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**Due: 11:59pm on Thursday, December 3, 2009
**

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**Graphical Analysis of AC Voltage Source Conceptual Question
**

The figure shows a graph of the output from an AC voltage source.

Part A What is the maximum voltage Hint A.1 AC voltage Hint not displayed ANSWER: =3 of the source?

Correct

Part B What is the average voltage Hint B.1 Average voltage of the source?

The AC voltage source illustrated symmetrically alternates between positive and negative voltages. Mathematically, it can be described by . ANSWER:

=0

Correct

Part C What is the root-mean-square voltage Hint C.1 Root-mean-square voltage or has an average value of zero when averaged over a complete of the source?

Any physical quantity described by

cycle. However, if the quantity is first squared and averaged and then the square root taken, the value is positive and gives information about the magnitude of the physical quantity. This is referred to as the quantity's root-mean-square (rms) value. The rms value of any quantity described by or is equal to the maximum value of the quantity divided by .

Express your answer to three significant figures. ANSWER: = 2.12 Correct

Part D What is the period Hint D.1 Period Hint not displayed Express your answer in seconds to two significant figures. ANSWER: = 0.08 Correct of the source?

Part E What is the frequency of the source?

The frequency of the source is the inverse of the period of the source. it is helpful to consider its limiting behavior at high and low frequencies.Hint E. The current amplitude in . ANSWER: = 12. . a sinusoidal current will flow through the inductor. When an inductor is connected to a voltage source that varies sinusoidally. and frequency . imagine that a current . and the inductance . and resistors are linear devices. capacitors. Circuit elements like inductors. ANSWER: = 78. Express your answer in hertz to three significant figures. so the amplitude of the current will be proportional to the amplitude of the voltage.5 Correct Part F What is the angular frequency Hint F. Based on the formula you obtained for the reactance. like a resistor with almost no resistance (an ideal wire) having essentially no voltage drop across it no matter what the current. the ratio of voltage and current amplitudes.1 Frequency The frequency of the AC voltage source is the number of cycles of the source per second. TV. its magnitude depending on the frequency.1 of an inductor? The definition of reactance Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: and the inductance . the inductor might behave like a short circuit. and relationship between voltage and current is summarized by the reactance.5 Correct Inductive Reactance Learning Goal: To understand the concept of reactance (of an inductor) and its frequency dependence. = Correct Part C In thinking of an inductor as a circuit element. the inductor might behave like an open circuit. At one extreme.1 of the source? Angular frequency Hint not displayed Express your answer in radians per second to three significant figures. the current and voltage may not be in phase with each other. how does an inductor behave at high and low frequencies? ANSWER: like a short circuit at both high frequencies and low frequencies like an open circuit at both high frequencies and low frequencies like an open circuit at high frequencies and a short circuit at low frequencies like an open circuit at low frequencies and a short circuit at high frequencies Correct Determining Inductance from Voltage and Current An inductor is hooked up to an AC voltage source. What is across this inductor? Voltage and current for an inductor Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: . = Correct Part B What is the reactance Hint B. This is the essence of AC (alternating current) circuits used in radio. However. where the subscript L indicates that this formula applies to an inductor. that is. like a resistor with large resistance so that essentially no current will flow no matter what the applied voltage. is flowing through the inductor. : Part A To find the reactance the voltage Hint A.1 of an inductor. Alternatively. that is. and stereos. The voltage source has EMF the inductor is Part A . This new . .

. You will find the answer in the "Answers to Homework Problems" link on our course webpage. dependent voltage across the capacitor is given by Part A What is the amplitude Hint A. .1 of the inductor? Definition of reactance Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct and . and .1 of the inductor? and Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct . Part B What is the inductance Hint B. Correct were doubled? Note that.What is the reactance Hint A. in "A Resistor and a Capacitor in a Series AC Circuit" you do NOT know the amplitude of the driving EMF. and . Reactance in terms of Part C What would happen to the amplitude of the current in the inductor if the inductance Hint C.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed ANSWER: There would be no change in the amplitude of the current. The time. . .1 of the total current in the circuit? How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Applying Ohm's law to a capacitor Hint not displayed Hint A. . and .1 Relating of the voltage across the resistor? to Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: . . GBA A Resistor and a Capacitor in a Series AC Circuit A resistor with resistance and a capacitor with capacitance are connected in series to an AC voltage source. The amplitude of the current would be doubled. It is instructive to calculate that driving amplitude once you have successfully completed the problem. = Correct Part B What is the amplitude Hint B.3 The reactance of a capacitor Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of any or all of ANSWER: . The amplitude of the current would be halved. The amplitude of the current would be quadrupled.

200 .18 Correct if 200 ? Part C What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 22. and 30. and . in millivolts.00 .0 .1 . to the nearest integer.ANSWER: = Correct Part C If Hint C.8 Correct if 1000 ? Part G What is the reading of the voltmeter if 1000 ? . ANSWER: =3 mV Correct Five Voltmeters in an AC Circuit Five infinite-impedance voltmeters.5 Correct if 200 ? Part E What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 21.7 Correct if 200 ? Part D What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 20. calibrated to read rms values. Express your answer numerically. what is ? Calculating the answer Use the equation obtained in Part B to work out the answer. 6.400 . Be careful of powers of ten in your calculation. Let 0. . . Part A What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 5.44 Correct if 200 ? Part B What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 2.2 Correct if 200 ? Part F What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 13. are connected as shown in figure .

. The alternating current in audio circuits is not current of a single frequency. ANSWER: = Correct For the following questions it will be useful to write the voltage ratio in the following form: . Hint A. just think about adding the three curves for the resistor. In "High-Pass Filter". the audio "signals" consist of current of a mixture of frequencies. these designs frequently appear in audio circuits. Parts B and C are much easier to answer by considering the answer to A in the form sqrt(R^2+X_L^2)/Z (i. and .e. from 20 Hz up to 20 kHz.5 Correct if 1000 ? Part I What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 16.2 Find Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of either .6 Correct Part H What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 11. or . The following two circuit designs are used to suppress the low frequencies (high-pass filter) or to suppress the high frequencies (low-pass filter). and . . I suggest that you ignore MP's comment following a correct answer to Part A.ANSWER: = 27. Part A Find the ratio . Define . a capacitor of capacitance of resistance is driven with an AC voltage of amplitude and frequency . capacitor. and inductor voltages). GBA A High-Pass Filter A series L-R-C circuit consisting of a voltage source.2 Correct if 1000 ? The following two problems are a reminder that AC circuits have a wide range of applications beyond the 60-Hz circuits we use to deliver power to our homes. instead.1 Correct if 1000 ? Part J What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: = 21. and a resistor to be the amplitude of the voltage across the resistor and the inductor. an inductor of inductance . In my opinion.1 Find Hint not displayed Hint A.

. and frequency . . GBA Constructing a Low-Pass Filter A series L-R-C circuit is driven with AC voltage of amplitude voltage across the capacitor.. . I suggest that you ignore MP's comment following a correct answer to Part A. Correct Part C Which of the following statements is true in the limit of small ( )? Hint C. and when is small. . This is why such a circuit is called a high-pass filter. In "Constructing a Low-Pass Filter". . . Part B Which of the following statements is true in the limit of large ( )? Hint B. while the amplitude of the high-frequency inputs will pass through relatively unchanged. . capacitor.1 Implications of large Hint not displayed ANSWER: is proportional to is proportional to is proportional to is close to 1. just think about adding the three curves for the resistor. Correct When is large. and inductor voltages).e. Parts B and C are much easier to answer by considering the answer to A in the form X_C/Z (i. and the inductance of the . this circuit has the property that only the amplitude of the low-frequency inputs will be attenuated (reduced in value) at the output. In my opinion.1 Implications of small Hint not displayed ANSWER: is proportional to is proportional to is proportional to is close to 1. . Define to be the amplitude of the . Therefore. the capacitance of the capacitor is Part A What is the ratio ? . The resistance of the resistor is inductor is .

Therefore. .6%. and . while low-frequency inputs will pass through relatively unchanged. so all terms in the denominator involving can be neglected. . . That is why such a circuit is called a low-pass filter. ANSWER: = Correct For the following questions it will be useful to write the voltage ratio in the following form: . . . the circuit of this problem has the property that only the high-frequency inputs will be attenuated (reduced in value) at the output. for )? Hint B. is proportional to is proportional to is proportional to is close to 1.2 Find Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of either .1 In the small ANSWER: Implications of small limit. is proportional to is proportional to is proportional to is close to 1.Hint A.1 In the large ANSWER: Implications of large limit. . . . You received 49.1 Find Hint not displayed Hint A. Correct When omega is large. . . and when omega is small. . and . Correct Part C Which of the following statements is true in the small limit (that is. Part B Which of the following statements is true in the large limit (that is.8 out of a possible total of 50 points. and or . . . Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99. for )? Hint C. so becomes the only significant term in the denominator. and .

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