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CHAPTER SEVEN

THE RIEMANN INTEGRAL

already me Iii oed lh devel pments, dwing th l~, b F rn and leading to analytic comctry and th theory of the derivative. How tv 'T, the ubj:ct we kn calculus did not begin to take pc until the late 1660s when Isaac cwt n (1642-1727) c ted his theory of "RUlU is" and invented the method of "inverse tan 'cots" t find under curves, The reversal the pJ'O(.'C T fi ding tangent lines to 6nd areas w: disco ered in the 1 . by Gottfri:d ibniz (1646-1716), who was unaware of n' unpublished worlc and who arrived at th disco ry by a very different route, Leibniz introduced the nnioology "calculus differeutialisd "calculu: integralis", inc finding Ilg ~t lirl('. invol ed differences and finding· in 1 summations. Thus, they bad disoov red th. tint gmtion, being a prores of mmma . n w . inverse to the operation of differenli' ti n, During a centmy and a half r d lopmcnt and refinement ) h... j ted of these paired operation d their applications, primarilj physical probl m , 10 the 1 50s, Bernhard Ricrnanu (1826-1866) ed a new and different viewpoint He rated th concept of inft!W1 lion fro, 1 i . ion. diffi otiati and examined th m Ii ating rmrnatien and limit p 0 finding areas by i ,1, He h ed the scope b con itt :ring 11fun lions 0 an interval fUr which this p f "Integration" could be d Gn:tl: the c .. f ..mtegrabl .. functions. The "·undamenlaJ TI m of Calculus became a ult tl t beld only for trieted set of inf hi, fun 'Ii .. Th viewpoint of Riemann led others to invent oth integration theories, the mot 'ignmcant being lei gu' theory of integration. In this • p r w haIl begin by d fining cept of Riemann integr. i~ Ltty of functions on an int rval by means of upper dI ,In ection 7!J., . baD discuss the basic properties of the integral and f integrable ti on n int rval The Fundam tal Th m of Caleulus I the prinei 1 lopi in i 1) 7.3. Other approaches t th· Riemann integral are discus I'd in 'on 7. and lh ir uivalence 15 establish r d a brief introdueti n to ~improper integrals-' p nted, 10 Section 7.5 w di u veral methods of hay 229

FIGURE 7. HT [a. " e shall also consider I el :mcntary ample and establish a criterion for Riemann integrability tha i reminiscent of th C:.... to P is defined to be Su f corresponding To discuss the concept of Riemann int nat.2 L(P. n of it or d' I the many important interpcetabons of it that are used in application .1.1.-. th I the lower 11m L( P .. for a gi\ '0 partition.] and h ight (S Figure 7. e now ...3 U(P.l.• 1" .(r.) The points of the partition OOJH1".ubj -. mcluding a chapter on the Ri rna n integral. 11m i!'> I· ~ Let f: 1 B be a bounded function On I and let P partition of I. R1 'mann integrabt if its upper integral and low r integral are equal.1.. (P. bountkd i.d and h -ight 111 • ( ~..1_1 A partition of 1= [S.b.ntMtxll. We then apply this criterion to show that functions that eith r continuo« or monotone on an' interval are Riemann integrable.230 CHAPTER 7 THE RIEMANN INTEGRAL RIEMANN tNTEGAABIUTY 231 approxim' tiog in egral • a <.I I t infonnaIly-with the integral from II calculus course.. Xi' .Figure 7.b).. an upper sum. how this to he the rose. u b a function c.:r. . t given in the book b ' Ha kins cited in the References. <. the area of the uni n of rectangl . .f).1. -Xl-a)' " I = = o = Xo < Xl < Xll < .1 In thi mtcgnd Wld Riemann Integrability of Darboux and d fin the upper e hall follow the procedure the: I r integral () a. ~ r COllV rg n nf a sequence. with base [%1-1' x. .2. Since we assume . a lower sum.. P: r k .. b] ~ a hounded interval in R. > be a FIGURE 7. f) call be mnh: d . f) can be interpreted a: lh· area. the upper urn U' P. .rA.n we let = (ro.1. nl durin this era of high-speed compaters An interesting history of mtegranon theory. . ordered P (ro• x 1" .eriapping subintervals: ed to di ide T mto geomehi interpreWion rugge l! th· t. we m t inttod m t nninol and notation. the lower than or equal to t upper SUOl.2.3.tuc!lY crit 'nor. SECTION 7.. P can be II (See Figure 1..1. Upper and Lower RGURE 7. x...(. arbitrary bou1Id d function an a closed. fh· t hat ingty import. of th union of rectangles with base [x'_I. f). lf f i a positi (' runction. to the partiti n P i d 11 -d to be The low UID of f corresponding qP:f)· and ttl upper sum of . then 'd to .) Th I".rk_I). It-I Em.) of poin in 1 ueh that . and the RU:mann in gral the fur tion is defined to be this common value. wesball not provi an tensiv motj .t l int .1.f):= EfA. then a partition of I is a finite.) innilarly.

3 l. and if Q is a the colleeti JI of aIJ partiti of the interval 1 by §I( I).1. .f)..• n. e ha if both wn.11Km conclud a refinement th t partition obtained bv t"UII hining the llu'lll of both I'. Let mi m'i he the numbers in U(I>:..1. d U(f)-- . rl .1. that Q c a refinement of is. = PI U P_ 0i be t f PI and P'l.. 1. Let p: (..>. n each I' in .. and P'l' 11C1l(' h.1. I..J) ~ C. \ point to P. Lei P = (x • s: . if P ~ Q)... .D..Since m. i a bounded function. n and sbown in Lemmi 7. inf{U(P:I): PE9'(l)}.1) fur P 9'(1).. refill 'II 'IIt 0 ur .: f f: 1 • R be a "ound d flll :tin 00 < L(I) d the upper integral P .a) ~ L(f) anticipated. . ·It lC of the intervals [Xl-I' 1'.. . d th set upper sum P.. m.232 CHAPTER 7 THE RIEMAN NTEGRAL RIEMANN INTEGRAelUTY 233 7. Let z E 1 ti fy Xl-I <.' d tails an eQ. '\\ obtain H (#) ~ it follow tho m. I). 1 R' 1.1. upper urn • 1. y_) partition of I. that or an ' l' P (Le. .Xl-I> 0 for k. Q.2. oC / on Jill number obtained from l' by adjoining z to P. and 1.(b-a).2 that 1'f'6nin~ a partiti in . 1/ f: 1 R is bcxaadcd and P .: have rup({(x):xEl}.2. f>" Thus.2. then L( P.f): t \ shall denot I: Imd U( Q . it 11 that L(P.we I • lh(. A refinement number of point t P. Leuunas 7. ~ Mk for k since Xl . com " " E l-1 f1(xl-rl_I)=U(P.> d Q :WI (Ylld/t.f)... . we are a' ured of tIlt' xistenee of th numbe = inf(I(r): x E I} E .9( 1) det nni txr.1 Lenvna L( P ..) fOT j '* k to tb abo e in lit.( P . the (...emIna Let Q VI If P :. I)· fi t examine th effi t of ad' ining %'1and 1 t P' he th partitiou om Proof. upper rum .x J . H 'n '. w inI..0. and in Lemma 7. = Proof. r. LeIJ: 1 R. \-"C . Upper urn hancllimilacl .1.(xo.( I'. If we add the terms UP' . H repeating the p jn~ argUlnf'Jlt.. that 11..J) ~ . b] and I J is th OUlI her = IIp{L{P.f) ~ P !JI(I).R ~ bowuled. y P if each partition point Xl E P lsa beloog to Q (thaI Q 0 It parlili n P can be obtained by adjoining a finit this case. tlwn 1/I: 1 -. 10 P divides 1 can be written that i.4 OeflniUon low integra) of Let 1:= fa. then Q can be ohtained from P by adjoining Rnil nwuber of pain to P on t a tim . tt.. f m. 7. f) ~ U( P . lower sum :iJld deerea . . If bounded. r •.1 that 10 rer sum i.. 9f(l)}.(b t . ti lu. If Pl' P2 an any two parlihmu of Proof.f)= [ml(xL-:Xl_I)~ 1-1 1..1 Upper \ e now show Ding a partition inc ...'01 tion 9'(1) d termin two se of numbers: th set 1r 1. nd Lower Integrals I wer urns and deer e.all r than an up sum pond to th· arne partiti 11. if l' ~ Q)..] into which as th union of int ~ I whose end points belong to Q.d..oJity - .1' .quo if they correspond to different partitiom. W if Q is an mix.J> .f).f). are led to the following de6nitio . ~ L(Q..enl Lemma L(P. w.J) '" L(Q .1.f) if l' is a parlitiqn of 1. be lHHl11L1r.f) of 1'. 1'. .E.nd &(1). 10 e h '0 ~1I1 are now combined to COl Jude that ~ lower sum i alu:ay!" 1I"r than all upper.2 refinnn..1.:0' xI••··• X. .

.. Consequ 'ntly.: 0 E } is a subset of the set of all partrti {I=O .. there i a large class of fundions for which L(I> = Such functions are said to be "integrable". Moreover. 2.9(1)} Consequently. k/rl.mples (a) A constant function is integrabl . • that if the Hi mann int ~ral of a fuucti on:m interval exi • I) 'II the integral is the wtiquP.234 CHAPTER 7 THE RIEMANN INTEGRAL RIEMANN INTEGRABlUTY 235 7. (P .imply IlSC. for a treatment f tbt. In !he sequel ".re.9( 1)} = L( g).in :Xi. a closed bounded interval and f: 1 -.ilnn-.('r'. th· infimum f) of thi.. (h) The filnctioo g(x) = x is integrable on [O..(1) J) w d fine {p. it infimum and supremum on the uhinlc~al {(k .1. 1 -+ R he hounded function.a) (P...C th Riemann integral over I i ck·Gncd to be the value L(f) = od this numht er is ordinarily denoted by 1. E (I) th fonnula 1 we obtain thaI + 2 + . (II . 1(/rC()I.. lower uu. drop t~ adjcrljn~ -Rieu JII".l '1'No S("vcrul di erv I Ilk .. set satisfies the ~~~m ~~ The Riemann Integral proved in TIl If 1 i. 'r . being the upremum of this ·t. lower integral L(I)and the upper int gral U(J) always exist. If P is any parlili of 1. for m (see Eumple t'l .. g) If we us L3. hc-:hu n the 1 \I·r...-bogur.1»/n".. tI n I. . and the common valu of and U f) i lied "th integral uf I ov 1".L7(d).J): PC: ..5 Then the Theorem Le: I = [a. L{/). an upper bound for III t U'(P .1 0 . .-n 12 n .ys ha T..1.oT\Sf"CJII tIy. urns and U > upper UII .6 Deftnition Let' [a. Ii fl n· 7. = (0 + 1 + . I i integrable OIl I and Since P. = (n-l)n .f) il. ampl 7. th31 UP:I>" c(b . Therefo the I wer d upper integra] are gi' n by L(I) = c b . tielljeJ integral. Bartle._ up {L( P : g}: P E ...Q... or L( P . we have r. On the otber haud. Then f is said to be Riemann iDtegrabl OD 1 if L(f) = 1>. b) and 1 t f.1. +m = m{m + 1)/2.. +n)/n2..l.. j 'R is an increasing fundi I.U(f}. g): t' E 9'(/}) < inf{U(p. . in~ c. we have m 7.. Let fir) = c Ii x E 1 =. r.(!> L\ lo er bound fOT th set (lI(P . it is ~y tn . b).' :and ~ Riemann '" ~l i nne II li il OlD" Thus we i= up (L( r. • toroov r. :g) or I = (1 +2+ .ll Let POI be th partition of I [0. any re erenoe to -1 egrol. Proof.gral L(f) and tlu! upper int~wal U f) off on 1 ex· t._ 7.f)· ( x rei 7.(I) ~ Il However. bland let 1: I R be a bounded functJ..1). 1] into n submt = rval giv ).9(t). it is pos ibl· th we might have L(f) < U(I). n thi 0l. for a In:2UUt:-nt of the Lt.~ baIl fl." t1 1 ·nn "int~to re to the:. and lire th given by m1 = (k .1. (t) L(I) ~ (/(I)· tioo to the Rieuwm int ~ in this book.. C'.n n LeI (n.R:icUI<lIU1 mtegr. = ( 0. :I{) = n(o+l} 2n' = 2" l{ 1 +. w will in F. ) 11 by p.I)/n.J): P E . H i a bounded timction. kin] are attained t the left and right end poin .3 that L( p.. • n.1)/0 and M.( p.- 2 I( ) __ n' 1) U( r. (n .0. of i:rlt~ril' lion in real :mal . . .5 Ihat the. .a) .1. .7 ex.. is an arbitrary partition () 1.1. 201 ...1 = I/n lOr all Ie = l. 0 • th n mber (I( PI . . g): n E } = j..vruuJt The £/emenla of lnUgration by R. ddili I..ce a/u.' d . g) .3(a)1. ---.(a.f) ~ U(P.g): n }. .G. :. real number thaI lit. .RIL"Dl. the read r should c n ult 71v E~ of R al Atw4J .-. liv ly. If PI and P1 from Lernm 7.. legnIbilit will be unambiguous.<. . U( g) = mf{U( P.cm..

nt of both P. i h' lnereasmg on [0.. Therefore 1 r dr=-_ 3 t h is mtegrable on 1-[0. Ids. of I such that L(I) .d.. Theorem ~ L(j) I \ e nelude that (.U(J). . .) is auy partition of{O.f) "L(P.11 we have m1 and Ml = (k/n)~ or k = 1.l)!)/nl• _..in( rs ( f~f!f)' L(P.h)=(n-l)n(2n-1)/6n -':(I-~ 3 3 .x. If f > 0 b given.1] U(Ps. ?) nv e.£/2 < 1..J. of 1 uch that V(Pc :f) = all n _1Derefore. Hence.9{I)J and Hence.f).re nfronted vith two type q resti • First.~ral· a liP' -mum. Theref re.'ll contain. P W\· have L(n .. we have qP.•.• n. on [0. If f is mtegrable.236 CHAPTER 7 THE RIEMANN INTEGRAL R1EUANNINTEGRAB(UT\' 237 int .inf{U(P. 0 5_L5(g)] d ·fined by (d) A I nintegr.1&) {or = "(n + 1)(2" + 1)/6" = ':(1 + ~ We 2n + _J_) 2n l' I 7.grabl on I = [ .. Therefo (P. partition Pp uch tOOl (. tll It the pmbl of eviiluating the integral arise _ \ e hegin b establishing SOlllc t:<mdifor ezisten of the integral.( P. if the integral is known 10 (·:\j. .h] mul let [.11) U( p. Let p. .J) (0 .I~ III [0. • w have 1 =-. the funeti f i integrable tl.l. (c) The function h(x): Xl i tnt J • on 1 fo. we inf '.. we first observ . U{h)-inf{U(P. If P =. =0 x irrational.f) "fJ{p. I~1_3(h)] we L(P.. = PI U Pt. L(f) -+ . 1].f).fin Lenu 7.£/2 < L(PJ.) > 0 the . for a )tiv:n bounded function on an int 'rvcll. sup ( L( P . +(n .5. p3rt'ti(l1l (j)" u P .8 Riemann's Criterion for Integrability U" 1 [n.(%o.2 and 7.%. •. Proof.- and its roroll ryl... .. 1] d = filii I-t f(r) ·ti J: 11. . so 111 t «k l)/1l)l L L(f) . • Example in < V(I) + £/2.1. t1ktl f r an. we have nd P2• :qu ntl-. 2n _1_) 2nl' In dealing with tJ Ri mann integral we . 1 h= 11 1 o H w let p.2.1. (\ 1•. It): P E . i h) U Lng = (02 + (12 ..I. is a n.O.. k = sup (L( and also that h): "E ) .2 + . tit r iJ th question of th _ ten of the int gmt..:la):"e = }=~.f) < V(f) II + £/2.9( 1») = q h ). there i a partition P.f).) ho ..f) "U(f~:f) I B be the Dirichl t function [. I. nd.1.I) < E. _ +ni!)/n3_ Example f) # (J). To tabli h ih -= 1 for for r rational.(11)= U(1. th n \ -e haw. then from the definition of the lower intt. = + 21 the. 1)(th ration:tl numbers ina '0 n U(f) -L(I). 11 (n = 1..) k. R be a bounded function on I. be in (b). tho I - q P.h):PE.f) mk = 0 and f" . then P. Then f' intl'grable on 1 if ami only if for eadi > 0 there· a partition p. 1] • nd iol g = il ul 0 2. i I. U{P" .f) nuntriviaJ inwrval the De .lllht. ow uppose that r each E U(p.f) 1.(P" .L(P. Uf} = U(I). P A.. 2 = O.. we have = for all P f:I' 1). imilar • there 15 a partition P! of I ·u h that thai 1.

b) and let!: I . ". g" sum: ero.1. .L( P : J) is provided hy I 7. and it: ue can often be ermined b-u .4 Then w have U(P. --(J(x .f)-L(P. "_I L ( 1. function on 1 := [a.r.f(a». (why?) from xample 7.• r.f) - ur .11 integrability of Monotone Functions R be mot toue on 1. Then f i. i5t oe lar}' t J the fact that n fimction.bJ and let ]: 7.B be a boundedjimr. 1).11 and if fa .. so that Xl . f i. we ha· tl Ml I . of partitiot 0/1 sud» thaI lim ( U( ft If r.[(1:0)) ) n . k-l n - ml)(Xl -Xl-I)' A geom tri visualizatio Figure 7.) .. ince E > 0 i SJhjtrary. := %1' •••• r . Let I: la. f) < E.( PIt . .1. proof as an Q.> be: th partition of I into n equal parts. the by a Special CQll. Heo f ill Q. ~ e ve the remainder of .a = -n = A.D. L (Ms.. n -L(P. f.-(f(b) n » b-n The ignificaoce nf the co inlIgrnl in 01.1) (P. . e 00 n > (b ...1.1. oC all lthough the de niti 11 f the "bl partition' of an interval.s inlegrobk I. .-Xk_l) n b. 2•.. of rnpl 7.UP. . b] < d P (%0' 1•••. always id._I L (J(xd -/(%lo-.1.bf:: ~l Proot Su that f is Increastng on I.1.IEMANN INTEGRAL RIEMANN INTEGRABIUTY 239 7. thenf' mul!rable arul li:n Up.7(h) we ha e lim1 ..tion. it oll~ (j sn tit bypothesis that there h that if n . w th inequality L(f) .f(xo) n b-a . --(J(XI .r..a)/n fi k = 1. increasing on h'_I' x"l it i c1 r that 1(x£_..9 {PI': n E Corollary ) i6 tl seque» Let 1 -= [a.» + f XI) .f(.g) • r on [0. whence the inl.5) U(j). ..f).4.E. that n owif£>Oisgivetl... g) = lilDj{l + l/n) (b) IC h(x)' %2 00 [0. partiti n in part (a). If P_ .g»= =0 hen that folXCIx = lim U(P. lin •. c:(J)' -Jude that U(J) ~ L(f)..} . we have L(J) Si = (b Theorem 7. . In.!(a})/s. The tntegrablUty of Monotone and Continuous Functions We conclude th' iou by s wing that a function that is either monotone or oootinuous on [a. . f) .t.. -md(%.1.cgnibility 0 's from Ri mann's Criterion.1. Il) 12 1 lim 3 ( 1 AGURE 7.10 Exlnpies (a) 1£ g(r) = (n . then U( p.(0.. n.t.. the difference U( P : J> ...238 CHAPTER 7 THE R...._I n I Proof. f4 . b)' integrabl 1 J: 1 H is a botmded. Let p.f(r.f) = .) i a partition of 1. e also note that U(P.D. .fJ)(J(b) . If r > 0 is given. +f(x. f) .1)/n.f).1]. we use the familiar notation = integrab ....> and M!: = j(x!:)..%'_1 = (b .E. then from the compulatio lim(U(P.7(c) that i· then it Ile fo x! dx 1 lim U( p.0..

Shll" that f lli I~g 4..a --·--=E.*raI.5(b. -"i-I) soo ~L Since E COl " """1"-0 r b.RA81UTY ..J that Therefore \\ e have [Il.-d and has t int grah 011[d. If I'D u the p.\ a bClunclt. (IlW.G..r3 for 0 < x < I and I t P" be th('.J) .f) . Let 1:= [a. D . bllet f: 1 R be cootinuou • mel le f(r> ~ 4) fur all :r t: I.7(d) = [a.J: fDf r ra1i at Shuw U.1.. '.) td J..9 that that continuity = I: (M" l-l n . b) f' .1) anti U(P_ .o.. Integra H /J(' continuous of Continuous FunctIons on I.2] rrab Jb:) II ~ rk- om h = r.> If f: 0.o u(P . . : f) = 0.0 Coo .E. integmhl and 1:1:: = 0 Pm • t.J funL'l. Let 1 = [a. then Jer) = 0 r lJ rEI.gral.Xl_I) < E. 5. If ". .. equal P'IJ'U.tt if f: la.b1 and Jet f: I B satisfy the KIa: . we have exercIseS I. 111e11 f integrable tnt I. :/) . "11M I.1. b) thP rustric· of f Ie.md tIw ) "1 . h).. P" . f is integrable On I. ow let n E be such that n > be the partition of I into n qual so 7. and how that J~x:)th = (11iut" th fQnnula 1:1 + 23 + . tIk.J) < 15". th U(P . Theorem 5. +m3 = (m + t)J . hounded and h. I interval xd urn [.I. 1= (b -'o}fn < 6.a)/tJ and let p. and Ih:) = 1 if I(J) = c(b al..xl I' r.) + L(/2) < f. i intr.'en.) 13. (a> Pruvr. l-l L ( 1" n m")(. that I' t' i.4.1 and .= 1 for { < r .. % in (el' .} '" tJ'l I' illlpgr.. ereise 2$..12 I -+ i 310 a sufficient conditiull for int .) r.iliIt: am] thaI fJI.x. " if E > 0 is gi'.f(o»)/n... I II he amtinuous.J) .J".) H I. numhcr of tfucuu 'lu. Gml number 0 disconti u it' on [•• blllwn J: [a.I' IhPn f' in t!grahle on la.<I1 ft. O.11 Ii be defined by li(z):.• _I>.b)lIlII1tJ LfOt" yn 111 rcE( .h&t Jh./.1.. 17. bl How .l)t'r pf' R is lboundt. = w(" o· 4 u i.7(h) :dculat I. f(O) = 0.vi < 0. how t.ot I whence it folio 0.3.tioo g: I _.) = (".) (Hint. If w appl he Muimmn-Minimum we obtaiu 1«" existence of point s "". that L(I. Prove I. ' (XO' xl' . mp' 7. b) and let fl' /2: 1 -.. i"finilt:' nUIl.L(P.() - 1"f ~ (b • If <: • a)(f(b) .1) and let h be the ~trictiou to 1 of Thou 5..a).luID. 0. bj.bl and J: (0.Jtional.[a.f(o)1 < E/(h (b . o~ I . 14.(f) = n..0.-gnWk un [0.1 d tall that If U( p.lc OD [0. rrability.c!'> that if most.. S t. f. a finitr.. tholt . SUpp>SCthatIiS01boundedfundjuot... re.( p. h . Jc"1· diet J: 1 1ll Lt. R be oounded flmdi s."I fur II %.ahJe tm [a. r. VA Proof... Ct'pl fl . m lao bi shaw tboat f L~mregr.fb·) ~ 0 for all rEI. Q.. Ut I =-la.. fur J: E [e. bJ alld la ]. that Q. and la(r) .1. is iul. Prove t ifl. se E. 11. '0£ • function to ~ •.b] .f) It follow.hMt J(.0 for :r iJr. thell " • ve = (h) Doell the cond ion hold if we change the value of I{ at the peint to 7? I~t Ii: [0.xerruc 7.9 implies that f is mtegrable on I.1) for 0 < % < I. then f:f= x 7' 1. the pnxIud Ig i-. b)' Ul 'gn . .1} C 1. R. n IJ(x) . .. Prove III L(f) ~ 9. U(p. then If(u) .R .. 2. .3.c . Let 1 in F.. on [0. 6 Ry 1Jw. it funows In t Ijrn(U( p.1.. that er.7.. 4 We next sho 7.. Let p.1) 1. b) It be bouoded d ucb t .1..1] Let J(r) .r. Ci examples to how that strict inequality can hold in I pn'(~:Jin. Let I' [0..fig)1 < of I i to n equal pam.:aruti Lip!. d bnuil:ies and) inl Ie. in th Riemann • lerion 7. bl.. r 241 ttt pondang partition p. H be incrt!aocing un 1.RJEMANN INTEG. 10.1. that [a. Let I=- o 4iO .21 and calcu.D. reise. Ullifi rm Cuntinwty em 1.xamilic 7. hP.t:hiu eon . bo. Note I will be ~1I ID the cxcn:i.. ~ Ul for SecUon 7.1.Uf'. :f) - K(b - ali/no see Exereise 7. : f) 7..4 to e.-t I =.D. i~ Ul1t:W.17l'){. I~ • (a.orul1:U)·7. b 1 diet f: 1 _. fmlll . > tat)' arbitrary.. partition f F.lOIl uch tlULt [(x) = 0 (. that if ~(x) 0 0 <: r ~ ~ and (x). I.. r [! t. Let lOt 3. and 'IlIp1XHC that fOT ew:ry inlcgrahlc funt.ut:rut::n1 uf 1'.1.l.lat~ ito. .. ~ (P. the lu .••• x" that Xl .L( 1'.. S > () uch that if u. .5. mt. b J R 1.11.) = 0 for all rEI. is tJ1e p:lrtitioo of I min .b.r~ Thea in [:r"_I' rn 5. J i uniformly continuoUJ cd t. f+g) < U(P. sup E in E IJ} {(I g)(r): r IJ}. I. IIQ < 6 collSldcr Q1 . thai L(P:f) "L(P'.. u = U( kj). J:: 1 . 10 kf is int 'gn1hl on I (n = 1. £0110 s that L /if) kut.kJ):PE.•• n. li.r j= 1.b) with IQ <8. 10 this secboo we shall hli.f) i U(P. . DPI - if P = (el = Xo < x.f g)" 1 ( p. It iOUow imm . mann integral.. Let P = (1' .: g) + e < L( P« d + (!.t od p~..9(/)} lciuf{U(P:J}:PE. iti n L(r:f+g) and U(P.I+e) uP"".. .].fbf • of I"g + • e. .) . If k E R. show t [.f) < I. Show that i e > O.1:0' . tJ. b) and t J... -I}' .ned from P in the p of 7.) be partition of L Smce 1 < O.!> + 21:11 I· DpL and also t UP. {.2.(P.. iof{J(. J!) .. h ~ proof f (2). - W If p' (lef) . h.f) f"kj= Ie ./): f>.R be in.tim kf and f + g are intl!erable on I.. We shall ider th cue 'k: < O. r. i L(P. w. sd it . U(P:J)2klf I· UPIl..2 Properties of the Riemann Integral IJ} + inf{g(J'): r I. kf) = IeUP.ll!erable functions on I.g).t» 21/11·lpl and (.. 20. since k < O. such that r and 7. lei UI = wp f x :r E .. n L(Q:J»L(J)-F and (}(Q:!) " 1>+£.1 Theorem Let I=-( a. f). the ilting I posite functi i! integr. th 0 w obtain (why?) ~ U(P.J)~ r cn» P:f) ...(P1. > 0 roch t if Q is partitam 1 = (tI. h the basic properties of the Ri mann integral mdudmg the import l linearity and positivity properti . tabli h II toIlowing in ualiti ( . I t 6 . ('00 Exe r) %J-I 2. the J• (f b g) - f" f •• 111g- To by Riemann' ritcri 7.Iif): P TI E 9'(I)} = Ie l>up{L(P.J) i U( P 6..242 CHAPTER 7 THE 19. g) h:n L(kf) up{/. If f: I Rl N TEGRAL PROPERTIES OF me RIEMANN I GRAL 243 tl· p..r): XE . bl I ll....2. (2 Proof. a partition such lhaJ.in: iu PI other than a.g) 1!. Jel IJ IJ} ~ sertioo about f rei 2_5.8 we see that f + g is integra!>1 . = s' = Wf> . it i.b) i a partition uf 1 = [a.r. D -kU(f). If there' 1 po. < up{xJ - It' imilarly shown P.:1) L( p. 0 Id 0 he an putitiootl.7): = [Xl-I' . %.9(1)} .Q U PI.kL(J)..) 1 P" U(p.B/(41(1/ I).9( 1). = p/.1.. then since T n: Pi. t'J • I fit g ~ • U( p. t nns h) re.f) .inf(U( P.f)" kU(P~!>.oti obW.5A(b). re P e ... tu 1'. J is in egrabl .dial Iy thai I L(P. w J t th t it t l10w from ( that g) /"<1 • -c l!( p.2H!11· P (b) If PI is partition ubtained &om P b} addin~ k pointl.rJl. (Hint. lily 11 that rli o." ... x .lhl From this w inf that ah 1 t· values. puw rs. :md prod of int:gnt 1· functions are integrahl .!> d h ee that P E .2.:g) t ~ U(P.· llfili/"(' E the" SECTION7. UP. wuJ ( 1) If (.bouuded. Now if E > 0 is given. (1) If Ie - about Iif are trivial. followin property is of n referred to the linearity p of the .) fuJtiplyill each ThereJi f tlt atd nrmmine • . Lt.. -+ g./) ..J)" UP.. Th key result is that if mtegrable function b with a continuous function.. x.cJI(/)} ~ L(P J s) B < fb(f • + g) + .II. < x. The CO pt of integrability delmeates a eoll tion of fl ti -the class of integrabl functi on an interval-and hall conclude the section with an • 11' lion of the permanence p peru f Uti class. Q. + B. (2) 0 . leavin til lightl} easier case 1 > 0 to the.t p. theo re ~l<I [.!) " L( p.) =.1. II .( PI.E/2 < 1.f) . sup {(I + g)(x): x (fer): r + sup (g(x): r E IJ).. reader. dum 1M fur .f) L(P.j I'.. 1.bl and if e E (0.• U Pl.2 I(x) Theorem ~ 0 lOt' all x ILt I E 1.L( P. : f) noon gati .f) that f) < E. then .(a. fact. e] Ie. The n integral.. P' () [e. (5) now suppo that f is integrable 01 [a. the'l =.4. on (a..2. f un.4 that if I: I . then f is inte rsble on (a.T) < E:/2 s that d Proof.2. t • bourathd jwlClJDn.b).2. Q.1. b) (4) 10 particular. f) .f) .J) U(~.L(P~J)'" .f> . let f: J -.J) L(l". . f) . b] and le: c alis/y a 11um I is inUgabh on I if and only [a.2 that U( 1" . fbI • = [U(P •.R d if m ~f(x) ~ M fi all x E 1. We now compl proof by Jibing (6). f)] + r U( 1'.we d (P~. «: It fi U [U(P1 ••. b I.. It is not obviou that if / is integrable 0 [a. (g .T. In this cas • . eland P. bJ and let f: 1 R be intltgrabk on 1. feb ..f) ...3 aU s: Coronary E I. on J = [0.e] and an Ie.E.L( ~. the function g - P1 r ()[0. :/)] •• .«.244 CHAPTER 7 THE RIEMANN INTEGRAL 7.( Pi .a).2.L( P .1. . then > 0 is arbitrary./) <.~0 [c. e fint uppose that I i integrabl on lu.a) <. whence it follows from Lemma 7.(P r.E. b).. is Integrable 1~ P.. c) and [c. f) I < uee E.11).U. (#) r. It be if it ~ inkgTable on buth 7. it CoDo from I\j mann' Cri rion tlwt f is integrah r.of tJ integral ov intervals. bl The ned resul e blisb that fact as eO as the wadditivity.2 that Q •• S' both terms in the brackets . n. U( .O.U(~.L( r: .1. b] such that u(P •./)l + rU(P!.:/> == p •.1 to a finite the 7. By Theorem 7. so it roDmIo'S from Theorem 7. b). _.!) Proof..J») m(b .[a..P. . funows from (#) after Definition 7.f) . .(1. we Ita e [U( r. g: I II are integrable on 1:.I) < E and . c of [a. f) g(x) for 7.:/) . It folio ./)1 <E• S' 8 if f is integrable on 1 and if If(% <K for all x E 1.lf r:= P U {d.4 PROPERTIes OF 1M RIEMANN INTEGRAL 245 t.!) < F.D. c 1 ..L( P' . U(p. bL have proved t f is int:grall 0 (0./) + L(P2.b) such that U(P. inee F > 0 is arbilrary.2. By bypoeh is. bl 000 iff(x) ~ <: U( P . Q.2. b] if and onl if it is integrable L4.0 (a. >= ult is etim rcfi rred to the positivity property Theorem Le! 1 =. . giVi Crit rion that th re exi5t partitions Pl. it ows from Hi mann's and P2. then P' is a reflnement of P. dily seen tat H we let u(r.:» IS integrable on 1 and Combining this with the preceding Ii rmula.. b] If t > O. < c < b. th exists a partition P f[o.c] and I! " [c. then Iff. In This foil it immediat Iy from (#) aft r Definition 7.L(PI •• Proof. b I.andard induction argument enables us to extend Theorem linear oombinatioo of integrable funcbons.~ . it ful1 s from Ricmann' Crilerion that / is mtegrable on [a. '. then it i and L(Y:/)'" .1Hz) ~ 0 or all % E 1.(PI . Then. J) - L(f2. If (6) (3) > 0./> t U(f . I) < E. c) and Ic.l.• . :.2.j int Is: on the e shall make e h fl.)(Xi 2Kt:' = .1) + U{ P'" .) . . and 00 the :conel we hall show that the To rn". iinee f is inlc'gJ"3! I on J .11 . e have &c:JB . b] and ) = le.4 de At d. < Proof.-.• d (ii). that 19' 0 f(x) .f(y <~. It w. the the of m.. arvllhat 1(1) ~ J. kB E (Xl - Xl-I) . 111etl tla. (and hence also f. <knot the infimum and supremum fPof em [%"_I'X. '00 this will th I 'F. we obtain the relati (6). • f) . 247 from (I) in th .D.) of 1 such that U{P:I) .nl)(I. b J ItOd 02 > O. let K>= up (J~t)l= t E J) and let E.J) + L(~._.J) wudude that (i) O.1) It also L( P. fimetion is integrabl irnilarly the sum of No' integrable functio i. peci6ca1ly. E.[a.' =..1.5 The Composition Theorem lLt 1 = [a. c'{b . th infimum al d num of f on [Xl I'X. . There th • ir II(x) .2.).9'°f)-L(P.a) Th II mplete the proo byhowmg that f r this partition () 11 I. integn bl .2. whence it foUows k E A.. as usual.ard induction argument enables us mpositioo of[a. b)l the Riemann 7. and w m" M.~')I < E'.1 that a co tanl multiple of an iotcgrnhl .e oomposition f' f: 1 It is integrable on 1.I::. It will be lent to se rate the il ic putilioll P iu~ two dc.1. f integrable n 1.. [I i • t'f + e .2 'f'. finite union of n n 10 1:.(P. f :f) + U(P'.1..f) < 1.f) L{ p'. then I~ ) .( Pi.{l . h ( ) we 1 t e.ml ~ e'.L( P J)} < 0 < . inee E > 0 is arbitrary. th:n . .. Y E [X1:_I' x.8 E ( I.ffl1}(XI leA X1:-d ~ t:'(b .1'1' ••.Xl:_. rot from (#) thai r • 1+ f"f ~ e = (P. d) be inrtiOU... :1) + 2£ .1'...-Xl-I' L (M1-liil.. if k E A x.tl <B. 1 II . < c5 • p. U( P.8. We n ho that eertam other romhin ti 'of integrable fun t1 • re int b Ihe most useful res It in this direction win now lished..U(P.0..£/(b Si " is uniformly continuous 00 J.246 CHAPTER llHE p EMANN INTEGRAL PROPERTIES OF 1HE RIEMANN INTEGRAl."'" + E{ f. lFB 1 . th lli S> 0 such that F'·OO such that if ...}(X.. extend Theorem 7..m1:)(ri ...a). there exists a partiti (.. tJlOl 1p: J -+ R is ~. obtain 01)= U(P..~t 2.. tp 0 f) h ur Q &.'. 2£ OVIf. i E (M..f) .m 1) small. 7.2K L (Xllell X1:_I)' The Class of Integrable Functions shown in Thm 7. > 0 be given. flUlll < L(P. IS >0 'fit i arbitrary. 0 (D) If comhine (i) L (WI .X'-I) '" [U( i 1 P : f) . 11] into.mA:)(Xl- Xl_I) .1 E} and [s .J) 2 ~ fbI .) E. a J) + 2K). Let r. p: x.1'0'. 1:(1'1: - %1-1) is um iently small. L: (1. paragraph that tf~ • U(P':f) .1. nun r. • + 2£.9' 0 I(y)1 < e'. and suppose tJaat f: 1 It is inlegrable on 1. hl t J.xample 7.1 . 3.Ll 1). bL id: [ 1 Ii llUUudw. ! llJld ~ he hounded fiuK:lions UII I lu B. The first inHJ alitv fol1ow~ frorn th . "'2 vm (Pmjecl44. and /(m/7I) = I/n if m. show that UJ> ~ .fi(h) with n = 2 d g~ are illtt1!.-1 if and 0 J if. 7. .2.2. b) I t f.. /. eontin " in the Composuiou Theorem cannot be entirel .. Thu g. b). Write oat dd. reciprocal x)1 ~ 'PI 0 7.. = 1.) ~ ~ OT X 1. dispen . 'I(' . U:w: leu1llhcal .J of functions.ntL . tJ.8 Example 11.. g: I . then I:iJ.d 11. I 'l s. Kt 'OWI1 'PI Is continuou tn1 J and the C mposition Thron'llI ppli to show Ih:iI If I is integruhlc... 249 7. IS integr.I: j'I h = (re• 1 .J ) %.~J= tit '0 '1. let mt~c on [n.r: function defined by /(0)::: 1. hJ arul kl inu'l. b a 1>artiliOn of 1 = [•.t..7(d).1 1 ::= [Q..'Tuble on 1. composition of inkgr. Kl. (h) If n N. i It: 1R. f is the Dirichlet fUlI(:tion tll"'t shown nut to be inte.2. (c) If tJlI'N': exist ~ > 0 ~'h that /(x) ~ s /nr all x E 1.Ild 1: > 0. om&.t I = [a. (Pj on f to It.H be f It follows ~..• 'ti ilh. and J. Then th:tt if P • la. n Eland m lUld n ha e uo (' HTll110fI integral factors.fCr. /:..ahl. hie on I and is continuous at every point of I 6 o. f ~ If I and Comll I)' Ii.. 1 tIt [0. f·f g)~.d Dol be it t htt'_ Indeed. then if 7. () "..ft :oolinu.: of the mtegrai for a v :ry larg•• .-e -. (See the: iJll'tJWlli (5) (In-t't"{ljl1~ 7. t E J :0: [S.. of n p.2. integrable on I.[4. Let I .(I'.'0. 1(1) f i. > O. hi . du°n tht' ntll pou:cr. A-I . IIOW that L(f) " L(g) (j) .iJcd proof of I~ pmm of Tbeorem 7.n • e I.~ "1 uf ..248 CHAPTER 7 RIEMANN INTEGRAL PRO~S OFlHE RIEMANNINTEGRAL. d g 0 fix.rio _. 11 il funrtinn III j\ inlef!rable 011 I.2 I.JC w.2.D. 11lC' fit' t example hm\.."1· IS t i.-t rhat (J( ptO\. 1 indudion to £1'"0'" tha if f..-grah1e (In I. Let 1 [II.gn.~0/'" J If . Q.."t. r· fmlll and from Corollary 7. jtd := 0 if % € 1 i irrationnl. J] and let [: I • It tit: Th . . on I.a).1 ·m.!): I' E ~.. fUlJc:tJom n . Ug).hle ill F.) 0/ (1. ch that If f (3) t et = IlL = It I for I"~ lien a bounded fu: '00 J: fa. et of aD p.!1D ". 6.• R Ultrgnabl omd 2 Ld f:1if 11.E.1]. of Exercises for Section 7.) = 1 if ~ E 1 is rational. k] Then I" and the Com ilion Theorem ap Iic (d H~n' • have ~ <. and second inequality follow from the fa I that Ifb)1 ~ IC f4 I' II rEI. b] and if f' 7. nd the Comp'hitiem Theorem applit·.~f. If Jh) -c g(r) or.... lIp{/.gr hIt on I d J. r Since I.Ekmer· .! ill T1w .em. 1M: boundt~ flJnrtion Ia f(%) " g(x) ~ It(:r) fOt % C B. Then: gi integr.function /" is jn~'grublf:on 1. Supposc' that intrgrahlr:n I aud if . b1 antI It. fact thai -If I <". 011 I ( .'Table on 1.:L'ilIm ". lk )I.. b) omd let c (a.utitions of 1 that cmrtain the (lOin! c.. (b) how that if f is mtP. tlrnot tlw. then fP. Ih· t til bypothe i that tp i:.2. is Rit!J'WIIl mt(:l(J¥hl pr of Lebo~w:'5 ~ ." xcrcist' 7.7 The Product Theorem I. • r u: 011 r Q.~ r :f> = J:~~ J:f.3. b J and let f: I -+ R be in (a) Ibe absolut" c~fimctwn If I Lf inIe". Pl'oof. 1:= fa.-ubk on I.2.) (j Pi :J>' the .egmblt· (m 1.'fin 1 hl' g(O): 0 and g(l'): I or:r EO' (0.e 1. (a) Uk!) = IeUJ>and U(lf) = W(J).. t EJ:= r -K. If we let 'P')(t): 1/1 6". thai f. for all Proof.. A . J. n. Then tk product jullcti(m J1'...4.t of 1 and lrt 9!.. bl ities is a 1 rtf nw. th!11 there exist: K > 0 .3.2. Then f is integ: ... I /:1 It· <l howxJt. b) 1)(1 1 J"l her application of Theorem 7.6 Corollary l..1 how th t fg is intl. to e». lJ m:Jth . S~ that if ! and J. R = .d. rclien 1/(1:)1 "" K for all lEI. 1 B Ix. ion u 1. b] . is in.) Let tp (t) for 1 E J r L s.2. Since ~ h V' that ICOn. E R fir . pre ·eding result .artition . The position I{ 0 f(r) = 0 if r e:: I L'i irrational. alw i tt$' ble 00 1 and 5. fial. g iarantee th e i.1.2.

b+c1aadt t SECTION 7.2. ply the w. . II W1: g by ~(V) = I(y .iblp 00 1 = [n. if h(. and lei I/ex)! < K for all :r E I. a d that I: J II' iu bl Wi J. j J( -:r) = -J(x Hoc :r r. putitio 7. > 0 be by a U(I': if DOW F') .' x.5. rit orion 1. ch that l/h il. If I ~ B is iaterval. 11 -+ R 'lh hh') > 0 fur aD x. each of th i that t:<r) -11(t) I~ int ~ 17. Joe the inequality lL Gi Func:tamental Theorem of Calculus (Rrst Form) B be integrable on (0.(J(. IJ1 and let F: [D. .. .11 -> II t is not int~1 [0. (a) If I il. bJ and lel I: 1 II 1)Pomtegnhl II I. 9. 11 but is .1sd . H.l 1ean Value 111 rem 6. that [x'_I. {'~: 7.d t • be the of all P of f that contain 0 S 'ITlmelrk! (t is.1 ( ) F' Let ]: {a. g(:r)} b 11EI. show g is iutL-gr.on l!= (a. d Lrt f. e].. }. .x. then / __1'" o. GI ~ of a 6mction I: (0. then . u tJ ~g ex. without II' Tbeor 15.r).F').. b).fy th . x E P if IUld anI. b1 and J(:d ~ 0 b aU x E 1. if J( -:r) = J(r) ro. . how I there it t~ f(r}= [ b-lIf.blandfb»Ofo 1//15 <F(b)- F(a) ~ (P.. b e].3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus r \i 'tn is an of lIJl tn~1 function h: to. Let 1.t DO th intc:rva1la c.' to F' jilt II. hI.1('1)1 lOr x. Ml denote ualities ov -r ~l! i II uhinten-als in tl blain mum and nrpreinu of F'JI [. uppose thai I is in! hi un [a.c) fOT all If E [d + c. If / b m le 00 [a. . t mch b hud I(. if -:r E P) Low that UI> p{L P..f(y)1 for !I e 1 tn ~ th: t b int Ie on I.. IJ 13. Show t 11 IS int~1 00 I.>re • > 0..1. 1)."r I ]111 .bil [: 1 -+ R be Ul grable I.' i ot 00 r the Riemann P _ (xo' x. F(b) .l f"1-= Let e .2. U ifl~ity 'I1Ien: (1) Proof. PEt. 0J'C i (f(J:»~ . 10.ll. b J It af.. I tru ow :. {-a. t~. I w partition I' llnd DO Ihat th m.= [G.lff ill 19. E (Xl-I. l2. y G 1 to bow th.Xl) 1I h thal tervals w I If I eEl 15 tJDUOIT'i OIl 1 . bI- } the derivali continuous on [a.r I. Mb tx E (a.n b that III integrahl Oft [0. f / .xl I? ~ m <I(t}. bl and let cEil. C\i 1) (tlu. p{f(.me! f! an: int~ It. 16 If f i .bl ".f . I/(x)I-lf{y)1 ~ I/{:r) . hl such that giHD. J -+ II be boundf'd .5.-grable on 1. Let I' [d. th t J >= [-0.1&-1' Xl]./.) af[a.2/:1· (h) If I is odd ( is.tt If Iis aL'iC) integrable PO I.b]. gi\ iUl mple of n integn&hle function I noni tegn&ble f1mc 'on« cb that fg' iutt.r) ~ 0 rEI.F(a). wb.aU rEf).3..lHE FUNOAMENTALlHEOREM OF CALCULUS 251 . WIthout U1ing Theorem 7.)}~ ~ 2KI/(x} . to ~ liili IhI' OIlowin ls.Tl: 1 L(P:F) 1=[a.L(P: f' < e.(a. D. Let a> 0 and t J .f}. oat integrahl OIl [0.2.. F' emf$and Pb: = fh:) for all x E (0. ~ < Iy .~.) than e. rouditiun Q •. if I' continuQUf point eEL a. J'his result metim L . 111 It is r.K. IJ ). II Let K > 0 io t If{r I~ K for x E [a.252 aot i CHAPTER 7 1l£ RI ..3 Fundamenlal Theorem of -. b]. us ul to mbine these two fmms into one r !'In. b l Then equation (1) holds with 1 F'. I(d.F(c) h fUnn 0 = fCc). (ii) tJ function F' if integrable OIl [D...3.r) ':tllrfh(1 . Q.[1= 1"1. [a. in . 7.b If x. whi r alJowing the "upper limit" of in gntioo to vary.3. [1 IJ F( r) = % ( a. re nari er honJd Ie 7. ()- f(c>1 = I*idf(. I' . F x) = f(x) = limn Co 7.t F (a) = o.UVlI. F'(c - (c.b~ It on fa. lim ha . .uppostl that 1 i. at a frf " JOT [a.lain it £4 Ilows (wb .I(r)1 cit h we u.111: [a. cuntinuc 1:' t a point c E [a."C:: Th . F') ~ .3. hl Moreover.s on [D.(a) that in th I int Jut! val 7.5 F f Theorem of Calcu tinuow jwll:tion. h] and F'(x ""J(r> for all x diffenmtioble at c and connnfJOU$ on [4.J~) jnn) J:) - dr I e = J(c»drl '.f(c t h) . . y E [u. UC)W (3) Proof.4.w al h • L( P . b]..2.6(a) that IF(y) fro . hl then l. dT . i tegrand 7.rl.4 CorollaJy un [a. hi 7. b] R fy tilt! cmulitions: (i) d cleriootWe F' of F .f'(~) = f"l.3.3. b] rE % br and let (Comb ned Fonn) 1.e the observati that (l/h) f• F' ~ l' (f : F' .hl F(y) it ( 4) conlinui . Let ]: [a.f. IFCC I 11~I > o· arhit . h] and In (2) then F' then F' F ( %). the CQ\. i: . the Fundamental Theorem of Cal 11 . F'(c) = fCc). + h) .. un [0.2. which we that the bypotbes 0 thi "'1"':" a~ ·trutJ r than in the ntinu and ..1")1 () [f • for all for all [0. h) Ii EN! tim s: E 7.j» th t I F(c + h~ Q.1-'(. b].D. b J.3.uy.n.2 Corollary Let F: [a.. b] and let ca cWUS Jor (Second Form) l.. r(x) ." J dx = • I to C)t.1 < y. y Jr: .2 and 7.n.tf: [a. Let I: > 0 be giv(:11 be sueh thai i Ihl < S and c + h E {a. . Ii be it groble on [a. <~. Then the ~ an equivalent: . it .II:'JlC.

I.. Ibey u] of intD". It F'(tp(t) 'tt) and from Corollary '(t that ll(a) t E J.1 irnpli tl· iff is inlegrahle [a. ti) a function rna) It· antiderivclli' bot be int~ bl ( 7. howe • (i) all I grablt: ftm tion rna)' not h· an CUI 'derivative (see F.) F'(u) = f u). Proof. Iff n Theorem ILl J' la.) dx.8 first J.ative on i knee of tilt! iodennit .7 I and 11Ilf' anticlrricatice (5) fbF(:r)g(r) f. II have r« h (t))tp'(t) dl = J~/))f(x) .1>. 'e ..1. CJ.3. But. (6) 1. F(c)'" O. .[f(b)C(I..3. d.H(IJ) . 'nne F: 1 the R E F u)' standard "teehniq ndamental Theorems.) Ex . h) and F u em anJitleriwtiu'. P.3.. R ..3.TbeJ1H' l Rule (Theorem 6._ La. f 011 for 1.3.3.2 and use th f: F(cp(a» co 'llOUSO H'(r) =. lh the fun' F: 1 . on by P If I.j<X) all rEI. [(J.6 that "'(. . Since J is continuous th inten-al on I. '1lI 7. [a.1. nli is the methnd of fn~ mtegral famjli from leulus.. wh H'(t) = f( (I» = (CP(t» f4 t E: J. G r ti II U! (and hence int~le) on (a.7 that !G. (a) If [: I -+ R.lJl and let : J 011 cuntin atl iT 1 containing IP<J).2.b) 1.b). end points c. tieJd be familiar [f c J- x) dr for uE/.n (I) holds. arantees tJ1C • ctJellinuOlLf dair.:' integrabl • and f. ined by {f .1. tJ dr .r) F(r) '(x) = f(r)C(:r) + F(:r)g(r) J#Jf(tp(t})tp'(t)dla H(M . au nf rivative of the function fG + F/!. Pg an 1111 re ore fC + Fg are IS o( bl If we use the Fundam 'U '11.'ti n II: Ii defined by 11(1) 7.F'(r)G(.US 255 tbm nninoiogy II I is (all gh th lenni ft 1111 Fltfl_ ).6 De on Lt! I . th n n tidcrivath (f f 00 1 i a funcn that ""(x) . b 1 be all int rval ill fl.«.(r)fo xE[a.. w have i " dx. b l g &or t Prodm.<. . (b) If f: I H i iotewah 0 I.. tlw.NTAl THEOREM OF CALClJ_. F: 1 R ucL Jb( • (5) + Fg) = R(I) ..(r): hie II [ b) ere H ..3(c». b 1.. we conclude that CI..7). '('C' 7 ~'U 7~1.5>. rEI caJ]t:(1 th indeftoite rot I of Ib fir t furm 0 tl • Fun n otal Theorem 7~1. ider t f\1Jl(. Theorem 7. r 7. off.H e}. n ortunateJy. we can 1 con . hJ from the Cham Rule 6. G on [a.1. b Prod ..E(a)G(a)] . then b] -+ R art! in~grable on la..fbf(:r)C(:r) LetH(r): and. wi rt c== tp{a) and d = tp{P).H(a) .

the It tb· Ii nil (/ tp(t». 13] and let I{J: J _. . jlltt. ! f ro 1 ~tfr=tlog(l+x).2 that !(x)I/I'(x) dx Co 1/1)(".10 .G(a}.r) = C.2..1 -2:rcU + xrI.ClJlUS 257 On th other haml we also have.12 and 7.p (9) = 0. it is dear that / is C IItillUOUS on ~l.Y on 1:= [a. 0\\' ".3..f :=up/(I). J . is de6.(/091)("'(%»"'(1') = f(x).1 1+ r log(l 1 ix dr=2J.'(x) = f("''''''(x»t/I'(r) Proof.l. tIl(' . LeI m . 2 1 {I -(I +:r)-I}cIx 1 (7) Proof. Sin<r. Morro er.11 Example Con ider th . On . on 1. (C""')'(.rp -.l»t/I'(r) .2. P). econd Substitution 'I rem can be applied to giv ' and ". for % > . pI and then I-t a a + Sinularly if f"(IJ} = 0 If ". then y.. then ~~ Note It som till happens that fIJ' at a.3 we ronclude that fc all rEI./() + 1") dt. ) 12: -alog26-log2J=~I()gJ3. ~ J ll1f( o ell = C(P) fTum thIN! two equatiolls.1.u . nullary 7.3.(1) == 7.. hioc the last two nations.int al (a. c. rp(t) ~ . that is tri tty monotone./(c) l"p(x) dx. CP(11. 1. t . it (I» also foD~ fro". [1. aw I t G: J -t B he n antideriYllljve of the ntinuous fUJ :lion /0 'P. It nows from . Iff: 1 R' r 1 = tC -l-~----':=- 1Ii dt f2_ =2 f = . 4] and It IS evident that !/let) l' 2 15 the ftlfx:ti I ill rse to l{J on (1.cal = (G 0~ )( tp( a)} If f. 25J and . .tilt! .3. it foll~.3. integral {1IU 1 + It) dt.(.(IJ) .9 int~.r)1I~ = 2[1 .2 that H(~) Formul.'( t). 0 f/t ~ diRt rentiahle on 1 and = 2[% + .' we I)fl.inff(I) and. 7. so that mph) ~f(r)p(d 40: 'ph) all rEI.: J -+ R 1M tlte frmctWn inoerse to 'P.)' I} and (y • pl where )'1 < )' < 'Yz· 7.5.et p be UJtegr-abk on 1 and such that p(x) ~ 0 ()r all rEI.. (6) Ii now ~ F(rp(~» = l f(x)dx.. If V·LO. hJ and l.21 = cp(Il._ La.8 illlpli' that th above int~~ra1 is equal to D J.12 Mean Value Theorem for Integrals (pi I IN! continuou. .'(I) / > 0 (. It follows from Theorern 7. we consider t1 ...orollary 7.2. 11 i.pply the theorem to the im rval [a. Then the FITSt Suh'litution Th rm 7.'IlCe '" .2.3. B ('nn1inuow d.F(d) other hand. we obtain (7). od i.1 tit t the net fp is integrabl .. (See Theorem 6. we choose c arbitrarily.. by Throrem 6.9 il fi Uows that !/I' exists uti is continu • on 1.21. we rut = C(/J) . In this CUIl.1.t-rioot:ive ch that 'P'(') -:1= 0 for t E J.log ~l.l.256 CHAPTER T lliE R1BMNN THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM Of CAl. inee 'P'(t) "" 0 for t E J.5D .7 and x:umpanying remarks.wd Example Cou ider th .'(" EO 2/. l1l1m erist3 (J point e e t NUcla that (8) f"/(:r)p(1') - dx . ILL I be WI inleroal Of' con~nmg continuous rp{J) and let I. f is oontinuou .) H(. Theref • by Corollary 1. Iume Q Second SubstJlutlon Theorem Let J .ill( .~ If we leI f(r):"'!(J z )" .. ·fD inee / is conti DOW: on (1..[J.3. Th rn c. clear that Ihe integrand bas the form / ° rp{t) if we take I( x) := 1/(1 + x) I2 Ii for IE [1.'(~(. J.'(-y) 0 for some 'Y E (a. since G' = I ° 'P.8» G(a).3.5l).

.~(xl dr or 0 ~ a < b.d uf n 1m [-1... . If 1'. 'a. ...• r""(a) and a remainder.t)"J<a+ll(t) dl. nut hound jt Ie..(1') al poinn wht're' th.(. fC..fv. bot i~ nol . s~(%) =• J hen r > 0) i!.Eva!· It • 0 • (b .3. y. LL Let J be oootinuous 0 1 . r First Form Proof.nrlion .2.f = F(b .O. h) ron jJM'd. .) Howev tr.r-1p·)(t) dJ.14 Taylor's Theorem u-ppose that . and cvaJlIlllc ."..H(O) . show that th· SlgtlUID fUnction ( 1') . rem that tit rc is a point c llary 5. + pAl(a) nl (b .. troduoed in ~ 5.D. 0Cl 1..} 1111+1) are continuotlS on [b) to H.. f'YPD t 100gb it is discontinu umber.b dcrivati\i ts. the inddimt UI~. and K(O)::= O. Thomae' "Inc· [d.3.. of Q. 7.""' .e. h %) foc cry nrtionaI number . (x)Jz-H(b)-H{a =b o.E. but that it duo not • an tid rtv . FOJ' me appli (ions il is more conveni nt to Ie to espres the remainder t nn as an integral t e ~7. d fb!= • Take pCr) f(c)(b .1 wh II % < O.a)"+1 I nl ~ (I . 2. t~ • 4.G'(x) exists fuT I E (0 but tkat ~ i!.en'lll can C1ti~t . WI') • IJOLU un [a. l't-m to how th t if o b > O. is integrable OIl evc:ry mt (r::r > 0}($eC Exerri 7. which enahl ~ one to calculate the value f(b) in term of the lues J(o)... read will recall ayJoT'. a ~t function.. mte hi (Q.E.4 and 7.2.. 1] . th re t to oat I.. it THE F1JNIW. ft E . 7. m Eumlll S.ilbn~ not 5~ Let (.1] i ~\'n bv integral OIl . Show that 111113 I ». show that Jim 1.[G.in". -rl. n). I Tlt'n (11) feb) .~. ..' lideri\. inlcgnilile on CO.1'.1 1). =r« I) dt} 11) .. 1 • II 00 WI in ~'Il1I.F(" F: [0.l)r .13 :such ( 10) dlUl Corollary If f· contin on I := [a..5(h). and (. R be den L F(x) .D. 'en wh n..4. 1 != - n f . 'oI..lg(x) tb. b I· d if .bl and let R: I • R be defined by 8.= [- = Z oF 0. . Let K(:r) =.s)-p·+I)(a H(r) :- tJ I for c: I. n though I IS discontmuous at r . a..t no t m lv 1''' • 1) 'aluatcd t a poir I betw n a and b..1.1. I. 11'(:r) :cw % C I.1) ds. + (b .. 21 but that H'b:) .a) + . and 1'. Q.I)'_ :r2 IDI('I7'/:ri) for 0 < :r .3.."( b ..3 in 1.1) nveni fit to male the chan to btain formula variahl t~ that 'I1wmac' fu h in the prttedin( cxcrci ite inl~nJ [1. 7. often E [0. =- pltl(a) 01 (b _ alII 1 (n in this 1)11. IL (12) R . mtL·gr·ahl on 1.2) 9. RIEMANN INTEGRAL IS continuous.r 2S8 lilt •/ CHAPTER 'THE. (b .in n.(0) 1! .+ I). :1.E. . (a) Use tilt! or the Fundamental Tb....eris eEl . se Thcon:ms 7.r If we continu Instead (I 8)0 to jot ~b"""'" by .-c If has an ntidmvati\. how th t F. l].0). haw t F is tin ..feu) f and its derivatives + --(b /.. ')1.b t the Fmt Form to how th i < 0 « 1'..1'1 in(lI'/~)Ii 0 < r . wh re (rl denotes greab: t inb= fu ion. r.t) . bJ mel F(J:) . mte I. then du-n.a). H (13) (b . thai if H(x) I:rL then lI'h:) gn :r) COl" I Q. • rv>pf..(n . uu [0.(0) = 0 Show t g(. t"""'"' t sb for R. i!.. given lll(:-d dr..))"/2 0 %C (0 .go(O) = O. Integrate R _ by parts to get n /. Proo£. = it . 1.D.. Theorem 6. Integral = 1 in (8).. 1I Form for the Remainder (b) U inv IVing 11 ... 1'(a). bl tlu:u f.l. -1 gn(:r)dr-H(l)-I1(-I) . .a)· +R . It. (Hcm.7 to the Bolzano IlItermediate I where fCc) is ('fIIID to the quoti nt exercises for SectIon 7...~ .1 to tiLal if f i!. at ev inttln'll1.4 Jtn(r)dr = 11 b) .(n .IENTAL THEOREM OF CALCUlUS 259 oUows f in Co inequalit) J e Th (9).1.. ..I) . 'bow that h <lao n have an tiderivalh on an . re antid rivatives of f. 1. . .w mt. we 0bta· fa rmu ) m I.. til) _.!(:r) eseepr fIJI" a Gmt number of points m (a.3. f" •.) . r (12). . l. ) _. (b) l' 0 Ii Ii ch. 15.. I] [This II of the rmnamder is In Cauchy.00 f(r) . Ii ~ 261 lll.(4. (a) \' rif) tile foUowiug Pt~ uf L. 22.. I 1 . Lt : tf o r how that g(..: 7 me RlEMANr.1. the rem:untk.2~ a -. Evaluat ~ followin integrals. ~ f"(r) at all point!. (h) Ury) = Ur ) L( y) for x..) . hI :. (d) F(..3.JWIte the fuDowing integrab.~Jt. 13. f o • lom(l!) dl. ~n f . Fmd F.! dtffi II drfin«J l~ J I ·t f: J _.. 0 for r E Ii.&II.}. r fill" 2 < r ~ 3 Obtain an explicit expreslOIl fur F(r) = as a fu. d) and I.iI 1NTEGlW. (d) f / ~ Ii a t{t+4) I+ ell. b) and uppose that f: 1 Ii i~ oontim If If = sup {f(rl: r E show that the scqoence n. \Vbc:re u F di f"Mltiahl? Eva! .(:ta) = nUx) for 1" > O.({-lXx) . C(r). Low fnnn that there .(d .>r can he ssed in the (f how lhat fCr)" li r x» .260 CHAPTER 12. ~l' of 7. g > o. b) and lei g: 1 that (2. (a) 1:(x) .oi. THE FUNDAMENTAl THEOREM OF CALCUlUS ~t ) = [c. (c) l.. Is eEl that. Let I a. ereti· le... lit 1. IS c: N. I PIU' that f{:r) = 0 for. j (b) th I . 20.% fOt 0 C. OIl I iUW such that foraU rEI. f(r) = ] for I < r < 2 • .1) and let f: I -4 R be OOJlt. .iun uf r. j\Ubfy each step. SII)lpOSe that thew tla.r) = 0 h. b].: I Sh 19. 3 (d) .-1. Let f: R ~ Ii he tin and let Q f . r < 1.. R he ddi . for some Dum""'" 8 e (0. e I.: (0.2lf r 1 1I MaIl l J: > o.l g b c:Lffcrcntiablc and Ii d g'..r)= 1 II 'n·cmtdl. Let I > 0 such B be rontin1KlW on 1.'. 1+t1dt:.1 ---tho a t 23. under ~ bypath ucb that f(c) = ~(c). od fCr> .III or r > (J.r a1I .. de6ue:d 00 I := [0. 0 approach to the ~thm is to c:Jc6rw. /:1 (d for :I> o.all :r E I. 16.. uppose that [: [0._ (G.inu~ ~ 1~(r)1 ~ Suppo~ that KElt:! a fotaD:l E 1. t>d h)' f(·. (0.00) RbI ro.r} =. WbcrT F i .. Let F: 3) .- th. Define g: II - R by (c) 10 2 + yt =[a._ t<"1 • for r E} • cooverges to . 17 Let I ".« be cootinuow.14.nd...l that if G. 0. U.. (J il~ 01' th. r>O. 1 1 3 Mt + 1 1 th. B be conlinUO{l OIl I rentiAilil OJl J :md 'i. Ev.. r)foraU x F. > O. GO) ~ !II i crmtinu \'(' I and P1U\" 25.and let I.) Fer):= { ". II L' follaws: (a) F(x): (C)Fr)={ hfy each strp.4li~f)' dJ)!. . of the Riemann sum Sf. D .1. tll· Riemann integral i Reo introduced in terms of limit of certaiu UIDS Imo u "Riemann SIIUJ-~". a putit.riterion 7. 'bon I and if ({ I' {2 . Iff is' tegrah and It > 0.!): IS eA' J. f) I the intermediate point the forget this depen .4 The Integral as a Urnlt c In introdu ory calculu courses..) ~ E "-1 ~ "k(xl . then the I er and upper S\DDS are equal ~ Riemann urns lOr p:uticu choi of tl intcnn i pain. f).['. Ind -d.4.ill not il troduce a n to il icate th.-%1.xpect that the IDe urn tJI'e finr I. One purpose i secti i to estahli h the equivalence e theorie of th Hiemann int:gnl. f) is any • AGURE 7.to make this question mo ._1 1 ~ x... then the sum (1) will teld an approximation to the "area un :r the gn b of J" th be in ue I the integral J. In g the upper and lower sums are not Riemann sums {since rnl nd I" m be attained by f . eA' 'I..4.. ts.J(1'! 11 n 1'£:_..f) < e. N e Althoug. Xl' . We note that if the lower and upper bounds mit and arc attained on (%1..1 ...262 CHAPTER 7 THE Rl THE GRAl /IS A IT 263 SECTION 7. with a brier discus i of "improper" integrals.-1 • L(P.> . th '0 for k.Xl-I and heigh feel)' .n.xl-1)' (1) caned a Rieman .!) to I' <S(P.) ts . there mll. f) .• x.45.) If th partition P c. d to th of integra 'on. If P -= (:ro.1. there msts a partitibn p.1 S(P. for k = 1... even though they can be seen to be arbitrarily close to 1\leIDJa[1D sun C81"(' ully d\c interm late poin .. Figm:re 1."f 7.f) urn for =. by Rieuwnn's . prmided this integral .2 IUCh that of Dejininon 'T'heoran Let 1 t ~ sumJor J.) 'The Qt lion:arises: Can we ob '11 the int I ~the limit" 0 the R.Ct! of Rit.. i1 i cl .h we sb. HOWi r..• ueh that (P.4. Ho hall ho • at least two possibl definitions of limit that wei' in both . then. of 1 P is ll1UJ porlificn that if 0 refinernenl of PR and if S( P . be infinit 'Iy many :d obtain a Ri mann sum c:orrespor .6. then if [n.f)" U(P. (2) Pr-oof. _ ..it is hie to . y no and tb· upper sum 0 intermediate points {.1 for 1 Ie = 1•.. t int. g to a gi en partir din.. affinnali . . rather than in terms. very 6 . k-I m"(x.4. -1'. the lnnil. 7. if P . since it should be 10 • reader that w ve ·tiered no limiting proces thus &r that will coov !O. .1 Deftn on Let I = [a. of upper and t r integrals ON I ve don Fortunately.• n.. if e > 0 is giver1. te poin S(t..2.. b] and let J: 1 . corresponding partiti n P and l!h That '. "e t. 1'hen. and for any choice of e points inte:rm tl. n.. n).I~(P" .t rn rtiti P of 1. smns S(P. Indeed. b) and let f: 1 Ii be integrable on I in the 1.iou p. make more explicit what we mean by .. J) 6 if' f? In order... MOft"OVef'. (See Exercise 1. of I .Efal)(rA-X'-I) £.=l . the urn (1) ..R be a bounded fw ti . re numbers such II· t . he interpr ·ted as the area of uni n of rectangles "it" Widths Xl . it is the that these limiting approach I .._.. (Ie = 1••.-1. te points. •.-mann ums. positi unction J on 1.) < E fU. a Riemann sum. . then it will al 0 he ttl that P.L(p. Then. The« f is integrable on I in the 1 if 1JefmiJiqn 7. ~ thnl Theorem fA I = a.. nUl her of int in Pc' let Q = (Yo.1)2 18 < E/3. L( P. ~ 11 TC is another Riemann sums. then it follows n Lemma 7. f) .2 p. I.f) cf e/3.x' . But if Sf. f and '(Q..1 4. then 110 I ~ PI~ howev r. if P p.f) ~o V T. b another Riemann urn for Q that is ithin e of the 1 'cr sum L(Q. • Darbouxts Theorem t1 [a • b) anti let f: I . !I •••. _1 til t belong p. Is( P. it therefore foil t we also ha e L( P : f) /'1 < U( P . f) I. b) and if p:= (xo• . there r this . ell in which the integral can be obtained as a limit of the Iz" . < S( P. Q. f theorem can be cd on the observation t given e > 0 and exists a Riemann sum for 0 t i within e of the upper um Q . there erlsts a numbe: A such that for ecery e > 0 there erifts a partition p.4.4 Deftnltlon If I = [a. for the reader.r .2 P" and if S(p. f)."f.f) < e/3. but not to Q. .1. and Q* has at mo t T y.. . f) .f) An < U(Q*.o um <0.f) . () so that P .> such that U(P" :f>p.. h to 1 re ('(Q. f)."/ are conran in the .> and A .J) " U( r .I> < £/3 Moreover.1.8 that then.f) " " U(P . fl. 1) f corre- It should be quite clear that two VeI)' diffeJl".f) - SIlDIremum of MJ' the supremum f of f over th jlh 11 interval 0\' t k th ibint I in Q. those points among xl ••••• X .2 that Note u. gWnl. The conVi 7. then 3) r == as asserted...I)._..f> sponding tu P and to any '" L( p. J) inee Q.264 CHAPTER 7 ll-tE RIEMANN INTEGRAL fj 1liE INTEGRAL AS A WAIT 265 partition such that P.! Riemann sum for f.f) " U( P~ .6 r Proof.4.rppose to the above theorem . It follows that Q* 2 P. f) and tb integral 1..Dt parnnons of I can ha e e mesh.• be partition of 1 with DQII < 8 let Q = Q UP. then we hav II rn _. .. 110·11 " UQII " o.. f) is any COlr~ItJillf. also true. Let M == supUf(x)f: % E 1) and' t ~ '= £/12n • here n + 1 th. thn-e is as> 0 such tlwJ.•• .1.x.R be inlt:gTabl (If Definition 7. and the . if P i..%.f) can be written as the sum of at most 2(n ofth fann to we be 1) rr .{P..rn..5 1 ira thB tJ t if J u intewWl in th seas '.. tJ 'n the integral of f Co the limit of the of th following theorem. fir . f. It is also clear that if P ( O. ally Riemann . if c > 0 J.f)· 'into which 1 IS both the Rieman.. a pam' Q of I.I). .It I " 2 1 and in (Q*. Ip I is th divided by the partition P.3 t. then it can seen that U Q.= (. that if P . then the mesh of P.F_D.f) ~ 2(" ..nan for / CorTe$pOnding to P. Iy similar argument implies that t(Q :f) In other words.. bland kt f: I _.t any partition of I such that II P II < 8 and if S( P . f' intcgrabl and t: > O.AI < e. is a partition p. f) . it will be left as an instructi e '. 2 Q it How that U(Q:f> . R be a bounded fimction.U(Q* . we deduce 0" U(O.6.. n:unely.. We wi.:. maximurn lenzth of the uhi t . 0 7. it does not that if !lQlI ~ IIPll then P b Q.. 7.. a R' nann sum for f mtermedia poin.z. Sin. Since the proof i particularly diffi ult. denoted by IP i d:-6ncd b :rIO)' a partitioa of Hence we ha e (Q. (Why?) < •.. it foUows from Riemann's Criterion 1. f) i.4.I If points than Q. .1. that in' 0 lid Mt i II e 1M) .U(Q :J) ~ 0 If we write (.e/3 < L(Q.

".3. b1 and let f: 1-+ H be a bounded function.)f)Q. !WJ.6 and B = f.11 not e . then it follows th t / i. J] i 11/= o (h) If g(r) lim 2(1. it will he discussed in Section .. is unbounded and} 11 • not inlc:!-gr. a :F 1. b 1 -+ B be such that f is integrahl on the c in (e. integrable on I and B . i o -f t w infl lh t the improper integral of f on (0. H I and J. Proof. (j Q: J)l.81 < e. It is ign uu Illt: low.10(c). . 1].sethere ens a ntlmber B such that for ecery ~ > 0 there h 0 ~ > 0 8UCh that if P u any partition of 1 wiJh 11 PO < 8 and S(P . bi Thw 1]1 r of improper int ~ is superfluous in this at! .4. e- -0 . if a 15 urational. Iimit of integJ'al unle there i • e lim /'''/.. A T 267 at and den the value A h f"f • in Q d I'lL' must ha e U{Q* .ie11lenl8 of Reo! Analgm. and hence in the open inte lliE INTEGRALM. Q.L{Q* .In.1..tbl OIl [0. I of unbounded function.1.. then IS( P . Let e > 0 and S > 0 be as in the th . uppose there 15 a real number A such that for I) > 0 ueh thal if c 'sfi a < C < II + 8. ion f the Ri mann integral bas been given {independently} hy R. If P is any partiti n u It Ihat P d P«. th III the limit in the preceding !leG. not pply without some change. irrtt-gnJ (If f on (0..266 do int :rvul [L( Q : D. Since there are importanl in r when it is desirable to relax one or both of II requiremeuts. I.f) and I:f is less than . f) . we hav -tir=logl-logc (': x -log c.b] and if f is integrahl· on (c.. '11Ien f u integroble on I in the e of Definition 7.1. bJ ( Exercise 7.) For 0 < c < I. erte . b.8 Examples (a) The function f: [0. A more thorough aa:ouot can be found in The F. McLeod in a monograph cited in the Refere Improper Integrals in the preceding di ion of the integral.2. . and t t P« be a partition of I with I p..4. f enee. the improper 7A.1]-..bJ. flO) = O.ic) . Therefo hy Th n 7. w • have < e. for % in (0. ~ 1. then IPI ~ IIP«R < so that for any COlTC5pOOding Riemann sum we have IS(p."I. Thus it wid he The ("OUVClSe to the preceding th tru .7 DefInition exU 1 . b] by A HO~!r. . (b) ote that f n be igu(. then the foregoing integration theory d . 7. (If a is rational thi dt sed in Emropl 6.. b] J'h tr . Therefore. tegrability the valu 0 i integral or s 7. Remarks (a) If / i bo nded on [a. integral of f over la. H defin h {(x):= 1/'£ lOr 0 < 'X <. II n fOr each c with 0 <c < I.1<:"/1 E >0 Let I: (0. . li ns. b].'d au arbitrary value at a withorrt ling I . function in loge i unbounded c -+ 0 + . If either of these conditi . trally mtegrablc on [a. urzwei) that has a number of strong r properti than either the usual Riemann integral OT ~v n the Le gue iot gral An exposition of this tbeory i giv n by R..11 wh rc a > 0. there were two standing assumpthe f\ln lion required to be bounded and the domain of integrali " required to :& bounded interval. integral of g (0.1.. the di t n betw 'CQ . In this case we of f on (a. = l/x for 0 g= 11 ~ fll <r ~ I. SO that the length of Ie is less than E.4. shall brieHy indicate the alterations that need to made. notanmcd. with the 111 of u .I. It clear that the oumbe to deno CO or hmlt A = A is tile ngbt-blllld custon oat ral the improper plus r ol not to wri e usion.3. t. f) 81 < c.) ioreo r.1. r each c satisfying 0 < c < I.f) is any ~ponding Riemann sum. H !r.b] fOT every c· li fying a < c <.0.th eel = _1_(1 -a c' "). we hav . 257-285 We consider .• 0.f) < e/3. J i .D < 8. Q •.6 Theorem Let 1 == [a. f) . then have y that A il the improper intepal (c) Let h(x) == r -. which yields th in 11lily (3). ilion l'OiDeid..

otherwise. and we denote the vahue A by 7. 1] fails to exis .the improper int ~ of f over -1. The interval.CII) for an fixed bE R. giv~u by Iht~limit exists. «(I /n) E /U/n» i-I . log .OO) is treated hy considering the boll. m) _.• x. b) to be the sum .ho.. R be such that for every c > a the functi 0 I i mtegrabl over the interval [a. se (a) . If a > 1. a bennded function defined on (D. 1. Th .>t integral of 1 ower [a.r in [a. bl improJX. For example. that .'(. th m th· imJlniper integral of f 01..-- lim ) C> 7. leI f be 2.10 Q Examples we hav (a) If (J o. If both exist. If 1is unbounded in eve. . a'" 1.xJ CIO so that the improper integral of g over [1.11 % '" 0. -. have Co t:l ("E . Itwo h at have an improper integral. bl i id to exist if and only if the integral of f over both inttervals [a. 0 as c -t 0 + so tho t h imp 'r inkgral How ier. ir . oo} does not For any c ({l/n") I-I i: 1 ch (b) lim (I/n) ( 1_1 .. b] and [b. p) and (p.im_ f. tbr. Let a E R and let f: [a.. t in f'I1lt'diatc painb (tl' ~I'''''~. Suppose th re is a Dumber A such that lOr every E > 0 th re exists a real number M such that if c> M.. a hllicti tbt:n tI.I) LEI 12: '_I n 1 to express r.Wts.if the limit 1. a. 3.eonverg c. bc. t. CIO) and has value l/(a ..) he.~.ous behavior at Illt: ri~ht end point is treated in a similar manner. c]. . ample. of (a. te: a is unbounded as c ttbe imp :%. I 1 - -dr + xi r _.1.cI. > 0 how thod.9 J .l/x!l 0 x E (0.lnc) f• 1 lor Exerclaes for SectIon 7.U UI ti iotprtJpCr integrals of f over of these jHl roper integrals and i d I1lled to he intervals of the fonn ( -GO.Jog c . how that .E-:---o' It 1:_1.01 ......It-I • 1)< . J~f. ill grab n [0.._ lim (. ) nl )~ Tf/4.1). n (b) Let a > 0."1"(GO) Q).. E in - 1'l1) . if fix) :.4. th n cl-... > 1.. en. and I t ~(r) for % m n..ry H ighhorhood of an interior point p of [a.h] wnd kl P.. It is sometimes said that. then {. IX) does not exist lu1propc illtegntl over manner.0 and if fer) =. if I . we 5.2 as an integrol: .00)..f)- EJ({k)(rl-"'''' . In tlus cease y that A is the improper integral of lov r [0.1] doe not exist because the improper i tegraJ f J over (0.ach of the EOUuwing limi + I: • (b) .l/x for . Let J . b lit. r int gral of f ewer [a. the impJupc'r mregnll of J . we have We I tum to the case of imprropcr Deftnltlon int:gral ov r unbounded interwls. 00).. OIl)... QV(7 In other words.. r For . ILl eval 7 ).L~_ re' (a) lim J J . the impropeT iotegp! of I I:f . and -divt'lges. case the impropcc int :gral of rover (a. 1]. 1 + %2 --Jx+ 1 i .niH II mvolvees an "impropriety" t th ·1· t ~d point f n analOJ!.4. If 0 < a < I. then c-·+ tOe prec:din~ de . (-act. .1 .. then c -e 1 i unbounded ru C CIO the improper integral of g ov ([1.lim.log 00.) U(I'. . lkre . 1 --dr 1t Xli 1:11 ( -- lim {Arctan c) c-·· lim (Arct.] are treated in a similar n1 defined on (-CIO. d in thi. 00) 13. then IA < E.0 £ x E [-1.. if a > I.268 CHAPTER 7 THE RIEMNIN INT'E(GRAL THE INTEGRAl AS A 269 IrO < a < 1.4 [a. improper w defin h lsts. bl Given E. ••. and I(x) .

-aJue.. It i: e .1. con"'erg t0 di\. t dx.5 Approximate Integration • Efhd(r. tat . and de rmine whf'thffl" it .•. If it' COD\.1 provides us wrth all .. Shaw that {. whether It il. on the remainder term f r OUT calcula .r the fullowing ~Cauch' cuuditiun. (ro.. e get /~e e-·· -ds. Hen e _rll C. b1. We': . (d) f 1 2 I % 011.. -. < I: or lUI L'UIn. Usc either lllt.. there lire a .( 0.ergent « 15. tlw ft. Usc tJm result to c-vaIu..Iv. c > 0. . . b~ 'b that for intermediate points. then w have an sti". I~ flx) .rr dr.uul lei p.~ Cll~t mtcmtc:dwle pomts (lj I.. . In Ig T -lor'.. I)' t . = [(rr + rt Ir'_1 +:r:C '2r. For mveni nee. tlwn If. If a better approxunation i. b 1. State wby each integral is impmper.} K.nt.'0 + U"-%.!b~..4.1' I. b 1. Since we h.1••. if we appl Taylor' The rem to e ' o ~ IJ ~ 1. g) for thew intcrmL-diatc points. and It -1" 1b . ficd.• II.1 can he used to approximate b) a polynomial. r.11 . (d)l - I 2 1:( 'r) I dr.hall limit OUT at1 Jtion CC)11tinuous integrond . J) seQ.6 to give ~r proof of 'nlt:~ortln 7. uppose we wish to estimate the value of t show that c-r ~ e-· ~ 1 Ii • E [0...nc J. For e mpJc.e!1 < Co 14..·oll!Ius 7. r fOf r E lo. we have ] .% 1 II . 9. +ol'). (b) . can attempt to find closer approxiltlatin~ function g and h.tis of g and h can be calculated. If rt I.. 1o 1 ·ft·r Con :qu illy.oodu . !d 00 a " .270 C1iAP'TER 71HE Smubrly. f) 7.-. there exists S > 0 ~ucb that if II pi < S alld UQI < B IDelt I (P. e obtain the estimate 1 .'UIOWU JoWWo. amvprgcnt.'ariet)' of technique for approximating th alue 0 an integral when an anti. must be nit t with thr e timat J I -I ~ VI-x!! J: «: dz I .. f II. deri ti cannot be found.fe c/2-t where no Iter infmmati JJ) as to II " Ila Cit '1.• 'rJ. log uppose f tis6es the condition in Definition 7.0"+ 1 = (u . E [r.2 + . spondiog Hi .1.9.rdand find thr.y method uating an integral._1 + .2 bolds.. we must get hound!.> ~.3. r I•.llh . the WrR:· t• (. tR 1 I r- dx.\t E II such that if M ~ u < 11.c:-rgr. eon . 6.. p. +:r:C_I)/(P - 1)f'" (or k .. I.. ll.4~'5 to ~~C . th~n f~ of the integr:al f f."j(r)d.bl wb re p e 2. tlx.1 t P . 'Ii•.1 . is based On th observation that if g( ) ~j(x) ~ h(x) fc of E [D.3. EMANNINlEGRAL APPROXIMATE INTEGAATlON 271 t. This estimate i crude. (b) (c) ]3. How 'er. and detennine eonve ent. Show that the impJOpeI' integral of f on [a. 00) exj if and only if Cocev ry e > 0 there ..'spouiliug RiI. Taylor's Theorem 6. be oil partition 0 [0..U . Ci~ an a1temati" e proof of the part of 7. ve .i chapter.ililc if lWU only .l/~ ~ _rt dx ~ 1. b1 and forUluLi (6) of St:dJoU 7.2. bl .1..u1itiuo of (0.: e -..J}" . Show that f ~ in~r'. but ollly tf we can find an antiderivativ foe the mtpgr"'n 'Ibis method is of DO II· at all when we cannot find I I~. •h If rt i I di (a) i tegral i improper. oompot ivai. i-I .o)(u" u". t2.4 that asserts thai if f b lfitegrable on cl d fc. n. +- R 3' (d) 1 (r + 4) cU.I ~adinK . t .) be . [Hint.. I 0 1r x dx. .1/2e :::: .~n6for the illt:gral with 0 error less than lj2e < 0.I = 1- r + 1.(P.rg t. compute its ..1) <~.r'_I) -1.' t· for the I. d determine "" r it is n1l1'rgent or div.' some number with 0 ~ Co ~ l. for eve.. "~or example.) ruch that t SECTION 7.moth·~ proof of ~ Fundamcnbl TIIL"UrelU 7. . ~1lIuc(lfthe R~ mann urn S(P.. Let g(x) r l' e [O. -eral of the most c1eJJ1cntary and most useful methods.. n sum s fie S(I'.f/24..1" -[-ch. to rD. J() U Tbeo 7 5 and 7.. and in this section we hall discus.. rre Ra = y. .4. up+ 1 . then it' integrab Oil [a. but it' obtained rapidly and 0 y be quite satisfactory or our needs. rompuflo it~ \ hie (h) (c) i= i ~ ~dr. rgent. rl ired.1. I whether nd wb integral is improper.4-2 or 7. Theorem. ttJ have signil1canre. r The Fllndam mtal Thea m of Calculus 7. One very elemelltary procedure to obtain Cfui' estimates of tl • value of an integral f. int gr. 11 0 tl t valu If tlK. wh f'fIt. ~l !(Zl t x.2.. [f we u ' the ave gl~ the of bmdreting values..

timate such· . : f) lid lJ( p" ....al it will not he easy to e..UJI approximation within a speeified tolerance .. whicb is readily n to equal lo SlUe it": {u'" f{l . a + 2h.5.. then ~ hove [a.(Xl5. bfined by (2) 7. IR o:t dx:li.(f) ~ I t'!{x) • (/. ea ocr... > O. u ...16.272 CHAPTER 7 lliE HI ~ X RIEMANN INTEGRAl E APPROXIMATE INTEGRA110N \H~ obtain 273 where 0 " /24.'"J!..' .o .-.J). it follow that 0. OI1l't C in whi .n will be ohtuh~. . (I . . 1) th m f is d tea: iog.. a + h. :rTOT =l_!_+":' 3 we have 0 ~ / 10 +1'R1dx...1 Theorem iff: (I).on [0. it can be used to determine t .. large w should choose' " in oro r to have ... value of the integral f}'/(%) dx lit: betwee 1 t( p. \~ • COIl i(1 r partitions p. However...1. I" r1i<:lIltr.tjon. the other.a) It is natu 1 to attempt tu I'P rimal jnlt-grals b ron i lering th IIp -r and lower lIDS (or Ihe Riemann that are " ed to define Ih.') An erro c. aleate upper d low 'r "" fue g n ral fllldions. if we n: considering co tinuoe .02. 1-0 The Trapezoidal Rule The method of numerical inte ration ( II -d the "Trapezoidal Ru] . t"tlfl'ider tht· partition ~..D..a + h :« + 2h . is = If( r.-." this is an C'" ruatter of I is th • (..-1)/16 < 0.v'rl b ' the purtitiClI'Ipoints. is of f L( whil the upper sum of p. the appro iI) lOU 1.llly convenient 10 use partitiolls in whi 11 the points • equall • ~J.1.e >1)/32 < 0.005.'nele Proo£.(!)! ~ I/(b) -. U(b) _ I(G)](b 211 ... foc x _.2 Example If f(r) .(f) =. bl int n equal iUhintcrvals baving length h -= (11 .:..h[U{o) + . = b. r SUD! f is mODO f' I~ ut"Cn. 2n ' wh rrc .t:.(b _ a)/n: as befOrt!. r Sums ..'0".l.24 9. Suppos« that f i eeutinuous and increasing on [0...04. su-:' kh). We apt m iUl' • f by the piecewise fimctiou g •• whose grap' passes thmu~h tht: pomts + kJ. f (..~ ~ on app mnating tJ continuo l Iimetion f: [a. and if T../> + .%2 + 0 !r·_ ix'·)d.f) h E /( a + kh )... II 011 . :f) -h " E I(a 1 7... an lip ~l "(lIIIId 00 th' rrror in terms of quanliti tit t are known at the out! et. We hav ' given the proof in the \ e J ve ilio the reader to consider Ih .l at the (''Jltl poillts of the intern) It is ~ en :r.8.. ~~ ut . 1 - 1 216 < 0.Elf(o 1-1 + kit) + ij(b)]. provided Il· f is reason' I· unootb and Fa i suflicieutJ I rg . b J R b} a pieeewi e linear n..j(o k")) k = 0.I). 1). this is particularly u c.then If~e-·· dx _ Tlr. inteTral. oonsiderahl better than this. and if n -. then dx . i . (I . 1 '- ' r tl:t:=:: -(:::: 26 th[/(b) -f(o)] 35 with an errnr Its than 0.~~~. f [e. Therefore.. .J [0.(/)I ~ = ~[U( P" i I) - 1.J__ • rIC' il ~t iug Q... It see ~ r~Je that th~ in :gnl J. moment'!> • c"(tiuu su~ t t1. W' ·(·IW ill take lit eir IUt!a11 ![L(P. of a one fun tion.ponding to p. 1_ (a..5.. If'f(%) dx - T. . ~'"'I.t __ l ~ fH:tdx ( 1) as a T.e ... = b).l. . 0 + nil. n. &om (2) that if n = ./)J 1 o Upper and L. In this case 11. b1 ~. s we' shall sec in Examplt:" 7..!(x)ch will be pproxim:ltcl equal to-integral L"~n(I) dx..f(d)l(b _ a) . ctnally.( p.1.J. is monotoru! OTI [no bl. . then the 10 COITeSfX'mlillJ! to the partitloo p." i. 1-1 . a. fundion f tll(' interval [a. UnJ '-'t' lUi. Let n E 'and h =. sine.T (f)I .a)/n '-. Thu ..( supren'lullI 'md 'the infirn.7429J. _ T. hI.. .: il is often not sy to del mnine th upremum and the 'nfimUBI 0 a fUllctiao on an interval.. re to "dil~ that one of 1111' term i do r to the intt"g11ill IIUlI. w ./>1. 0 Cf'1l! onable approxirnation to the integral III lhi!> ease tl • estimate is: .(f)f.'ful IDee It gi".

b]}.. it is usuaIl . if f"(z) ~ > 0 for all r in [0. let <1>. is linear OV!T the interval [a kh. I t a1 = IJ + (k .&+t)J+iif'(a. b) In th pre ~ing theorem we obtained an :rror estimate wi -n f is monot ~ . ! that the iuh. J'.1. that this difference mu t wavs eeed However.2 •. = 1. hUI in terms of the nd derivs lJ" ~ l-I • E ". 1ch) + f(a + (k l)h») • where k = 0. in (O) = O.(1) = d t) = ~tf .(f) .. Value Theorc it follows fro th ·finjti DS of A and B and 5. uti The equality (4) is interesting in that it gi\c. we obtain. add these mequaliti nd b 0 t that (3) "tlf(a 1-1 + Ich) + !feb)]... . Then I'..1.'( t) " ~BI Z for t E [0. bJ (.a)hl.274 CHAPTER 7 n£ AlEMAN INTEGRAl APPROXIMATE INTEGRAllON 275 It is an ereise in . b) is then obtained by umming tb • Vl lues. imilarly."f(r) dx./.(/J . "'" let A.110 that sine' f!..sup{r(r). 4h[f(a • • JJ. to f is for k . T.Mll + 12).h that I> T.2..2•.f.• n . For example.1.. n. S' f" is contiouou 00 [a.o)/n..2 12 B.£. b J(r) dr" I (b . we conc1u wehav that jaJ.(J) . ~A(b . If \I. blond let B. tJ (I..( mentarv ~(. th t so that w have applying"Ihearem tAt 4»..a) 1.. 8:. The integral r gIl over (a. and r be corLtinUQfJ. . h]. that At 2 " <1>. . b] and let T.>. . b). and 12 is .• n. 12 r(c).Hf("J. 1'IID can be int rrpre-ted as the l"lgth 11 of base tim the averag s length ~(ll + 12) of th j of T. 7.(J) as the nth trapezoidal approximation to f n [e.I:f(:t) tk ~ ~Bh3n.(h) . integrating again and taking t = II.'gI al of the pi ~UIl1 linear appro imation g. % E [0.. w' obtain. Ira r • dx < .: rO. B be defined b} A:w -veal + v'(a..6 that there exists a point c in (a.1. hI.(l') dx .z = <bitt =4(f(u.3.. Th there ens~ a IJ01. Smcc ~ partition point in P" excep a and b belong to two ..(0) = 0 <1>.2.S on [0. t) t). 'ote th t q. hD.'oJnclt) to d tenninc that .J(lll I)] + ~tf'(Ul (5) I T.(j) be :oidoJ approrimation (3).D.4) mp{Jr(r)l: Z E [0. . 'lnd be contifUwu on [a.sA ~A(b .O.5. since 4». : [}. f) and li l'.a)hl.(0) ..3.k = J..~B(b .O/. . Corollary let I.s both an upper and a lower hound br th difference T. we ob in inf{r(%): x E [o..3.TIc(f) f f(%) • dx .th~ area uf • trapezoid T with base of Icngtb It and side of lengths I..( P" . -/iAh3n .•• n. th upper hound that i of greater interest.+t)-f(U.{f) . without this restri tion on J. one can . u.a)hl" Theorem Let f..1( ):0 0 and t (hy 7. ~Ve 110 derive on . nd 7..) J(u.lntegratin~. then (4) inJpl1 :.• n.d ..(f)-jI(r)dr a Bolz.. f t) I ~tr(Ul + t) t+(IC~I)hg.hJ.ano' Intermediate StJcb that (4) holds.(x) • Thus w equal to the dr = h[iJ(a) f{a + h) f{a + (n - l)h) + ~f(h)l. We ref T to T. for t E [0. deSt ~ bv If k (b-o)It'l .3 the nil. whi h is the ne as we obtained previously ~I mean of 1.fbf(r) 7. b (4) Proof.2.uljacent subintervals.( a" + I). <: ¢I1(t) " iBt for I E [O.. Since h . + l)hl th int~ of g" over that interval is given b Consequently <1>.] • H be T.41 c E (6. h1 k .(f) - 1. b)} j"r..

b) One obvious method f ppmrimating th integral of f' to take the Riemann IDS evalu ted at the midpoints of the submt IVai Thus. n).5 • Example a 2e-· (2.2f(c...~)h)l .00066. is the partition p..:)h) ( Figure 7. dx .[I(C! t} + f(Cl . '.. ~i('} = f(cl 4 + t) . The Mldpolnt Rule ITlfI(!) - dxl < f~e-sa drl ~ 2/(12' have B!.(J) he h that f(x) dx ..n + '.wquentl .t)( -1) f). then h ~ that the aa:uracy is eonsiderabl Exampl 7..Ile-"t n 16.11. !hj.2. At first glan • thi_ latter method a pears to hav tit disadvantag thai we will n to know tN: lope of the g nL line to th· gta h of 1 at of the midpoin a (It . was predi This ted in FIGURE 7.2J(cd· ('.5. + t) .0 and 4/1(t) . it i an exercise in ~ metry to h that the of the trapezoid whose top is thi tangent line at the midpoint 0 + (1.. and let !fit: (O.a)ht 21 (k f"(-y).5. E (0.. . then a cak"lllatioll hows that f~+ l.5. J'.on. ther method i to I piecewise lin hmctio t ~ent to the graph of f at the midpain of th subintervals.i !.t-tIA) I I I I I then ITs(!> .2.j)h (A: = 1..1 The tangent trapezoid..5.t2 If f(x)-e-%z 1).ontinuow on [a. if p..tun out to be the same III the -Midpoint Rill .h~ area is given by (1). e we must r<x) n = = 7.a + 2h •. b] allLl let nth mUlpoinl appro:rimation (1) Then ther« m. t. . and!" be r. let =a Dh.1(1) =1 '" = ("4 ' ..r(e" - . It follows &urn (6) that if 2/(12 . wh Bt choose n in on! 'r to be certain of d known. ole that "'k{O) 0 and th t . to determin ho .tl(t) = r'+1'(1:) dx ..(/) CJc (b .f(c. HO\ ever. rectangle wb • height is 1(0 + (It .._ \ e now show that th ~tidpojul RuI.J2t • 1:f(o .f(Cl.2. 7...5.f(cJc}2t.t)( -1) . and we see tNt thc~ "Tangent Trapezoid Rul'. n.r(Ck + t) + f'{cJc . 64) = 1/ ~ O'<X)3 and that if 256) '"" 1/1536 I I tter in this than < 0. we have the = (D.M.!)h) .) us. Therefore '" 011 [0.: )h~uaJ tb area f tt. If l: r • '. 2.• 6 nh = b) (8) Proof.1:-1 + (k .r:4-'f(x} c~ c. I(x) dx .6 Theorem Let ]..276 CHAPTER 7 TlfE RlEMANN INTEGRAL We can APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION 7:T7 alSIO write (5) in the form (6) ----1I LS This inequality be used. "'~(G) .. M.ih) ~ R .t)] . P(C. +f(o(n ..(/) = h[f(a (7) =h !h) + f(o + ~h) + .cIpoint au! oi PPl'ODmation giv n by lie defined b 1..1.) .rt a pomt y E la.: gives liJdltly better InIC • than the Trapt-7_j)jdaJ Rul .I SIred degr 0 accuracy..

~l-I .2tB for . by i:mpsoo rf we use the £act that h TIl em 5. If k = - Bt· 1l be defined h cp.. re get ow let f be a continuous uneti h If we add these inequaliti and note that b a)/n. Wr. 24..(t) = 2tj(c" . pp J fer) I.] allll let imp on llPT1fflril1lJ1tiun {l 0.t) + 4f cl} f(cr.: {a. Simpson' Hul approxirn t / b a funcllon grapb i th union of parts of parabolas.7 'mp{Ij"(r I: x c. 24 I 10 view of the above relation thi.3.2. Ii] - Simpson'.... on [a. + feb-h) 7. Bx of C that pas through . w approximate Yu f by a quadrati ion that agrees with Y~ .E. 4.2.6 to such that ( ) bolds.APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION 279 By til Mean V u 'Ill rem 6.. dr - ' . h a im appmxirru tion..ct.b] and let BJ. ~...4. It. On each "doubl [a.. . and!" be continunu.. intmdu· ually i\ct. J and P4) be coniinuou. then th· quadratic function q(x) .(f) < -Bh3n.o)/n ld Iy Il.5. (11) . b 1 we cooc1ud = (b .8 11 E f at the n + 1 partition paints are about the III rem that gives information "m ':'j of the < (b-a)h! 24 B!.5. . 7. +2f(b-2h) values of 311) feb)]. . . Rule <1JlIlI'OJOOl:ali(l1O The approximatiou method shall flO\. - 10 f(x) dx I ote that the coefficients 1.. 2. th exists a pamt cr. then there rom a point also write (9) in the onn (10) ..6)3 24n ! (12) s...VhD.2h. 2. I". w have 2LA . b] such that be 8Of'11. I)] - [I 'n» da . th· nth . 1'.2..\. !l1=f(a+h)..2....M. let c" a (21: i 1)11 and 1.. k = 1. (b-a)h4 1 :== j<tl(c:).a 0 [a..~ a bet r than t h I pezoida] or . that there exists a point 'Y E [a.(b .aJlO· Int mn ~Ult V III .a .(f) I f f(r) it • dx I < (b .11/21 k = 1..b].-b! .. with Ie" . ubtnterval" b1 d1 11 E be even.. L . b] Q.) If we let A and B be as in the proo of 7.[o + 2h.(f) = ~h[f(a) +2f(6' 4/(a 4h) of th + TI} + 2f(a + 2h) + 4f(a +. ~n - I. three pomts bas the property that b b piecewise [0.. DOW estahli..5~3.. It Uo bef re that ~At:1 for all t E n\CO <t f < "'1(t) < !BtJ t- linear functions.(1 f• [(x) b dx = . E [0. . J.D + 4h] •. J idpo' t Rule and requires ery little e. f} is the nth CE f.. If we put !h. Then COrolJary Let ].1 l: [0. = (9) I \e C-cID '. 1" on [".xtr. ~m [u.) such that C..• n. If '.. o. To help motivate the f'onnul t aoer tna)'oow t if three points (-h. let + 21t]..~ the Trapezoidal and jdpoinl R ppnttimat th function = ~t(J(Cl .4. 1.(f) - 1. 1'. 4. . ~hJ. Yo)..D. !Ii) re gi~ '0.. .. (h. bD.(i) . ·Iud that _AJt3n .(f). Theorem Let [a.(/) Proof...f(a t f at the points co. 211). 1 f(a). (0"11). III Jbf(%) • w• dr .

runll 5.(: Exercise 7.'h. tu td that T. lID..5 1.(O) 0 and q>k( I) = 3t[r(Cl + I) .2. r{>l'(t).'1-( I Ix lib. b ]) and . = ! f +!T 2. Tz ..!n . 1-0 (b) If 0 (or r(l..: = O. .~continuous tm ((I..0013 With n = . T'. ~Bt2 IUr I E [0.1 that there e . I \ e can 0 s.t) + f'(cl t)l.(0) = 0 and 7.II ily be used to step up to til: (2n)th trapezoidal and Simpson pproxh u: jug the £onnulas e tailli hNJ in Exercis 7.menC .. - 1.a)J(kCa + /1)). 1 < OOJ(E.. point [a. It fon X E [G..5..tl J'PI'OXimatioo Show that 0. S -. = \'.11 Remat1<s (a) The nth midpoint approximation M .6866 < log 2 < 0. I'....• I~ t such that 'Pi(l) = It'"P''CY1.4ATE INTEGRAllON 281 Evidcntl q>.)'.. Tite (13) so that q>. oj £01" all Z E la.u/(x) • f 7. it fI [lows )4) that that IP"'>(x 1~ 20 x .(b . f .-chi "" 569824 1 I < 0.! J2 I..)' If we let A and B be d '6~-d by A .280 CHAPTER 7 niE RIEMANN INTEGRAl APPROXll.(f)• f(:s. . . I &.-1 • E :. . _up(IP4l(r)l: x Lei E [II. ..10 rI I th .l}.1"·8'''· Ift\".9 Corollary I. "l then the value f tho int..10.. Ifw' put 1- h. If we dd these ~n inequalitie ".3.[O.(h) = and I te that '.'""". hl 1.YI.(1) 00 2 J"I(y)t/z • c E 1 < _8JJ5_..t) r(Ck + I») - H -F(c} . After three int :groLti II.p~(0) .8)..5. I".. -10 2. once e initial trapezoidal approxi'flali n T. with Ie.C/) ill i.i)].. .11 theu a calculation show p4l(r) -= 41'-'·[41'1 . . tn . Si h .0000017.(n .U Ii between '.n 90 2 u co '11 ~Udl that ExercisH for SectIon 7.1.1. B~...inf (J(4)( r): Example Jf I(x) . bJ t1 rdation 12) Q.12r~ 3].. i! eakulat d. = . I II . I".5..... S· 3 I' 2:t ! J lAt· ~.. Thus from if n- R then ~At- C. In fact. ~ 20.5. = j{b .i I + il·. 8. 2 = !M.egr. f. ts 1'1 ... I.1 . m 5. ru« I ami I' t) b. we et rk = 0.. M...5.)dx a (b-a}:S l&ln .~:_J).. t-' 'los: 2 = 1.h] k = 0. II 1 null /PI so thai .f(:r)dr I< c (b-a)h' l~ B. iT.•. this inequality be- comes md that if n = 16 then 16(/) 1 f()[ -lIe ..a)/n.0 and 13) q>~(t) = jtlJ·CC.1..(b .. 14) 7..e-· on [0..6958 0.aXI(n) + fCb)]. (Illy lit' • need be found rapid nd JTective procedure fOr the apprmimation ~ an integra) CIlJl be ed on II· I"'ing sequence of l'a! ilanons: T. nJ T .:d Hence it foll~ from tJ M alae Theorem 6. th.• !. '. aD t [O.6 thP tnapP7nid.9 • d 7.(J) .1-( C1. tJ an estimate of the: (I rex) ~ we rood that 1" _AJJs_ . it follow (applied to [0) that there h kk .:). <7 I <..

f /1 (l2)Bs.1(1)1/2 If x in [0.-e M. Shaw that if h(r) . 11+ o 1 --J Jz I' 1. eqJlain wh)< J~/{ih(r)Jz . to ropiualf' -rr/4 ..0100.f:f(x)tkl. (h) !AI. these ulb t calCJ}late 'fT."'14. 96 for x E (0. b) 12.. Let lb. n . bow that Is. In Exercises 14-20. (. Io Tt"'J~ v"in x dx .) (1 + It)-I fOC 1: E [0...1lt. 9.(f) + ~T.de ree 0 pr lOll- I error.(f) ![M. H Use im • appru. I < <.(/) + T. 28 in order to be 'lUre that the troT U leu than 10'.:..(l .) . bl thi.'J1: BI . b) (that is. I) <.{f) b used to pproxima tr/4 m Exen:b.wtlo gm:u II fonnulas (4). log 2 < 0.(h) . bD. v/".(1a)1 IlIOn".(f) . and (12) c:annot be used. [(b .[ 1'1. 1l U llu: trapcmidaJ pproxiIrudiou I.n a bid. v/4 < f.(h). bow that Sh(f) lL.'5o.tion ~ exact. Let as in and that Ip41(r)l 6.c 10 evahut.000521>3UJ 3. n we baI. Show that ()ndw the estimate 1S. how that if r(r) ~0 un (a. 1/ < 0002l. /.log2 < J""'n. If the: S~ proximaliou S. It)-5 <. (8).. rf p' a polynomial of degree at ruo~l3. -2 1920 111 <../~Jl. < 0.1 1 + r:!)-::I and t Ir(x)l <.en:i5c 12.t xl)l/ldr .:. ow thai we must m1w " .. grving estimat~ fur the a calculator (or a comp ted to obW. bow that we mwot l2kr.ximation with '1 ..y the error tiJ. -rrl 1/~. inequality is reversed. ole tlw. th:an 10-1i..282 1. CHAPTER 7 n-tE RIEMANN INTEGRAl the .(f)· f~(l- 13.. as in ru. If the t:rapemidal "PI'Juximatloo T"U) U IUCd to appnm t 11'/4 as in E erei J. ercise f be rex) 10.(!) . 2 for I e [0.irnt»tm appmrim' ""ith n = 4 to that 0 &127 <.'f(x)dx <. 3..10xi + t)(l •..IIlth n = . 7. appmxrmate the indicated integrals. Explain wt. Shaw that Tt.24(5x" .aJcu).s . If h . <. rex):2 4. S.r)ttt..:.(h <. o dx I+Qn% 19.11 then T. 16. show that the Sim .1/ 121 Showl IK T.e 5.('1'/4 < 1/96 < 0.1L Show that 2(3r' . if f i! oonlif'X on [a. in order to be 'iIJTf' tMt the error' It. Show that p"I(J. 2l/2 and that Ih(4I(r)l" 9· 27/2 fOr l' E [0.approWna.(v/4)!..dc 14 (It) :and t.(J)]. l/12nl anc:l t IK 5. loa log2 = 1'l{I/:r)m: f S S ..(f) . Show that IT. T. th n for any natural numbers m..<I). S tba1 11th)! <. 8. Ir(x)! fUr all x E [a.6933 and 0000016 < . . 0 on [a.