CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship

SYLLABUS FOR EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, OCEAN AND PLANETARY SCIENCES PAPER I (PART B) 1. The Earth and the Solar System: Milky Way and the solar system. Modern theories on the origin of the Earth and other planetary bodies. Earth’s orbital parameters, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Geological Time Scale; Space and time scales of processes in the solid Earth, atmosphere and oceans. Age of the Earth. Radioactive isotopes and their applications in earth sciences. Basic principles of stratigraphy. Theories about the origin of life and the nature of fossil record. Earth’s gravity and magnetic fields and its thermal structure: Geoid, spheroid; Isostasy. 2 A. Earth Materials: Gross composition and physical properties of important minerals and rocks; properties and processes responsible for mineral concentrations; nature and distribution of rocks and minerals in different units of the earth and different parts of India 2 B. Surface features and Processes Physiography of the Earth; weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition of Earth’s material; formation of soil, sediments and sedimentary rocks; energy balance of the Earth’s surface processes; physiographic features and river basins in India 3. Interior of the Earth, Deformation and Tectonics Basic concepts of seismology and internal structure of the Earth. Physicochemical and seismic properties of Earth’s interior. Concepts of stress and strain. Behaviour of rocks under stress; Folds, joints and faults. Earthquakes – their causes and measurement. Interplate and intraplate seismicity. Paleomagnetism, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics. 4. Oceans and Atmosphere Hypsography of the continents and ocean floor –continental shelf, slope, rise and abyssal plains. Physical and chemical properties of sea water and their spatial variations. Residence times of elements in sea water. Ocean currents, waves and tides, important current systems, thermohaline circulation and the oceanic conveyor belt. Major water masses of the world’s oceans. Biological productivity in the oceans.

Insolation and heat budget. geopotential. Impact of use of energy and land on the environment. water resources and management. Elements of Remote Sensing. scale height. . general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. General weather systems of India. uses. air. waves in atmospheric and oceanic systems. degradation.Motion of fluids. cyclone and jet stream. Energy resources. Ecology and biodiversity. Western disturbances and severe local convective systems. Cloud formation and precipitation processes. hydrological cycle. Marine and atmospheric pollution. Environmental Earth Sciences Properties of water.Monsoon system. alternatives and management. Climatic and sea level changes on different time scales. Coupled ocean-atmosphere system.sea interactions on different space and time scales. ozone depletion. lapse rate and stability. 5. Natural hazards. Structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere. Exploitation and conservation of mineral and other natural resources. Atmospheric turbulence and boundary layer. radiation balance. El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). greenhouse gases and global warming. distribution of precipitation over India. .

Electrical. L-. Geometry and analyses of brittle-ductile and ductile shear zones. Magma-mixing. line and planar). Metamorphic structures and textures. magnetic and optical properties of minerals. Interference patterns and structural analyses in areas of superposed folding. layered intrusive complexes. ATMOSPHERIC. 2) STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND GEOTECTONICS: Theory of stress and strain. space group. reciprocal lattice. Transformation of minerals – polymorphism. foliations and lineations. L-S-. mafic-ultra mafic rocks and siliceous dolomites. such as the Deccan Traps. effect of volatiles on melt equilibria.CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship SYLLABUS FOR EARTH. carbonatites. properties. charnockites. Metamorphism of pelites. Mohr circle. P-T-t path in regional metamorphic terrains. Bonding and crystal structures of common oxides. plate tectonics and metamorphism. Role of fluids in deformation processes. sulphides. Paleostress analyses. Lattice defects (point. Progressive strain history and methods for its determination. Petrogenetic aspects of important rock suites of India. Geometry and mechanics of fracturing and conditions for reactivation of pre-existing discontinuities. Phase equilibrium studies of simple systems. . emplacement and crystallization of magmas. Sheath folds. Different types of failure and sliding criteria. Deformation mechanisms. Geometry and mechanics of development of folds. diffraction and imaging. Material transport during metamorphism. TEM and SEM applications. Steady-state geotherms. Genesis. polytypism. Solid solution and exsolution. Techniques of strain analysis. OCEAN AND PLANETARY SCIENCES PAPER II I. and S-tectonic fabrics. GEOLOGY 1) MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY: Concept of point group. Fault-related folding. and silicates. Particle paths and flow patterns. boudins. Behaviour of rocks under stress. Concepts of crystal field theory and mineralogical spectroscopy. Mineral reactions with condensed phases. Common types of finite strain ellipsoids. -mingling and -immiscibility. and polysomatism. mixed volatile equilibria and thermobarometry. khondalites and gondites. isograds and facies. anorthosites. solid solutions. Various states of stress and their representation by Mohr circles.

Major tectonic features and associated structures in extensional-. convergence. Mass extinctions and their causes.gravel. Classification of conglomerates. Paleoecology. Diagenesis of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks. sand and mud. unconformities.chemical and biological significance of hydrothermal vents systems. Oxygen and Carbon isotope studies of microfossils and their use in paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic interpretation. Formation of Bottom waters. Organic evolution – Punctuated Equilibrium and Phyletic Gradualism models. Sedimentary facies and environments. Sedimentary textures and structures. and carbonate rocks. Coriolis effect and Ekman spiral. 3) PALEONTOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS: Theories on origin of life. major water . Rates of sediment accumulation. Code of stratigraphic nomenclature – Stratotypes. Application of fossils in age determination and correlation. Ocean margins and their significance. Ocean Circulation. 5) MARINE GEOLOGY AND PALEOCEANOGRAPHY: Morphologic and tectonic domains of the ocean floor. Lithostratigraphic. chemical and volcanogenic sediments. plant fossils and microfossils in Indian stratigraphy. Use of microfossils in interpretation of sea floor tectonism. Types of microfossils. Concept of sequence stratigraphy. compressional-. Geodynamic evolution of Himalaya. Application of micropaleontology in hydrocarbon exploration. Modes of preservation of fossils and taphonomic considerations. 4) SEDIMENTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY: Clastic sediments. El Nino. Life habitats and various ecosystems. Boundary problems in Indian Phanerozoic stratigraphy. Geological and geophysical characteristics of plate boundaries. sandstones and mudstones. Phanerozoic stratigraphy of India with reference to the type areas– their correlation with equivalent formations in other regions. Structure.Gravity induced structures. divergence and upwelling. Seawater-basalt interactions. biogenic. Earth’s Climatic History. composition and mechanism of the formation of oceanic crust. Environmental significance of fossils and trace fossils. Methods of startigraphic correlation including Shaw’s Graphic correlation. chronostratigraphic and biostratigraphic subdivisions. Important invertebrate fossils. Facies concept in Stratigraphy – Walther’s law. Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP). Methods for paleogeographic reconstruction. hydrothermal vents. and strike-slip-terranes. reconstruction of paleoenvironments. Thermohaline circulation and oceanic conveyor belt. Recent developments in stratigraphic classification. Flow regimes and processes of sediment transport. Paleobiogeography. vertebrate fossils. Formation and evolution of sedimentary basins.

Mineral resources. geochemical and stratigraphic characteristics of granite – greenstone and granulite belts. base and noble metals. redox reactions and Eh-pH diagrams and their applications. Classification. Petroliferous basins of India. Geochemical studies of aerosols. Ocean Drilling Programme and its major accomplishments in paleoceanography. and cryosphere. diagenetic changes in oxic and anoxic environments. Stable isotopes and their application to earth system processes. ionic substitution in minerals. properties of source and reservoir rocks. Nuclear and non-conventional energy resources. lignite. hydrothermal and surface processes of ore formation. biosphere. Opening and closing of ocean gateways and their effect on circulation and climate during the Cenozoic. 7) ECONOMIC GEOLOGY: Magmatic. mobile belts and Proterozoic sedimentary basins of India. Precambrian – Cambrian boundary with special reference to India. and ground waters. Active ore-forming systems. surface-. Phase rule and its applications in petrology. rank and grading of coal. stratigraphic and combination traps. hydrosphere. Origin of peat. atmosphere.cause and effect relationships. and genesis of ferrous. ideal and non-ideal solutions. bitumen and anthracite. coal resources of India. . structural. 8) PRECAMBRIAN GEOLOGY AND CRUSTAL EVOLUTION: Evolution of lithosphere. Radioactive decay schemes and their application to geochronology and petrogenesis.. and fluids. fluid inclusions and isotopic systematics. lithological. marine-. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and its applications in Paleoceanography. 6) GEOCHEMISTRY: Structure and atomic properties of elements. thermodynamics of reactions involving pure phases. Life in Precambrian. ores and metamorphism. Metallogeny and its relation to crustal evolution. Methods of petroleum exploration. Oceanic sediments: Factors controlling the deposition and distribution of oceanic sediments. Nucleation and diffusion processes in igneous. Tectonic evolution of the ocean basins. various proxy indicators for paleoceanographic interpretation. Geological setting. Gas hydrates and coal bed methane. Stratigraphy and geochronology of the cratonic nuclei. characteristics. geochronology of oceanic sediments. Mineral/mineral assemblages as ‘sensors’ of ambient environments. coal petrography. Sea level processes and Sea level changes. methods of mineral deposit studies including ore microscopy. equilibrium and distribution coefficients. the Periodic Table. migration and entrapment of petroleum. Paleoceanography – Approaches to paleoceanographic reconstructions. metamorphic and sedimentary environments. Origin.masses of the world’s oceans.

attribute data. thematic layers and query analysis. continentalmarine correlation of Quaternary record. bridges. marine records. sensors. transportation and deposition. sea level and tectonics on variable time scales in the Quaternary. palaeosols and duricrust). elements of photointerpretation. Responses of geomorphic systems to climate. Processes – weathering. 10) (i) (I)APPLIED GEOLOGY: Remote Sensing and GIS: Elements of photogrammetry.. active tectonics and their applications to natural hazard assessment. Evolution of man and Stone Age cultures. geophysical. Quaternary stratigraphy of India– continental records (fluvial. Groundwater exploration and water pollution. glacial. Sampling. structure and tectonics. aeolian. eustatic changes. neotectonics. ocean and cryosphere (ice core studies). Quaternary dating methods. Remedial measures. River forms and processes – stream flow. Aminoacid. Landforms in relation to climate. Quaternary Stratigraphy – Oxygen Isotope stratigraphy. proxy indicators of paleoenvironmental/ paleoclimatic changes. GIS. pedogenesis.9) QUATERNARY GEOLOGY: Definition of Quaternary. erosion. emission range. . highways and tunnels.land. Mineral Exploration: Geological. Tectonic geomorphology. stage-discharge relationship. . coastal and karst. geological interpretations of air photos and imageries. electromagnetic spectrum. Mass movements with special emphasis on landslides and causes of hillslope instability. Quaternary climates – glacial-interglacial cycles. Plant and animal life in relation to glacial and interglacial cycles during Quaternary. Engineering Geology: Engineering properties of rocks and physical characteristics of building stones. concretes and other aggregates. evapotranspiration and infiltration processes. Luminescence. eolian. rock type. Geological investigations for construction of dams. geochemical and geobotanical methods of surface and sub-surface exploration on different scales. biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. Historical and process Geomorphology. relative dating methods. –radiocarbon. hydrological characteristics of aquifers. Uranium series. Groundwater regimes in India. film and imagery. assaying and evaluation of mineral deposits. mass movement.data structure. glacial. Hydrogeology: Groundwater. Fresh and salt-water relationships in coastal and inland areas. Darcy’s law. (ii) (iii) (iv) (II) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1) Geomorphology: Development in geomorphology. Seismic design of buildings. Geomorphic processes and landforms – fluvial. Hydrological classification of water-bearing formations. Global positioning systems. hydrological cycle. Precipitation.

equivalent stratum. Well posed and . optimal and inverse filters. Ganga-Brahmaputra Plains. 2) Field theory: Newtonian potential. Indian climatology with special reference to seasonal distribution and variation of temperature. cloud formation and precipitation. Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic theory. pressure. 3) Bio-geography: Elements of biogeography with special reference to India. Earth’s radiation balance. Resources – renewable and non-renewable. environment. monsoon. finite element. linear time invariant systems with deterministic and random inputs. Filters: discrete and continuous. wind belts. Climate change. drainage. tsunamis. pattern recognition in Geophysics. temperature. band limited signal and sampling theorem. Distribution of major animal communities. Climate zones of India. Extra-terrestrial geomorphology. Geomorphology and topographic analysis including DEM. and finite difference techniques. soils and natural resources – the Himalaya. habitat.hydrographs and flood frequency analysis. 3) Numerical analysis and inversion: Numerical differentiation and integration. latitudinal and seasonal variation of insolation. zoo-geography of India. Z-transform. Environmental problems and issues. convolution. cyclones. Jet streams. Urbanization and migration. Displacement potential. Classification of climates – Koppen’s and Thornthwaite’s scheme of classification. Biomes. Gauss’ quadrature formula. water balance. Submarine relief. discrete and Fast Fourier transform. Air masses. Environmental change– causes. and peninsular India Precambrian shield. Conservation of forests. plant-animal association. (III) GEOPHYSICS 1) Signal Processing: Continuous and discrete signals. 4) Environmental Geography: Man-land relationship. Gauss’ law. Natural and man-made hazards – droughts. effects on processes and landforms. tropical cyclones. and ENSO. initial value problems. Laplace and Poisson’s equations. elements of plant geography. Wildlife sanctuaries and parks. Simpson’s rules. non-recursive. Deccan Plateau. distribution of forests and major plant communities. Agricultural geography of India. climate. earthquakes. Green’s Theorem. humidity. Fourier series. wind and precipitation. deconvolution. Population – its distribution and characteristics. 2) Climatology: Fundamental principles of climatology. floods. landslides. the Gondwana rift basins. recursive. Continuation integral. environmental pollution and deterioration. Helmhotz’s theorem and seismic wave propagation. humidity. 5) Geography of India: Physiography. Ecological balance.

Zoeppritz’s equation. geoid. attenuation studies. sheet. single pole. 3-D interfaces. reflection. induced polarization methods. seismic sources: faulting source. long period. stacking. air and ship. focal mechanism and fault plane solutions. elastodynamics. global optimization. singular value decomposition. Electromagnetic field techniques. mid-oceanic ridges and geodynamics. seismic data recording and telemetry devices. and central frequency sounding. transient electromagnetic methods. Interpretations in frequency domain. seismic noises and noise profile analysis. elliptic polarization. geomagnetic depth sounding. detectors. AFMAG (Audio frequency magnetic) methods. refraction. AVO. typical sounding curves. . Forward modelling and inversion of arbitrary shaped bodies and 2-D. 4) Gravity and Magnetic fields of the earth: Normal gravity field. interpretation. velocity analysis. seismic reflection data processing. marine magnetic anomalies. broad band and strong motion. Haskell’s function. seismic hazards. plate tectonics hypothesis. reservoir induced seismicity. isostatic models for local and regional compensation. plate boundaries and seismicity. deconvolution. shear waves.ill-posed problems. migration before and after stack. palaeomagnetism. free-air. data acquisition from land. Ray theory. CDP/CMP. diffraction. Heat flow mechanisms. sea floor spreading. seismotectonics and structure of the earth. continuation and derivative calculations. generalized inversion techniques. direct search and gradient methods. sphere. magneto-telluric method. elements of earthquake seismology. seismic stratigraphy. 7) Gravity and Magnetic Methods: Gravimeters and magnetometers. horizontal cylinder. Clairaut’s theorem. 6) Seismology & Tomography: Seismometry: short period. resistivity transform and direct interpretation. VLF (very low frequency). VSP. Bouguer and isostatic anomalies. secular and transient variations and their theories. 5) Plate Tectonics and Geodynamics: Vine-Mathews hypothesis. dyke and fault. pseudo-sections. corrections and reduction of anomalies. core-mantle convection and mantle plumes. introduction to 3D seismics. method of least squares. Interpretation of a refraction seismic data by graphical and analytical techniques. seismic moment tensor. Shape of the earth. earthquake prediction. reduction to a datum and weathering corrections. seismic energy sources. double couple hypothesis. bright spot analysis. 9) Seismic Methods: Generalized Snell’s Law. Himalayan and stable continental region earthquakes. interpretation of anomalies of simple geometric bodies. regional and residual separation. deflection of the vertical. horizontal and vertical loop methods. Geomagnetic field. wavelet processing. construction of polar wandering curves. 8) Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods: Electrical profiling and sounding. seismic gaps. F-K filtering. in-phase and out of phase components. ambiguity.

wave motion in the . natural gamma. Radiation: basin Laws . Atmospheric turbulence: Mixing length theory. Electrical logs. solar constant. Electrical fields in thunderstorms. surface layer. growth of cloud drops and ice-crystals. radar equation. Rossby waves. gravity waves. coalescence process – Precipitation of warm and mixed clouds. fog and cloud – dissipation. Richardson criterion. Thermodynamics of dry and moist air: specific gas constant. Greenhouse effect. Bjerknese circulation theorem and applications. 3) Atmospheric Electricity: Fair weather electric field in the atmosphere and potential gradients. effect of clouds. radar echoes of hail storm and tornadoes. lithology. vorticity and divergence equations.Rayleigh and Mie scattering. planetary boundary layer equations. measurements of rainfall by radar. radiation from the sun. radiation windows. continuity equation in Cartesian and isobaric coordinates. gravity. Adiabatic and isoentropic processes. surface and planetary albedo. scale analysis. theories of thunderstorm electrification. vorticity and divergence. density. 5) Dynamic Meteorology: Basic equations and fundamental forces: Pressure. geopotential. radar observation of hurricanes. Circulation. centripetal and Corolis forces. sonic. neutron. water saturation. hail suppression. multiple scattering. Divergence and vertical motion Rossby. porosity. precipitation mechanisms: Bergeron. standard atmosphere. Moisture variables. thermodynamic diagrams: Hydrostatic equilibrium: Hydrostatic equation. altimetry. stream function and velocity potential. eddy transport of hear. moisture and momentum. potential vorticity. induction.P. lateral. (IV) METEOROLOGY 1) Climatology: Same as under Geography 2) Physical Meteorology: Thermal structure of the atmosphere and its composition. density. Radioactive and geothermal methods. rain drop spectra. scale analysis. Findeisen process.10) Well logging and other methods: Open hole. Linear Perturbation Theory: Internal and external gravity waves. latero. S. inertia waves. entropy and enthalpy. 4) Cloud Physics: Cloud classification. logging while drilling. geostrophic and gradient winds. radiative transfer. cased hole and production logging. Reynolds and Froude numbers. inertial flow. ionization in the atmosphere. variation of pressure with height. adiabatic process of moist air. artificial precipitation. virtual temperature. Emission and absorption of terrestrial radiation. Momentum equation Cartesian and spherical coordinates. Vertical stability of the atmosphere: Dry and moist air parcel and slice methods. Tropical convection. condensation nuclei. determination of formation factor. thermal wind. permeability. Clausius – Clapeyron equation. porosity logs. radar observation of clouds and precipitation. Richardson. net radiation budget. Ekman layer.

weather systems associated with fronts. structure of cold and warm fronts. synoptic features associated with onset. monsoon trough tropical cyclones. Synoptic weather forecasting. frontogenesis and frontolysis. data assimilation techniques. origin and classification of air masses. standing eddies. fog. feedback processes. . Atmospheric Energetics: Kinetic. role of the ocean in climate modelling. Initialization of the data for use in weather prediction models. break active and weak monsoons and their prediction. isotachs and contour analysis. two parameter baroclinic model. concepts of ocean – atmosphere coupled models. meridional circulation models. turbulence. potential and internal energies – conversion of potential and internal energies into kinetic energy. Objective analysis. extratropical cyclones and anticyclones. filtering of sound and gravity waves. gusts. and fronts. Basic principles of general circulation modelling. east-west circulations in tropics: climate variability and forcings. circulation. etc. low level jets. western disturbances. tilt and slope of pressure/weather systems with height. waves in easterlies. SW and NE monsoons. clouds. stream-lines. duststorms. medium and long range weather prediction. mean meridional and eddy transport of momentum and energy. Extra-tropical synoptic scale features: jet streams. barotropic and baroclinic instabilities. Short. grid-point and spectral GCMs. their structure and development theory. prediction of weather elements such as rain. low frequency variability. 8) Synoptic Meteorology: Weather observations and transmission. synoptic charts. visibility. nowcasting and very short range forecasting. application of satellite in NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) and remotely sensed data. filtered forecast equations. winds. ENSO. ITCZ. maximum and minimum temperature and fog. angular momentum and energy budgets. tropical easterly jet stream. Tropical meteorology: Trade wind inversion. available potential energy. 9) Aviation Meteorology: Role of meteorology in aviation. 6) Numerical Weather Prediction: computational instability.) and its relationship with monsoon. weather hazards associated with take off cruising and landing. barotropic and equivalent barotropic models. tornadoes. interannual variability of ocean fields (SST. upper air another derivative chart. Air masses and fronts: sources. MJO Madden-Julian oscillation). QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) and sunspot cycles. wind shear and thunderstorms.tropics. withdrawal. analysis of surface. Multi-layer primitive equation models. rain. relaxation method. monsoon depressions. 7) General Circulation and Climate Modelling: Observed zonally symmetric circulations. hazardous weather elements like thunderstorms. inflight – icing. zonally asymmetric features of general circulation. Somali jet.

El Nino. effects of stratification. coastal pollution. upwelling and sinking with special reference to the Indian ocean. depth – averaged and breadth – averaged models. rip currents. Somali current. cloud top temperatures. salinity intrusion in estuaries. characteristics of important water masses. action of wind on ocean surface. breakers and surf. their characteristics. geostrophic motion. oceanic eddies. beach stability. phenomena of wave reflection. pressure and dynamic topography. Formation of subtropical gyres. The global wind system. Estuaries: classification and nomenclature. wave action on sediments – movement to beach material. interaction of waves and structure. refraction. fog and sandstorms. tsunami. detection of cyclones. equatorial current systems.10) Satellite Meteorology: Meteorological satellites – Polar orbiting and geostationary satellites. Factors influencing coastal processes. estuarine circulation and mixing. Wind generated waves in the oceans. barotropic and baroclinic conditions. transformation of waves in shallow water. divergences and convergences. effect of stratification. . sedimentation in estuaries. effect of bottom friction. relative and slope currents. mixing and dispersal of pollutants in estuaries and near-shore areas. and reflection of waves. prediction of tides by the harmonic method. winds and rainfall: temperature and humidity soundings. Characteristics of the global conveyor belt circulation and its causes. littoral currents. Sverdrup. (V) OCEAN SCIENCES 1) Physical Oceanography: T-S diagrams. Wind driven coastal currents. typical scales of motion in the ocean. mixing processes in the oceans. visible and infrared radiometers. tides in estuaries. Stommel and Munk’s theories. Tide-producing forces and their magnitudes. Propagation. harbour resonance. shallow and deep water waves. tides and tidal currents in shallow seas. estuaries and rivers. identification of synoptic systems. refraction and diffraction. relationship between density. multiscanner radiometers. principles of wave forecasting. coastal zone management. southern ocean. western boundary currents. Inertial currents. estimation of SST. seiches. monsoonal winds and currents over the North Indian Ocean. Ekman’s theory. ocean beach nourishment. Wave spectrum.

chemical exchanges across interfaces and residence times in seawater. factors controlling phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and diversity. nutrients. Physio-chemical factors affecting marine life – light. adaptation and biological processes. Impact of pollution on marine environments including fisheries. water column-denitrification and emission of green house gases. behavior of elements. carbon dioxide-carbonate system. food webs including the microbial loop.2) Chemical Oceanography: Composition of seawater – Classification of elements based on their distribution. impacts of climate change on marine biodiversity. abiotic and biotic controls of trace elements in the ocean. Energy flow and mineral cycling – energy transfer and transfer efficiencies through different trophic levels. pressure. salinity. coral reefs and mangrove communities. dissolved gases. 3) Geological Oceanography: paleo-oceanography Same topics as under subhead “Marine Geology & 4) Biological Oceanography: Classification of the marine environment and marine organisms. Human impacts on marine communities. cycling and air-sea exchange of important biogenic dissolved gases. deep-sea ecology including hydrothermal vent communities. role of bacteria in biogeochemical cycling. benthic organisms. coastal marine communities and community ecology – estuaries. Chemical and biological interactions – Ionic interactions. . major and minor constituents. biological pump and controls on atmospheric composition. biogeochemical processes in aerobic and anaerobic environments. alkalinity and control of pH. temperature. Primary and secondary production. nekton and fisheries oceanography.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.