Theory

The X -ray Tube

1111 .... 1

Source- 'l'be X~ray "(mile
I:J Desigftt e.lld-\""'~ndow

o

A node 1iI1at,crbd

o
[Jj

Excitation kV~mA

QI Cooling FiUers

The purpose of the X-ray tub€: h3; to provide a higt"J'lyintense beam of X-rays wi~h a. wide baoo of wav,e:lengths (enew'g bEl,s)W1i~hwhich to, etHcien~ly @rxclrl:e the charactertsnc spectra of alii f~e eremerits prese n~.n the sample. Thre€ paramete rs of X-TEiiy tube d€s~gn are of prime impormnoe i
in achievi ng this:

1.

2. 3.

the anode material the VIi' i ndow materlla~ and, ~'hicjkt!less the exdatio:n oOr;)diuons (kV and rnA settl ngs" pass i ble

1.

2.
3. Kramer's form u~a:

design (end- or slds- window) 'efficient COQiingl primary beam filters

1(..1)=KiZ[~

Arnlll

-1][ .\]
il

:shows that th.e i r111iensify (iile conrtl nuu m, I(X). is proportiol:1lal to ll1e atomic number (Z} of the Of anod€: mat~rial,. andthat therefore i r;)prinei pi e the h!ighev the atom ic ~umber of tlhe enooe tl'Ie better. However t'he 00 nveffi~on of electrons to x~ rays is a very inefti!)i el'ilt process, w~lh only about 1% 'of the tomll appl led power ern.erg!i ngl as X.~lfays;.The rerna i nder of the 'ener'gy appears as heat mUCh of whLch must 00 dissipated by t~e Elnod!e,and from this point of view the anode must also bea good heat conductor. The X- rays generated at the target m ust pass through tM tube window ~norder to stri ~e the sampl!e, and tPisreforethe transmissl on of '~hewindow must be as high as possible (low absQrption). ~norder to giv,e high transmission of the longer wavelengilns flow atomic number elements) the wi ndow is norm al ~'yecnstructed of beryllium: w~th the thickness of the wi ndow bel ng depende nt on tnerm ill I cone Llctivity conslderati ons, Heat dilss ipation pmbllem s are not con~ined to ~he anooe si i'iIGe bacllr;·scati!sredl electro ns can raise the temperature oithe window to saveral hu ndred d~g rees Cels! us. Sinoe tle number of back scatte reo electro ns is also proportional to the atom lC number o.flile ta.rget It follows that the, window mlJg.~ also be a. goodl lMea~ conducror. The choice of iihe GtflOdle materiaVwindow 'i1iclmess oombinalion is one ofths moot clfiHcalfactors in X-r.ay tube Ge8~gn,

2

v« 2.0

2000JIr.!

The d~sadvallitag9 of the side-window ~:ube was" however.T~e ~ nd-window~LJbe was onig inaUy designed for sl tTIuimneoIJs speetrometers.e ~'actUHn the sm. end~wil1oowl!lJbEl (thin 'W'indow) and ~e side-window rube (sho~t sample to anode distaru:e) coutd be combined.ed chatnlli:e~1 eoutd De positioned arou nd it ~han s wi~h th.e construcnontsr and repmdllJc. 55 deg rees.e'mQre cOl1\!'srrlional side·wincfow tube.rQ~rrocessor Whl1c~ lkeeps a record off the tube's 'operational! history for servlce pu~poses. side-wi t'ildow tube i n sequen~i. The bodiy of the tuba ts machined ~rom ceramic. whe:n==lhe symm etrical shape of tlletu be meant that mom fix. andl PW. mat the 00 ryHium exilt window bethicker than in the end~wi rndow lu:be due to electron backscatteri ng. rresul~iflg in a higher sensmvity the lighter elements (although! the sensitivity decreases because of the large sample to anode distanoe).s to improved transmlsston of lAIn IL lines. resulUng [n a nigh performance over the whote elernentai range_ for of botll In the PW24.26xx spectrometers tha advantages the. thu s m aking t~.s PW26xx tihe tube is vertically below the sample. more reliable The tube is fitled with its own mic.aH nose Q~ the tube allrowed a m uch shorter sample to anode dismnce (close 00 upli ng) ttiarn the relatively Ilarge nose of ~he oonvenUonlal end-wi ndow ~L!be. 1r1the 5l11peu Sharp Tube (SST) used in the PW24xx. had to A thinner window lead.a:l spectrometers was th. Tlhe advantage of using a.xx [~e tube is piaced below the samphl~ at am angle of a!ppmxima~8Iy whUe in tn. TIl 8 "d!OiZe" s~"in g on fhe PW24xx series is 50kV 40mA_ J v« ~.ible than with ihe older g'as8: env@llopes.O 200[Il00 .

. '' This slide demonstrates the. very close. : .Super Sharp' End. conventional end-window tube .wil.~--i-.u:.1 ~a-l d : _.r.T!2irur.__ :: SI~"-~l[Jifp 8idQ<..Window X~ray Tube I' __ .tT~lti"i"iJi..::luw ._~.-~--'----+-. . coupling of the Super Sharp Tu be when com pa red w~th a.

and the t~be is cooled p by a low capacity i.faclor 3 lower At fh9 1:0'i. No choice of exettatlo n vo~tage iliJndcu ne:nt is prQv. With tnls design the aJnOO8 of the tube is the inverse sqU8re law provides the high convention a'i ttl 00 (200 W versus 3 'kW). In thks tube the anode is a ilinmm on the ~nside cfth e beryrliumwindow of the tu OE:L he T eh~ctJronsrmm fhefilament hilt ttl.The Ta rger lrransmisslo n X-ray tubs' (TTT) is used in ttle PW1'660 low power (200W) 5i m ultaneous spectrometer. therefore its name: Tarqet Transrnlsston Tube. 4 mA_ v~ 2_0 200'jm2 .ntemail coof rig water system.1 ow~r raUnQ(:200'W) an external water sUPiP'ly ts not required. 1 positioned v~ry clCJS€ the sample (close-Qol!!pl'edlj and to sensitivuty.'. spectrometer design) ga lns back a lot of sensitMty thiln a :3 kW tube.ided. AIUilougt':! thetliPpl'ied power [8 1115~h ota this close coupling On cornol nation with a com pact sensitivity and. a f'ld the tube operates at a fixed settring of 50 k'V.s window and g9n911'a:~e both a continuous and a oharactellisli:c Xray speenu m some of wh i en are trans m il100 through the wi ndow to excite the sam pie. lihistu oe has on Iy a.

._- hi.. 01rcular til!ament wh Ich ts placed dire C1tly behind the tu be wtndow. The Supelr Sha rp t~be at so has a water coo Iirig cirou it fertile head of the tube.!!Jty "-~ The. end \IV Ir1Idow lube is fitted witha. appli:ed high volmge. The resu ~ting ~Iectron cloud lis acoe'l. TlheWannent..rp) X· raytubea the. mamentis at earth potential an dIa~ posihve high volltage is app!ied to the anode.Excitation . _. fo:r . This extra supply is non de-lorused water.. Targets 6ivail~tb'le for the S'llpev Sharp tube are Rh. Wind~:nvTubes _ - . is heated to a high tern peratu re a ndemits electrons.. and the reslJlt~ng electron cloud is accelerated towards fle window/anode by fle applied high voltage. In the case of t'he PW259.s:rated towards the anode. This "n~\I1ersed nigh voita:ge" reduces oacKscaUering off electrons on thetu be wi ndow which causes the wi ndow to' heat up. Hie filament is heatedl to a hi Ighlemperatu'Fe. The window ena of tne tubs is cooled by at [pumped ~nl'€maJsupply o:f watsr.. wh il~ethe electJrCH'1JS are absorbed iln eitlher ~he anode layer or the berylli um of ~he window. Cr and Mo_ lnthe Targ.m.. Sjnc~ the anode is at high voHage its cooUngi water must be non-conducting (de~ionised water).2 (Su per Sha.et Transmlsslon tubetbe anode {fle tube wirJoow) iis at earth potential and a negatave hi 9'11 vo I"g:e is appl i00 to the tinamen1t. X· rays generated iI1l the anode llayew ot the wi ndow passthro ugh to e~cite the sam pi e. Targets availalble the IT tube a re Cr and Sc:.End.. AIlI. by the.

5 v« 2Jl 2(MKlf(l2 .'8d thrQiugh Ule :wi rndow to exc iie the sample.€(j. At the low power rating (.te ootlfl a cantlin uous and a characteristic X'ray speetru m som€l of whidh are t. 4 mA. and the tu De ls cooled by a ~ow capacity irrte'rna~cooling water system" No choice of excltaton voltage and current is provided. therefore its name: Target Transmission Tube.. ~o:wpower {200W} In this tu be the anode is a thin fi lm on thel rlsi de of tine bery I~ium wind ow of the tube.200 W) an .mnsrmitl. -- The lfarg:et Transrmsston X-ray tlUbe (TfT} IS ussd m ~he PW1660 sim I. WilhthilS d€s~gn t...ery diose to the sampl]e (clos~couple:d) and the irlvBrse squill re law prov ides tJl'le high sensirtivity" Ai~houg'h the applied power is 1/15ln of a eonvernicnal tube (200 W vers us :3 kW).h8 anode of the tube is POSiitiolled v. The ele enonsfrom fhef!'lalrflent h~tthe 'Wi ndow and g9 nera. and th~ tube ope rates at a fi.external water su pply is not r~quir. lower serT!sitiv~tythan a 3 kW tube.IIJta neous spectra meter. th is close couplling {i F1I cornbinati on with a camped spectrometer des~gn) gains back a lot of serlsitiivity arne!th~s tube has on~y a factor 3.xed settingr of 50 kV..

:V~o c:alou~ateth.g.e·rnA setting. The m A seni nlg inflluences the intensi~ of thel CGntinu um andl ~h€:intensity ofthEl: character: snc ~uoo spoctrum.Moot ofit. andl fl naHy~he mAsetti ng. and ttl€! user has no option to cha r!gel . 9. rnA = maxi mum power = 3000W or 4000W} . tube power (3000W or 4000 W) is divided by fle I:\.3000 W • 60 kV = 50 rnA.. .en~his is chosen at '1'hie me of purchase of fhie i Ii epectrorneter.The tube anooe .lbeanOCl~elem er1lt. whl ch is Irelartedlto e fhe power rat~ng for ~he tube" (kV x... t } lJl wlA d(l~)Cl1dc[Jjt (tube power) There aHli three majm contr~Dl!Jlorsto me ~nteIi11sUy otthe chalracterisuc spectrum excited withi n 1he $ampl e. filot the wavelenglih rarnge. 1ihe maximu m. but. The rnA setting..Choke of Primary EXjcitation kV depend .The kV setlting . and fh€: intensity of the cha ractenstie t1uoes!pectru rn.the IkV u800. the ul. 7 .T~ is affects both tie intensity and wave length range of the conti nuum. After the kV seWing has been decided..

. Special excitation of Ti alild Ca.allexcliMlllion for Sc Z = 21 Low High Ca. ROUiline al1a~ysis of :IIg nt e! ements_ ScK~ interfereg wutn B~Lo:. its just that in certsln cilrcumst:anoes some are bener than others.MoK spectru m exaHesl Sjpec. with deterrni nation of Cd.---. R hK spectru m ~ nreneres. RhlL spectrum inlte i1ems w~lh CI.Z= 45 High Alii Z~ 19 H~gh Low Ge neral pu rpose bud mostly used for trace analysls of heavy elements (not Au.e! eswi~h cI!IBtermination of r Cr 8: Mn. Due to a choice you are able to p!JJsn th€! detec:ti. 42 Mo Med'uum Low Used for precious metal a rilalysii 5.:-:-.- •••...triil of Pt gr.limn:rmll. v_~ 1. Spscli. z .11 . CrK spectru m interf. Best tube for Zn to v.o~p m metals and cloSeS not i nlerf. Q Cont.e.Ag Cr Z". The most common uses of the diierent anodes issnQwn in ~hetable below..::. As and Se) . W Z=14 Very g:ooo ¥Olr Co .24 Low High Routine a!1!allysfsof Iig hit eleme nts.(1 !!)t~lj02. Anode H eavy E~ement Performance Medium Ug ht Eleme:nt Performance Genera~ p urpese. med 11.on ll m its with diUem nt targets. AU X-rav tube.V and LJ .8r8 wi~h K spectra from el ements R Il..hvgh m sensitliv~lyfor all e~eme~ts. ij.e intens ity of the co ntinuum is diroctily propertional to. Hi'! .Rb. . Ule atomic nu mber Z.Influence' of target material I t W 74 Rh45 Cr24 As can be seen from Kramer slaw.s whatever the anode provide· M1emeans for rneasureme r1It af an elem erlts ~ a n sampl.Influence of target material _~___ t ~:::.II .. Ag and Pel.

s over the whole waveieU1gth range" This ils an! examp~le of exciilawon with the C rtu be and it can be soon that Cu i 5 excited bry tne oontirmumwhile K is ma. . at ~rnesame. absorption coofiictent of the excited element. wa.elengtlhl and integrati ng til i.'V.inly 9xci~ed by the Cr K charactsrisac spectrum.v.ExcitaUQn can be desc nlbed by multJip!yii [ilgthe i'ntensity of 1!heIu De speetru m at a certain wa.ejengt~wi~hthe.

.exciitation 1:1 To be' spectruJn f['om a Rh tube This is an example of excitation with the !Rh tube and it can be seen that IK is excited mainly by the continuum while Cu is excited by the Rh K characteristic spectrum as wen as the continuum.Choice of primary .

tion of Mg.. F . a Comment: ~na PW14!:xx a Cr tube is better than a Rh tube for Mg.. T~ IS shows the impQrlance of the A h L spectl1um in tn. ---"--~---..... fur Mg.. I mI a PW24xx a Rh~u be ii s betiter than a Cr tubs. Na.. elements. a bebter s'xcijta.. inlhis example Si Ka" In combination with the relaUvely ~hin window of the Super Sharp Tube..-~ - ~ .... this gilves averil..€! excdtaltion of 'I vgn~.. N a a nd F U'l~arn C r SST.----... Na" F..] ..

y is obtained..ottoo above it the app1ioo lIN is 4 times the keV of the element to be eXI.-.. Raisingl tihe kV more on~y increases the intensity a IliUleb it A kV ol more thafll 10 times the keV of the element to' be excited ooesn'tg..ive a rly further siglnificant oontrjbutlo n.-..... __ .l!5Jt~inii!l .100 II ~he ~ f ntensify of X~rays iis P~()I8...tion ul O~~ ....dlagalrtcsUhe applied kV!.._- ..tian usootain:ed..a~'ready about '00 % olthe Lr'l'l:enMy of the '~xciloo red ia....~lie<I Ik!!lV ~lell'. Hi is can be used to u ndeffitandl the optimisati:o n of the kV' to be used for exeltatlon of a certa iflI element as descrtced in thefdHowilng pa!ges.:!lted. r ~I kV"..Op:timnm ti~ovolt excita...:.:l .- --:-:..:-.. ... as pl... . a graphapproximatel.-.

The se K. v~ 2.002 nm. 0:. . I.. Cr K .. e.795n m.u 2000.e excitatr.uelhEi most important.c lines whi:cha.! Ko: = 8.pal1a....rs 9. Setl:~TIIgs f up o ~Q I 0 ti 1l1Ie5 can !Xl used effidentl)'.. Appl.. Cu with at Cr a node Iby tubs.04 k€iV).Se for K spectra a melU .nl pari.refore: 60 kV I 50 rnA (3000 W) 60 kV 166 rnA (4000 OW)..1~Onm for Cu K. * 8.excitation 'for speetra! Ii flies whOO€ absorption edges 'Fulfilthe: nne above.g.g. Rule 1. and Tnere are two mal n possibilities for exc ita. For tM most effident excitation o~ an e Iement~he kilovolt....13Bnm O. but for tle lighter elements it is often the tUDe' characterustr.. .050nm for lMo K.lHl .um. excitation by the tube continuu m ..Cu. lElia ment Cu is excited mali 1Ii'ly the oomti i1UU m of r~e tu be Spec:tF. ~ Choice of Primary Excitation ~' tn~~ ~ -~ .Pbfor t.~ellements IHghter flan "if for 'the cr K IInes . Element is 'excited nJI<llhdy by continuum e.lIpto ~o'"~l04 80 kV can be used: = maxirirlium kV :: 60Ths. "ith aCr anode tube.. 0.. spectra)..y a kV setting of at least 4 times. the ~eV Ot'I:l'De element to be measured.._.06rnrTland O. 0. O. €xdtation by the tube eharacterl stlc Iines Fat most elements beM-eelfil atomic flIumbe.8nm the Ah K scecnu m plays an im portant part in th.nnd Rih l lines provtd'ethe . {Mo ..2 and :23 the: oonlti nu um p~lays~hemost ilm.Mon: . Ej(cllta:tio~ of Cu w~th a Cr anode: tube (C IJ. CUJ36rllm for AI K. (LB x 0.04 ~ 32 kV.. Minimum kV is 4.ge shou latbe' ehcaento maximise the illite nsHy at the wave'length atW%ich~he IProbabi~Uy ofaxoiti ngthe ..aleetron she!~ of inter'e:st occurs. elernents Ilighter 1JhanCI 'for the Rh L Unes For elements wHh K or L absorption ecllg:eswavelengths betw'een O.on process.8 x R. That is: • elements !~ghter flan Cafor the Sc K'iines .a.8 x O. ~ .

.. :'Ii': :0::: ~---zv'!IIil_i. keV 2 IN= 4 • ... = 5..ett...tion ... Therefore: 60 kV 50 m A.!.s. "iI'E .«0 - RlJle 2. be analysed accorrhngt()ruk ~> but QP~imiz.. Example: Excitation o~IKwith a Gr tube (Gr Ko. maximum kV ~ 60.~~I~llilent isexci.efor the l~OOtarget e]e:nne.ing of at teast 4 ti mes the keV of U'l.2 =80. (3000 W) 60 kV fJ6 m A. K livitha CF alilode tube.e. a of the tu be targ. ~««-» «««««-.ted.8 kV.:nl.g. K W~lha Cr tube.I~ Choice of Primary Ex. e.cita.g. .61<V._-..4 keV)" kV = 4 ~ 5.I .4 = 21. therefore: 24 kV /125 II11A (3000 VII) 32 kV !125<mA (4000 W) Excitati:on of Mo K lines usingl a Rh tube {K I~nes) Rh If<Ja = 20 .Apply a kV sestmg of at least 4 times the keY 1'0 Do not opti mire for the element of the characteristic KG! radiation of the tMOOtarget element Ele ment K ils gxdted rna i U!1y by the K spectrum of the tuce.. mainly by the K lil'tes of the tube e. -.~=~ :. possible. ln this situ a~lon at kV .. maximum rnA = 125.. (4000 W) .20..e! elemenlr snould K bs appl led and then the rnA as high as.

citation ElementIs .aRh. e. Si 'W. E.'gI.iI1'le. (4000 W) ..g.ghe.t se~ti[iJgs~·e used sE'. Choke ofPdmary Ex..g. e.lernenl is e:x'C~ted mailnly by the l epeenurn of thetube.gh as possible. anode h. 24 k:V 1125 rnA {3000 W) 32 kV 1125 mil.Jf-absorphonof the Rh L spectrum in the target occurs which results.~dtedmail!lly by the . in lower intensities.L lines of the: tl(lu. S~with a Rh anode tube" Apply low kV and then rnA as h i."'" Rule 3. 24kV). Apply low tV setd~lgs(e. lf hi.iUI .

Se UC .I eu ~Sn 1111 analy~lca~ softwa.V . P\"'2400 anode I k.at Flew the charm e I is assembled...60 K 111" Imes I! ii.. 1K 40 30 Sb.Op:t:imll!U'JJlJkillfvolt ~-~---=-~..Nd so 24 Cr-M. Fa r 100kv systems 1 .Q TiJ-. Th ls mble shows the kV chosen pe r elem ent for the PW2400 with a Rh target 60kV SST.re {Super. Db.. For the PW2404 thB24 and 30 kV can be replaced by 32 kV. L Uioes Pr .V Fe ..Q/X40} the: optimum kV ls automatically calculated when..SST ~Rhselectlon ::: . --.c~* " Sm~U Cs-Ce Ca .....

0 ~u\.. impr. a fi'lrer ls a. The PW24QO can be eqtlip. 1mm brass.\\rilllg lower LLD's teo.e supportingftll'm of a Ii'qlJjid cup. eMi ce of three mate rials avai II8'b le.he tube t ill nd the sample. usecte remove C r K spectlraJ lines and alSiDto lm prove p€:ak to .ia n.75:mrn AI.iglh FIt rates depend ~ngon wli at recuctlon is requ i red. th.~iJDpliI. main (I.etc.ing~e position. O.rritie.is trans m ltted to eoo::itethe sa rnple.a 0'\19111 ap from Rh IKb M n Ka overlap from Cr KIJ 17 \'~ 2.optional.I barkgr~:n:lllld gi..:: sample. D'liIru ng channel assern bly in S uperQ and X4Q. On one pes mona beam stop can !be fitted (1rnm PI)) whi ch is also. • Suppression of spectral lines from lmpurltles iln ~he X-ray tJiJlbe. f backgroundl ratio .lO/u. t A PW14xx one has ill s.Uca. Ag K.Qr'I element at ~Ihlefoil and its the ti1ickll1sss are such lf1a~about 99% of the anooe chara.li.1" traces g SllIpp.3mm brass. but t.tJNef!~.hiefollowing four awe norma[~y HH:edin a PW24>:x USB IS:to fi'lt~r out the Rh Ks:p€ctral Hiles main usel s to' lmprove peak I backgrQund ratio ~. There are four possible uses for primary boom filters in Xaray spectrometry . used for dust protection of the tube window.)'S04' NaOH!. 'OOl:! At 0. it will protect.rcsshm of spcctll'"a.'jf:nJm tm.g. The choice of filters is . he PW24lO4 witih maximal 4.e tube spectn!llll!l.Priimary beam Fiilters g IDlprrmvemc[JJt peal". m.. • Improve rnent af peak I backgmu rid rano for certain app11catiol1s.AlI~lhoughlhisfmer willi reduce measured intensities.. 0.15 mm beryl~ilJm filiter can be mounted as an extra protection for the 1iube when danqerous liquid:s ~ike concentrated H. A tube filter cain 00 p'laced be. O.h. ~ Atltenualion of intensiltieswhich eXOEl ~he upper count rate Iim it for the detector eel eou rilting s'lsctifonics combina'l..a~nuse ts to. For this appl. .e window of the tube in case of a breakdown of tn. Any ()if 'lJherou r may M used to reduoe ..cteristic speetru mils absorbed irl me Wter _Radiation with wavel engths sho rter than thetu be ~ ines .ped witih maximal 5 fnU:ers. are measured .ove pea 1:1.liJ~:matica lily proposed! to rspectrat lines wh ich have severe specnal ove rllap lrorn ~he specjrum off the' tube anod e declared in the system parameters e.2m m AI. It wi II modify the specnu ITi of X -ravs incident on tu.! . • Removall 'of ~ rlterferi ngtu be Iines. • background ratio.

Primary beam Filters .

t)" 2ijkeV [2.Primary Beam Filters RemfJ'f'es J ItlPfb"'e5 hlrlpi'lI~cS su.am:gf" . r: .19 .Z!i' l.~~es. - AI 1I. Rh Z~-R.~~D'lln[l rai iim.n·'~e nu.IiI:tII!o Da""k.10 mm Brass impr0V~s..20rnm "'SilK: All Jp:'UlllrO\'!lS f61ulV 'Removes: Rb L Lines ~md IlJIliIru\<eS SlIR ~ 4 .iIl~Pilad 10 ..~r!'i:~In M:Il.. sometimes 0. it very rnu ch depends on in e tyipe of eppl leatio n. ~ ~ 1t.eV '.'g.: SBiR: Sill.75 mm AI and so rnetlmes U1~)filter at all. r This slicl8 ino icates whi en mters can be useo ~nwhat energy nmge in orcer to ~ mp:rove peak to backqro lind ratio."l'Smm O. but il is not "a hard m Ie". Th~s can oniy oe fou nd out by experimenting witih it Another useiu! function is a filter can be used for removal of x-ray tube contaminants. for €l. M' keV K·J. he Ul<ieiUror r1!ducil1g high <':mm~.h Hr< . This means somsnrnes 0.!. k. Mo._~ 2.

~t:slilke e.y top.00 .h..~ H~g. -rna use of lhisfmer also s~gPliflcantiy reducesthe of neig~oou rlng e'leme.h K specllrai I~neswlilll be demonstrated in this example.018: @l ~he effectiveness of the O.g" Sin a~d Sb.]. This means tiha:tU18 elements Ag and Cd may be determined in copper alloys using their K I~nes and fle Rhodiu m target tube. F:iilters EXaJm.J!' 0.02.01j\& & ~ fSb (1bf G G OuQOu 0:.(%)1 0.el of the backg rou nd for trace de1:erminatton ..051 $O.300mm brass fHtell'for remiClVill1g t:he R.er ~ I --ffi .Elem.en.t M :"'. ~v.Primary Beam..0 ) C' ) Ag .hp1i!!rit. 87.

The Rhodium tube spectrum (Rh Kb and its Compton scattered peak) oomplletely obscures the Ka llnes for Cd anld Ag making thel r deterrn i nation impossible . Sn. When a 300m m brass fil't. J the Rh spectre m r 8: . Cd and Ag..Primary Beam Filters RemOV91(If the tube spectrum These two scans are s hownfrom a copper sa mple conta i n i ng trace smou nts of St). possible the deterrnmanon of Cd and Ag with a Hh tube. This makes.er is placed betv!leen the X-ray tube and thes~mple ansoroed and is then not seen in the recorded spectrum.

5 3.4 3-6 12~9 2-0 2.1 21.ulions" FOM = JR.7.riUer .5 m.JRbkg Rp FOM= I Rbkg .8 7.0 0-8 4_6 9.Cl 2DlJ(Jf02 I: • . rolF Rb.fl1 Al .~50logi samph3J when a 0.41 9-0 7-2 5. Y and Sr in a No filter Element IRpeak {kcps) 0]5 IFOM Rpeak (~s) m m A~fiII~er lib~gl peops) Rp/Ao IRbkg (kcps) FlpfFIb FOM Zr Sr Rt> 32... Sr..____ -_----.2 2..4( 4.e two scans illiustralethe ilmprovem:ent of peak to background ratio 'g._="'"'...4 6. spectral ovemlap of SrKIl therefore is ~nduded in as RbG.~ ~ -~ ~ EIIIIII_Z - !:I Example k@ __ wiith 0.(5 17.3 11. 2.75 mm Allfi Its r is US8'(:Ji.• •• _ ••• NNN.2 9.JR'bkg f\~ for lrKu has a.5 7.4 Thie highest value tor t~e FOM (f~gure of rnerlt) ~ ndlcatas the best analytical cond. llhes..5 51.g 22 v-. Gal .42.'9 2. .

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