GROWTH IN MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM


   

Growth is irreversible and permanent process.
Growth take place in an organism from zygote until adulthood & result: An incrase in number of cells. An increase in the size / body mass. Cell differentiation & specializiation.

BOTH ROOT TIP & SHOOT HAVE THREE GROWTH ZONE:
  

Zone of cell division. Zone of cell elongation Zone of cell differentation

THE PROCESS OF GROWTH IN PLANTS PHASE
ZONE OF DIVISION

DESCRIPTION
Increase

in the number of cells by mitosis. Eg: Apical merestem (shoot & root) The cell are small & arrange closely The cell have large nucleus & thin cell wall The cell have no vacuole & surrounded by compact cytoplasm.
Cells

ZONE OF ELONGATION

elongate & compact This result of absorbing water into the cell by osmosis. Vacuoles increase in size. Small vacuoles fuse to form large central vac.
Cells

ZONE OF DIFFERENTIATION

begin to differ from each other. Cells differentiate into permanent tissue such as parenchyma, stoma, guard cell, phloem, xylem, mesophyly cell, cortex ,epidermis etc

PARAMETER USED IN MEASUREMENT GROWTH
1.
  

Length and height
Easy to carry out No need to kill/ damage orgs Disadvantage measures growth only one dimension

2.

Volume
More accurate but Not practical


 

Dry mass (mass of orgs after remove water)
An accurate measurement. Disadvantage must kill orgs

4.
 

Fresh mass.( Mass of orgs without remove water)
Easy and convenient method no need to kill orgs Inaccurate as measurement is affected by amount water in the body.

THE GROWTH CURVE
PHASES
L

DESCRIPTIONS
Growth

(LAG)

rate is slow Little or no cell growth Cells start to divide
Growth

M

rate is fastest EXPONENTIAL Increasing in the number of cells by mitotic division Cell elongate occur Size orgs increase
N Growth

(SLOW GROWTH)
O

rate is slow as cell has achieved maturity. Cell reached their maximum size/adult Growth rate is limited by external ( food) & internal fac (hormone)
Growth

rate is zero (STATIONARY) Cell division occur only to replace dead/damage cells
P
Growth

SENESCENCE

rate is negative coz ageing & eventually die Lack of growth factors and nutrient results in death

TYPE OF GROWTH IN PLANTS…
PRIMARY GROWTH
   

Occur after germination Involves cell differentiation to form primary phloem and primary xylem in vascular bundle. Aim to increase length of tips of stems & roots (apical meristem) Importance to enabling reach sunlight, search water & minerals. Able to transport water & minerals from roots to all part of plants

SECONDARY GROWTH
     

Occur after primary growth in woody plants Involves lateral meristem to form secondary phloem & xylem Aim to increase diameter of stems& trunks . Importance to supports the plants, to accommodate the increase of demand water & minerals & replace damage cells. Produce tough bark to avoid water lost ,protect against parasitic fungi& insects attack & opportunity to live longer. Cork cambium divided to produce cork & secondary cortex.

COMPARISON FOR PLANTS UNDERGO SECONDARY GROWTH & PLANTS DO NOT UNDERGO SECONDARY GROWTH.

ITEMS
Type of plants Life Span Period of growth Height Meristem lateral Annual growth ring Wood in stem Texture of bark

PLANTS UNDERGO SEC GROWTH Mostly dicots plants Long Growth throught the lifespan Tall Present Present Present

PLANTS DO NOT UNDERGO SEC GROWTH Mostly monocots Short Growth for one or two years only Usually short Absent Absent Absent

Thick bark, trunks has No thick bark , do not comercial value has comercial value

ECONOMIC VALUE FOR PLANTS UNDERGO SECONDARY GROWTH

PLANTS HAS WOODY PARTS HAS COMERCIAL VALUE SUITABLE TO MAKE BEAMS, FURNITURE,FENCE,DOOR & DECORATIVE ITEMS. THE BARK OF MERAWAN & MERANTI PRODUCE RASIN & OIL. AS ORNAMENTAL PLANTS LIKE HIBISCUS& BOUGAINVILLAEA. PRODUCE FRUITS SUCH DURIANS & MANGO.

The end…
Bye-Bye!! See you next time. Don’t forget to study…!

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