1 minute ? Figure 4. duty_S1 = duty_S2 = 50%.Chapter 4 – Implementation Start Initialize ADC Module Initialize PWM Module & set duty ratio.1 Program Flow Chart Yes Return .8V ? Yes PWM Module On Stop Charging High-Current Charging PWM Module Off High-Current Charging Tracking MPP for S1 using Incremental Conduction alg. No Tracking MPP for S2 using Incremental Conduction alg.32 - . PWM Module Off Measure Battery voltage No Battery Voltage >13.

33 - .Vin(k-1)_S1 dI _S1 = Iin (k) _S1 .Iin(k-1) _S1 G_S1 = Vin(k) _S1÷ Iin(k)_S1 ∆G_S1 = dI _S1 ÷ dV_S1 No dV_S1 = 0? Yes Yes G_S1=∆G_S1? dI_S1= 0? Yes No G_S1>∆G_S1? No dI_S1> 0? No duty_S1 = duty -1 Yes duty_S1 = duty +1 No duty_S1 = duty -1 Yes duty_S1 = duty +1 Return Figure 4.2 Control Flow Chart for S1. Initialize Sense Vin(k) _S1 & Iin(k) _S1 from S1 dV_S1 = Vin(k) _S1 .Chapter 4 – Implementation Tracking MPP for S1 using Incremental Conductance alg.Incremental Conductance method .

Iin(k-1) S2 G_S2 = Vin(k) _S2÷ Iin(k)_S2 ∆G S2 = dI S2 ÷ dV S2 No dV_S2 =0 ? Yes Yes G_S2= ∆G_S2 ? dI_S2= 0 ? Yes No G_S2> ∆G_S2 ? No No duty_S2 = duty -1 dI_S2 >0 ? Yes duty_S2 = duty +1 No duty_S2 = duty -1 Yes duty_S2 = duty +1 Return Figure 4.Chapter 4 – Implementation Tracking MPP for S2 using Incremental Conductance Initialize Sense Vin(k) _S2 & Iin(k) _S2 from S2 dV_S2 = Vin(k) _S2 .34 - .3 Control Flow Chart for S2.Vin(k-1)_S2 dI S2 = Iin (k) S2 .Incremental Conductance method .

Chapter 5 – Results and Discussion CHAPTER 5 – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5. The following experiments show the behaviour of the Boost-Converter under different switching frequencies and duty cycle ratios that could affect the power efficiency of the Boost-Converter.8915 90.6889 90.1 Switching Frequency vs.09 16.000 2.315 1.312 1.999 2.300 Power Efficiency (%) 58.8525 90.98 7.08 16.03 16.54 16. The input voltage.998 2.44 16.00 7.2549 90.76 7.313 1.311 1.40 7. It is capable of delivery most of the input power from the PV array to the load.999 3.1 under various PWM switching frequency. Since the DC power supply can supply constant voltage and current. The DC power supply was set at 10V and the current was limited to 3A.35 - .000 3. 5.000 2. Hence the power efficiency can be found by using the relation η = Pout / Pin. input current.6980 85.315 1.296 1.73 7. Switching Frequency vs.000 3. therefore it is a suitable device for the experiments that can be use to simulate the PV array.156 1.1.01 Output Current (A) 0. output voltage and output current were measured and recorded in Table 5. The duty cycle ratio was set and kept constant at 55%.998 2.4042 89.02 8.314 1.998 Output Voltage (V) 13.73 7.1 Evaluation of the Boost Converter DC-DC switching Boost-Converter was employed in this thesis project because of its high conversion efficiency.446 1.8864 90. The input power (Pin) and output power (Pout) then calculated by using the relationship P = V × I.58 16.06 16. Power Efficiency In this experiment a function generator was used to generate square-wave signals that performed PWM on the designed Boost-Converter.68 Input Current (A) 3.75 7.3945 .42 8.306 1.8779 90.7367 90.57 16.44 16.999 3.000 2. Power Efficiency 10V-3A D = 55% Switching Frequency (kHz) 1 3 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Input Voltage (V) 3.70 7.05 16.7960 90. A 12 V lead-acid battery was used as a load at the output of the converter.

36 - .3435 90.998 2.54 7.45 2.98 15.92 15. the inductor is no longer store energy.0779 89.997 2. The power efficiency gradually rolled off as the switching frequency increases beyond 20kHz.00 15.7296 89.61 7.997 2. Power Efficiency The plot in Figure 5. This can be explained by considering that the inductor has reached it saturation.63 7.1 Switching Frequency vs.997 16.997 2.997 2. This is because the switching loss of the MOSFET is proportional to the frequency that driving it.4513 Table 5.3314 88.278 1.85 1.95 15.1 shows the power efficiency reached its maximum value when the switching frequency is around 20kHz.58 7. what it does is drawing the capacitor’s energy and . the power efficiency decreased rapidly when the frequency drops below 20kHz. Power Efficiency Figure 5.89 15.50 7. Also.268 1.295 1.246 90.Chapter 5 – Results and Discussion 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 7.289 1.9080 89.97 15.257 1.1 Switching Frequency vs.284 1.997 2.65 7.8610 88. At this state.

the current in the inductor at this stage is very high and therefore this gives rise to a very high inductor power loss.0891 83.867 0.53 13.1.13 4.205 0. input current.8262 80.3107 85.4947 74.546 Power Efficiency (%) 93.0701 84.1802 95. the switching frequency is kept fixed at 20kHz this time since it is an optimum switching frequency that was found from the section 5.55 7.37 - .1849 81.785 1.996 2.2 Power Efficiency vs.996 2.14 13. Duty Cycle Ratio In this experiment the power supply was set at 10V-3A as in the previous section.890 1.689 0.745 1. Power Efficiency vs.1.589 1.4394 65.156 0.47 13. f = 20kHz Duty Cycle Ratio.31 13. In conclusion the switching frequency for the Boost-Converter should not be too low or too high.23 13.05 13.1640 76.314 0.976 0.34 13.27 13.995 2.51 10.41 13.996 Output Voltage (V) 10. Duty Cycle Ration .19 13.680 2.4054 70.996 2.425 1.09 Output Current (A) 0.1.63 5. output voltage and output current were measured and recorded in Table 5.3578 Table 5.57 10. Duty Cycle Ratio 10V-3A.994 2.2 under various duty cycle ratio and their relationship is plotted in Figure 5.996 2.2. As a result.33 8.Chapter 5 – Results and Discussion hence discharging the capacitor.76 7. 5.974 1.29 3.7154 79. The input voltage.41 10. However.52 10.47 5.991 2.996 2.300 1.341 2.267 0.35 13.996 2.16 6.65 Input Current (A) 0.2 Power Efficiency vs.05 9.407 1.2513 91.22 13.4297 86.49 13. D(%) 10 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Input Voltage (V) 8.

38 - . PSPICE were carried out to simulate the Boost-Converter and is shown in Appendix D.85A respectively.3.55V and 4. i.2 Power Efficiency vs. At low duty cycle ratio.3 Power Budget The power losses in the whole design system is calculated and summarized in the Table 5. The MPPT was assumed to operate at MPP and the switching frequency of 20kHz with the duty cycle ratio set to 55%.1 and it also shows that the efficiency decreases on either end of the graph. 5. The converter’s input voltage and current was set to 8.2 above shows that the maximum power efficiency occurs at D = 20%. at low and high duty cycle ratio.1. the power transfer to the load is decreases while the power loss in the MOSFET is staying the same.e. The curve shape is similar to the one in Figure 5. Duty Cycle Ratio The plot in Figure 5.Chapter 5 – Results and Discussion Figure 5. Therefore the efficiency is lower in this region where D is less than 20%. the Boost Converter experiences poor switching utilization. At high duty cycle ratio. . This is due to the fact that the MOSFET operates in its active region most of the time.

Pdiode = IL × Vf × (1 –D). to and Idso are obtained from the RFP3055LE data sheet.55) = 1.(3.57× (1 – 0. Ids. ts. Vf = 0.5604A and from the data sheet the inductor resistance is 0.28) gives: Pturn-on = (Idso × Vdd × td × f) + f × Ids × tr [ Vdd /2 + (Vds.25).55 = 1. tf.107 × 0.5604 2 × 0. The values for Vds. td.5604 × 0.26).17 W MOSFET conduction loss The power loss due to the MOSFET conduction loss is given by equation (3.063 = 1.conduction = IL 2 × Rds × D = 4.31 W Therefore. Where D = 0.sat.sat – Vdd) / 3] where the RMS drain current.57V.32). From PSPICE simulation the RMS inductor current is equal to 4. From PSPICE simulation the RMS diode current is equal to .5604 2 × 0. ∴ Pdiode = 4. PMOSFET.063Ω. the power losses in the converter can be determined. Equation (3. Inductor conduction loss The conduction loss in the inductor can be found by using equation (3.24) gives the diode conduction loss.22 W MOSFET switching loss The MOSFET switching loss can be found by using equations (3.28) .39 - . tr. conduction loss in the inductor is ∴ Pinductor = 4. is the different between the RMS inductor and diode current.55 and from data sheet the forward bias of the diode.Chapter 5 – Results and Discussion Using the results from PSPICE simulation and the information obtain from component data sheet (see Appendix E). the power loss due to the Diode conduction loss Equation (3.

32) is: PMOSFETswitching = Pturn-on + Pcond.25V × 20kHz)+(12V × 1.62mW +1.40 - .5024A × 22ns × 1.sat × f) + (Vdd × Ids × tf × f / 6) = (1. = 4.208 nW = 1.0580 = 1. Ids = 4.sat × Ids × f × tc = Vds.62 mW Equation (3.03 W Equation (3.208 nW The total switching loss in the MOSFET given by equation (3. Hence.5024 × 39n × 20kHz / 6) = 3.5604 -3. + Pturn-off + Poff = 7.5604 2 × 0.5024A × 105ns [12V /2 + (1.sat × Ids × f × (D / f – tr –td) = 1.54 mW .17mW + 2.041 W Current-Sensing Resistor The power dissipated in the current-sensing resistor can be calculated by using the equation Pcurrent-sensing res. ∴ Pcurrent-sensing res.25V – 12V) / 3] = 7.25V × 1.03W + 3.022 = 457. ∴Pturn-on = (100nA ×12V×8ns×20kHz) + 20kHz ×1.31) gives: Poff = 12V × 92ns × 20kHz × 100ns = 2.17 mW Equation (3.0580 A.5024 A.29) gives: Pturn-off = (Ids × ts × Vds. MOSFET drain-source voltage waveform Vdd use for PSPICE simulation is equal to 12V. = Id2 × R = IL2 × R where Id = IL is the RMS input current obtained from PSPICE simulation.55 / 20khz – 105ns – 8ns) = 1.30) gives: PCond.5024A × 20kHz × (0. = Vds.Chapter 5 – Results and Discussion 3.

the power consumed by the regulator is: Preg = Vreg × Ireg = Vreg × (Imirco + I op-amp) = 12 × (1mA + 0.0 Since regulator supplies voltage to the microcontroller and the Op-amp.1mA = 13.Chapter 5 – Results and Discussion Other estimated power loss Microcontroller From the PIC16F873 data sheet. the maximum current into VDD pin is 250mA.41 - . Hence. Since the voltage supply to the PIC16F873 is 5V and if the current required by the PIC16F873 is assumed to be 1mA. LM2936-5. the voltage supply to the Op-amp is 5V and if the current required by the Op-amp is assumed to be 100 µA. And since the voltage supplied to the regulator is 12V. the current that drawn from the regulator is sum of the current into the microcontroller and the Op-amp LM358. Then the power consumed by the Opamp can be estimated by using the equation: Pop-amp = V op-amp × I op-amp = 5 × 100 µA = 0. Then the power consumed by the PIC16F873 can be estimated by using the equation: Pmirco = Vmirco × Imirco = 5V × 1mA = 5 mW Op-amp LM358 Once again.2mA MOSFET Driver MC34152P .1mA) = 12 × 1.5m A Regulator.

041W Balance Power efficiency. The product is also capable of stop charging the battery when it detects the battery voltage at around 14V.97.Chapter 5 – Results and Discussion Since the voltage supply to the MOSFET driver is 12V and if the current required by the driver when operating is assumed to be 5mA. = 457.28 = 36.6% = 2. From experiment the tracking accuracy of the product was found to be 97.3 Power Budget Components Solar Panel. PIC16F873 Op-amp.42 - . MSX-83 Inductor Diode Current-Sensing Resistor Microcontroller.22 / 41.4%. Since the battery voltage at this point is considered as fully charged.5 W Pinductor = 1.5mA PMosfet-driver = 60mA Preg = 13.5 – 5. hence the tracking error is 100% . LM358 MOSFET Driver.4 Evaluation of the Product The product designed for this thesis project is capable of tracking MPP on two separate PV array panels.5 = 87.1.6%. Then the estimated power consumed by the driver is: PMosfet-driver = V Mosfet-driver × I Mosfet-driver = 12V × 5mA = 60mA Power Budget Input Power 41. η 41.conduction = 1.0 MOSFET.28% Table 5.17W Pcurrent-sensing res.2mA PMOSFET.22 36. FP3055LE Power Loss 5. LM2936-5. MC34152P Regulator. .54 mW Pmirco = 5 mW Pop-amp = 0.22W PMOSFETswitching = 1.31W Pdiode = 1.

6.28% and tracking accuracy of 97. it is necessary to use the MPPT to get the maximum power point from the PV array. which is designed to operate under continuous conduction mode and a microcontroller to control the PWM signals to the Boost-Converter and also to monitoring the state of charge of the battery.Chapter 6 – Conclusions and Future Work CHAPTER 6 – CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 6.43 - . This is what needs to be done in the future. . In the future.28% of conversion efficiency. Experimental results have shown that the MMPT has the conversion efficiency of 87. This is also contributing to the loss of power and needs to be considered in future design of the MPPT. The Incremental Conduction Algorithm is used as the control algorithm for the MPPT. float and absorption charge needs to be considered in the design.1 Conclusion When the PV array is used as a source of power supply to charge a 12V lead acid battery. Since the product can only fast charging the battery by maximizing the current into the battery and stop charging when the battery reaches its full state of charge. It is still not considered as a high efficiency product. And also since the MPPT can not go into the sleep mode when the PV array not producing significant amount of power due to low insolation level. For this thesis project. the MPPT is implemented by using a Boost-Converter.6%. The component choice is very important in the design of the MPPT. Since higher power efficiency can be achieved by carefully selecting the right components.2 Future Work Although the product can achieved 87.

44 - .MPPT Schematic .Appendix Appendix A .

Appendix Appendix B .45 - .PCB Layout • Top Layer • Bottom Layer .

PIE1. .1111. } void delay_100ms(void){ char mcount = 0x4f. ero. CCP1CON = 0. loadn: char ncount = 0x4f.} return.4 = 0.1111. CCP1CON = bin(00001100). T2CON = bin(00000000).ncount > 0){ goto decn. duty = 0b. Iin2_S1. } void delay_20us (void){ char count = 0x07. decn: while (-. Vin2_S1. TMR2 = 0.h" #include "math24f. CCP1CON.0001. dV_S1. ncount. void int_pwm(void){ TRISC = bin(00110000). float V_batt. CCP1CON. PWM1) // disable timer 2 interrupts // disable ccp1 interrupts // CCP1 module off // load period register (62) // set duty cycle // prescaler 1:1 // timer 2 off // ccp1 pwm mode.46 // N counter = 256 // M counter = 256 // port c2 output (CCP1. dG_S1.0001. mcount.1 = 0. Iin1_S1. PORTC.2 = 0.} while (-. dI_S1.1 = 0. CCPR1L = 0b. ccp1 module on .1110. G_S1.Appendix Appendix C . PIE1.} else goto loop. loop: if (-.C Codes #include "16f873.h" #define num1 1012 #define num2 1022 uns8 duty. Vin1_S1. PR2 = 0b.mcount > 0){ goto loadn.count == 0){ return.0011.5 = 0.

duty.0 analog input void incduty(void){ // Increment the duty ratio by 1 W = 60 . while (STATUS.} duty = duty -1.2 == 1){ finish? . CCPR1L = duty.duty. return. while (STATUS. return.2 == 1){ return.} void delay_200ms(void){ char mcount = 0xff.} while (-. } void int_adc (void){ TRISA =bin(00011111). test: if ( ADCON0. } void decduty(void){ W = 0x2 .2 = 1. CCPR1L = duty. } // N counter = 256 // M counter = 256 // inputs/outputs // PortA.} duty = duty +1. ADCON0.47 // decrement the duty ratio by 1 // start conversion // test go/done bit.ncount > 0){ goto decn. decn: while (-. } void start_conv(void){ delay_20us(). bit1. ADCON1 = bin(10000000).} return.mcount > 0){ goto loadn.2 == 1){ return. conversion . loadn: char ncount = 0xff.

Vin2_S1.mid8 = ADRESH. return. Iin1_S1.} if (Iin2_S1 > Iin1_S1){ incduty().48 - .} if (Iin2_S1 < Iin1_S1){ decduty(). result } void get_Iin1_S1 (void){ Iin1_S1.mid8 = ADRESH. result } void get_Vin2_S1 (void){ Vin2_S1. return.low8 = ADRESL.mid8 = ADRESH. Iin2_S1. result } void get_Vin1_S1 (void){ Vin1_S1.low8 = ADRESL.mid8 = ADRESH. result } // conversion complete get A/D // conversion complete get A/D // conversion complete get A/D // conversion complete get A/D // conversion complete get A/D void test1 (void){ if(Iin2_S1 == Iin1_S1 ){ return. } void get_measure_batt (void){ V_batt.} } void test2 (void){ .} delay_100ms().low8 = ADRESL.low8 = ADRESL. V_batt. return. result } void get_Iin2_S1 (void){ Iin2_S1.mid8 = ADRESH.goto test.low8 = ADRESL. Vin1_S1.

return.} // measuring the battery voltage // do nothing PWM module off ADCON0 = bin(01000001). goto again.} } void measure_batt(void){ ADCON0 = bin(01101001). on start_conv(). pwm1 on measure_batt(). return. // timer 2 on. . T2CON. AN0 void main (void){ int_pwm(). int_adc(). ADCON0 = bin(01001001). InitFpFlags().if ( dG_S1 == G_S1 || ero <= 0.} if ( dG_S1 > ero){ incduty(). on start_conv(). AN0 // select conversion clock = 8. return. get_Vin1_S1(). again: if (V_batt >= num1 || V_batt <= num2){ delay_200ms. get_measure_batt(). AN1 . on start_conv().2 = 1.49 - // select conversion clock = 8.} if ( dG_S1 < G_S1){ decduty(). } // select conversion clock = 8.01){ delay_100ms().

} } } . goto swapIV. n <256. AN1 G_S1 = Iin2_S1 / Vin2_S1. for (n =0. n++){ // looping for a while ADCON0 = bin(01000001). AN0 // select conversion clock = 8. on start_conv(). } if (n == 255){ break.Iin1_S1.get_Iin1_S1(). on start_conv(). if (ero<0) ero = -ero. while(1){ char n. Vin1_S1 = Vin2_S1. } if(dV_S1 >= 0){ test1(). ero = dG_S1 + G_S1.50 // break the while loop and go // back to measure battery voltage // error margin . get_Vin2_S1(). } swapIV: Iin1_S1 = Iin2_S1. dV_S1 = Vin2_S1 . // select conversion clock = 8. get_Iin2_S1(). if (dV_S1 < 0 ){ test2(). dI_S1 = Iin2_S1 .Vin1_S1. ADCON0 = bin(01001001). dG_S1 = dI_S1 / dV_S1.

Appendix Appendix D .PSPICE Simulation .51 - .

52 - .Appendix .

53 - .Component Data Sheet .Appendix Appendix E .

[9] N. New York. 86-93. R.2. 1995 . IEEE Computer Soc. “ [6] http://vt. Midya et al. Norwood. R. HarperEducational. “Study of Maximum Power Tracking Techniques and Control of DC/DC Converters for Photovoltaic Power System. Midya et al. [2] 1993.” 27th Annual IEEE PESC.. 1995. [5] P. pp. P. New York. Engineering & Society: An Australian Perspective.” 29th Annual IEEE PESC. Marvel Dekker. Ang. MA. Robbins. January 2001. USA.” Prentice Hall Inc. USA. vol. Undeland. 1995 [8] Robert W. [7] D. Chapman & Hall. pp.679-683.edu”. Fourikis. 1998. 1994. P. 1998. New York. Linden. New York. Power Switching Converters. pp.se. IEEE Computer Soc. Shen. Inc.M. Jones. NY 10003. W.” 27th Annual IEEE PESC. T.References References [1] S. Hambley. pp. Handbook Of Batteries. 1996. Hua and C. Semiconductors for Solar Cells. E. 1997. New York. USA. Press. Artech House.engr. Gostelow. John Wiley and Sons Inc. IEEE Computer Soc. NJ. 115 Fifth Avenue.54 - . Erickson. Maximum Power Point Tracker Models. Press. Power Electronics: Coverter’s Application and Design. “Electronics: A top-down Approach to Computer-Aided Circuit Design... Moller. Shengyi Liu. Johnston. USA. [4] C. “Dynamic Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Applications. McGraw-Hill. 162-183 [10] A. [3] H. Australia. Mohan. Press. USA. “Dynamic Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Applications. Fundamentals of Power Electronics. 1995. 1710-16. New York. [11] Simon S. J.P.

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