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INCEKSE Incense has fascinated men for centuries and is an essential part of many ceremonies and rites. Here is a complete guide to making and using your own incense, giving details of its historical background and providing practical formulas for personal and group rituals,

INCENSE
Its Ritual Significance, Preparation and Use
by

Leo Vinci
lllustrations by Roger L. Fitzpatrick

SAMUEL VVEISERING 740 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10003

First published 1980

CONTENTS
I t1 troduct io n Chapter
1. I!:l LEO VU'CI 1980

Page 9
14 22 27

2. 3.

4. 5.
6.

The Historical Background Flowers and Perfumes Anointing and Anointing Oils The Altar of Incense, Thuribles, Censers and Boats Ingredients Incense Formulas

34 49
73

Appendix Index

90 93

This book IJ' sold subject to the condition that it shall not! by way oj trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than thai in which it is pu/Jtished and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
ISBN 0850302110 (UK) ISBN 0877284644 (USA) Photoset by Specialised Offset Services Limited, Liverpool and printed in Great Britain by Weatherby Woolnough Ltd, Wellingborough, Northants.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to give my special thanks to Martin Vincent who undertook Ihe task of readi ng the original manuscript. I also give my thanks to Andy Bull who supplies me with most of the ingredients for my personal use and with w hom I have had many useful discussions. I would like to dedicate this book to Shek Chang Wong, who has the quiet wisdom of his ancestors.

You will find incense formulas or recipes for your own personal or group use. Many things have been used in the composition of incense: gums. We lind its use in the ceremonies and rites of the Christians.been created to meet the needs of personal or group use. They will form an. some are from friends who have been persuaded to part with them. excellent basis for your immediate needs and will supply you with an adequate stock cupboard for the temple or home. others have. These have been gathered from many sources and 1 have been using most of them for a long time now. William Shakespeare. Hindus. that The winds were love-sick-with them. Buddhists. and anointing oils (as many of the ingredients used are common to these as well as incenses). and even hallucinatory drugs. and time may have even strengthened its enchanting allure. oils. of which more later. Purple the sails. for they have all delighted in its odoriferous perfumes and smokes.INTRODUCTION The barge she sat in. and so perfumed. the knowledge of making and using incense! Nothing has captivated mankind more than this fascinating and bewitching practice. Someare from ancient records and manuscripts and have thus become 'tradition'. . with a brief explanat i6n of their use. (In picking through the bones of history I have tried not to raise too dry a dust. and others. even if' only pursued for 'just making nice smells'. Pagans. flower oils.) Next we touch upon perfumes. Burn'd on the water: the poop was beaten gold. resins. like 11 burnished throne. Anthuny ami Cleopatra What can the reader expect from this book? Primarily. First we will take a brief look at its use down the centuries and some of the ways in which earlier civilizations have regarded and used it. They can . woods and barks.

and should. Yo. then. Pu tting plants in the wa ter completes the oxygen cycle. at the four cardinal points of the compass. Regard your general incense as 'first-aid' when you need it. You have to provide your fish wi Ih an area or space in which to live. a spirit or power will appear. which is not his true one. since most have this problem initially. censed everything in sight. if you decide to make them for yourself. among other things. Simply use one of the general or all-purpose incenses rather than a possibly incorrect one. as Man extracts oxygen from the air by use of his lungs. and recited a few conjurations. you will find a table of planetary hours with simple instructions for choosing the correct times for making your incenses. If working outside you can define your area with. therefore. or if the incense you need at a critical point of the proceedings runs out. in case of doubt. However. be used correctly.u wo~ld not enter or stay in a room that was unpleasant or III which you could not breath . It is not done for him. Incense is a very subtle substance which vibrates on many planes of existence by the use of appropriate ingredients. He can use a diving machine or suit which encloses him. Likewise. This is also why I said at the outset that you cannot prepare your area or space for one element if you are working by invocation for another. and expect it to live just because it breathes oxygen. say. such as a tank. having created a suitable environment for them to live in. the higher the rank.10 INCENSE INTRODUCTION 11 also be used as a beginning for any future _ work should you wish til experiment later. as suggested. We may regard the matter as somewhat ridiculous and a 'storm-in-a-teacup' affair today. or go into spaces or areas that lack sufficient air for his needs or where the air is unsuitable for his use. 'swims in' and breathes an 'a tmosphere. Then he can use the dement of water. such as water. you cannot catch a fish. The incense 'proble~' i~ Chr. They do not need to be special. Yet. The fine particles of incense smoke in the air can act as a point of contact. if Man wants 10 survive in an atmosphere or space other than his own. he must take his 'atmosphere' with him. or 'support'. or cylinders that feed air directly into his lungs. Correct Preparation The ritualist is in a similar position.why should they? Incense. perhaps of distinctive sha pc.' of air. for you cannot make an 'atmosphere of earth' for an operation which is for a 'creature of water'. you fill the given area with water. If you decide to try to contact a spirit or power. If you are ever in doubt as to which incense to usc. all-round incense. 1m portance of Incense Incense is of vital importance in ritual. In much the same way a fish swims in and breathes an 'atmosphere' of water. and still can . or a pond dug out for them in the garden. you must make every effort to see that you use the correcl incense for your operation. is a form of protocol which is given according to rank or station. and finally put in the fish. This is usually your temple. Having defined youI' area. . as I sincerely hope you will. do not let this worry you too much in the beginning. but great passions were roused. four large stones. throw it on the lawn.istian worship was a highly emotive and controversial Issue III the latter half of the nineteenth century. plays a very important part in the performance of rituals. you then create the 'atmosphere' by the appropriate ritual and/or incensels). Thus. and learn the correct correspondences. There is often great disappointment in store for the beginner who assumes that just because he has burnt some incense. When you have done this. The use of the incense appropriate to the operation is an important adjunct to success in ritual work. you must first create an atmosphere and area which is agreeable to it. lined with a suitable material to prevent their 'atmosphere' escaping. This table can also be used for many other ritual and occult matters. First you define the area or space to ~e occupied or worked in. for the finer elements which vibrate at a higher rate. which may lessen your chances of success. The prime thing to remember is that it is we who do the preparation. the greater the protocol required. so do not restrict its use to this work only. magic circle. or the room you are using. extracting oxygen from the water by use of its gills. Correspondences Man. to all intents and purposes. in that he must prepare the area or space and provide a suitable atmosphere. bowl. It is an excellent practice to always have an ample supply of good. Finally. Burning the appropriate incense. as plants and trees do for manki nd.

or Elementals. delight and thrive in the atmosphere created by the drug-inspired confusion of the well-meaning. appropria te incense. perhaps one you did not even know existed. Some incenses arc of the 'passive' type (the incense sticks of I ndian origin arc mainly of this classification). that they were chosen because of their suitability for this p articular facet of the occul tarts. of the magician/occultist should be eschewed. were used.' Yet. As far as invoking' good' forces is concerned. for such a person would be more likely to respond to the negative. ' and organ in solemn music. This pmctiee. Illily quite often show up a weak link in t~e chain of the l(J'()up.xpected by the aspirant.e I\!'(~ added to an incense used in group working. The inclusion of ingredients of a narcotic or illu sory nature mny give more than you bargained for. but also on a psychological one.e will. Gaining your occult ability the hard way may b~ slow and very frustrating. and these were used by many magicians and occultists who worked under 'Will'. unhygienic spirits. who hut an idiot or practitioner of the Left Hand Path would wish to serve as a channel for forces whose very nature is 'contaminating'? . etc. a candle-lit church or temple. It has to be admitted that history has numerous recorded examples of the use of narcotic additives with seemingly excellent results (the most obvious being the Delphic Oracle). and. Hence the danger of invoking a Mars force by a person with. a combination of choir. it is f?r this reason th~t certain types of incense (e. or at the worst. it I. Early writings always credited certain perfumes with the 'power to gather together'. and other sensationalist works. especially if lhes. or powers. schools and groups subscribe to the traditional view that rigorous character training should ideally preceed any major occult work. if the 'driver' is 'drunk': Disorder. further. or combined. stained-glass windows.g. This is why many teachers. often advocate the use of narcotic or hallucinatory ingredients. if it can be called success. Though they exist and are used. incense is a. thurible wafting the sweet smoke of incense . not manifest in its purest form. but it is lasting.all exercise an atavistic and inexplicable power. but their sugges~e~ formulas invariably fail to invoke the force or spmt (. As other writers have rightly observed. While some may consider it fun to try. rather than to the constructive or positive. or 'suffumigations ' when they were working for any specific purpose. else the forc. dependency on the additive will likewise be increased. A Cautionary Note The old magicians were most particular to have the. but not any acquired ability as ares ult of its use. and.12 INCENSE INTRODUCTION dl~()rientation. for it assails you not only: on a physical level. necromanuc) have been omitted from this book. the only way in the end is to 'hew it out' for yourself. thus. It was their belief that the correct odours had the power to attract the planetary spirits. especially as regards 'health' on levels other than . an inordinately bad temper. be. it is the channel which must be (relatively) uncontaminated. say. But it has to be remembered that the people who were subjected to these intoxicating effects were highly trained in these matters and under the guidance of temples and arcane schools. in merely attracting those unev?lved. especially if done without the knowledge and I'unsent of others (a practice definitely to be frowned upon). unique and strange phenomenon. and hence a channel for the forces to use. disaster may prove to be the likely results of such practices. whIch. ritual and regalia.sica~. Many incenses are said to be 'active' and thus are 'commanding'. and this type has the effect of making a person 'open'. while others had the power 'to drive away'. to be rejected by all but the most experienced occultist. but inept amateur. . usually. !t is for this incenses Hallucinatory Additives reason that I am unhappy that may be the cause about any additive to of hallucinations. ~nd. destructive side of the force. A small amount added at the beginning will slowly increase as tolerance increases. appropriate to the planet or constellation under which they were working. Further. They always took great care to see that the correct ingredients. Bouks written on the subj ect of the 'Black Arts'. may even be somewhat addictive in habit according to personal temperament.the p hy. The use of narcotic or hallucinogenic additives tend to be addictive. There is little point in trying to keep the physical vehicle m the best shape we can. and succeeds instead. ' Anything which may endanger the health.

Of contact WIth the dead. personified by the Sun. One of the ingredients of Kyphi is the ever popular frankincense. by virtue of hereditary . Today we call this the 'odour of sanctity'. when he was offered myrrh. In Egypt the burning of the various kinds of incense was an important part of any rite. and of these only 3000 families. At the anointing of the corpse. The Land of Punt was on the hinterland of the Somali coast of East Africa. Sir Wallace Budge. wine.THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND IS CHAPTER ONE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Egyptian The Egyptians were great practitioners in the manufacture and use of incense. seselis. and they brought the compounding of their incenses to a very high art. for example. In their worship of the Sun God Ra. when he was given the final offering of Kyphi. the 'perfume on the head of Horus' was espec ian y sought after for placing on the head of the deceased. in keeping with other beliefs right up to the present day. as each ingredient had its own magical and mystical properties. sweet rush.) When harvested it was carried to Sabota. and especially to the dead. some even claiming that many good people who have been canonized have displayed this sweet odour in death. Herodotus waxes more lyrical. like the gum of the Samora tree . and lastly as he sank in the West in the evening. and a most secret one. and have been driven off by the burning of styrax (storax. This is a most elaborate compound of ingredients. gives tchet oil as one of the ingredients. It had the mysterious significance of harmony and order. Odour of the Gods The Egyptian gods. and until this was paid. that a great many formulas for Kyphi exist. dock. Frankincense succession. the Egyptians valued frankincense very highl~. cararnurn and orris root. as will be seen. and Its manufacture was itself a very special temple rite. The trees were considered sacred. perhaps it was thought to possess an intrinsic virtue. and claims that winged serpents guard the trees. when he was greeted with t~e burning of resin. Perhaps the most famous of all the Egyptian incenses is KY/lhi (sometimes Kh)'P?i). to the accompaniment of chanting of sacred texts.' The ingredients were mixed to a secret ritual. and while pruning them orgathering the resin the men must ?e free from pollution by sexual intercourse. frankincense. To obt~i. resin. where the priests claimed a ti the of the frankincense in honour of their god Sabis. myrrh. The first was as he rose in the morning. Plutarch gives a list of sixteen ingredients that were used in the preparation of this most sacred of the Egyptian incenses: honey. and this is explained by Plutarch in the following manner: 'The incense has sixteen ingredients. and loosen the tensions of daily anxiety.the idea being that it was the 'blood' of an ·animate and divine plant. raisins. Pliny refers to frankincense as one of the products of Arabia (Hadramant). none of it could be disposed of. which is a square out of a square. Many of their ideas regarding incense share a common basis with those of other peoples and their beliefs. It has the power to lull people to sleep. It is a gum resin of the trees of the Boswellia family (Bo!iwellia Thurifera). both kinds of arcouthelds. were said to have a wonderful odour. asphalt. The second time was when he stood at hIS zenith at noon.n this very valuable commodity they organized expeditions to the Land of Punt. the ingredients being things that de~ight in the night. Osiris transfers his odour. as this was the area where the frankincense was chiefly gathered. the Egyptians burnt incense to him three times during the course of the day. It is said to be most beneficial in its effects. calamus. thryon. however. saying that the Sabaei alone behold the tree which produces frankincense. It has to be admitted. as did Isis. brighten the dreams. As frankincense was the gum of wha t was regarded as a hol y species of tree and t he gum was collected with religious precautions. As with all other nations of the world up to the present day. by bringing calm and quiet to all who breathed it. To those whom he loves.

and in modern times as an ingredient in the incense sticks which they export in vast quantities. once a year on the Day of Atonement. as the mere trappings of idolatry. strictly speaking. The Indian Dainyal or sybil in the Hindu Kush attempts to gain temporary inspiration with the aid of sacred plants or trees. roots. 16:46). incense as such. and the ancient Hebrews may have regarded the use of incense. 6:20: 'To what purpose cometh there to me incense from Sheba.' The wood of odoriferous trees. and the sweet cane [calrnus] from a far country?' Some refere. Scholars now generally agree.as Imported mto Greece as a commercial venture from Arabia at a later date. Before the eigh th century B. that the burning of incense was not introduced into the Judaic ritual until about the seventh century B.. and on its own. it came to be a regular part of the ritual.IS. by itself. temple or the home. it became more and more important in acts of ~orshi~. _It was taken. certainly traditionally held to have come from Phoe~lCla thro~gh Cyprus. Pliny says that people knew only 'the smell of cedar wood and citrus as it rose in volumes of smoke from the sacrifice. She places a cloth over her head and inhales the smoke from a fire that has been made with the twigs of the sacred cedar. Schrader is the opinion that it may have. in the sense of gums and resins as we know them were not used by the Greeks until after the Homeric period. where it was used in her cult.benzoin and other gum resins. or when Aaron passed through the congregation to stay the plague with his censer and incense. fragrant smell. In common with others.16 INCENSE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 17 Hindu.mtrodu. however. at morrung and evening on a special altar. or privately in domestic usage. Perhaps one of the most popular items is sandalwood.nd fragrant odour was pleasant to the gods. the Greeks considered a sweet a. Greek It seems that incense. but' many native kinds of sweet smelling materials have long' been in use . of cedar and myrtle. The Hindus have always been fond of pleasant odours. ~eer:. Once it was adopted. an act of atonement and fumigation (Numbers.and Its mixing by the priests was regarded With much the same reverence accorded to the manufacture of Kyphl by the E~yptians. Ezekiel 'one whom God strengthens' makes no reference \0 incense in his description of the reformed ritual (Ezekiel. which associated its use with paganism. . as on the Day of Atonement. thus. Once It had been admitted. It was burned in censers. or III cense:·s. and It . and" India was already celebrated for its perfumes in ancient :" times. In the cult of Siva. dried flowers. used both in ancient limes in the. It was regarded at first in much the same way by the early Christian church.nd with the first fru its. however. Incense from Arabi" was a very early import. it means the savoury smoke of burnt offerings. though latterly the first became synonymous with the second. falls to the ground senseless and. 40). or. when the high priest appeared before the mercy seat (Leviticus. and is very frequently cited in the priestly code. was burned in houses for its. In fact. as a part of other sacrifices. The Altar of Incense. onycha.. in this state she gives her prophecy. C. inside the Inner Sanctum of the Temple. These materials are burned ritually in public. This lint incense used was compounded of few lllgredients. 16: 12). the Authorized Vers ion often used the word to refer to the aroma of the burnt offerings.e Biblical account show that incense is not required. In accordance with the customs of other na tions it was burned of . not used. It was burned with the me~t offerings a. was."lUcte. The first distinct reference to its use in the cult of Jahweh is in Jeremiah. It w. The word frankincense is l(e)bonah. These two Hebrew words at first were quite distinct in meaning. Jewish The frequent references to incense in the Old Testament have given rise to the view that its use goes back to very early times among the Jews. thus making sacrifice and prayer more acceptable to them. so popular with the Babylonians. Incense was offered either. k( e)toreh also came to mean incense. She is seized with convulsions.ced through the cult of Aphrodite. In fact. (in Arabic. meaning 'sweet resinous gum'. this misconception arises from the render] ng of Ihe word k( e) toretli as incense when. seeds. it is burnt daily by the priest before the stone representing the god at Orissa" and perfumes are also placed upon it.nces in th.C. The word 'frankincense' was a foreign derivation. Camphor and incense are burned before the image of Krishna. and fragrant woods. galbanum and pure fra~kincense . luban). In modern Hinduism the use of incense is fairly widespread.

and burned with the exta.' 18 INCENSE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 19 with bloody sacrifices. It has been strongly suggested that this consisted initially of odoriferous woods and herbs. or in domestic ritual. It was offered with fruit. The incense was carried in a casket called an m·erra. such as olive. was tuJ. In the Japanese branch of Buddhism. It was naturally much in evidence at magical ceremonies. or bloodless offerings. from which it was taken to be burned. crocus. The Chinese seem to have always employed incense. or on its own as a separate offering both in the cult of the gods. It is offered to gain support of the good spirits and it is very prominent at festivals in which 'clouds of incense fill the air'. the above . costurn. or to the Emperor. meaning both incense and frankincense. in public Of in private. as described by Ovid. Christians who renounced their faith in this manner were known as Thurificati. the Shepherd's Festival. it was even burnt outside the temple itself. Its use is deemed desirable when consulting the gods. The manner in which it was used was either to bum it on the greater altars. for here it is used in the initiation ceremony of monks and is part of the daily ritual of munasteries and the village priesthood. in his account of the Palilia. from one person to another. and loyalty to the State meant loyalty to the State religion. or on small portable altars called joci turibulum. public and private usage being widespread.251. in braziers. as the hymns show. opposed as it was to external ritualism. and a fumigation for the evil odours produced. where it became very general.fl. or it was simply thrown into braziers that were standing on. or in addition to. the I Ching. In the course of time. the sacrifice itself was often filled with incense before burning. In the Orphic cul t. it acts both as a fumigant and an offering to the deceased. and to Demeter before consulting the Oracle at Patrae. and three sticks of incense are used to drive out the' demon of poverty. I ncense and perfumes form one of the fi ve sensuous offerings. 200. and in them flowers and incense occur as early as the seventh century. As the animal for sacrifice was led up to the altar. incense was unknown to early Buddhism. Incense was quite often presented as a gift. This was a symbolic act of apostasy. which was used in funerary ceremonies. Roman In the religion of Rome. on the third week of the twelfth month. for it tested the individual's loyalty to the State. The burning of incense also plays an important part in Chinese funeral ceremonies and processions. Large amounts were used. These seven offerings are essential. however. Incense was offered by itself. laurel branches. and no ritual could be said to be complete without it. the altar itself was sprinkled with incense and wine. and has influenced the native religion of Shinto. which they proved by burning a few grains of incense on an altar before an image. myrrh. In the rites of certain divinities it was offered with cakes of honey. perfumes and flowers arc offered before the image of the Buddah. or any magical ceremonies. In the blood sacrifices. they began by burning incense. one of the most important of what is known as the libamina. which are one of the seven stages of worship. It was used during the persecutions under the Roman Emperor Decius c. in vessels tha t cou ld be held in the hand. cakes. Sosipolis. is burnt at festivals and processions. naturally. household deities and before ancestral tablets.reu/um Ius). Incense is offered in temples as a part of the daily worship and ritual. to Hermes. and was also offered to the {ares [amiliares. or near. or household gods. burnt . both as an offering to the gods. especially Northern Buddhism. all the dirt is swept out of the house. Buddhism As with many religions in their initial stage. incense is in common use. and is offered to the . Later the gums and resins came to be used instead of. and so on. In Canton. who most ruthlessly persecuted the Christians for their faith. incenses of many different kinds were used.frankincense (ma. pitchwood and Sabine herbs. Finally it was offered with the blood of the sacrifice. It also became symbolic of the Christians who renounced their faith. In the cults of the gods it was burnt to Zeus Meiluchios. exorcisms. The incense was sometimes thrown on the altar so as to mingle with the smoke of the sacrifice. In Ceylon. the altar. as the inventory lists of some temples show. saffron and laurel. where it gratifies the olfactory nerves of the departing soul. the chief internal organs. quite often without being burned. though it is in the Tibet of old that the use of incense is most prevalent. and many other ceremonies. also at baptisms. wheat and so on. they also succumbed to its use. It was.

The services of the early church were very simple and incense (save as a purification) was shunned as something Jewish or pagan. and at marriage ceremonies. Tertulian says. The Apostolic Canons refer to the use of' incense at the Eucharist. The letters of the name of the person for whom the incantation is being made indicate the required perfume. published by Gamurrini in 1887. The Liber Pontificali. maintains that Christians may safely neglect its use. The materials used for incenses are: frankincense. used for fumigation as a sanitary precaution. Islam In the Islamic religion proper. 1: 11) may seem to point to its continued use in the new dispensation. and in every place incense shall be offered unto my name' (Malachi. which included Holy Week. as with many other things. Among the Muslims it is burned in houses on braziers. The original spelling of the manuscript is preserved: 'Dictus ergo his tri bus psalmis. I am sure that even these early dates do not mark the beginning of its use and that it was obviously well established by then. storax.1 5). In the years 385·388 its ceremonial usage was evidently not a novel one. the consecration of churches and processions. such as Vespers. or for use in the' science' of da 'wah. Some.' (Censers were taken in the cave [of the Holy Sepulchre] 'so that the whole church [which the Greeks call Anastasis. at burials for example. . et factis orationibus tribus. and it is permitted. however. many of them did not. Many church authorities have alleged that the reason for the omission of incense is that it was not in use in the church for at least 300 years from Apostolic times.388. By the fourteenth century. It was used at the vigil offices on Sunday towards the end of the fourth century. It would be no straining of probability to suppose that it dated back to the founding of the church by Constantine. They give a full and graphic description to the services at which the pilgrim was present during her visit to Jerusalem. ecce etiam thimiatasia inferuntur intra spelunca Anastasia ut tota basilica Anastasia repleatur ordori bus.3. by tradition. marriage. especially for Jerusalem. inventories of the furniture of the churches built by Constantine at Rome. but it is common to find it offered. coriander seed and aloes among others. probably proved a stronger deterrent. Muslims in India. referring to the fact that the early Romans did not use it. a method of incantation. In keeping with other cults it is a common adjunct to magieal ceremonies. Incense was. that frankincense and the like should not be offered to him. BACKGROUND 21 Christianity was slow to adopt incense into its rites. under the pontificate of Silvester (314. to counteract the evil eye. and funerals. as perfume for a deceased person. The fact. as a 81 gn of the renunciation of their faith. In view of the evidence above. and which we call the Church of the Holy Sepulchre] was filled with the odour. however) argue that the Jewish connection should have made it more acceptable.') The use of incense here is unmistakably ceremonial. or in places with a disagreeable odour. funerals). contains the account of travels by a lady.' Arnobius. use it in their rites (circumcision. incense is not to be found. but already well established. though it was the offerings of the Magi. by God nnd agrees with the Nco-Platonist writers.' Athenagoras declared that 'God does not require sweet smell of flowers or incense. but its pagan associations and the common Iiractice that Christians should offer a few grains of incense to the gods or upon the al tar of the Emperor. as it is supposed to have the ability to keep evil spirits at bay.20 Christianity INCENSE t1ILt~ of THE HISTORICAL III Bethlehem. when it is burnt in a mibkharah. ascribed by general consent to a certain Silvia of Aquitain. Though ~orne of the Fathers spoke of it as a type of prayer. After the fifth century incense was slowly but increasingly used in the church. it had become part of the established ritual of High Mass and other services. (frankincense and myrrh) and though its use is referred to in the Apocalypse. that its usage was Jewish may have tended to make the early Christians neglect it. possibly under the influence of Hinduism. contains. at the shrines of saints. for example. Pererinatio ad Loca Santa. indeed various writers employed strong words against its use. but this is probably a later interpolation. it would be fair to conclude that censers in these churches were intended to be used ceremonially. during the years 385. and while such a prophecy as 'From the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name shall be geeat among the Gentiles. benzoin. Although incense was used in Jewish ceremonial. there is no evidence that it was part of early church ritual according to some writers. 'not one pennevworth of incense do I offer Him. Lactantius tells us that odours are not desired. and several of these include golden censers.

Sulphur and Dragon's Blood are some of the 'herbs of aggression' used in witchcraft. By and large they prefer to wait in the wings until they are caned. and perhaps even earlier by others. Hayes. may find that Lavender or Violet can counterbalance these tendencies. while those who feel they may be lacking in sympathy and understanding can try using Violet (by having a small phial with cotton wool which has been soaked in a few drops of the perfurne. it is hoped that those who arc prepared to give time to the subject will find it a very frui tful linc of research. Carnation (Red) This is held to be the perfume/flower of those who tend to make things 'larger than life'. or she. (White) . By the welding together of many isolated facts and bringing them together under one heading. Ambergris This is a perfume that tends to be used by people who are bold and audacious in their actions. We use flowers on so many commemorative or important days in our lives and. they are held over the' garden' of her bod y . Hellebore (both White and Black). We need not go into the once secret code of love which used the . Asaffcedita. may find they can balance this by using Lily of the Valley. Those who tend to be obdurate in their point of view. By use of the a ppropria te blossoms whole messages could be sent it seems. and by those desirous of develop ing a religiou s spirit. This was suggested as far back as 1937 by Carolyn H. Everything tends to get done in the 'grand manner'. tell an overpersistent lover a message that could never pass her lips. and still is. A person lacking an extrovert nature and who tends to shyness may try counteracting this by the use of Ambergris. because it was in effect a 'magic circle' to protect or bind the deceased spirit or soul. Births.. and with the kind of impression they are making on others. Carnation Most claim that this is a perfume/Rowel' used by people who are religiously inclined. intentional or otherwise. being very concerned with 'appearances'. give the most pleasing scents. so preventing it from haunting the living. The herbs Rue. Many are of the opinion that flowers have completely replaced the incense smoke (used as well as flowers in the past) on which the spirit of the deceased was borne to the heavens. but not all nature's creations are endowed with pleasing odours or good intent. boasting. In keeping with other nations we use them in our funerary arrangements. the extroverts of life. now they take many other shapes or are just sprays. deaths and weddings are all occasions when we give flowers and their perfumes fill the air. The circular wreath of flowers was. which may possibly lead to controversy and dispute. may spoil a situation or opportunity through appearing too high-spirited or reckless.a fairly obvious analogy.language of the flowers'. . that does not push itself forward to take the centre of the stage.) The lover of Ambergris who feels that he. we prefer those flowers that Cherry Blossom The person who likes this perfume is said to have an easygoing nature. Flower Perfumes The perfumes of flowers and herbs have always pleased mankind. and ladies of propriety could. naturally."I FLOWERS AND PERFUMES 23 CHAPTER TWO FLOWERS AND PERFUMES This is not the first work by any means to propose to the reader the possibility of using and counteracting the action of one perfume against another. A large amount of the material presented here is a synthesis of traditional material and theory gathered over a long period and taken from a wide variety of sources. Now lei us take a look at some of the tradition regarding perfumes and flowers.~ . The wreaths of old were nearly always circular. the most effective. by use of a single bloom. The bride carries flowers from the 'garden of Nature' in front of her on her wedding day. by exaggeration.

clear the ground and are prepared to fight for what they want. Honeysuckle Held to be the perfume/flower of people with an agile and versatile mind.ind one which sometimes exercises an evil influence on the moral character. Combined with Rosemary. It is often worn by people who respect convention. The lovers of pleasure are drawn to this perfume. No disputing that this is the perfume/flower of those of a passionate and loving nature. sometimes even thought to be rather sober and staid. making it sympathetic and refined.uure are drawn to these two perfumes. resolute enemy. always have a well-stocked larder and wine cellar. if they think I hey are right. perhaps even bordering. their sin is said to be pride. but tending to be somewhat tyranical and authoritarian when thwarted. those who pioneer. . or an implacable. perhaps even inclined to be erratic or capricious at times so that you cannot guess what they may get up to next. and a circumpsect or provident nature. will never give an inch. liking controversy and dispute. and. whose thoughts are elsewhere even whilst speaking to you. It shows one who ltd' ability and great accumen in that sphere of life. are attracted to these scents. you may be able to trace the perfume or scent of Lavender. especially if it is in business affairs. or when you are speaking to them. by their u.24 INCENSE '" "111. and simply enjoy the good things of life. it is claimed. the out-of-the-ordinary or unconventional attracts them. ~LOWERS AND PERFUMES 25 Cypress. Red Rose Stephanotis Lavender and Rosemary From those who possess calm. and it is associated with the tendency to be 'in love with love'. if that nature is not controlled. All thoughts of an amorous nature are aroused by this perfume. If you '0111 also smell the scent of Cloves . Verbena Lily of the Valley Those of modest disposition may be found using this perfume. It tends to give thoughts of a voluptuous and sensual nature. Hyacinth Those who tend to be hasty or rash are said to be users of this perfume. Difficult to impress with another point of view . They are either a rrue and faithful friend.1I~umentative.111e! People who favour this perfume are held to give no quarter. preferring and performing in the background. shunning the limelight. Heliotrope People who are found to be fond of this perfume are usually not afraid to be in the front line of things. so do not try to better a lover of this This is generally thought to soften the nature. Sandalwood and Vervain It is held that those who seek the unusual and the curious. the retiring or shy. Violet Mint A very 'active' odour. The users of Verbena are said to be those who have a love of good food. It IS all or nothing. Magnolia and Musk II is said that those who are obstinate and inclined to be .'then depart and trust I he III not'! Geranium This is for the active. Pansy . disliking strife .hence the term' a shrinking violet'. are unable to accept half-measures. on timidity. for those who have strong passions .yours of course! Patchouli i\ perfume. arousing a 'desire to be loved and caressed'. you have a nature that is said to be of conventional inclination. wisdom. and can get. have. the daring. liking to see and be seen! Kind and generous to a fault when allowed to 'have their head'.

those who 'like to stand and stare'. It is one of the most important of the magical/religious concepts. having a great ability to see a meaning you never intended. religious or royal ceremony. and so forth. queens. that virtue. That anointing oils should never be prepared from crude ingredients may seem an obvious statement.they either take it or make it! CHAPTER THREE ANOINTING AND ANOINTING OILS Many of the ingredients that are common to incenses. involving the installation. but it must be stressed that they must be prepared from the finest ingredients you can afford. .the spirit or Soul of Man . are also common to anointing oils and it is therefore right that these should have a place in any work on compounding incenses. elevation or consecration of kings. Anointing is not only a privilege: it is a responsibility. and if they have not got the time to do this . People so ordained were held to hold spiritual and temporal power here on earth. White Rose The perfume of those who are lazy or indolent. Anointing is a major part of any ritual. high-priests. They are. an adjunct to any form of 'elevation'. an important aspect of any magical ritual.26 INCENSE Wallflower Used by people who tend to be over-sensitive. for the body is regarded as the 'Temple of the Soul'. which will do very little for the person on whom it is to be placed. not to be taken lightly. As the body is reputed to enclose the Divine Spark . disliking activity. holiness and divine power were impregnated in these holy anointing oils. as any temple or church is. a member of the church. Anointing oils are made to smell so beautiful because they are a necessary symbolism. and who are quite often found to be living very much in the past. You would hardly feel elevated if some foul smelling oil were poured over your head. and therefore it must follow that any person or thing anointed with this oil must likewise be endowed or impregnated with the virtue or holiness that it imparts. by Rite of Dedication. otherwise all you will get is an unprepossessing sludge. though in the early stages they are not used as much as incense. like incense.it was consecrated to God.

Starting with the head (ruled by Aries). 'May the blessing of the Father-Mother-Creator (+). If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness. for there is no work. thy whole body shall be full of darkness. and watch . bless you.over you from this day forth and for ever more. out of the miry clay. do it with all thy might. The Talmud tell us that 'they anointed kings after the form of a crown. Finally the feet (ruled by Pisces) are anointed. (+) Whatsoever thy hands findeth to do. . The point in the ritual marked (+) is the suggested point of anointing. for as His Majesty is.rcator.-F'----. but if it is being done for cheap sensationalism it loses any validity it may in theory have. the clenched Iisl can do naught of this. that by ending with the anointing of the feet.. But if thy eye be evil. yea every good path. the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. but sometimes the little finger was used) between the eyebrows. discrimination and equity.. Sometimes the generative organs (ruled by Scorpio) are included.md has set thy feet upon a rock.' I lcart 'Let thy heart be blessed with love and compassion. May he guide thee on the path that leads from the dark Land of Ignorance into the Light. and will establish thy goings. nor to the left. proclaim liberty to those . the Son (+) and the Holy Ghost. 01"l1. thy whole body shall be full of light. or suggested. Let not your heart be troubled. that the dark corners. thou shalt need no other.ord seeth not as man seeth. 28 INCENSE ANOINTING AND ANOINTING OILS 29 IIIIIIII!! The Process of Anointing The most common form of anointing was to pour oil upon the head.for we fall into the h. Forehead 'The light of the body is the eye: therefore if thy eye be single. this follows the course of the Sun on its journey through the natural zodiac. from Aries to Pisces. and not into the hands of men. It could be shown.mds of the Lord. if the lower centres are to be anointed. Believe ye in God? lIe1ieve then in his Son also!' Feet 'Ponder the path at thy feet. but the Lord looketh upon the heart. Then thou shalt understand righteousness. Turn neither to the right hand... so is His Mercy.aptive. but priests after the form of an X. For out of. and let all thy ways be firmly established. to . and open the prison of the physical of them that are IHJUnd. then the hands (ruled by Gemini). and darkness comprehendeth it not. for the I . nor knowledge.oodworks and to aid those in need of help. keep you. performs the act in private. to bind up the wounds of the broken-hearted. There is often a valid reason for this custom. Amen.tppearance. For the Light shineth in the darkness. Sometimes it is the practice to put some of the anointing oil on the index finger of the person being anointed.u signs and wonders may be done in the name of the ( . man looketh on the outward . and remove thy feet from evil. Can two walk together. as they will then have the authority to do so. In the mornings sow thy seed. of the mind be illumined so that ignorance will be given no place in which to hide and multiply.' Hands 'Let thy hands be ever open in friendship and generosity. how great is that darkness! (+ ) Let the Eye of Knowledge be opened so that the Light of Knowledge and Wisdom dispels the darkness of ignorance. Stretch forth thy hand to heal. He brought thee out of the pit.. nor device.' The head must always be anointed first. wither thou goest. (+) Let I he heart be opened wide with compassion. t h.. ' The participants in the ceremony here bow to the person who has been anointed.' Blessing Give a Blessing over the anointed person of the Balanced Cross at the points marked (+). after anointing. after the head. then the forehead was marked with the finger (the index finger preferably. for His word is a lamp unto thy feet and a light unto thy path. except they be agreed? (+) May the Lord be thy mentor and companion. nor wisdom in the grave. and in the evening wirhold not thine hand from those who ask thy aid. after the person who has done the Anointing Ritual Here is given a small anointing ritual that you may find useful as a basis to prepare one for your own needs. then the heart. who then. (or Shekinah [+]). the chest or breast (ruled by Leo for the heart and Cancer for the chest and breasts). they are so in turn.

as it should be).. in the following manner: 'Have mercy upon 'John Smith' 0 God according to thy loving kindness: According unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out his transgressions..30 INCENSE ANOINTING AND ANOINTING OILS 31 anointing. You do not even have to employ religious works.. orders and schools have been brought crashing down in ruins through this. in Hyssop preferably. The remainder of the Psalm is modified for the occasion. those who are in a position to confer authority by anointment will h~ve been watching the behaviour. and perhaps the only consideration. Other Uses of Anointment An excellent description of the anointing oil is given by Maimonides in the Moreh Nevochim. . and he shall be whiter than snow. is that you should be moved emotionally by what is being said as well as done.uid leaving it at that. especially if you are working in a )l. the Scriptures. This period.. and the dignity and sanctIty of that which was separated by it from the rest of its kind. where he writes: 'The anointing oil produced a twofold benefit: the pleasan~ness of what was anointed with it. for any lines which are suitable to the work in hand may be used. It has been kept very simple in order to show that the composition of such formula should be well within the ability of everyone.. . but it must be remembered that you are not bowing to the person. The above is a general idea of how a Ritual of Anointing may be composed for group use. folly or stupidity disgrace yourself and others. bring all into disrepute. You can make this up with one ounce (25g) of Hyssop to a pint (550ml) of hot water. and personality )l. The main. more in order to further. and consecrated to a more excellent use. It can be done together as a group. A further suggestion that could be used by a person officiating at an anointing ceremony is an adapt ion of Psalm 51. whether it were a man. and by so doing. using a little perfume or oil afterwards. the hands should be washed well. all sections being read together instead of separately (though I prefer the former ). or each person separately. And cleanse him from his sin. according to the sex of the person being anointed. You should by then be above the petty power struggles that so often take place in the opening grades of most occult orders: they are the bane of any esoteric school. You can. simply because their members have not been able to rise above the situation and realize its higher potential. So many fine groups. which I think is preferable.. During the period of appointment. etc .roup. or she. Wash him thoroughly from his iniquity. It is not simply a matter of placing a few dabs of oil here and there . you can use the Sacred Books of any nation or religion. There is no personal glorification in this. It has been taken deliberately from only one source. now represents. Otherwise wash thoroughly with a high quality soap. Purge him with hyssop and he shall be clean. and that you do not. In consequence everything ends in ashes and the aspirants are merely left with a bitter taste in the mouth.rowth of the person whom they have appointed. using imagination as your 'spade'. Period of Appointment Anointing is not something to be taken lightly. . naturally. simply to show that it is possible to adapt materials for personal use.. . Even the most tongue-tied have become eloquent under the emotional sway of a moving ritual. Before anointing. by ignorance. group or school. Prior to anointment there should have been a period of 'appointment'. You can vary the form to suit your needs: it need not be as given above. Wash him. In fact the Psalms are a very fruitful field to work. the length of which is defined by the rules of the teacher. the common good of the group as a whole than to obtain a merely personal advantage. The word 'me' is removed from the first line and the name of the person substituted. can be anything from one year. for example. I would let the infusion stand for at least fifteen minutes before vou use it. You must show that your knowledge is not just superficial vanity. There comes a time. compile a ritual which places the anointing at the end. but that you really understand what you profess to know. You are by no means restricted to the Bible. but to the Power he. you must ensure that you assist the weaker members of your order by helping to advance their studies with practical help and understanding. to seven or even more (one year is far too short if the subject is to be taken seriously. attitudes. when you are expected to be able to aid the workings of your group or temple. .

for amulets and talismans were also anointed in the belief that it made them') more effective. suggested ratios. never plastic. The prophets anointed the ring finger of the! left hand.) Do not be . according to ancient Egyptian occult practices. according to the other three gospels. with Ambergris. The anointing of kings has been with us as far back as ancient Egypt. An oil you may find useful is a sabbat anointing oil. r ompounded of Balm of Gilead.32 INCENSE ANOINTING AND ANOINTING OILS 33 or a garment. Benzoin. «ompounded of Hyssop. Nimple Anointing Oils . or any utensil. in the same order. Valerian.King. When the disciples murmured against the woman for 'wasting' an alabaster box of spikenard. Another compound consists of the usual base of pure Olive t )jl into which you add Myrrh. which consisted of an alabaster tablet with seven hollows to contain the seven holy anointing oils. rings and temple. If you wish a bath for Purification. Minerva. for he combined in one body and person . Egyptian Anointing Ceremonies Many of the bodies and mummies of the ancient Egyptians were buried with an anointing tablet. High Priest and Prophet. though the Almond Oil must be the sweet Almond Oil and not the bitter. discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamen. many people prefer to use it. and if it has a silver stopper. A "Illlple oil said to be used sometimes by the Roman church I ousists of Olive Oil and Balsam. which was used for "olding oil and perfumes. many other nations. at least glass. Saffron. The oil used at the t :1II'onation is said to contain the oils of Cinnamon. Idsllline. Its purpose. or.ilraid to experiment with the oils and ratios for yourself. the annointing was to be done later.' (Mark 14:8). Christ was either anointed.' (Mark 14:9). by" breaking it and pouring on the head of Christ. The Egyptians also placed cones of odoriferous ointments in their hair. He admonished them saying 'She is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying. to which herbs are usually added in a muslin bag. which would be a very beautiful compound giving a very I Hit fragrance. Its use is advocated in the New'.'the Anointed One'. His name is Christos in Greek . and it may even be older than that. so do try. But crystal is the thing to aim for. as were swords. Lavender. The oils should be stored in real crystal.t ratio of 1 + + + + 20 parts of Almond Oil. 'this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her. though as Olive Oil is sacred to the Goddess of Wisdom. Cinquefoil and Verbena.). So many items benefit by the consecration anointment. Rose.' Anointing must not be thought of as suitable only for people. being 1 + + I + 1 + 20 parts of vegetable oil (which can be used instead <IIOlive Oil. and should definitely be used before any serious ritual. anointing their bodies with sweet oils. in the still popular belief that this finger had a: direct connection with the heart. ' (Luke 4: 18. The anointing of the sick' was a frequent practice amongst the Jews.uroriatiori Anointing \I'<lillting is a most important part of the British coronation I f'II"lIony. wands. and buried in the manner of the Jews (john 19 :40). t ttt . Civet and Musk. Verbena: use . shows the young king being anointed by his queen. which is the time when the Ampulla and {\II"illting Spoon are used. was to provide magical protection to the deceased on their journey to the next world. try this purificatory bath oil. The now famous back panel of the throne. hut this can vary according to preferences. so that it gradually melted with the heat. An ampulla is a small vessel \\ i t h a round body and a narrow neck. equipment. 'used by the Greeks and Ron:~ns 1111 toilet purposes. though the Ampulla of the British t 'iown is in the shape of an eagle. so much the better. because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor.) j or~ ( . This is pleasant before any ritual. He said 'The Spirit of the Lord is upon me. About a dessertspoonful or tablespoonful should be enough. Use a crystal container or phial if possible. He further expressed His approval of the act by saying that wherever the gospel is preached. Testament (Iames 5:14) The use and custom of anointing the dead at burial was a common practice. Cinnamon and Galangal. as it was with.

the culprits will always make for the altar. In ancient Druidism it was considered impious to turn your back on the sun. were climbing to face the eastern. which 'defines the limits and hound aries '. astrologically speaking. and what prompted it. Some argue that it forms a major part of the ritual and is therefore given prominence with other ritual practices. many of them were round. and evolve from it. Its use has. two altars were erected. consumed by fire. or a raised platform on which the sacrifices or rites of the Gods were performed. caused some dispute. this centre. we bow towards the east. and whence they were supposed to ascend to the Most High. meaning 'high. while ascending the mountain. from polished stones.THE ALTAR OF INCENSE 35 CHAPTER FOUR THE ALTAR OF INCENSE. It is III(" centre of all. Although they differed greatly in height. but also among some ritualists.cration. among other methods. the 'dearly defined space' is determined by the perimeter of the Magical Circle. . and provides a clearly defined area or working space in much the same way as an artist defines the limits of his work with the size of his canvas or frame. and depends on. temple or home practice. An altar is. and even more so if many were gathered together. If the hub of the wheel is broken. It was on this 'high place' that offerings were made. when it was finally established in the land of Canaan. There can be little argument that it acted as a focal point for the suppliant. CENSERS AND BOATS Although this chapter is primarily concerned with the burning of incense. The . the main principle behind the concept). then the whole thing just falls apart. sun. Incense has proved to be one of the most popular ingredients of any ritual practice . All things revolve around the altar. The world altar is derived from the Latin altus. rising. At times. in certain parts of the creed. not only among the established church bodies in the past.uity. and the Altar of Incense. which are two of the things that come under the rulership of Saturn. While it is true the altar acts as a focal point. we do not wish to give the impression that it is essential. or the rising sun.IIIY Force evoked does not dissipate itself through lack of I l. let us take a brief look at altars in general. Later they were created artificially from wood. and perhaps. finally. and others were rectangular. In many cases it was located in the high mountains. for there is nothing to hold it together. Mountains that were considered sacred were approached from the west so that the worshippers. 11c-~(. It gave a centre of orientation for the whole ritual. just as the hub of a wheel holds the wheel together: every part is drawn towards. Among the Jews the altar was the place where the worshipper presented his gifts and devotions. the nearer it approached the Most High. and helps the participants to concentrate. or natural. the various items used. some are square. no matter who I' responsible. domestic and private. very much like the . or erected outside. whether it is within a building. which is a survival of bowing to the sun.. in either a constructed. With the coming of the Tabernacle. The Function of Incense Let us now come back to the methods of burning incense in church. There is little doubt that the conception has been with Man for a very long time. The first altars were quite often simply mounds of earth. There are certain rituals where an altar is not necessary. It was the place where the pious offered their devotions both public. In any act of vandalism. Origins of Altars It would be hard for any writer or researcher to state a time when the use of altars first came into being. THURIBLES. or destruction of any Holy Place. the one thing they usually had in common was the fact that they faced the east. Many descriptions of these primitive forms of altar can be found. This led to the further supposition that the higher the altar was placed. after all.ution of the planet Saturn. with rules as to their use. We still adhere to this custom by entering churches from the west to the east. where the altar is placed. It usually signified an elevated place. and thus 'exalted' (this is. however. and where God recorded his name and manifested His Prescence. both having specific measurements and material construction. so that .rh ill" has the effect and purpose of signifying the 'focal point'. or a natural place. flat rocks.

but if they have any drainage you will naturally have to line the container to stop the sand from coming out (see Figure la). If the cords or chains are too short. which you have filled with sand. you will have to make up your own mind on the method you prefer. experience will guide you as to which works best for you. sweet or otherwise. Sometimes the person who actually 1"'1I11l'lIls the duty of incense is ~alled a ce~ser. appears to have come from Latin ituribulus . as you progress. 101' eventually you will have to take off the top layer. If you are being guided by a teacher or school. Mukingan Inexpensive Censer . Flo. A shape appropriate to the ritual being operated or the planet may also be employedrose-shaped for Venus. They often have cords or chains and can be hung from a decorative bracket or a small hook fitted into a ceiling beam. apart from their etymology. a swan or fish-shaped container for Jupiter. for one container for incense is quite sufficient. generates quite a lot of heat.urning.""U·r/. metal. 11111 so forth. . If you do use this method of laying the charcoal and incense on the sand you will have to keep a reserve supply. within reason.uive holder or container.uul the incense.rists oft~n have small hanging vases in metal or some ceramic material that can be filled with sand and used. however. while the other. This holds that the use of incense should be a 'background' one.illow the air to reach the underside of the charcoal or it may f. or t~lU~ifer. unobtrusive in operation and only noted because of the resulting smoke. and so on. 'thurible'.V opposed opinions. There are no hard and fast rules with regard to these two . The I hllllliddering charcoal. . by hand. which derives ultimately from the Greek. Figure 1. 'Censer' appears to have come through the French into English. This cheap alternative to a thurible or censer gives tremendous scope to the imaginative and they should keep their eyes open for suitable containers which can be adapted for this new purpose. especially if the incense last used is not suitable for mixing with the incense you wish to use next. This will happen when you remove the ashes of the previous I. Three examples of thuribles or censers. The matter is one of personal choice.tlliIIS.\ uractive ceramic items can be used if they are first filled wit h sand. This is. or with a small group by yourselves. depending on the type of ritual being operated. 1111' simplest method of burmng your Incense IS 10 a dl'<«r. for example. It should not be necessary to point out that plastic is best avoided in these suggestions. be 1ll"de of quite a large range of materials. but do not fill level with the brim. but make a few scratch marks with a pencil or your finger to . you will naturally be given instruction in the matter. If you wish yllll can put a small tin lid on the sand to take the charcoal .\oout.U1. If you are working on your own. you put the charcoal directly till to the surface of the sand. however. and if tills were placed in direct contact with many materials it will 'lack or damage the container. ceramic. and depends on the type of ritual being worked as to whether it is prominent or unobtrusive. only if you wish to extend the idea. which can. lIut Ii censers and thuribles are basically portable incense usually hung on chains which can also be used for o\vllI~ill!!. do not have the sand level. take Censers and Thuribles There seems to be little or no difference between these two items. . If. of course. Hence the risk of fire 1"slIlting from carelessness is ever present.36 INCENSE THE ALTAR OF INCENSE 37 The other school of thought does not subscribe to this view.a censer).

preferably in the Sun. the Ihurifer. gold or silver coloured cords are alternatives. is the colour the sun. the 'Mother of Life'. Purple (or mauve) is the colour of the Ju~iter. its care and safety. it may be noted. is very often used to represent tneelement of fire in ritual practice. fro~ a spot where few people have been trampling around. through which the three hanging chaIr:s iI""ly pass.thurible mainly consists of three parts. one of the fire planets. r~ler: among other things. Steel and iron are acceptable alternatives to brass. I am thinking here particularly o.'I III. Tne . or convenience of Many attractive items can be found that are manufactured for hanging in this way. Gold (or orange).. the '1llspension plate. which are "I"whed by three rings to the lower container and fixed. much che~per. matena. This has the added symbolism of the element of earth having been washed by the element of water. The amount of incense you burn depends. There is the added bonus of it being consecrated by personal effort. 39 th. but there is no reason why other. but if you attempt carefully. who has the sole task of its operation. if necessary. and the stand or bracket is the safest place for it to be. on the size of the room being used and the number of people that will be . so that it can slide up and down. This Item also makes an excellent temple that can be either hung or carried. There was a time when it was considered essential for a ritualist or a magician to make every piece of the equipment that he would use and many schools still insist on this practice. Mosnhurible~ are made of br~ss. to act as " lun-r in the base of the thurible. can only put the thurible on to its bracket or stand.. it can be. for without this the charcoal will die for lack of IIkVK('1I and go out. A fourth cham I" usually fitted to the top of the lid. This applies equally to censers and lights.:g IS pu~led Ill(' lid is raised. riding up on the three suspension chams. It also serves to remove the inner liner to <lean the thurible of the exhausted materials (see Figure lc). or Just after the ebbing of the tide when the sand has been washed clean with the sea water. if damp. for this is as much a part of the ritual as all the other attendant noises. and. heavy guage material to take the burning charcoal and 111I r-use. while silver (or white relates t? t?e moo? and the Archangel Gabriel.f mild steel (some church thuribles are being made of this now). thus causing a ve~y slight down-dr. lhr:«: three chains are also fitted to a circular plate at the I. and this is generally made "I . It n. occasionally lifts the lid of the thurible up and down. Incense. Making a Thurible Many people are skilled with their hands. and all areunderthe rulership of the planet Mars. the latter Keeping the Incense Burning If you watch a good thurifer you will notice that he. This allows more air to get to the incense and keep It alive during the ritual and 'assists the burning . It is best taken. and putting the thumb or one finger in the 'lid-ring' to raise ~he lid up and down. Sand ~ usually ta~e my san? from the sea-shore. put In a plastic bag to be dried. so that when the n. Inside is set another container. Angel of Annunciation. and the Archangel Michael.aug~t.38 INCENSE 1t. Don't worry if this makes the chains rattle. !f possible. If you decide to the cords.is we could call.on IIIf' lower edges. This is often done by suspending the thurible on one of the fingers. the sea. Some thuribles are made without a base and with a round bottom to ensure that the person using it. and this passes freely I"rough a large hole in the suspension plate. h~les can be drilled to adapt them for purpose. II does become very hot with use. or she (for quite often in the past it was the 'Temple Maidens' . The lid has three nngs attach~d to It .ls cannot be used. so there is no reason why they cannot make their own thuribleor censer for their own or group use. You can adjust the height as wish for either artistic appearance. It is normally hung on three chains. This is why it is best given to the care of one person only. Th. not only to allow the smoke III iiII' incense to get out at the top but also to allow the air to M.II'IIIK THE ALTAR OF INCENSE decorative perforations.:no performed this task). 'I' of the thurible which has a ring attached to it for ""liKing on a stand or bracket. of religion and philosophies 10 general.em off a?d fit ne~ ?nes. either on a tray or newspaper. This serves the purpose of raising the lid to charge the Ihurible with charcoal and incense before or during the I'i Iual. or chains because they are too short for purple.or~ally has " large ring fitted on the end. The decorative outer casing consists of a base and lid.

for very few people are experienced enough for that kind of performance. A 'dry run' is useful. The suspension wires are then cut according to how low you want it to be in the body of the censer. With incense it is easier to add more than to take away from what you have. and four wires or strips for the square type (see Figure 2). which could be turned to the front to face the ritualist. slightly smaller for air circulation. lour phases of the moon. four for the square. . the other for raising the lid. or as deep as you can.the style is up to you and should be in keeping with your intended design. unless you are familiar with the room. you do not want so much smoke that you need a guide dog to find the altar. otherwise no incense smoke will emerge from them. It can be hung by three wires for the circular. and there may even be some strong tins of round or square shape with lids that you can adapt by taking off the bottom. Keep the thurible in front of you in procession to prevent it getting caught and spilling. Most modern tin openers cut very closely and neatly and any roughness can be filed smooth. The wires are then bent to a deep hook to Making a Censer A pattern for a censer. You will have to put feet on the bottom to raise the censer and allow the free entry of air to keep the charcoal and incense alight. it is very dangerous. square or round according the shape of the body of the censer. You can also put sand in the pan to act as a heat insulator if you wish. depending on the ritual being operated. Make it strong.40 INCENSE THE ALTAR OF INCENSE 41 attending. consists of a simple tube of metal (see Figure 2). put the thurible on its stand or bracket and 'stoke up' from there if need be. Do not get carried away when using a thurible by giving a virtuoso display of incense 'acrobatics'. and so on. Now there is also a single chain model: it supports the thurible and the single chain goes through the lid which you lift by hand. Fix the legs with self-tapping screws or small nuts and bolts. Swing the thurible through about forty-five degrees: that will be quite enough to direct the incense to where it is required. four elements. naturally. simple or elaborate . . which you may like to construct. some modern thuribles only have two chains to prevent this problem. one for hanging. Better to err on the side of scarcity than over-abundance. l loles are drilled in the sides of the pan to take the suspension wires and make the pan a deep one. one method is to suspend the 'pan' inside the body. Making a censer. but soldering is better). When all is needed is 'background' incense. This can be a lid. Each side of the square design could have a different symbolism or design. Designs could represent the four seasons. The circular design could take two. Perhaps three legs for the circular design. The legs can be straight. Figure 2. after all. For the incense. This is usually lower than the 'smoke holes'. Make your designs and drill them first so you will be able to decide on the length of the suspension wires in relation to them afterwards. or three designs at the most. and. You can also use a square design (instead of round). Keep the chains of the thurible fairly taut to stop them getting in a tangle. For one thing. In fact. Put the wire through the holes drilled and turn them up with plenty of wire to spare. which is of an open design to permit charging (see Figure lb). These can perhaps be cut from the metal bottom that you have removed. if you are doing it this way. Close the wire tight with pliers so they will not come out (you can twist the wire for safety. right-angled or curved. or in an alternative design the single chain just supports the thurible.

are matters of personal taste. a Greek or Balanced Cross. Five is the number of the Major Arcana. exoteric knowledge or 'that which is given out'. the 'Four Pillars of the Earth'. Anyone with patience can. Make the base fairly large so that it will not tip over. screw the lid to a circular or square piece of wood of the appropriate height. Sephirah. The other alternative for the incense pan is to obtain your lid (square or round. naturally. and if the censer is flanked by two (or even more if you wish) temple lights it may even prove useful as a meditational aid or as a stimulant for imagination and assist those who possess clairvoyant faculties. It is often of great benefit to throw colours (with the aid of coloured lights) appropriate to the Ritual or Power invoked onto the incense smoke. remember to remove any original paint before you cover it with the colour of your choice. and. and while it is true that this ought to be done and affected by the imagination. You may have to drill holes in the lid at the tope of your censer. though this type could be considered portable. Put it on the metal with wax pencil or crayon before drilling. I have suggested that the top of the censer should have a lid to prevent the smoke emerging as from a chimney and rendering the patterns that you have drilled in the side of the censer quite useless. and a smaller Decorating Censer Lids If holes are desired or are necessary in the lid you can make a design to suit yourself. Incense coming out of these designs.42 INCENSE THE ALTAR OF INCENSE l. or the incense pan will not be level. 'The Hierophant or Pope' in the Tarot. This method means that the pan is not fitted to the censer casing as in the first method. altar and other furnishings will have to be taken into account when you decide on the scale. the Fleur-de-Lys. so it will have to remain in the position throughout the ritual. but it has to be carried with care. with the central hole the 'seed'or germ of potential or manifested life . A most effective 'Tree of be' used. this will not be necessary. This also acts as heat insulation for the hot pan (though this will be negligible if you use sand as a base in the pan). or. Sun and Moon design . using a large drill for the ten drill for the 'Paths' (this is shown and suggested in the design of the round censer in Figure 2). Other suggestions are a Tau Cross (Figure 2 shows a form of this with a snake around it on two sides of the square censer). The size. you can finish it off with heat-resistant paint. Quite often aids to the development of the will and imagination can be discarded at a later date. or your group. Colour is a personal choice. with varying sizes of drills. it is never swung. but a simple black or your planetary colour would be suitable. This is the reason for omitting any measurements on the designs given in this book which you can adapt to your own requirements. slightly smaller than the outer casing) and. and so on. The four outer holes can be said to represent the four cardinal points of the compass. Make the pan very deep. or Balanced Cross. philosophy. can be most effective. anything which assists this is desirable. the 'Balanced Cross of the Cosmic Creator'. and the size of the room. You may have to cut small slots into the top rim of the body to take these wires or the lid will not fit. which is very simple and has excellent symbolism. but the most important thing is to choose the symbolism that is important to you. If you decide to adapt a commercial tin for the body of your censer. If. and remember that. the four seasons. and so on. height. and there is no reason why you should not. use them with the view of their final removal. Some may regard this as a little theatrical. but do not disdain factors that will assist you to gain the desired mastery and skills.the possibilities are endless. This often represents religion. they must all be of the same length.ife ' glyph could 43 fit over the top rim of the body and. The five holes drilled in this manner represent the Greek. but be sure to give it a test run before you do this as it may not be needed. especially the 'Tree of Life' glyph. Try not to be wholly dependent on them and. Light your incense in the pan and lower the outer casing over it when it is burning. who . you use a slightly larger lid for the top of the body. with a single screw in the centre of the pan. or you may care to use the one suggested in Figure 2. but we must still aim at as high a standard as we can within such limitations. You can fit handles to the outer casing of the type that uses the pan suspended inside. however. when you are satisfied with your censer. as it is often called by Occultists. as opposed to the 'High Priestess'. Decoration Finally. Adaption of existing materials is a very commendable practice and great ingenuity can be exercised. make a most effective and symbolic pattern or design. as before..

to stand in your temple. the centre one bearing aloft the processional crucifix. What matters more in my opinion. Hebrew.iud it does look most effective when it is made up. in the previous examples . You can see how symbolism is a frutiful 'seam' to work: one discovery leads on so swiftly to another. in case any hot charcoal spills or splutters over. many claim. the thurifer (the one). This altar was taken into the Holy of Holies once a year. signifies the 'forearm'. and two cubits was the height of it. while the other was a handbreadth longer. A ceramic tile with felt stuck to the base can also be used if you think it is necessary. and is normally supplied with a spoon for the incense. are described twice in the Bible. then your altar would be three inches square and six inches high. on the other hand. It is a design that is not used much in ritual work. The measurements given in the Scriptures make it follow 1 he 'four-square . A small one can be constructed in the manner. and the other as the 'sacred' . incense upon the fire before the Lord. It may be advisable as we have suggested to stand your censer on something. it was foursquare. saying . the measurements are personal according to your needs). It can vary in length from approximately to inches (9cm to 17cm). names. etc. of a censer as mentioned. which is maintained no matter what the actual measurements may prove to be.·stimony. esoteric knowledge. to use this item as a more or less permanent piece of temple furniture.eighteen inche~.' It is reasonably certain . It has the . If you decided. was known as the 'common' cubit of man (Deut.). secrecy. the Altar of Incense must be eighteen inches square by thirty-six inches high. you may choose a measurement of eighteen inches square and thirty-six high. the priest or high priest. the Altar of Burnt Offerings and of Incense. by two high. a small working model of the original Altar of Incense makes an excellent substitute for the more traditional thurible or censer in use in church or temple. and the breadth of it a cubit. . The second time they are both mentioned is in Exodus 37:25 and 38:1. and allows for charging or cleaning. where the whole matter of the furnishings of the tabernacle is dealt with. The five in this form can often be seen in some church processions.'the k-ngth of it shall be one cubit. If you decided that you were going to make a small altar. swinging his thurible goes first while behind him are three people (the three). 3:11). and many may even have an appropriate design of flowers. and by this reckoning. and. and Exodus 30: 1 for the Altar of Incense. is that the ratio was one by one square. that the cloud of iiII' incense may cover the mercy seat that is upon the I.ulvantage of being different from the more usual patterns.md used in a similar manner. than any argument about the length of the cubit. An incense 'boat' is literally shaped like a boat which comes to a point at both ends. Measurements The largest concensus of opinion favours a cubit of eighteen inches.44 INCENSE 111(' THE ALTAR OF INCENSE 45 symbolizes the Mysteries. Figure 3 shows the construction of the altar while Figure 4 shows the design made up (measurements have been omitted from the diagrams for this reason: the ratio is fixed. the symbol of the faith.' (Leviticus 16:13). on the Day of Atonement . and so on. What we are going to suggest here is that as a great deal of the Western Mysteries Tradition leans heavily upon Jewish symbolism (Qabbalah. like the Latin term cubitus. considered to be twenty-two inches. in Exodus. or two foot square by four foot high. One was from the elbow to the wrist. One of these. The Hebrew. and there were possibly two different measures having this description at least. and your 'cubit' were three inches.'and bring it within the vail.that there was more than one type of rubit in use in Biblical times. or 'that which is not given out or revealed'. and he shall put Altar of Incense was made of shittim wood. Materials The original 3t 6t Altar ofIncense The two altars.double cube' concept. flanked on either side by two people bearing processional lights. behind these three. This altar stood before the veil of the Holy of Holies. walking abreast. and the Table of Shewbread of the Tabernacle. alphabet. There are many pleasing heat-proof mats that are adequate for this purpose. herbs and so on. It is not a hard design to copy . It usually has a heavy base to help prevent accidental tipping over. behind which was the Mercy Seat on the Ark of the Covenant. The first mention comes in Exodus 27: 1 for the Altar of Burnt Offerings. It has a half lid which lets the incense out.

perhaps it may be better to apply a coat of primer and then paint or spray the whole altar gold. but of the few timber trees native to Ihe desert where the Israelites were wandering. as has been conjected by some.) It should be noted from this I'OIssage that this tree was considered worthy of planting wit h the myrtle and other fragrant shrubs. though a little expensive. In the Biblical descriptions. 'I will plant in the wilderness the cedar. from Beth-jesimoth. were placed two rings of gold. You could just cover some parts of the altar with gold leaf . The fact that so many parts of the tabernacle were made lrom this type of wood while the Israelites were wandering ill the wilderness seems sufficient evidence that the wood in question could not be.' (Isaiah 41:19. You can make the gold decoration from good quality gold paint. 'Abel-shittim' is translated as 'meadows of the acacias'. 'to be places for the staves to bear it withall'. It was fairly widespread in Egypt. Beneath the crown. You could cut out an appropriate symbol or motif to stick on the side of your altar. in later IrOi slations or revised versions given as acacia (or Acacia n «rabica. a valuable foreign wood. at least not all over. Leave the natural graining in keeping with the original concept. This is a very beautiful «losely grained wood which tends to darken with age and has the extra advantage of not being attacked by insects. however. which would be quite sufficient (there are many decorative motifs for whitewood furniture that would serve .46 INCENSE THE ALTAR OF INCENSE 47 ~/ ~=··/l·· l> -~ . mahogany . This could be of oak. Construction of the Altar of Incense Figure 4. there was a 'crown of gold' around the top and the 'four horns' were also covered in gold. Acacia niloiica or Acacia seyat). the shittah tree. and the myrtle. and do not paint it. even unto Abel-shittim in the plains of Moab'. which is the plural form of shittah. the horns. and perhaps the ends of the carrying staves. This is. used for putting letters or decoration on books.%"" -~ ~ ~~__JV Figure 3. The wood of this 11'('(.or even acacia wood! One or two coats of varnish will bring out the grain and protect the wood from dirt. upon the two sides and by the two corners. cedar. and we find in Numbers 33:49. If. 'and Ihey pitched by Jordan. The completed Altar of Incense. while some good stationers or art stores have a supply of genuine gold leaf. the last encampment of Israel before crossing over the Jordan. which is excellent. is mentioned many times in the Hebraic form of shittim. and III<"oil tree. Make this altar of wood therefore. lh« shittah tree is cited once in the Bible.the crown. you use woods like plywood or chipboard which have little or no real grain.

as will the size of the staves that go through them. . Rue to Saturn. been combined by Man into a 'suffumigation' . Inside the body we place a shelf to take the incense pan. The four batons extend higher than the crown. to Jupiter. occ~slOnally to Venus or Mercury. So many gu~s. Southernwood to Mercury. The staves should be made for the altar even though they were probably originally removed when the altar was set in place (you can leave them in the rings if you wish). one whose form has been dictated and designed by God. Screw rings are easily obtainable for screwing into the sides of the altar to take the carrying staves. unless held in check. depending on your skills. and these can be painted gold. The size of the screw rings you use depends on the size of the altar you are making.OIt was decided to try and give as much information as possible ill a highly condensed form regarding the typ~ of ingredients that go into the v~rio~s co~pound~. Bay to the Sun. One of the main aims of this book is to encourage this in the reader. The use of sand in the dish will act as a heat insulator. The size depends on the size of the altar. The altar consists of four sides. thoug'h sometimes to Mercury. the main thing is the basic design of the body. etc. some say Mercury. and.ing. Once you have made the basic altar you can make it as decorative or leave it as plain and simple as you wish. Even today the potential for experimentmg has n~t been exhausted by any means. ~. sometlme~ Jupiter.opaedlc proportions. Valerian to Saturn. St John s Wort (Hypericum) to Mercury. barks. the wood could even be purchased pre-cut to size. Galangal Root to Jupiter. Oms ~o the Sun.48 INCENSE for this). sometimes Jupiter. A decorative strip can be stuck around the base and under the crown. and these are shaped to represent the four horns of the altar. You will have made. Eyebright to the Sun. Marjoram to ~ercury. crown.01' so~e type of incense. horns and carrying staves in the proportions given in the Scriptures. in simple construction or otherwise. Verbena to Venus. It can be built with very little skill or tools. though sometimes to the Sun. Lavender. mainly to Mercury. Raw Materials and Correspondences . If they are fitted together in the order shown in the diagram. Fennel to Mercury. There are many circular or square stainless steel dishes on sale today which would be excellent for the job. sometimes to the Moon.g. seeds. though this is a matter of personal taste. herbs. Peppermint to Venus. glued and/or pinned with panel pins of the appropriate size. as the ingredients that are still used I~ Illcens~. I would regard the crown and horns as the important part of the altar for this special kind of treatment. perfumes and anointing oils are so ~any an? vaned. occaslOr:~lly the Moon. resins. . Ex~ene~ce has proved that if the reader ISpointed III the right direction he will make the journey himself for what he really wants to know. Construction You will see from Figures 3 and 4 that it is quite a simple construction. Oils. some authorities . A hole of appropriate size and shape can be cut in the shelf in which this dish could rest. Agrimony to Saturn. it could take on almost encycl. S. . R~semary usually to the Moon. at one time or another. seeds herbs and spices have. hil Some of the ingredients have been enlarged upon. the thickness of the wood will be incorporated and accounted for and the shape remain square. Oak to Jupiter. The height of this shelf can be adjusted according to the depth or type of pan you choose and whether you wish to place it low in the altar (so that it will not be seen) or high. gums. which are fixed to four batons wood. according to the Scriptures. leaves.t. w I e others have been given under a general head. Euphorbia to Mars. Rhus Aromatica.say Mars' Grains of Paradise to Jupiter. CHAPTER FIVE INGREDIENTS II was realized after this part of the work was started tha. an Altar of Incense that has been used for many thousands of years. Many highly decorative wood mouldings are available today: you could even pick out the design with coloured paints before fitting.

fiery. Jupiter: Aristocratic. Aquarius: Euphorbium. if not. Opopanax to Mars' possibly his Sign of Scorpio. Gum Karaya to the Moon' Olibanum to the Moon. Amber. or a compound of Mastic. luxurious. Purple Incense: compounded of Saffron. Aloes. Gum Elemi to Venus. Cinnamon. urgent: hot pungent odours. Nutmeg. though . Lignum Aloes. Nutmeg. peaceful. Resins and Balsams Gum Acacia to the Sun. sober: heavy earthy odours. amorous. majestic. dignity. bright. or a compound of Myrrh. Musk to Saturn. Libra: Galbanum. Grams of Paradise and Saffron. the seven planets of old astrology .. Scarlet Incense: compounded of Balm. or a compound of Myrrh. Khol. Lignum Aloes and Opopanax. Aniseed to ~ercury. or a compound of Camphor. Blue Incense: compounded of Roses and Violets.' Witch Hazel and Wormwood ' INGREDIENTS 51 Oils and Spices Almond to Venus. nocturnal. honour. Saffron to the Sun or Jupiter. What do you do if there are no correspondences for an ingredient given? Most people who supply ingredients know the correspondences for the ingredients they supply. Sandalwood (White) to the Moon. Thursday: Nutmeg.f Sa~dalwood. Mandrake Root and Euphorbium. Mace and Storax. Given next is a very condensed list from an earlier work. We often . Gemini: Mastic. responsible. CI. moist. or a compound of Myrrh. lively. prudent. aggressive. Saturday: Pepperwort. as this IS a mmeral. Myrtle. Capricorn: Pepperwort. Violet Root or Benjamin. loving. Scammony Resin. Scorpio: Opopanax. or a compound of Pepperwort. Galbanum to Jupiter.ve~ to Sa~urn. Mace to Mercury. Saffron. Mercury: Alert. Pepperwort and Bergamot. Red Storax and Opopanax. soothing: voluptuous odours. Venus: Agreeable. all to the Moon. dreamy. Virgo: Sandalwood. Gum Tragacanth to Mercury. Ambergris. nervous. energetic. conservative. penetrating. reckless. frivolous. Green Incense: compounded of Benzoin. indulgent. slumber. . genteel. or a compound of Sandalwood. Cinnamon. Cancer: Camphor. you will have to try and assess the correspondences for yourself. Astrological Keywords Signs of the Zodiac Aries: Myrrh. busy. caustic. possibly the Sun. or a compound of Galbanum Mace and Mastic. lordly. rich. benevolent. Ylang Ylang to the Moon or Neptune. Leo: Fran. regal.. or a comp~und o. Saturn: Austere. Gmger to Mars. often the Sun. Sllgittarius: Lignum Aloes. In time you will also acquire experience in deciding such matters. Wednesday: Cinnamon. Pepperwort. sometimes given to Mercury. elegant. Gum Thus to Saturn. feminine. old. Gum Asafoetida to Saturn' Gum Copal to Jupiter. Monday: Myrtle. but sometimes to Mercury. inert. maternal. possibly to Mercury.some give it to the Sign of Scorpio. dual. stately. comfortable. Juniper Bernes and Frankincense. versatile: fugitive odours. prosperous: generous odours. Mandarin to the Sun. suggesting certain keywords for the seven planets we use. Mastic. Friday: Saffron. profound. Benjamin. possibly to Saturn. to Saturn. Pisces: Red Storax. Cloves and Lignum Aloes. Hellebore and Cypress. Cassia t? the Sun. Mars: Active. Ambergris to the Sun. doleful. Storax to Mercury usually. White Incense: compounded of Camphor. Sandalwood (Red) to Venus in her Sign of Taurus. quick.of Scorpio. Saffron. White Sandalwood and Cucumber Seeds. warm: glorious odours.kincense. Tuesday: Lignum Aloes. or a compound of Camphor. Patchouli to Mars in his Sign . Moon: Alluring. ecclesiastical. Nutmeg to Venus. Opopanax and Camphor. Galbanum Sun: Authoritative. Incenses for the days are suggested as: Sunday: Mastic. Cloves and Benjamin. Taurus: Pepperwort. Days of the Week Gums.md Lignum Aloes. We use similar terms everyday in our description of things or situations. or a compound of Red Storax. noble. Lignum Aloes. thought sometimes to Saturn. Gum Dammar to Mercury. or a compound of Mastic. Cinnamon and Red San?ers. from the Greater Bindweed Root. We say that a building has a feeling of 'nobility and dignity' which is seen as well as felt. INCENSE Willow. adaptive. receptive: sweet fresh and feminine odours.50 possibly Mercury. Lemon and Lime to Mercury.

111 the main. especially with any new or unknown ingredient. many of the fanciful names given to commercial products. When experimenting in this way. There are some very good suppliers on the market. as with the odour of perfumes. astrological. like 'Taboo'. the compound can be adjusted by varying the amounts. Start with a small amount and increase it if required. for having found a reliable supplier for your needs. If you are mixing three ingredients together you may find the greatest response comes from one half measure of the first. Is an ingredient warm. This rule applies equally to all other perfumes. even through the basic ingredients are the same. supposedly. are fac~d with the vexed question of correspondences which are. it is your own personal response that IS important. something that can be washed. while a small set of kitchen spoon measures make excellent graded measures and are easily obtainable. or it may take time. perhaps devising a 'star' system of marking to assess your judgement. This will help yo~ to assess the 'strength' of ingredients when compoundmg future incenses. Burn a tiny amount of the ingredient on the charcoal. then this is the scent of Saturn as far as you are concerned. or strength. Keep a Testing Ingredients If you decide to make a stock of ingredients. or 'Primitive'. while others may require two. You may find that some ingredients will give excellent results with just one measure. Suppliers and Utensils If you simply buy a compounded incense for a specific use. heavy. marjoram. Better keep the utensils for this apart and do not be tempted to use your usual kitchen bowls or utensils. occasions. It is wise to write down the combination and amounts in your notebook for future reference. the right state of mind or feelings. You may hi~ upon th. The main utensils for mixing are a glass. Try rosemary. Ingredients are best placed on waxed paper. light. for no two people will react the same to the results of this most subtle art. Start by mixing small amounts of the ingredients together in equal amounts. These are often run by enthusiasts and a stamped addressed envelope to the editorial office often proves quite helpful. and there is no reason why you should not. earthiness or sobriety. This is why quite often only the ingredients of an incense are given to enable the user to adjust the parts to suit his personal taste. while others need a much greater amount for a similar effect. you will order in accordance with your requirements. or a piece of bark of cinnamon. plastic or wooden bowl and wood-spoons. A small salt or mustard spoon could be adopted as a unit of measure for these tests. This is also why one solar Incense. then this question will not arise. Creation Through Correspondences One thing the beginner often ponders over is how to begin creating an incense for himself. Many magazines have advertisements of suppliers of occult materials. pleasant. while to another the same perfume can arouse the most unpleasant memories and feelings. et~? Remember. The faint waft of perfume can stimulate in one person the most pleasant associations of places. so the previous mixing will not add to new incense being made. sensual. wafting the smoke to your nostrils with your hand. may seem quite different from another. people or a particular person. and in this do not neglect what could be called the 'smaller' magazines. of one or other of the ingredients to suit personal requirements or taste. for the stimulated response and associated ideas are personal to you.e correct combination immediately. but It will come. if an odour or perfume suggests to you the Saturnian qualities of austerity. or even six. do not neglect to use herbs that you would normally think of using in the kitchen. If you have knowledge of astrology you will have a firm basis to build on. and so on. all-spice. have a testing session with your ingredients to help you assess their particular quality. Once more we. You will find that you soon begin to develop a 'nose' for incense. and increase the amount little by little. one of the second and three of the third. For example. three. Keep oils and resins out of the kitchen away from food. for example. Some ingredients give generous odours from small amounts. notebook for your observations. It was decided not to include a list of suppliers for the simple reason that omission may be regarded as criticism and could also be unfair.52 INCENSE INGREDIENTS 53 assess intangibles or feelings in this way to give concrete expression. L~sts will follow suggesting a few correspondences of the varIOUS sources to . are all designed to conjure up. Test slowly.

but it may be better to use the odours of Jupiter to which you can add the odours of the Sun and those of his sign Leo. 'Those who wish to have clear and prophetic dreams. judges.. helped by the odours of Cancer. Both the planet and sign are the natural rulers of the third house of travel and short journeys in the horoscope. Let us take the headings from some old works and add further suggestions as to how the beginner may start to compound an incense based upon these astrological correspondences. which rules. whose odours may be added to those above. and to a lesser extent. 2. Each planet and sign rules a part of the body and the organs (any book on astrology will supply this information).) 1. Venus is also the natural ruler of the second house in the horoscope chart. 3. further we are to be provided with lights. especially those in high office in the Church and the Law. 'To strengthen the health vibrations and to ward off disease. queens. 4. Jupiter is the 'Greater Fortune' and Venus the 'Lesser Fortune'. the financial conditions. 'For the betterment of. 'For success in games of hazard or chance.. all. The Sun is the ruler of kings. If a little 'feminine mystery' is felt to be needed. ' Mercury deals with commerce in general. Book 2. 5. as the Sun rules a healthy body as a complete organism and the heart and spine in particular. If female. 'of finances and moveable possessions'. and those of Jupiter and Sagittarius. this is the Moon and her Sign of Cancer. use the ingredients of the Moon and/or Venus. You could add ingredients according to the sign and planet ruling the part of the body that you feel needs attention or you feel is weak. Venus. 'For honours. I could not operate this or many other occult crafts without astrology. I do recommend that you add basic astrology to your skills. use the ingredients of the Sun or Mars. princes and royalty. The planets for success are the Sun and Jupiter. 'Should the object be to develop a strong personality and to attract others towards you. for these two. if you do not already have some knowledge of this art. Francis Barrett tells us. 7. whose natural ruler is Jupiter and his sign of Sagittarius. Mars rules vigour. presidents. or perhaps Bay Leaves.' If you are male. 'For luck and safe travel on any journey that you may undertake. in business matters generally (Mercury). Jupiter rules knights and peers of the realm. etc. the odours of Cancer and/or Libra and Taurus. perfumes. So the above could read 'To bring about success in all undertakings (Sun/Jupiter). You can add Ash Tree seeds. Travel abroad to foreign parts is held to be ruled by the house opposing the third . Make the odours of Mercury (perhaps Virgo) the basis of any incense dealing with health matters. to which could be added the odours of his sign of Gemini. in business matters in general. 'To bring about success in all undertakings. those of Neptune and the Sign of Pisces.54 INCENSE INGREDIENTS 55 start you off. among other things. Jupiter has a similar significance as both are 'royal' planets.' (The Magus. and the commencement of any new enterprise.' Any odours of the Moon. and the natural sign of this house is Taurus.the ninth. to attempt to dream true. hygiene and the general health of the person is ruled by Mercury. for so much stems from it. compounded according to the nature of the spirit and planet. or gains in. ' Some of the remarks for 4 apply here. the bodily strength to fight disease. ungents. The diet. either separately or together. 6. and the seeking of favour from those in power. from which gain is hoped for. as Jupiter is the main significator. to which you could add the ingredients of Aries and/or Leo. add the odours of Pisces and/or Neptune.' The two planets that rule 'men of authority' are the Sun and Jupiter. For beginnings and the initiatory force of a business and most other things. so these odours may also prove effective. 8. especially of the opposite sex. which agree with the spirit by reason of their natural and celestial virtue. or of high position. preferments. So use the Sun and Leo and their odours and perfumes. ' The main significator of travel is the planet Mercury. the Sun and Leo. of wealth. ' Primarily the concern of Jupiter. and medicines. and the Lord High Chancellor. perhaps a touch of Mars. If the business is dealing with the public at large. and business accumen. . ' Use the odours of the Sun. Personally. matters of speculation and luck in general. ' . and the blood. among other things. are the natural rulers of the fifth house of the horoscope.

the odours of the natural ruler of this house and his sign. The juice of the leaves is extracted by bruising. Now let us take a look at some of the ingredients that make up incenses. the Socratine is held to be the best. 'To strengthen the mind for the purpose of study. Although Ambergris is basically intestinal matter. Perfumers. let us take our fill of love until the morning. harmony. marriage. Balm of Gilead It seems that this may appear under the name of 'Balm of Mecca' also. . oils. 'If it is desired to overcome your enemies and rivals. to attain that which you want. aloes. Come. It is a golden-coloured oleo-resin. 'I have perfumed my bed with myrrh. Balsamodendron gileadense. for any situation.' (Numbers 24:6. Laurus nobilis. The same ingredient may produce the perfume mentioned by this name in the Bible. especially the Egyptians. product 57 of an and the commencement of any new enterprise (Mars). while a little of Saturn. There appears to be another source that comes from America. which has. Icica carana. Taurus. and for acquiring knowledge in any form. 11. from the tree. Lign aloes are referred to only once in the Bible: 'As the tree of lign aloes which the Lord hath planted. and partnerships of all kinds. or the gum is taken from the Aloe by incision. and mixed mostly WIth myrrh.) It has been suggested that this is a Syrian Aloe and not the Indian. etc.' The odours of the Moon would be optional. used by ancient priests and embalmers. The 'Victor's Laurel' of the ancients was the sweet bay. and her Sign of Libra. love and marriage. Liliaceae distinguished by their long fleshy leaves. among other things under her rulership. having taken off the bark.' Mars is the 'fighting' planet. Aloes . especially as regards Law or religious philosophy. 10. partnership. used the wood (in Latin lignum) to give consistency to perfumes that were too liquid or thin. with the signs of the zodiac that they rule and their ingredients.' The acquisition of knowledge and education in general are the domain of the third house of the horoscope chart. Venus. and to defend the things you have and yourself. 'If friendship and love be desired. is the natural ruler of the seventh house of the horoscope. 9. and the social aspects of life. but rather as the pathological otherwise normal stomach or intestine.Lign-Aloes A very well-known exotic plant. The drug commonly known as Aloes taken from this plant is used medicinally as a powerful cathartic. It is used in perfumery as a fixative. The above reasoning may be extended to any compound you wish to make. Of the family of Aloes. who make great use of it. Laurus. It is found in the intestines and stomach of the sperm whale. and cinnamon. It has been accepted as being identical with the 'eaglewood' or Aquilaria agallochum. which is extruded from the tree. Bay Ambergris This is a fatty substance which resembles wax. but this is held to be inferior. and some other plants. and you will have a reasonably reliable basis with which to experiment. a genus of African plants of the family. what is generally termed the 'higher' or philosophical nature. it is not thought to be the result of any Name applied to various species of laurel. its natural ruler Jupiter and his sign of Sagittarius. opobalsamum. deriving its name from the island of Socotra which lies in the mouth of the Red Sea. Its aromatic. a native of Southern Europe. and to be secure from malice or enmity. to this you can add any of the odours of his sign of Aries. or the B. whose odours may be used seperately or added. comes under the domain of the ninth house. Mercury and Gemini. the control and perseverance. and when you wish your friendship and love to be reciprocated.reat deal in the embalming of bodies. However. evergreen leaves are used for flavouring and cooking. for developing concentration. It is thought that this was the source of the supply of much of the aloes gum. giving both the will and strength to protect what you have.56 INCENSE INGREDIENTS kind of disease. Therefore. Mars would add then the energy to work (not too much).' (Proverbs 7: 17). The gum was used a g. can be compounded.' Venus and her odours are associated with peace. Perhaps you could add a little of the odours of the other sign she rules. Combine the astrological ruler of the ingredient.

it i~ a~ i~fF~dient ?f gun~owde~. Charcoal The charcoal used is usually of willow. .n~tlve to ~he East Indies. It is extensively cultivated In Egypt. giving an orange/. not to the Incense Itself. It was often called by Europeans (who obtained the Indian and Arabic varieties) Indian Orris Root because of the claim. By this we mean you do not have your . add a small amount of methylated or surgical spmt. You will be surprised how much Incense smoke can be obtained from just a pinch of incense when the charcoal is burning properly.?um. There are other additives that can be used. Camphire is one of the earliest kn0-:vn of. ~eslrab. The Camphor is distilled from chips of wood of the root. Sometimes It IS s~ggeste~ that saltpetre (potassium nitrate) is added to the Incen~e It~elf~ to compound what is generally terme? 'self-lightl~g incense. The Greeks and Romans obtained their Cinnamon and Cassia from the Phoenicians. which IS.Henna' in the East and was used as a dye for the beard. of the family L~uraceae. It has a very fragrant aroma.).is very uneconomical. Some people prefer the latter. Put on your incense and let the charcoal do the rest. Saltpetre is. every incense you compound and this obviously. An old pair of tweezers to hold the charcoal while you light it is ideal. which is native to South China. The nails of many Egyptian mummies were found to have still retained the dye after many thousands of years.charc~al burning intensely. in effect.t has a rather acrid smell when burning. when used to give 'qUick-lighting It IS ~rratlc ~nd I. trunk.nails. just add a drop of spirit (if required). though charcoal powder and granules can be bought. Lay the charcoal in the pan. Simply remember the above golden rule. The leaves and young twigs are g:~und to a powder and mixed with hot water to a paste. Just dr. adding the vibrations of Mars to.d before adding the incense. Cinnamomum camphora. although I~ I~ slower to Ignite because it does not splutter. If you are unable to get the prepared charcoal. is a resin which is obtained by ~aklr~g incisions In the bark of the tree. If It IS to be used. It was often burnt in temples and In private homes as an incense. The charcoal will appear to be still black. even when fully ignited with some red spots at the edges.locks that are square or round. even when you are using the type with the additive. which are exposed to the action of steam and afterwards refined. The colour can be changed to black by the addition of a preparation of indigo. it . the spices and perfumes. Camphor This is an aromatic. for which it is largely used as a substitute. Cinnamomum cassia. . It is used for medicinal pur~?ses and imparts to many of these products a very familiar smell. and ignite. and so on. It was especially prized by the women of Egypt. or red ~ot.most of all. The whole secret of using your charcoal and Incense lies in the seemingly contradictory rule: You must burn your incense without burning your incense. Benjamin. It is best to light the edges of the charcoal and let it ignite slowly. This would be. It turns the gums and resins to .58 INCENSE INGREDIENTS 59 Benzoin Ben~oin: o~ . .lVes off the essential oils without having the desired effect. is not. It can be used as it is or crushe. Formosa and Japan. w~ich is fire. as is an odd 'blow' now and then. an. without any doubt. It IS an aromatic. .d branches. under the rulers hlp of the planet Mars because. Having it too hot. and IS used m the preparation of perfumes cosmetics and naturally. t~~ other doe~ n?t. Camphire King Solomon likened his beloved to a 'cluster of camphire'. but some of these are dangerous and are best avoided.d l?tO powder and made into blocks. volatile substance obtained from the Camphor tree. and. and closely resembles the true Cmnamon. even today. In my view this is an undesirable practice. It is renowned as the dye known as '. . It is purchased in l.lly available from commercial outlets: one has an additive (usually saltpetre) to assist burning. This IS why. If you wish to make the charcoal without the addl~lve ea~l~r to light. deeming Cassia the better of the two. Styrax benzoin. Two types are us~a.ash.le. incenses. -:vhich I personally prefer. (Song of Solomon 1:14. It will have to have a binding . a member of the Lauraceae. an alternative I have found useful is the charcoal granules ~sed in barbeque grills.ed si~ilarity of odour.r~d hue. " . Cassia This is the b~rk of a plant. it should only be added to the charcoal.

but is now found in Zanzibar West Africa. Elemi Oil is known as 'Elemin'. that the three Magi brought to Bethlehem to give to the new born Jesus. A point of interest is that Dammars. It is also called Olibanum or Gum Thus.e tYPlc. free-burning resins in the world. (Natural History 8:2). and although its existence has been known for quite a long time. of the genus Boswellia ihurifera. Lauraceae. It has always been used as an' ingredient in medicine. a native of Africa. which is done slowly so that the resin flows from the inner wood. from Brazil. Mozambique. The libanum of the ancients is frankincense. while the third gave myrrh. It does not always appear under this name in incense. 151 7. White Dammar IS from the genus. This is a resin that can safely be substituted for any other resin or gum. ' INGREDIENTS 61 agent which can be the white of an egg (good th. to others the Ferula galbaniflua.venient squares (like a chocolate bar). were once used for caulking ships. According to some it is the. It is of the Burseraceae family. belonging to the fa~ily. meadows and on banks.. symbolic of suffering and death on earth. and mastic. which is obtained by peeling off a thin layer of the bark of the tree. (Exodus 30:34). In passing. ' This surely. It is mentioned many times in the Bible. Brazil and the West Indies. there is still some disagreement as to the plant from which it is obtained. and is grown in Java. A most versatile ingredient. India and Arabia. translucent white resin di~t~lled fr~m Copalquahuitl. It was one of the three gifts of great value. Pote. it has to be mentioned that its use was not always limited to incenses. however. Galbanum Elemi (Gum) Although the word 'elemi' appears in Virgo's Latin Practica which was printed in Rome c. the use of the word appears to be modern. and as a fumigation at animal sacrifices. Bubon galbaniferurn. which it drove away. growing in pastures. fairly stiff paste.al ~pecles Potentilia replans IS a creepmg perennial. th.Icieariba. that the reason for its inclusion in perfumes was to make them retain their fragrance for a longer time. It was further believed by the older writers that the smoke of Galbanum was a very effective defence against gnats and serpents. Cinnamon Another bar~ of a tree. frankincense and myrrh. widely distributed throughout the British Isles. especially in connection with the Holy Temples and Places. This ingredient appears but once in the Biblical account. Oil of Cinnamon obtained from the inner bark. It is a resinous product. which is al a member of the family. and the Hebrew is lebonah. etc. Madagascar and India. Cinquefoil Genus of plants. as one of the ingredients of the Holy Incense.60 INCENSE symb Mix into leave to scored into break '. though. are two of the ingredients used in a cure 'that taketh away the old ache in the huckle bones called Sciatica'. Copal (Gum) Of Mexican origin. and the Elaphium elemiferum from MeXICO. it may seem strange to many that it should appear as a choice of a 'perfume' that was to be made of 'sweet spices'. acceptable to all. to which it imparts another those familiar aromas. ?r perhaps Gum Arabic or Tragacanth. while the Black Dammar is from the genus Conarium strictum. and is used both as flavouring and in medicine.ere). the second gave frankincense for 'holiness'. a fragrant. This may po~slbly pr~ve to be a c~llective name for quite a variety of resl~s obtained from different trees growing in the East Indies and New Guinea. and it can be used on its own for any ritual or invocation. spread into a shallow tray and thoroughly. Valaria indica. If the surface of the slab is lightly con. it will easily when dry. As Galbanum is rather pungent. Mexican Cop alii incense. and an ingredient to have in plentiful supply. Frankincense Dammar (Gum) A ~alayan resin from the genus Dammara. must be accepted as one of the most popular and famous. which are the same thing. It was originally found in Mexico.ntilla. from which a milky white juice flows when .. Pliny tells us. Rosaceae. Cinnamomum eeylanicum. In Gerard's Herbal we find that frankincense. It is obtained from the tree Conarium commune from Manilla the /ciea . gold. One gave gold for 'kingship'.

in the Holy Land. with drooping pale green flowers. Henbane. Heliotropum arborescens. 'Stinking Hellebore'. The wood bark and fruit emit a very pleasing odour when burnt. The rendering of the ~e.). a native of Persia and Northern India. One of its uses today is in the manufacture of varnish. the air is cooled before it enters the house. the Mandrake is a narcotic. The Green Hellebore. Henbane Wild plant. Hellebore Plants of the Ranunculaceae family. is a climber growing over twelve feet high. Mint An aromatic plant of the Labiatae. white or lilac flowers. was introduced into Europe from Peru. Jasminum midijlorum. which soon hardens to the air. described in older works as a pain-killer and. produces brilliant yellow flowers before its leaves appear and is found in America. or Woodbine. The gum resin is obtained by the familiar. a resin. The forked spikes. It is often used as a means to help sweeten the breath and there are many who think the act of chewing or masticating gave the tree its name. A branching plant. The Arabs call mandrakes 'Devil's Apples'. an 'inducer of sleep'. The Chinese Winter Jasmine. of the Oleaceae family. The North American Trumpet Honeysuckle. sweet-smelling flowers. Heliotrope Plant of the Boraginaceae family. or Jessamine. The garden heliotrope. The odour of Galbanum is pungent and rather strong. It has medicinal properties which are similar to Asafoetida which is taken from it. the Lonicera periclymenum. Mace see Nutmeg Mandrake This has been the subject of superstition since very early times. inside. The common English Honeysuckle. which also includes Belladonna. genus of plants Jassminum. is a fragrantly scented root of a type genus Mentha in the family in the temperate regions. Hyoscyamus niger. .62 INCENSE INGREDIENTS 63 cut. a volatile oil with a trace of acid. By keeping the mat damp. Like many of its relatives. is a fairly common sight in Mediterranean areas. and Western Asia.brew wor~ chalenali is derived from a root meaning milky or fat. but naturalized in Europe. It is sometimes grown for medicinal purposes. Jasminum officinale. widely distributed Khus-Khus Vetiver. bark incision method. purple and yellow tinted outside. of blue. Jasmine Oil is used in perfumery: The common Jasmine. The yellow flowers are bell-shaped. is very handsome. but Its use IS dangerous. Pistacia leniiscus. and also the leaves. Lonicera. of Indian grass. Honeysuckle Popular name for the plants of the genus. or 'bear's foot'. a few of which are found in Europe. it has hairy leaves and a somewhat nauseous smell. of the Caprifoliaceae family. Jasmine Jasmine. Mastic The Mastic tree. found in many parts of the world but mainly in the East. The Mandrake is called botanically Mandragona officinarum and belongs to the family Solanaceae. a characteristic often depicted in many old drawings of the plant. and folk-lore tells us that this is an aphrodisiac and fertility herb. This attribute is borne out in the Biblical account of Rachael (Genesis 30:1. the root containing an alkaloid similar to atropine. Central and Southern Europe. which they hang over doors and windows. or Khus-Khus. Heliotropium genus of plants. flowers in early spring with pale yellowishgreen flowers. Thorn-apple and Tobacco. bearing clusters of white or yellow. and creamy white. The Hindus weave it into grass mats. the Lonicera sempervirens. including scarlet and yellow varieties. though many do not consider it unpleasant. It consists of gum. is a climbing plant with sweet-scented flowers. alter their position constantly so as to face the Sun. The idea derives from the fact that the roots often resemble the human form. common on waste ground in England. one to four feet high. produces a flower stem up to a foot in height. It is often .

(Psalms 52:8). native to the Moluccas. No other tree was more highly honoured by the nations of old. (Exodus 27 :20). I?l~condes . . it was one of the articles of commerce. Myrrh One of the best known of the perfumes. are best known. and its extensive use in embalming. and It IS found in the spikenard lakes of India. It is said that they yield the best type of oil if plucked or are carefully shaken off by hand before they are fully ripe (Isaiah 17:6 and 24:13). of peace among the civilized nations of the world. one being Balsamodendron myrrha. As it also an ingredient of medicine. the Olive and the Pine. being beaten into first place by the fig. Some out of Babylon. Classical legend tells us that Adonis was born from a Myrrh tree which. The finest oil was used for the basis of anomtmg OIls. highly prized by the Egyptians.' (Zechariah 1:8). Nutmeg Myrtle Myrtle enjoys its reputation as a result of its rich green leaves which.' (Isaiah 41: 19). and as. after a ten month gestation. or the 'oil of unripe olives'. Of all the trees in the Bible and in the works of ancient authors. Both the nut and its secondary covering. and this is understood to be t~e horny operculum. Theb'est is brought from the Red Sea. andit doth give forth a sweet odour for that the shellfishes there do feed on spikenard. It is one of the earliest specified plants in the Bible. The kernel of the seed of the evergreen tree M yristica fragrans. I~ Lat~~ it is called. His mother is said to have been a woman called Myrrh and that she had been turned into a Myrrh tree soon after she had conceived the child. Myrtle. This is one of the ingredients of the Holy Incense of Exodus. Sometimes the oil was trodden out by the feet. The vision of Zechariah took place among 'myrtle trees that were in the bottom'. and these types of press were called gath-shemen. star-like clusters of flowers. burst its bark to let the beautiful infant emerge. and not thrown into the press. known as Mace. Onycha. the Goddess of Wisdom. It mentioned frequently in the Bible and it is most likely several kinds of Myrrh were known. Myrtus communis. It was called Omphacmum. . Ungala aromatica or Unguis oderatus. 'Instead of the thorn shall corne up the fir tree.' (Isaiah 55:13). For th. It was commanded by law that the Israelites should dwell. and instead of the brier shall corne up the myrtle tree. like the purple. Mentha piperita. during the Feast of the Tabernacles. INGREDIENTS 65 Garden Mint. both Olive and dove being embl~ms. in season. hence the name of Gethsemene. none is more frequently mentioned than the Olive Tree. this fine 'beaten' oil was to be used: 'pure olive beaten for the light. It IS a symbol of trust and mercy.' He further quotes Maimonides as saying It IS the n~11 or shell which men used to put in perfume. Olibanum see Frankincense Meaning 'nail' or 'claw'. or shell. where he saw 'a man riding upon a red horse. is still used as a spice and the whole of the dried plant is used in Syria for perfumery. the garden situated at the foot of th~ ~oun~ of Olives. as well as in perfumes and incense. as it still is to the present day.It is the cover of a shellfish. so it is not surprising to find Myrrh being offered at the Festival of Adonis. Greeks and Romans.which is blackish.) The Lord said 'I will plant in the wilderness the cedar. to show that all was well once more and that the water~ were subsiding. are used as a spice in cookery.weet sav~ur. It was an Olive branch that the dove brings back to Noah. white and fat. this oil is also attributable to Minerva. It was found in Arabia. being prepared with fragrant spices. 01. is burnt f~r s. to cause the lamp to burn always. as does its symbolic representation of 'suffering' and of the dead. and also 'beaten' or 'fresh oil'.e temple light. (Nehemiah 8:14. suggests its correspondence with Saturn. and Peppermint. of a species of shel1fi~h. in huts or 'booths' made of the branches of the Myrtle. perhaps along Frankincense. Another pomt of .64 INCENSE viridis. . which fill the air around with a very agreeable fragrance. fo. offer the Oliver branch' meant that you wanted peace. and the myrtle. are highly contrasted with the white. with which it is often associated. O~ . the shittah tree.

(rliest times as a condiment for food .rushing them. on its use or omission. fact. it has no additives to assist its 'free-running'. assigned for its storage. only a few grains are needed to flavour. With the discontinuance of the 'burnt-offering' and the greater use of incense in its place.) It was mixed with the fodder for cattle as an antidote against the effects of the heat of the climate. while others suggest t. ac pepper IS produced by gathering the berries when the~. BI k nenoer i . Holy water should have some grains of 'blessed salt' mixed with it to be truly effective. Saffron Me~tion:d i~ the 'Song of Solomon'. Christ told His disciples. though I am sure that many practitioners have strong views. and to be trodden under foot of men. that salt is essential for health. Dried marigold petals may b~ substituted. apart from certain medical conditions where Its use. Salt found great acceptance among Ihe Hebrew worshippers. They had an inexhaustible supply of this commodity on the southern shores of the 'Salt Sea' (Genesis 14: 3). the Greek word Onycha a nail or claw. Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltness. Bearing in mind the properties of sterility and barrenness associated with a surplus of this 'element'. but when you consider that th~ st. The part of ~he plant use~ is the stigma which gives a distinctive. IS reduced or precluded. It IS used as a flavouring and colouring ingredient. I have never seen any dehnite ruling on the matter. vigour and well-being. native of ASia Minor. Cistus landaniferus. Ruta.lgma of four thousand blooms go to make an ounce this ~s not surprising. of the family Rutaceae. Sea-salt is easily obtained today. is similar to the purple crocus. It has been used since IS ?alt. but to be cast out. unlike the fine varieties. now called the Dead Sea. Capsicum jastigiatum.. perfumes. Common Rue Ruta graoeolens.lpemn. er mgrum. As salt was important it was sold in large quantities in the Temple market and a large quantity was kept in a special chamber. and still is.66 INCENSE INGREDIENTS 67 view differing from this one claims that Onycha is a Rose.has been used in medicines.' use (". Crocus saiiuus. . . native Southern Europe and temperate Asia. wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves. and every sacrihce shall be salted with salt. stem of a species of Iris grown It is violet scented. the coarse-grained for the salt-mill being the best because it is pure and. Rue A shrubby plant. He further tells us. or otherwise..' (Mark 9:49). Stoups or basins have been built into the entrances of churches since Norman times in which is placed the water/salt mixture blessed by the priest.' (Matthew 5:13). These illustrations given here show the importance in which salt was.msavoury be eaten without salt?' (Job 6 :6. the much hotter Cay~nne Pep~er IS made from the berries of a variety from tropical America. Salt was an indispensable commodity to ancient peoples. It ~lfficult for us to imagine its importance to our ancestors.'can that which is . It IS a .hat the Onycha in the Holy Incense of Exodus have derived from Styrax. and have peace one with another. It is not a very ~heap ingredient to use. and is used Pepper This is a climbing plant of the East Indies the PI'P . All meat offerings were required 10 be seasoned with salt. 'Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour.g and turning red. Saffron.known. sometimes added to the incense itself. which produces a gum Lab~anum. held. As said above. salt was. 'For everyone shall be salted with fire. in the Temple itself. Those entering the church dipped their fingers into this water and salt and sprinkled themselves with it as a symbol of purification. As salt is a 'creature of the Earth' it may added with good effect to any incense of that particular element. though a few grains may well add 'savour' to other types of incense if you feel so inclined. are green a?d c. so it is suggested that the markings petals probably gave rise to the name. . formerly called 'Herb of Grace' was much d in mediaeval medicine. for white pepper the berries used are r. ~roma~lc odour '. ~nd It . wherewith shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing. Orris Root The underground Southern Europe. and is.

especially by the Romans. Verbena Genus of plants of the Verbenaceae family. Often used to induce trance states.Latin and French name for Wormwood IS Absinthium and Absinthe. Sinbul Hindhi. and not by fire. as wood was cheaper. and nardos (Greek). Moses spoke of nataph. violet to purple. It has many spikes from one root. or poison. along with many other items of the vegetable kingdom. Lippia ciiriodora.d m~ny men d:ed of the waters because they were made bitter. It is also used in incenses of the Roman Catholic church today. which fell from heaven at the sounding of the Third Angel.. It must r:ot be forgotten that woods have the same planetary rulerships as the more expensive ingredients. It is widely distributed as an element in volcanic regions. . Colours range from white to rose. chemicals. One type grows in England. Its purpose may have bee. but a wood base appr?priate to t~e incense being compounded. and.68 INCENSE INGREDIENTS 69 Spikenard This is a very famous perfume of the East. The word ointment incidentally is to various preparations of oil and perfumes. referring to the the flowers. ' A rather fine name for sawdust! Many ritualists and others disdain and even condemn its use. an. bitterness.se of "Y0o~base could . Barnstaple in 1741: 'Paid for tobacco and frankincense burnt in the church . and also to the compound of medical ingredients that we know and use today. dyes. famine or the sword: And the th:rd part of the waters became wormwood. its name in (nardostchys) meaning 'ear of wheat'. it is sometimes used in incenses.just any woodbase.are highly desirable. (Revelation 8: 11).n to destroy. There are about one hundred species.st IS easy enough for anyone. they seem to forget that the burning of ~dorifer~us woods were us~d before these items by many nations. The herbs were often steeped in wine to counteract the possible effects of alcohol. was expensive and considered to be 'very precious'. Whenever Wormwood is mentioned in the Biblical text It IS always in the context of 'bitterness " and there are many references to it. Lemonscented Verbena. and these appear like a 'tail of ermine'. While it is admitted that the gums and resins . Artemlsza vulgans. In Revelation we find a Star called Wormwood. This bitterness does not prevent certain species having valuable medicinal properties. The u. makmg.2/ 6d. It is one of the ingredients of t~e liqueur Absinth . hence name. It is brittle.be considerably improved by the Simple expedient of not using . . Several species of Wormwood. solid and insoluble in water. Wormwood Stacte (Storax) This Greek word was generally assumed to mean a gum that distills from Myrrh. mostly in the American tropics. Incisions made in the branches of the Storax officinali. which has been translated as 'Stacte'.1 causes the liquid resin to flow and this later hardens. Sulphur is pale yellow and odour less until burned. (John 12 and Mark 14:3). Wood can be used in many incenses. It is also known by the name of (Hebrew). explosives. which has literal translation of 'liquid drop'. and frequently used' in the manufacture of many items. smoking. including sulphuric acid. After all. Pliny tells us that in postHomeric times 'people know only the smell of ceda~ an? citrus as it arose in volumes of smoke from the sacrifice . by. sa~du. and of the family Solanaceae. Spikenard was much in use for anointing the head. strange though it may seem. a rich red ointment with a fragrant odour. or Common Mugwort. whose dried leaves are prepared for chewing. It is u accepted that the more valuable variety is that of Indian origin. In many cases it may h~ve been used by people unable to afford the more expensive ingredients. belongs to the same family. and drugs. From the Churchwarden's accounts of St Peter's. As a guide the followmg IS given. It is one of the ingredients of the Holy Incense to be burnt on the golden Altar of Incense. This word has also been rendered as neteph. and snuff. are to be found. Woodbase Tobacco A narcotic plant of the genus Nicotiona. Sulphur Known from ancient times. of the g~nus Artemisia. having large tubular flowers arranged in close spikes.

Civet. Aspen. Gums and Resins Acacia. Alder. Witchhazel Licorice. the woods called 'redwoods' for Mars. Larch. culinary use. Orris. Oak. Henbane. Grains of Paradise. Paprika. Fennel. Peach. Aromatica. Storax. Rue. Myrtle. Vervain. Leaf lIay. Mandrake. Henna. Garlic. Myrrh. Hawthorn. Willow. Ash. Bay-Leaf. Basil. . Ginger. it is a general list. Clove. Cypress. Ash. Lavender. Mace. . Cassia. Aloes: Asafoetida. expensive and rare woods for the Sun and Jupiter. Musk. these are given to show other points view. Heliotrope. Cedarwood. Garlic. Lemon. . Opopanax. A further guide. Lime.70 INCENSE INGREDIENTS 71 though some duplication will be found in the lists because differing opinions. Olive Oil. Valerian. Ambergris. Ylang-ylang. Labda~um. By combining the lists together. Scammony. Plum. Pear. Yew. Wormwood/ Absinthe. Cinnamon. Perfume Ingredients Almond. Birch. Mandarin. Herbs Agrimony. Spices (:ayenne. Patchouh. Sulphur. Pimentoes. Ivy. Cinnamon. the 'blackwoods' under Saturn. Mulberry. and those that are commonly called 'yellow-woods' for Mercury and the Sun. Elm. Rosewoods (genuine). Remember. " Roots Galangal. may prove useful at this point: Soft woods come under the Moon and Venus. Walnut to the Sun. Eyebright. II is a matter of combining the guidelines given to decide the rulership of any particular wood you arc seeking. Mace. Mandarin. Saturn: Pine. Tragacanth. Civet. and can also be used as a herb tea while Rue is a herb with medicinal use. Cyprus. Moon: Willow. Stephanotis. Olibanum/Frankincense/ Thus.g. Sycamore. Ginger. Coumarin. Oils Almond (Bitter and Sweet): Aniseed. Peppermint. Balsams. Rosemary. Rosemary. hard woods under Mars and Saturn. Fennel. Verbena. Saffron. Daminana. The following is a condensed list of many of the items you will End in lists of incenses. Patchouli. Blood. Pomegranate. Seeds Aniseed. Mandarin. Fig. Sun: Bay. Dragon's Aniseed. Licorice. Paprika. Rose (Rose-hip syrup can Culinary Uses . Vertiver. Vines. Citrus. Nutmeg. Grains of Paradise.. Elder. Lime. Benzoin. Rue. Olive. You may find that other lists disagree with some of the above. Galbanum.. those that are prickly and thorny. Mercury: Nut-bearing trees (not necessarily edible). Lemon. Camphor. you will find that Rosemary for example is a herb. Eucalyptus. . Animal By-Products Ambergris. Poplar. etc. Mars: Pine. Saffron. Winter-green. Barks Cassia. Cloves. Calamus. Ash. Quince. Cedarwood.. Oak. Ylangylang. Orange. Mate Tea. Stephanotis. Cassia. Rosemary. COfla~der. Coriander. Maple. Hyssop. Venus: Apple. Pimentoes. Marjoram. Musk. cosmetic uses. Myrtle. Euphorbia. Olive Oil. Karaya. Cayenne. Calamus. Beech. Fir. Cedar. Bay-leaf. with medicinal uses. . Jump~r. Lime. . Basil. Lime. under Venus. Woods that are called 'white or cream-woods'. Cassl~. Jupiter: Birch. . often be substituted for this). Mastic. Hazelnut. Cinnamon. Marjoram. anointing oils. Ginseng. taken from an earlier work. Flowers Chamomile. Lemon. Stjohn's Wort. Walnut. Khol. Yew. Ginger. trees abounding in sap or having an affinity with water. Mineral Brimstone. Palm. come under the Moon. Fig. e. Nutmeg. Oak Moss.

traditional perfumes should be the only ones employed in magic and incenses. ' oscmary . Valerian (not In this part of the work you will find the recipes or formulas for your incenses. save the purist.. )' I) . .:na. ' ormwood. Rosemary. these can be dried. diphenyl oxide for geranium. R . e. and sometimes rare. e. Wintergreen] W CHAPTER SIX INCENSE FORMULAS Cosmetic Uses Almond' . cl. The use of synthetic ingredients often causes the beginner some concern. Sand a I . When synthetic materials . . I see no reason for not using the synthetic ones. that is how they were arrived at and determined in the first place. you will find that the quantities are not always given. even this one.a enan' V . and so on. there are enough of these to start you off on this very rewarding path. It is of course better to use the natural ingredients but. • ".' cppermmt . whereas you may not like this as much. The combination that you or your group prefer is not one that can be taught by reading books. . Ch:amoml il e. Fennel. Try to remember to keep the peel and the seeds from any fruit and vegetables you may have.'.' ate. Rue' ' .. ' pleasant). Brimstone' Ca h . Lavenderj. for within the framework provided. and it may also mean that people will not be encouraged to experiment with their own ideas. Eucalyptus' E h bi mp or. osemary' . Cinnamon: . if you provide set recipes it gives the false impression that this is how it has to be done. I personally prefer the strong smell of orange. Today there is a vast selection of reasonably priced synthetic fragrances which will serve the same purpose for all.' Sulp' hulcr·~rIVce'l· tv_lenthol.a <~ woo d:.Verbena. There is no other way! More often than not. There is no reason why only the expensive. ' Witch-hazel •. Orange (best added. cinnamonic aldehyde for cassia. up or ia: E bri h ' Henbane' Hyssop' L' : ye ng t. Khol. and why not? After all.JI Formulas Herb Teas Basil. Those who have clairvoyant ability record that burning incense has a 'figure of eight' aura which is in 'rapid convolution'. . As I have said elsewhere. Many of these are derived from a coal-tar base. Cinnamon: H . Lime. if this is not possible. Even the recipes that suggest specific portions can be varied by you.. there is plenty of scope for personal preferences. ' ervam.g. ground and stored for future use with your incense.72 INCENSE Medical Uses Agrimony. v-msene: John's Wort. In Solar Incenses for instance. it has to be worked out for yourselves by work and experience. . Mandarin' or' .• Lemon. Fennel' M' " non-herbal te. Rose i R ' rve 011' Orris: P . Chamomile.

Use orange for the Sun/Sunday. and Works of Malediction and Death. they are still regarded as such. Neptune and Pluto. The Seven Planets of old astrology are the main significators over so much that happens on the 'earth plane'. Female) Cornpoun d on Monday Incense 2 Lign Aloes Ginseng Jasmine Camphor Cucumber Seeds Ranunculus (Buttercup) Ylang-ylang Oil Honeysuckle in the hours of the Moon Mars Incense 1 Dragon's Blood Powder Black Peppercorns Absinthe Oak Incense 2 Rue Opopanax . from birth with the Sun and Moon. blue for Venus/Friday.74 INCENSE INCENSE FORMULAS 75 were likewise viewed. yellow for Mercury/Wednesday. This is excellent symbolism. Works of Retribution and Punishment. These 'seven' are. Mediaeval occultism gives c ""' seven magical Works'. with your incenses. and green for Saturn/Saturday. The number seven occurs yet again with the seven trumpets and seals. They are the 'old Rulers' of the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Works of Love. Sun Incense I Gum Arabic Olibanum Cassia Orris Root Bay Saffron Incense 2 Orange Peel Heliotrope Sunflower Laurel Cinnamon Acacia Flowers Ambergris Oil Heliotrope Crystals the hours of the Sun. but which is not moved by the passing phases of the 'outer' life. and according to some schools of occultism/astrology. and so on. Works of Mystery and Divination. spi<:y substancbes m~ ounded on Tuesday in the incenses. to decay and the death of the physical vehicle that ends with Saturn. but if you can get them (or perhaps a substitute). d: in Compound . . Uranus. mauve or lilac for Jupiter/Thursday. perhaps.o~ Sun aYf it hours of the Sun. are not directly concerned with this aspect of Mankind. Red would be the colour to use for Mars/Tuesday. The Table of Planetary Hours gives the methods of working . yet this need not worry us too much. They are. the seven stars before the Throne. The first set given has two versions you can try. concerned with the spiritual or 'inner' nature of Man which can be indirectly influenced by the physical to some extent. in the main. . Only use the is absolutely necessary. . The correspondences which return to this number are legion. and is subjected to the 'changing fortunes of" life'. I am not ~ure if they are still available. and the colours a little harsher. basically. 1 friendly planet on other effort if you are to ac hi ieve Moon Incense I Olibanum (Frankincense) Gum Karaya Artemesia Absinthum (Wormwood) White Sandalwood Mandrake Root (pref. which are to e co p hours of Mars. iven for compounding your incenses. though the incense of the Moon/Monday may have to be left in its natural state as white dyes are not readily available. the seven churches in Asia (Assiah). h hil anythmg wort w ue. herbal dyes are excellent for adding the correct planetary colours to the appropriate incenses. with their seven candlesticks. or. purple. Siamese Benzoin Capsicum (Chilli) Geranium be added to either of these Any hot. and it has the added advantage of making the planetary incenses easily recognizable by their colour. it was recorded that the movement was much faster. classified into the following groups: Works of Light and Riches. the most important and basic of our incense stock. as pomte ou a . Works of Science and Skill. Incenses of the Seven Planets We start with some versions of the incenses of the 'Seven Planets' of old. It (Jut the times g b d that it can be used for many should also be reme~ edre t I tel' and is not just for use other matters. Works of Intrigue. those of a "" You really must make the days" . These seven are concerned with that part of Mankind which 'decays and dies'.

Ingredient orally on a Saturday A further selection of 'suffumigations' for the Seven Planets of old. The . is given here. (pref. Saturn Asafoedita Henbane Musk Mandrake Resin Incense 2 Storax Elm Yew Musk Civet in the hours of Saturn.76 Mercury Incense 1 Gum Tragacanth Gum Dammar White Sandalwood Mace Verbena Clove Camomile INCENSE Incense 2 Cinnamon Storax Herb Mercury Marjoram Aspen Lime Flowers Larch Lemon Peel in the hours of Mercury. INCENSE FORMULAS 77 Incenses of the Lemegaton These are prepared in the hours and on the days given above for the' Incenses of the Seven Planets'. Compound on Thursday Venus Incense 1 Gum Benzoin Gum Elemi Red Sandalwood Nutmeg Damiana Rose Compound Saturn Incense 7 Myrrh Scammony Rue Cypress Vervain Prepare Incense 2 Lign Aloes Myrtle Clover Marshmallow Mint Storax Ash Ambergris Galbanum Aloeswood Benzoin Storax Rose Sulphur Civet Galbanum Scammony HENBANE IS Venus Herb Ambergris Coral Musk Myrtle Red Sandalwood on Friday in the hours of Venus. female) Mars Benzoin Euphorbia Lodestone Sulphur Mercury Mace Cinquefoil White Sandalwood Narcissus Artemesia ]upiter Aloeswood Cedar Lapiz Lazuli Ambergris Cloves Myrrh Compound on a Wednesday Olibanum Ginseng Onycha Dragon's Blood Hellebore Root Pepper Tobacco Mastic Styrax Liquid Storax Cloves Jupiter Incense I Gum COPed Cedar Hyssop Grains of Paradise Orris Root Incense 2 Florentine Iris (Orris Root) Galbanum Saffron Oak Balm of Gilead or Poplar leaves or buds Aspen in the hours ofJ upiter. taken from a very old manuscript. male) The Special Note: POISONOUS. Sun Aloeswood Cinnamon Frankincense Musk Moon Camphor Jasmine Mandrake (pref.

or is evolving in and from. or Gnomes. are taken from the works ofTheophrastus Paraceisus . Sun Saffron Aloeswood Wood of Balsam Moon White Poppy Storax Lodestone Mars Euphoriba Bdellium Sal ammoniac Mercury Mastic Cloves ]ul)iler Seeds of Ash '1'ree A shoot of Olive Venus Musk Ambergris Aloeswood Saturn Grains of Black Pepper Grains of Henbane Root of Mandrake Myrrh Musk (a little) Ambergris (a little) Benjamin Camphor Talisman ojthe Moon: (Lunae Dies . frankincense. rather than one of actual malice to Humanity. black peppercorns. giving their answers accordingly. sandalwood and olive wood.Tuesday) Composed of dried absinthe. blood and rue. Powder of Lodestone Myrrh Talismanic Incenses The incenses. mace and storax. oak. asafoedita. Their handling is sometimes regarded as a 'tricky' affair. cypress and black hellebore stalks. saffron. burnt with dried stalks of artemesia. while others are not. in the correct hours of the planet to whom the talisman is dedicated.78 INCENSE INCENSE FORMULAS 79 various animal parts have been omitted from the ingredients.Monday) Composed of aloes. ether or spirit which is not used here). Talisman oj Mars: ( Martis Dies . white sandalwood. (Modern occultist writers often give a fifth. Iis. one of the four Elemental Kingdoms. Some are regarded as benign. cardamon. balsam. burnt with red Talisman of Saturn: ( Saturni Dies . frankincense. Many regard their attitude as more that of perverse or mischievious children. burnt with dried heliotrope stalks and laurel. It is claimed that they have a definite form which can be seen by those with certain clairvoyant ability. orris root and saffron.Thursday) Composed of ambergris.) So it is usually advised to keep Geomantic questions simple and free from any possible ambiguity. burnt with fig. and red sandalwood. if you do not. Talisman o] the Sun: (Solis Dies . Use the same hours and days indicated earlier. mace.ted here with which talismans are 'fumed for consecrauon. dragon's (a little) with lime Root of Hellebore Powder of Lodestone Sulphur (a little) Storax Powdered Storax Benjamin Dried Red Roses Red Coral Agate Talisman of]upiter: (Jovis Dies .Saturday) Composed of alum. Talisman of Mercury: (Mercurii Dies . crushed cucumber seeds. Because of this many consider . ranunculus and selenotrope. (See Table oj Planetary Hours). sulphur. especially in Geomantic questions and rituals (the realm of the Earth Elementals. marjoram and narcissi.(1493~ 1541). roses and violets. Talisman (if Venus: (Veneris Dies . they usually find a double meaning for themselves and act upon it.Friday) Composed of musk. pomegranate seeds and poplar. burnt flowers. Incenses of the Elementals An Elemental is a spirit which is evolved.Wednesday) Composed of benzoin.Sunday) Composed of cinnamon. camphor. scammony and burnt with ash. Talismans should be exposed to the fumes of the Incense on the correct day.

courtesy is the Hallmark of Heaven!' The Elements of Air are called Sylphs. apple or pine may be substituted for aloes if desired.Cancer (Moon). The times to compound your Incenses of the Elementals are suggested by ~he above lists. The twelv~ signs of ~he Zodiac are divided among the four Ele~en~s.) If it is an Incense of the Gnomes' (Earth Element). oil or ingredient may be added if you wish.ly one. Rose.nes or it will most likely get out of hand.emml (Mercury). and Sagittarius (jupiter}. : he signs of the Zodiac ruled by the Element of Fire are: A~I?s (~ars). Wednesday and Thursday. but be courteous . Elementals partake of o?. then you should use ~he day of the Moon (Monday and the Moon's hours). It may be well to mention in passmg h. ~hereas. then you use Wednesday (Mercury and his hours). some believe the Salamanders (Fire) to be worse. quite rightly. Friday (Venus and her hours). Incense of Success in Business Benzoin Cinnamon Prepare on Sunday. of Fire. Incense of the Gnomes Gum Tus Myrrh Storax Red Sandalwood Scammony Musk Cypress Resin Incense of Solomon Aloes Nutmeg Benjamin Musk Incense of the Undines Gum Karaya Olibanum Camphor Osier (Willow) Lign Aloes Cucumber Seeds Ylang-ylang Jasmine Any other fragrant spice. of W?ter. and so on. T~e signs of the Zodiac ruled by the Element of Air are: G. -r Incense of the Sylphs Verbena Ash Wood Damiana White Sandalwood Violet Ginger Root Labdanum Euphorbia Capsicum Incense of the Salamanders Dragon's Blood Galbanum Gum Copal Gum Arabic Galingal Root Incense of Riches and Favour Benzoin Pepperwort Aloeswood Cloves in the hours of the Sun Prepare on Sunday and Thursday and Jupiter in those days. Gnomes.ere.th. that Man differs in a major aspect fr. Virgo (Mercury). . and Thursday (Jilpiter and his hours. by definition.80 INCENSE Gum Elemi Gum Tragacanth Gum Dammar Benzoin Mastic INCENSE FORMULAS 81 that it is unwise to approach them. or lu~sday (Mars and his hours). Und!n~s. Incense ofAhra-Melin Tears of Olibanum Stacte (Red Storax) Lign Aloes 4 parts 2 parts 1 part Ordinary frankincense may be used in place of Tears of Olibanum. I usually make this up either on a Sunday or a Thursday in the hours of the Sun or Jupiter. with each El~ment presiding over three signs.om the Elementals In that all four Elements are expressed in his nature. Salamanders. Mercury and Jupiter on those days. However. and Aquarius (Saturn/Uranus). Libra (Venus). and the category of Elementals most loa~he to deal with we crude mortals. or if not available. Incense of Pan Pan. in the hours of the Sun. Leo (Sun). The signs of the Zodiac ruled by the Element of Water are: . Scorpio (Mars/Pluto). Be firm with them at all ti. I he signs of the Zodiac ruled by the Element of Earth are: Taurus (Venus). . has many incenses created in his name. and Pisces (Jup Iter /Neptune). cedarwood. It IS often held that the Sylphs (Air) are the most difficult to deal wi. or Saturday (in the hours of Saturn). and Capricorn (Saturn). If you are mixing an Incense of the Undines (Water Element). and of Earth.

Saturday. RA. MAAT. on Wednesday in the hours of Mercury. on Sunday in the hours of the Sun. . For the exact days and times you will need to consult an ephemeris. . If you wish to dedicate. if you wish. HATHOR.ever h~ard. Patchouli Essence/Leaves (Scammony) . Incense of Health Dammar Olibanum Make up on Wednesday Incense of Wealth Orris Root Grains of Paradise Gum Arabic White Sandalwood in the hours of Mercury. on Friday in the hours of Venus. THO TIl TEHUTJ.are on Sunday or Thursday n uprter. B ~nzom (Storax) Pine (Myrrh) Wormwood (Mandrakepref male) . . . I add a I" . e mgre rents m parenthesis rna b d used as alternatives and this will II yea. Incenses of the Sabbat's Spring Equinox/Summer Solstice Fennel Rue Cinnamon Rose Red Sandalwood Cedar Geranium Penny Royal Church Incense A good.re rais:l~e~~ ~i:ti~g:~~~d ~~. as b e db' 'earth y. or 011 of: either in the mixing or the inc Itt e b elon re~ wine to this d~y. and one would be wise to have the appropriate incense prepared and ready for use at these times.sv:~~h~~~u:. and its entry into Capricorn. ANUBIS. the longest day (approx.. and its entry into Cancer. under a waxmg Moon. makin. June 21/22nd). or consecrate your incense to a specific Egyptian god or goddess. The Autumn/Winter Incense is used for the Sun's entry into Libra. also use Sunday in the hours of the Sun. Incense ofVehuel Olibanum Balm of Gilead Grains of Paradise Rush Ambergris (a drop) Orris Root Heliotrope f hi VEHUEL . in the hours of Mars on Tuesday. general incense in the Egyptian style. September 23rd). 'who presides over th ~~~~rc~~II~n. ave ~. Egyptian Incense Camphor Laurel Leaves Salt White Resin Sulphur Root of Aromatic Myrrh You can. 'of the flesh'. on Thursday in the hours of Jupiter. Red Sandalwood Gum Benzoin You could Autumn Equinox/Winter Myrrh Scammony Storax Wormwood Ivy Solstice Fir or Pine Solomon's Seal' Musk Church Incense Make up on a Thursday in the hours of Jupiter..~..' a ow more choice g up a compound to suit your own personal taste. the first day of Autumn (approx.ui~~te ~~~~e~} J piter. Libra and Capricorn. V ervam (M usk) . cloves. or even both. Cancer.. Do not use the Full M oon. Olive Oil (Yew) C'ivet . HORUS. I fo . the shortest day when it is reborn from darkness to bring back the Northern Hemisphere's Spring and Summer (December 21/22nd approx). I h pm~.ror mixing this ~ncense is :n~~lllres~~~.r ~:~r~a~en~~h gl~en bde!ow ~ill produce an excellent . on Monday in the hours of the Moon. nor believed the cry' Pan is dead' . in the hours of the Sun a' dJrep. in the hours of Saturn on his day. add a touch of oil of . very ~n nmstone evangelist would call. se d ucuve and primitive' or what the old . The following list will offer some guidance.82 INCENSE INCENSE FORMULAS 83 His incense is often called 'of lust and seduction' It h . March 21/22nd). The Spring/Summer Incense is used for the Sun's entry into Aries or the first day of Spring (approx.:. ISIS. Ch urc hI ncense--as a base- These incenses should be used at the times of the allilJ1portant quarterly figures of the Sun's entry into the four ( :ardinal Signs of Aries.

or anyone else for that matter.e your own by magnetlzmg some magnet and filing some off.t~e more You can mak. object' you may take it Saturn Formula Elder Patchouli Sulphur (a pinch) Incenses of Success Incense 7 25 parts Sandalwood Vertivert 8 parts Frankincense 8 parts Myrrh 8 parts 5 parts Winters Bark Compound the Mars incense on Tuesday in the hours of Mars. Gum Asafoedita Myrrh Yew or Cypress Incenses of Wrath Palma Christi Oil Sulphur 85 Incense of Happiness Jasmine Ylang-ylang Rose Friday is the best day for compounding this incense. or Mars/Pluto. you could substitute the hours of Venus). (If these hours are genuinely unavailable. Perhaps a 'consecrated' clothes-peg for the nose is an alternative! It is best compounded on Saturday in the hours of Saturn/Uranus. iron with a Incenses of Saturn. that it was 'the most powerful of all the magical perfumes. add to the Mars incense a pinch of magnetize~ (You can also add this to the Sat~rn incense If the Mars incense. Saturday In the recommende. 'One word of advice if this ~ncense is used as an adjunct to any banishing ritual. Madame Blavatsky. avoiding the hours of Mars and Saturn . using the same hours given above.) These are useful incenses to aid your attempts at divination. though other days ~ay be used. Tuesday proves a useful alternative Incense 7 Stjohn's Wort Wormwood Aniseed Valerian Solomon's Seal Saffron Bay or Ash Seeds/ Leaves (opt. said ofDlttan. If you do not accept my advice the first time. of Divination Mix well together and compound these incenses on either Sunday or Thursday in the hours of the Sun or Jupiter. If you are attempting materialization. important). you will the second. IS .for safety. In fact. you wish. make It an ~ut-of-doors one.Y. however. . The Saturn incense should be prepared on Saturday Incense 2 Frankincense Sandalwood Myrrh Cinnamon Patchouli Leaves Orris Root in the hours You can iron filings. Incense of Annihilation This will not get rid of a rich uncle. for when ~neets ~n :lIllmove~ble something s got to gIve!' and Chastisement Cayenne Ginger Sulphur (a pinch) Mars Formula Dragon's Blood Rue Peppercorns Olibanum Scammony Storax Myrrh Yew or Cypress Mint Palma Christi Oil hours of Mars for preparing this hours of Uranus is also highly an 'irresistible force' (Uranus).possibly even their days . grandmother. it is used to banish an 'atmosphere' or 'influences'.d. Incense of Exorcism Calamint Peony ~ suggest yuesday ~n the Incense.) Incense 2 Olibanum Cloves Camphor Mastic Wormwood Cinquefoil Bay or Ash Seeds/ Leaves (opt.84 INCENSE Red Sandalwood Ambergris Benzoin INCENSE FORMULAS day. its smoke is a most excel~ent b~SlS for magical manifestations. Dittany-of-Cret~ must be added (to both).

You can burn an These two recipes do not contain the magical 'sixte~n ingredients' as given by Plutarch (see section on Egypt {' but then neither does the recipe I use. INCENSE FORMULAS 87 Incense of Love and Attraction Olibanum 8 parts Cinnamon Sandalwood 4 parts Orris Root Rose 4 parts Sawdust /Woodbase Musk 2 parts or Church incense 15 parts A sweet and fragrant hours of Venus. giving power and ~o those who burnt it.se are aids and you will not be handed any of the above }ust ?ecause you have burned a few grains of the appropnate I~ce~se.l and congenial companionship.t~ o~ tenure or if the property is old. if not.Ince~~e 1'01' domestic felicity: JupIter incense for money and l_uck 111 !l. in most hours. use after the old tenant has vacated if possible.' The recipes for the famous EgyptIan Khyphl Incense ~re numerous.86 Simple Incense Sandalwood Myrrh Mix well together. it can be compounded on most days. Incense 1 Resin Galingal Root Mastic Myrrh Juniper Berries Honey Wine Incense 2 Dragon's Blood Galingal Root Juniper Berries Sweet Rush Broom Flowers Mastic Myrrh tpart 1 part 1 part 1 part 1 part 1 part 1 part This i~ held to be of Oriental ~~thonty I hursday Origin. based on the Eber s Papyrus. use the 'Incense of Annihilation' plus an appropriate banishing ritual and/or delay your entrance date. Khyphi Incense . soc~a. made up on Friday in the appropriate incense according to the ?ay you enter the property and pe~haps o~e o~ the followmg: Moon . Made up on Sunday or 111 the hours of the Sun and Jupiter on those days. If the 'atmosphere' seems 'evil'. from another person. this is an excellent all-round incense that can be used at any time. or rented. each writer has his. Saturn 1I1cense for stabIlI. If purchased.eneral. in the hours of Mars or Pluto. Resin Galingal Root Juniper Berries Root of Aromatic Asphaltus Mastic Grapes Honey Wine Myrrh Rush . General Incense Frankincense Myrrh Rosemary Marjoram 10 parts 5 parts 4 parts 4 parts Basil Gum Arabic Allspice Gum Tragacanth 2 parts 2 parts 2 parts 2 parts Mix all the above ingredients together. Incense of Fumigation Effective if used in a new house or dwelling before you actually take possession. Incense of Fumigation consists of the following: Camphor Myrtle Nutmeg Aloeswood or Lign Aloes this Incense 8 parts 4 parts 4 parts 4 parts Patchouli Sandalwood Sawdusr/Woodbase or Church Incense Tuesday proves to be the best time for compounding incense. you have to play your part too. Venus incense for harmon~. INCENSE 2 parts 1 part when convenient. Remember the. happmess. own personal choice of ingredients. or her. then use on the day of taking over the property. Commanding Cassia Orris Root Myrrh Olibanum incense.

. so as to make a stiff paste. and 4 fl. perhaps you could modify the formulas to suit your own needs. gum benzoin. Be a little sparing with the oils until you gain experience. 2 fl. However. and place them in drawers. . otherwise they WIll. slice and mix well together. If it is rather sticky. (22Sg) of gum storax. which may be made into small cones. etc. (SOg) of cloves. 1 fl. so that you do not make the mixture too soggy.g) of oak shavings. To Make Aromatic Pastils Incense Cones Powdered Charcoal 6 parts Powdered Myrrh S parts Enough mucilage of Tragacanth for binding Powdered Benzoin 1 part Potassium Nitrate 1 part Oil of Sandalwood 2-3 drops Oil of Bergamot 2-3 drops Mix the powders well. which are either musty. If more liquid should be required for the paste. it is easier to add a little more of the oils to the mixture. in the form of very coarse powder. clean linen sachets. (SOg) of lavender flowers. 2 oz. Form into cones of convenient size and dry out in a warm place. To Make Pastils for Perfuming Sick Rooms . (SOg) of orns root. Mix these ingredients well. become mouldy. add more dry ingredients until the right texture is attained. 8 oz. . Beat and sift the following ingredients to make up 1 lb (4S0g) of mixture: coriander seed.e items are now very expensive and you may feel It extravagant to use them in the quantities recommended. Powdered Root Patchouli Benzoin 2 parts Orris Leaves 3 parts 3 parts 3 parts Powdered Cinnamon S parts Powdered Myrrh S parts Powdered Sandalwood 15 parts Frankincense !S parts INCENSE FORMULAS 89 General Incense Some Original Recipes The following recipes were taken from a very old book loaned by a friend and dated 1824. essence of bergamotte. mix at any convenient time. N. form into conical pastils and dry in the sun. pry them thoroughly before storing.oz.oz.oz. If you feel you would like to try them. Make sure they are dried out thoroughly. (SOg) of calmus aromaticus. (SOml) of essence of. When mixing your ingredients for incenses it is better to let the mixture stand overnight to 'take'. These pastils are particularly useful in rooms where the sick or the dead have lain. add your oils. (SOg) of coriander seeds. or balls. and 21b (900g) of fine charcoal. some of th. 2 oz. and add sixty drops of musk. civet or ambergris. wardrobes. Mix the above ingredients well together for an incense that can be burned at any time. 1 lb (4S0g) of frankincense. Remember. When properly mixed stuff mto small hne~ bags. (2Sml) of essence of musk. (SOg) of yello~ sanders. Add to this composition the following lig~ids: 6 fl.oz. 2 oz. Mix so that no part of the preparation is soggy and then place into prepared. add warm water. (SOml) of ~lmond o~l. Cut. Sachet Bag Powdered Orris Root 16 parts Sandalwood 12 parts Lavender Flowers 8 parts Dried Rose Leaves 8 parts Patchouli Leaves Cloves Pimento Coriander Seeds 4 parts 2 parts 2 parts 2 parts Powder separately the following ingredients and then mix: 1 lb (4S0g) of gum benzoin. 2 oz. or liable to become so. This is a very common recipe. essence of lemon. Mix these into a stiff paste. to give quite a thick consistency. then add the essence of any (or all) of the following: oil of lavender. musk.88 INCENSE Musk. than to take away what is already there. an~ 1 lb (4S0. Add spirit of benjamin and lib (4S0g) ?f ~um benzoin. Dissolve some clear common gum arabic in a quantity of rose water. then add enough Tragacanth to give you a fairly stiff paste.B. 2 fl. and 011 of lavender. (17Sm~) of tincture of benzoin.oz. (100ml) of clear syrup. the following ingredients: 2 oz.' Mix the whole together. 2 oz. To Make Perfumed Bags for Drawers and Clothes.ambergris. oi~ of rhodium.

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82 gum. 13 disorientation. When the hours of the planets Uranus. Below each day a list of the planets. You find the exact time of sunrise for the locality in which you are operating your ritual in hours and minutes. 81.50 Copal. 9. so during British Summer Time (or any Daylight Saving Times elsewhere) one hour must be added to the Table. the day is assumed only to have commenced at the actual time of sunrise. 71.81-4. and the time will be shown on that day for that particular planet. 49. There are two methods of using this Table. On the left-hand side headed' After Sunrise' the consecutive twenty-four hours of the day. use the hours of Saturn for Uranus.14. 73-89 Frankincense.57. 81 Galingal Root. 86 funerals. so you use the farleft column.60 Dammar. 18 Buddhism. 27-33 process of.83 Elemi. the first hour after that time is the first hour after sunrise. 17. 71. In the first system you look down the column of the day you are working in and find the planet you are working under. 75. 19 75-7. Cinnamon. 76. 87 Geranium. In the use of either system there is one precaution that must be observed. 71 Altar of Incense. 28. 13 aloes. 35.21 Balm of Gilead. 14. 60. Jupiter for Neptune and Mars for Pluto.21. 56. 12 narcotic. 77. 22. 81. 60. This system gives long days in summer and short in winter.84 28 formulas. The right-hand side shows the hours as shown on a clock face. 24. The Table is given in Greenwich Mean Time. 12-3 narcotic. 57. move along horizontally to the right-hand column. 9.88 blessing.85 Benzoin. 13 Elementals. 18 Budge. 18. INDEX acerra. likewise with the days of the week. Remember this or you will be working in the wrong hour during this period. 36-8. 15 Camphor. 19 60. 22.S. 60.71 anointing coronation. use Saturday for Uranus. 68. 58. 20 80. 75. 30 arcouthelds. 73. Dammar Gum. 71-2. 13 Eye of Knowledge. 19 additives hallucinatory. 71 censers.75. 51. 17 Ambergris. 28 ritual. 11. 71-2.33. Galbanum. 71. 21. 58. 16. 40 charcoal. exorcism. 60. is over and the hour removed.87 drugs hallucinatory.84 correspondences. 81-2. 15 Arnobius. 9. 33. 13 Dragon's Blood. 33 oils. of the seven days of the week. Thursday for Neptune and Tuesday for Pluto. In the second system. Neptune and Pluto are required. 76 .92 INCENSE The Table consists across the top. 9. 58-9 Christianity. 85-7 Cassia. 17. 61. 42 Delphic Oracle. 84. use the Table as given. 83 decoration. When 8. Sir Wallace.21 Athenagorus. 82 Bay. 76. the second hour after sunrise is the next and so on.16-7. one for each hour of the day. 82 Aniseed.T. 10 Crocus. 77. 29 baptism.

13 planetary. 81 of riches and favour. 70-1. 21 Jewish. 83 of wrath and chastisement. 81-4.77 oil. 80 ofVehuel. 78 function of. 19-20. 52 95 Hayes. 27-33 Cinnamon. 19 thryon. 11. 11 Lactantius. 84 of fumigation. 50-1 . 24. 75. 16 Islamic. 25. 86 Mars. 18 INDEX Tree of Life. 69. 71.88 Verbena. Carolyn H. 17. 15 tobacco. 22 Heliotrope. 33.16 Hyssop.86. 16 onycha. 12 Lily of the Valley. 9. 78 Kyphi. 23 Elemental. 33 Musk. 80 of happiness. 33. 71-2.64. 36-8 Thurifacti. 82 Hellebore. 81 of annihilation. 77-9 Honeysuckle.88 Myrrh. 72.20 of Abra-Melin. 15 Hinduism. 32. 85 of exorcism. 18 zodiacal signs. cult of. 35-6 Greek. 16 Egyptian. 16. 14-5. 76-7. 78. 82 Zeus. 56. 75 Herodotus. 25 Marjoram. 43 utensils. 12 Miamonides. 25 suffumigation. 15 sacrifice.33 Olive. 19 Magnolia. 83 of Pan. 12 Stephanotis. 71. 81 of success. 17. 15 Ovid. 12 preparation of. 80. 70-2 incense all-round.34-5. 14. 16-7. 25. 12 thuribles. 77-8. 84 of health. 9. 71. 24. 64. 81 of the Sabbat's. 21 Land of Punt. 88 Left Hand Path. 71. 22. 76.31 Musk. 86 of Gnomes. 86. 18 solar. 17 Osiris. Ambergris. 14-5 Sabis. 22 libamina. 82 anointing. 16 spirits. 82 of Un dines. 49. 10 altar of. 81 of Sylphs. 49. 25.82 of wealth.61 Plutarch. 24. 17. 33 Old Testament.44-5 Arabian.87 Siva.19 Patchouli. 84 of success in business.. 85 passive. 30.17 Hindu. 84 of divination.81 Vervain. 70-2. 15. 83 Elemental. 84-8 Myrtle. 80-2. 76. 17. 18-9 Sandalwood. 11. 24. 73 talismanic.94 INCENSE Roman. 14 Lavender. 16-7 Christian. 81 of Solomon. 84-6 Pliny.

USE AND PREPARATION Perfumes. essences and anointing oils When the sun god Ra rose in the morning the ancient Egyptians burnt sweet-smelling resin in his honour.. Balm of Gilead. and Myrrh . anointing oils and essences. At his zenith he was worshipped with Myrrh. Spikenard. In every age of man. Here is the history of incense. Cover design by Graham Lester INCENSE £1 2F.L -~ THDRSONS 0 -~ y .~-. their preparation and use. incense has been an outward and visible sign of the soul's aspirations to higher regions of consciousness. Names to conjure with: perfumes to exalt the mind.: . and at his going-down with the fumes of Kyphi. and their place among the techniques of ritual magic.. Galbanum. Frankincense.ITS RITUAL SIGNIFICANCE.

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