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Active Directory is Microsoft's trademarked directory service, an integral part of the Windows 2000 architecture. Like other directory services, such as Novell Directory Services (NDS), Active Directory is a centralized and standardized system that automates network management of user data, security, and distributed resources, and enables interoperation with other directories. Active Directory is designed especially for distributed networking environments. ● What is LDAP? Short for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, a set of protocols for accessing information directories. LDAP is based on the standards contained within the X.500 standard, but is significantly simpler. And unlike X.500, LDAP supports TCP/IP, which is necessary for any type of Internet access. Because it's a simpler version of X.500, LDAP is sometimes called X.500-lite. ● Can you connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services? Name a few options?
Yes. Microsoft Identity Integration Server (MIIS) is used to connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services (including directories used by SAP, Domino, etc). ● Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD? AD Database is saved in %systemroot%/ntds. You can see other files also in this folder. These are the main files controlling the AD structure ● ● ● ● ● ntds.dit edb.log res1.log res2.log edb.chk
When a change is made to the Win2K database, triggering a write operation, Win2K records the transaction in the log file (edb.log). Once written to the log file, the change is then written to the AD database. System performance determines how fast the system writes the data to the AD database from the log file. Any time the system is shut down, all transactions are saved to the database. During the installation of AD, Windows creates two files: res1.log and res2.log. The initial size of each is 10MB. These files are used to ensure that changes can be written to disk should the system run out of free disk space. The checkpoint file (edb.chk) records transactions committed to the AD database (ntds.dit). During shutdown, a "shutdown" statement is written to the edb.chk file. Then, during a reboot, AD determines that all transactions in the edb.log file have been committed to the AD database. If, for some reason, the edb.chk file doesn't exist on reboot or the shutdown statement isn't present, AD will use the edb.log file to update the AD database. The last file in our list of files to know is the AD database itself, ntds.dit. By default, the file is located in\NTDS, along with the other files we've discussed. ● What is the SYSVOL folder? The Windows Server 2003 System Volume (SYSVOL) is a collection of folders and reparse points in the file systems that exist on each domain controller in a domain. SYSVOL provides a standard location to store important elements of Group Policy objects (GPOs) and scripts so that the File Replication service (FRS) can distribute them to other domain controllers within that domain.
You can go to SYSVOL folder by typing : %systemroot%/sysvol ● Name the AD NCs and replication issues for each NC *Schema NC, *Configuration NC, * Domain NC Schema NC: This NC is replicated to every other domain controller in the forest. It contains information about the Active Directory schema, which in turn defines the different object classes and attributes within Active Directory. Configuration NC: Also replicated to every other DC in the forest, this NC contains forestwide configuration information pertaining to the physical layout of Active Directory, as well as information about display specifiers and forest-wide Active Directory quotas. Domain NC: This NC is replicated to every other DC within a single Active Directory domain. This is the NC that contains the most commonly-accessed Active Directory data: the actual users, groups, computers, and other objects that reside within a particular Active Directory domain. ● What are application partitions? When do I use them A1) Application Directory Partition is a partition space in Active Directory which an application can use to store that application specific data. This partition is then replicated only to some specific domain controllers. The application directory partition can contain any type of data except security principles (users, computers, groups). **A2) These are specific to Windows Server 2003 domains. An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can host a replica of an application directory partition. ● How do you create a new application partition The DnsCmd command is used to create a new application directory partition. Ex. to create a partition named “NewPartition “ on the domain controller DC1.contoso.com, log on to the domain controller and type following command. DnsCmd DC1/createdirectorypartition NewPartition.contoso.com ● How do you view replication properties for AD partitions and DCs? By using replication monitor go to start > run > type replmon ● What is the Global Catalog? The Global Catalog (GC) contains an entry for every object in an enterprise forest but only a few properties for each object. An entire forest shares a GC, with multiple servers holding copies. You can perform an enterprisewide forest search only on the properties in the GC, whereas you can search for any property in a user’s domain tree. Only Directory Services (DSs) or domain controllers (DCs) can hold a copy of the GC. Configuring an excessive number of GCs in a domain wastes network bandwidth during replication. One GC server per domain in each physical location is sufficient. Windows NT sets servers as GCs as necessary, so you don’t need to configure additional GCs unless you notice slow query response times. Because full searches involve querying the whole domain tree rather than the GC, grouping the enterprise into one tree will improve your searches. Thus, you can search for items not in the GC. ● How do you view all the GCs in the forest?
C:\>repadmin /showreps <domain_controller > where domain_controller is the DC you want to query to determine whether it’s a GC. The output will include the text DSA Options: IS_GC if the DC is a GC. . . . You would need script to make such query, but you can also check your DNS for SRV records which contain _gc in their name. ● Why not make all DCs in a large forest as GCs? When all the DC become a GC replication traffic will get increased and we could not keep the Infrastructure master and GC on the same domain ,so atlease one dc should be act without holding the GC role . ● ● Trying to look at the Schema, how can I do that? What are the Support Tools? Why do I need them? Register the schmmgmt.dll with the command regsvr32 Support Tools are the tools that are used for performing the complicated tasks easily. These can also be the third party tools. Some of the Support tools include DebugViewer, DependencyViewer, RegistryMonitor, etc.
What is LDP? What is REPLMON? What is ADSIEDIT? What is NETDOM? What is REPADMIN? LDP : Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is often used to establish MPLS LSPs when traffic engineering is not required. It establishes LSPs that follow the existing IP routing, and is particularly well suited for establishing a full mesh of LSPs between all of the routers on the network. ● Replmon : Replmon displays information about Active Directory Replication. ADSIEDIT :ADSIEdit is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that acts as a lowlevel editor for Active Directory. It is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool. Network administrators can use it for common administrative tasks such as adding, deleting, and moving objects with a directory service. The attributes for each object can be edited or deleted by using this tool. ADSIEdit uses the ADSI application programming interfaces (APIs) to access Active Directory. The following are the required files for using this tool: ADSIEDIT.DLL ADSIEDIT.MSC NETDOM : NETDOM is a command-line tool that allows management of Windows domains and trust relationships. It is used for batch management of trusts, joining computers to domains, verifying trusts, and secure channels. REPADMIN : REPADMIN is a built-in Windows diagnostic command-line utility that works at the Active Directory level. Although specific to Windows, it is also useful for diagnosing some Exchange replication problems, since Exchange Server is Active Directory based. REPADMIN doesn't actually fix replication problems for you. But, you can use it to help determine the source of a malfunction. ● What are sites? What are they used for? Active Directory (AD) sites, which consist of well-connected networks defined by IP subnets that help define the physical structure of your AD, give you much better control over replication traffic and authentication traffic than the control you get with Windows NT 4.0 domains. Because AD relies on IP, all LAN segments should have a defined IP subnet. This makes creating your AD site structure straightforward; you simply group well-connected subnets to form a site.
● What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server? ● An NTFS partition with enough free space (if you have FAT or FAT32 use convert c:/fs:ntfs command to convert it to NTFS) ● An Administrator's username and password ● The correct operating system version ● A NIC ● Properly configured TCP/IP (IP address. and have the first and basic replication take place from the media. Site Link Schedule is nothing but when the replication process has to be takes place and the interval is nothing but how many times the replication has to be takes place in a give time period i. instead of across the network. To ensure that a change you make on one DC propagates to all DCs.optional . . You can promote a domain controller using files backed up from a source domain controller!!! This feature is called "Install from Media" and it's available by running DCPROMO with the /adv switch. ● What's the difference between a site link's schedule and interval? Site Link is a physical connection object on which the replication transport mechanism depends on.) ● What can you do to promote a server to DC if you're in a remote location with slow WAN link? Install from Media In Windows Server 2003 a new feature has been added. one domain controller per site has the responsibility of evaluating the intersite replication topology and creating Active Directory Replication Connection objects for appropriate bridgehead servers within its site. this saving valuable time and network resources.0 uses). recreates topology information for the active directory domain.Creating AD sites benefits you in several ways. we still need network connectivity. This control is important in Windows 2000 because any Win2K domain controller (DC) can originate changes to AD. subnet mask and .. but you can overcome this obstacle using AD sites. not required. The domain controller in each site that owns this role is referred to as the Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG). copy it to our future DC. Apart of the ISTG<intersite topology generator> role in active directory. Basically to speak it is the type of communication mechanism used to transfer the data between different sites.. For inter-site replication. but now we can use an old System State copy from another Windows Server 2003.e Site Link Schedule. ● What is the ISTG? Who has that role by default? Windows 2000 Domain controllers each create Active Directory Replication connection objects representing inbound replication from intra-site replication partners.default gateway) ● A network connection (to a hub or to another computer via a crossover cable) ● An operational DNS server (which can be installed on the DC itself) ● A Domain name that you want to use ● The Windows Server 2003 CD media (or at least the i386 folder) ● Brains (recommended. You might think that multimaster replication would make it difficult to plan for AD replication’s effect on your WAN links. the first of which is that creating these sites lets you control replication traffic over WAN links. ● What is the KCC? KCC stands for knowledge consistency checker... and this time it's one that will actually make our lives easier. The kcc checks and as an option. It's not a replacement for network replication. Win2K uses multimaster replication (instead of the single-master replication that NT 4.
rather than a network source. forced demotion is supported with Service Pack 2 and later. you must first remove Certificate Services before continuing.petri. Because the other DCs are not aware that you removed the demoted DC from the domain. you may have to manually promote some other DC to a Global Catalog server. and what do you do later? Demoting Windows Server 2003 DCs: DCPROMO (Active Directory Installation Wizard) is a toggle switch. You may be wondering why I need to clean the metadata manually. You will also be prompted to take an action if your DC is hosting any of the operations master roles. run the following command either at the Start. Active Directory basically ignores other DCs and does its own thing. Now you must clean up the Active Directory metadata. Demoting Windows 2000 DCs: On a Windows 2000 domain controller. The metadata for the demoted DC is not deleted from the surviving DCs because you forced the demotion. you will be prompted for the Administrator password that you want to assign to the local administrator in the SAM database.htm ● How can you forcibly remove AD from a server. or at the command prompt: dcpromo /forceremoval Note: If you're running Certificate Services on the DC. which allows you to either install or remove Active Directory DCs. you will be prompted. So if you have an old backup. Answer Link:http://www. If you have Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 installed on the DC. If we perform a backup of a global catalog server. then you cannot create a new domain controller using that.co. you won't know it unless you start digging deep into Active Directory database.What you basically have to do is to back up the systems data of an existing domain controller. To forcibly demote a Windows Server 2003 DC. your job is not quite done yet. one of the biggest criticisms of Active Directory is that it doesn't clean up the mess very well. Run. . Although Active Directory has made numerous improvements over the years. you clear the "This server is the last domain controller in the domain" check box. Cleaning the Metadata on a Surviving DC : Once you've successfully demoted the DC. restore that backup to your replica candidate. if the DC is a Global Catalog server or a DNS server. It's only useful up to the tombstone lifetime with a default of 60 days. If you specify the /forceremoval switch on a server that doesn't have Active Directory installed. The wizard will automatically run certain checks and will prompt you to take appropriate actions. the switch is ignored and the wizard pretends that you want to install Active Directory on that server.il/ install_dc_from_media_in_windows_server_2003. so you cannot back up a domain controller in domain A and create a new domain B using that media. This also works for global catalogs. because you'll run into the problem of reanimating deleted objects. so if the DC you are demoting is a Global Catalog server. On Windows 2000 Servers you won't benefit from the enhancements in Windows Server 2003 SP1. When you force a demotion. in other cases. This is obvious in most cases but. Just make sure that while running the wizard. you'll benefit from a few enhancements. For example. Once the wizard starts. use DCPromo /Adv to tell it to source from local media. the references to the demoted DC need to be removed from the domain. IFM Limitations It only works for the same domain. The rest of the procedure is similar to the procedure I described for Windows Server 2003. then we can create a new global catalog server by performing DCPromo from that restored media.
Due to the nature of forced demotion and the fact that it's meant to be used only as a last resort. Type select domain number. the version of NTDSUTIL in SP1 has been enhanced considerably and does a much better job of cleanup. where servername is the name of the server you want to connect to. where number is the number associated with the site of your server. Type quit to go to Metadata Cleanup prompt. You might want to check out Microsoft’s Knowledge Base article 332199. Type list domains. 5. especially servers running Windows 2000 SP3 or earlier. Type select operation target. Type list sites. In general. Type connections. Even after you've used NTDSUTIL to clean the metadata. Logon to the DC as a Domain Administrator. 7. type ntdsutil.asp? EditorialsID=1352 And best read this also http://www. 11. because the naming contexts and other objects don't get cleaned as quickly on Windows 2000 Global Catalog servers.To clean up the metadata you use NTDSUTIL. where number is the number associated with the server you want to remove. 8. You should be at the Metadata Cleanup prompt. Type select site number. "Domain controllers do not demote gracefully when you use the Active Directory Installation Wizard to force demotion in Windows Server 2003 and in Windows 2000 Server.petri. Type select server number. You should see a confirmation that the removal completed successfully. 2. which obviously means that the earlier versions didn't do a very good job. 13. you will have better luck using forced promotion on Windows Server 2003. 3.htm ● Can I get user passwords from the AD database? As of my Knowledge there is no way to extract the password from AD Database. Type quit to exit ntdsutil. where number is the number associated with the domain of your server 10. there are additional things that you should know about forced demotion. 9. 15. By the way there is a tool called cache dump. 6. Type quit or q to go one level up. Type list servers in site.com/columns/print." Here’s the step-by-step procedure for cleaning metadata on Windows Server 2003 DCs: 1. At the command prompt. each with a different number. Type connect to server servername. 16. For Windows 2000 DCs. 12. you may still need to do additional cleaning manually using ADSIEdit or other such tools." for more information Read original full answer at http://redmondmag. Using it we can extract the cached passwords from . You will see a list of domains in the forest. 4.co. 14. The following procedure describes how to clean up metadata on a Windows Server 2003 SP1. you might want to check out Microsoft Knowledge Base article 216498. You might also want to cleanup DNS database by deleting all DNS records related to the server. Type metadata cleanup.il/ forcibly_removing_active_directoy_from_dc. "How to remove data in Active Directory after an unsuccessful domain controller demotion. Type remove selected server. According to Microsoft.
ADPrep is not located in the same folder as in the older Windows Server 2003 media. ● ● ADPrep /forestprep on the schema master in your Windows 2000 forest.exe tool for Windows Server 2003 R2 is 5.2.petri. you must prepare the forest and domains with the ADPrep utility. Similar to the Exchange setup. Note: In Windows Server 2003 R2. ADPrep is located in the i386 directory of the Windows Server 2003 install media. There were also some fixes to improve the replication delay that can be seen when indexing attributes.htm ● What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 DC in a Windows 2000 AD? Before you can introduce Windows Server 2003 domain controllers.com/articles_tutorials/ Clearing-Confusion-OU-Design. You see. ADPrep /domainprep on the Infrastructure Master in each AD domain. Object Type Good Article about OU Design: http://www. Job Function.windowsnetworking. and instead you need to look for it in the second CD.il/changing_the_tombstone_lifetime_windows_ad.3790. . This value is in the Directory Service object in the configuration NC. Microsoft recommends that you have at least Service Pack (SP) 2 installed on your domain controllers before running ADPrep. The correct version of the ADPrep. Network Monitor. SP2 fixed a critical internal AD bug. Ethereal or Wireshark. You can find the R2 ADPrep tool in the following folder on the second CD: drive:\CMPNENTS\R2\ADPREP\ (where drive is the drive letter of your CD-Rom drive) Read more about ADPrep and Windows Server 2003 R2 in KB 917385 Exchange 2000 note: Please make sure you read Windows 2003 ADPrep Fix for Exchange 2000 before installing the first Windows Server 2003 DC in your existing organization. ● Design OU structure based on Active Directory business requirements ● NT Resource domains may fold up into OUs ● Create nested OUs to hide objects ● Objects easily moved between OUs ● Departments . ● ● What tool would I use to try to grab security related packets from the wire? Name some OU design considerations. Installation disk 1 contains a slipstreamed version of Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2 (SP2).co. Installation disk 2 contains the Windows Server 2003 R2 files. which can manifest itself when extending the schema. Windows Server 2003 R2 comes on two installation disks.html ● What is tombstone lifetime attribute? The number of days before a deleted object is removed from the directory services.exe /forestprep and /domainprep switches. To Change the tombstone lifetime attribute read this article http://www.Windows XP machine which is joined to a Domain. Geographic Region.2075. This assists in removing objects from replicated servers and preventing restores from reintroducing a deleted object.
Before you can run ADPrep /domainprep. Once you’ve run both /forestprep and /domainprep and allowed time for the changes to replicate to all domain controllers. you require only the second R2 CD-ROM. the user running /forestprep must be a member of both the Schema Admins and Enterprise Admins groups. run the Adprep utility. you can then start upgrading your domain controllers to Windows Server 2003 or installing new Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. Each time ADPrep is executed.● The Exchange /forestprep command extends the schema and adds some objects in the Configuration Naming Context. and changes the meaning of the Everyone security principal. ● The Exchange / domainprep command adds objects within the Domain Naming Context of the domain it is being run on and sets some ACLs. To update the schema. These files contain LDIF entries for adding and modifying new and existing classes and attributes. which you'll find in the Cmpnents\r2\adprep folder on the second CD-ROM. Before running this command. ● What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 R2 DC in a Windows 2003 AD? If you're installing Windows 2003 R2 on an existing Windows 2003 server with SP1 installed. Insert the second CD and the r2auto. or to Windows 2000 SP2 (or later).exe will display the Windows 2003 R2 Continue Setup screen. You can view detailed output of the ADPrep command by looking at the log files in the %Systemroot%\system32\debug\adprep\logs directory.ldf files in the \i386 directory on the Windows Server 2003 CD. ensure all DCs are running Windows 2003 or Windows 2000 with SP2 (or later). a new log file is generated that contains the actions taken during that particular invocation. If you're installing R2 on a domain controller (DC). These new schema objects are necessary for the new features supported by Windows Server 2003. you must first upgrade the schema to the R2 version (this is a minor change and mostly related to the new Dfs replication engine). QFE 265089 (included in Windows 2000 SP2 and later) is required to prevent poten . You can view the schema extensions by looking at the . The ADPrep /domainprep creates new containers and objects. The ADPrep /forestprep command extends the schema with quite a few new classes and attributes. all Windows 2000 domain controllers in the forest should be upgraded to Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 (SP1) with QFE 265089. The log files are named based on the time and date ADPrep was run. The ADPrep command follows the same logic and performs similar tasks to prepare for the upgrade to Windows Server 2003. Here's a sample execution of the Adprep /forestprep command: D:\CMPNENTS\R2\ADPREP>adprep /forestprep ADPREP WARNING: Before running adprep. /domainprep must be run on the Infrastructure Master of a domain and under the credentials of someone in the Domain Admins group. you must be sure that the updates from / forestprep have replicated to all domain controllers in the forest. modifies ACLs on some objects. Since the schema is extended and objects are added in several places in the Configuration NC.
..list the properties of an object Answer is at http://www............ then using the custom common queries and define query there is one which shows days since last logon ● What are the DS* commands? ● ● ● ● ● ● DSmod Adding objects is great... 5. You'll see the setup summary screen which confirms the actions to be performed (e.. then goto Active Directory Users and Computers... 4..to delete Active Directory objects DSmove ... The command has completed successfully Adprep successfully updated the forest-wide information... install R2 by performing these steps: 1.. Enter the R2 key and click Next. You'll be prompted to enter an R2 CD key (this is different from your existing Windows 2003 keys) if the underlying OS wasn't installed from R2 media (e.... which means if you installed Windows 2003 using a volume-license version key.computerperformance... C Opened Connection to SAVDALDC01 SSPI Bind succeeded Current Schema Version is 30 Upgrading schema to version 31 Connecting to "SAVDALDC01" Logging in as current user using SSPI Importing directory from file "C:\WINDOWS\system32\sch31... then you can't use a retail or Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) R2 key...modify Active Directory attributes DSrm . a regular Windows 2003 SP1 installation)....com.... ● How would you find all users that have not logged on since last month? If you are using windows 2003 domain environment..... .. Note: The license key entered for R2 must match the underlying OS type.. 139 entries modified successfully..g..uk/Logon/DSadd_DSmod_DSrm.tial domain controller corruption... Otherwise..... Copy files). DSmod ... type any other key and press ENT ER to quit.. For more information about preparing your forest and domain see KB article Q3311 61 at http://support.g.. type C and then press ENTER to continue.to find objects that match your query attributes DSget .... 3..create new accounts DSquery . but there are times in Windows 2003 when you need to change the Active Directory properties. At the "Welcome to the Windows Server 2003 R2 Setup Wizard" screen......... Click Finish........ After the installation is complete.. Click Next......to relocate objects DSadd ... you'll see a confirmation dialog box. After running Adprep.co. 2...microsoft....ldf" Loading entries..... Click the "Continue Windows Server 2003 R2 Setup" link.htm .. as the figureshows.... [User Action] If ALL your existing Windows 2000 domain controllers meet this requirement........ select the Saved Queries.... right click it and select new query. click Next.
Command : dsmod user "cn=guyt. if necessary create an ou called guyds and user called guyt.. for instance the DN "ou=guyds. Let us create an OU (organizational unit) to hold the rest of the test objects. Single 'speech marks' will not work.. or even contacts. Edit the dc=cp and dc =com to the fully qualified name of your Windows 2003 domain. Check which users you have. dc=cp. Creating an OU . dc=com" is enclosed in double speech marks.. Examine the script below. In this instance you need the full distinguished name (DN) of the group then the -addmbr switch followed by the DN of the users. CMD then copy your script and paste into the command window. here is the complete command to add a user with a password.... This is task you are going to have to do regularly. For ease of learning I introduce one variable at a time. Let us now modify the the user's password with DSmod Example 1 Modify Password Logon to your domain controller. dc=cp. However. groups. pay close attention to the syntax. As ever. you can also use this method to create OUs computers. so will not work in Windows 2000. Edit ou= or dc= to reflect YOUR domain.. Run.. Command : dsadd ou "ou=guyds.. in this case . dc=com" -pwd a1yC24kg Example 2 Create user WITH password Note 1: We could have created the password at the same time we created the user.Scenario... and you would like to able to do it quickly from the command line.DSadd ou. Run... Also remember that DS is new in Window 2003. Command : dsadd user "cn=pault. CMD then copy your script and paste into the command window. ou=guyds. The primary use of DSadd is to quickly add user accounts to Windows Server 2003 Active Directory. However.. Problems contact Guy Thomas see below for email address Introduction to DSadd DSadd is the most important member of this DS scripting family. dc=cp. dc=com" Note 1: dsadd ou.. This command tells Active Directory which object to create. dc=com" -pwd a1yC24kg Example 3 Modify Groups Another use of DSmod is to add members to a group. Decide how cn= or ou= or dc= need editing. Tricky method! Try dsmod group /? for more help... Alternatively type it starting with dsadd ou .. Alternatively type it starting with dsmod user .. dc=cp. ou=guyds. you wish to quickly change a user's password. Examine the script below. Example 1 Using DSadd to Create an Organizational Unit in Windows 2003 Preparation: Logon to your domain controller.
dc=com or dsquery ou domainroot Learning Points Note 1: dc does NOT mean domain controller.. ou=guyds. in this scenario. Commands: Dsquery ou dc=mydom. Examine the script below. dc=com" Example 2 Employing DSadd to Create a User. If I need to find a user quickly from the command prompt.. but they dislike spaces. In this second example you would type: "ou=GUY Space DS. Run. So ou=guyds. just remember to pay attention to detail. Example 2 . READ ERROR MESSAGES SLOWLY. Note 2: You only really need speech marks if there is a space in any of your names.. Creating a User . Note 2: The dc commands are not case sensitive.. Preparation: Logon to your domain controller. it means domain context.To find all users in the default Users folder with DSQuery In this example we just want to trawl the users folder and find out who is in that container.an OU (not a user).. I found that they are specific and varied.DSadd user..DSQuery to list all the OUs in your domain Let us find how many Organizational Units are there in your domain? This command will produce a listing of all OUs with this command. Note 4: Best of all. Example 1 . dc=cp.. CMD then copy your script and paste into the command window. (Assumes you have completed Example 1) The purpose of this example is to create a new user in an OU called guyds. dc=com would work fine. . New DS built-in tools for Windows Server 2003 At last I have found a real useful member of the DS family of utilities. dc=com fails because of the spaces in the GUY Space DS. Note also that the distinguished name is encased in double "speech marks". Alternatively type it starting with dsadd user . dc=com will draw an error. dc=cp. Note 3: If you haven't got any OUs (Organizational Units). Change "cn=guyt to a different user name if you wish.. dc=cp. DS Error Messages DS has its own family of error messages. Command: dsadd user "cn=guyt... I seriously suggest that you create some to organize your users. you can substitute domainroot for dc=cp. but ou=GUY Space DS.. dc=mydom. I expect you spotted that the user will be created in the guyds organizational unit that was created in the first example. dc=com" Note: DSadd requires the complete distinguished name. i call for DSQuery. name. Decide if cn= or ou= or dc= need editing. dc=cp.
The arguments.dc=com Learning Points Note 1: Amazingly. dsquery server.dc=cp. Note 2: I thank Jim D for pointing out that we want here is the singular 'server'.DSQuery to list all your Domain Controllers Suppose you want to list all of your domain controllers. name.dc=com Learning Points Note 1: The default users' folder is actually a container object called cn=users. rid. My point is if you try ou=users. however dsquery requires the singular user. (not computers). . Note 2: I queried users. Commands : dsquery user domainroot -name smith* or dsquery user dc=cp.DSQuery to find all users whose name begins with smith* This DSQuery example shows two ways to filter your output and so home in on what you are looking for. which correspond to the 5 roles are: schema. the simplest command get the job done. Commands: dsquery server -hasfsmo schema Learning Points Note 1: The command is -hasfsmo not ?hasfsmo as in some documents. Challenge 1: Substitute OU=xyz for cn=users. Which command do you think would supply the information? Commands: dsquery server dsquery server domainroot dsquery server dc=cp. group or even contact. Unfortunately. Moreover. where xyz is the name of your OU. Smithy or Smithye. Challenge 2: Substitute computer for user Example 3 . Example 5 . Example 4 .dc=com -name smith* d or plain dsquery user smith* Learning Points Note 1: Remember to type the singular user.To query the FSMO roles of your Domain Controllers Here is a wonderful command to find the FSMO roles (Flexible Single Master Roles) hasfsmo. not userS. Other objects that you can query are computer (not computers!). Let us pretend that we know the user's name but have no idea which OU they are to be found.Commands: dsquery user cn=users. the command fails. infr and pdc. cn=users domainroot does not work. we are not sure whether their name is spelt Smith.
Note 3: -name is but one of a family of filters. .DSQuery Knowledge is power. DSGet DSGet is a logical progression from DSQuery. if this is not the case take the time to have a refresher Next a reminder to pay close attention to DS syntax. In a nutshell rdn strips away the OU=. Example 1 To Check that DSQuery is working Let build a solid foundation with a DSQuery (Only found on a Windows Server 2003 DC) Commands: dsquery user domainroot -name smith* or dsquery user -name smith* Learning Points Note 1: You need a Windows Server 2003 machine. manager or department. In my minds eye o stands for output. Just to be clear. Command: dsquery user -name smith* -o rdn Learning Points Note 1: o is the letter oh (not a number). Better still. Naturally this pre-supposes you entered the relevant information in the user's properties sheet! Introduction to DSGet My assumption is that you are comfortable with DSQuery. (A colon : would produce an error). Summary . -desc or -disabled are others. So we use DSGet to retrieve the description. DC= part which you may not be interested in. computer or group without calling for the Active Users and Computers GUI. Note 2: There is a switch -o dn.Note 2: Probably no need to introduce *. Perhaps you could remote desktop into such a server? Note 2: Feel free to change smith* to one of your users. you type this pipe (|) with the shift key and the key next to the Z. The idea is that when DSQuery returns a list of objects. Perhaps the day will come when you need to find a user. but this is not a switch I use. DSGet can interrogate those objects for extra properties such as. Now let us move on to DSGet.DSQuery to filter the output with -o rdn The purpose of -o rdn is to reduce the output to just the relative distinguished name. are handy commands for interrogating Active Directory from the command line. The DS family in general and DSQuery in particular. Note 3: This example is just to build a foundation. create a test account and start filling in those user properties. description. Example 6 . In this instance what we need is a pipe symbol ( | ) to join DSQuery with DSGet. you probably realize it's a wildcard. Example 2 Basic DSGet We need to interrogate the output for more information.
also Server . Telephones (tab). They say the old tricks the best. go with the flow. -tel. just tag on > filename.Change the DSget output. -mgr. email address. not disk. dsget requires -ln instead of -sn and -fn instead of givenName grrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr. for example.txt Learning Points Note 1: To read the file type. even Site and Subnet. the application partition in Active Directory. it was a big disappointment that DSGet did not return the disk information. Challenge: See what happens if you omit the -dn.Which extra properties shall we query? -display Display name is different from the user's description field. Commands: dsquery user domainroot -name smith* or dsquery user -name smith* | dsget user -fn -ln -mgr > dsget. Note 2: Even though dsquery told the operating system it was a user object. Guess what information these switches return? -email.Commands: dsquery user domainroot -name smith* or dsquery user -name smith* | dsget user -dn -desc Learning Points for DSGet Note 1: Master the pipe command | which separates dsquery from dsget. Calm down Guy. Example 4 . but on reflection I was expecting the impossible. Organization (tab). Manager. partition and quota refer to Active Directory. in the context of DSGet. DSGet partition means Active Directory partition. > filename. Now find them on the user's properties sheet. dsget still has to invoke user in its section of the command. so let us try exporting the DSGet output not to screen but a text file. What's the matter with -sn? I will tell you what's wrong. For example. In addition to user. Hold down the shift key while pressing the key next to the Z. .txt. Example 3 . however.txt to your DS command. Note. If you haven't done so already. There are also two commands called partition and quota. notepad dsget. O. OU. To create |. telephone number.txt. So. Mobile.K. think of all these useful switches. No more moaning.txt Note 2: I am impressed by the column format of the output I would like to leave you with a few more DSGet object that you can interrogate or experiment with. -mobile Answers: General (tab). time to get a user's properties sheet and start filling in those attribute boxes. -office Useful property -sn This command does not work. Tell the truth. DSGet is actually fun and productive. Group.meaning DC. Follow up with: notepad filename. this time it's the greater than symbol. Here we need a different type of pipe command. there are the following DSGet commands : Computer.
only one DC in the entire directory is allowed to process updates. as with the DSADD command. The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. but I will show you some basic samples of how to import a large number of users into your AD. It also reminds of that old truism the more you know the easier it gets. I have come from Philistine to champion. provides the flexibility of allowing changes to occur at any DC in the enterprise. Domain naming master: . such as the Active Directory. One way Windows 2000/2003 deals with conflicting updates is by having a conflict resolution algorithm handle discrepancies in values by resolving to the DC to which changes were written last (that is. "the last writer wins"). you must have access to the schema master. there are five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers. In a single-master model. Now I really enjoy the challenge of DSGet and appreciate the way it works hand in glove with DSQuery. Windows 2000/2003 Single-Master Model To prevent conflicting updates in Windows 2000/2003. while discarding the changes in all other DCs. however it is not readable in programs like Excel. Of course. there are times when conflicts are just too difficult to resolve using the "last writer wins" approach. Like CSVDE. it is best to prevent the conflict from occurring rather than to try to resolve it after the fact. In a forest. but it also introduces the possibility of conflicts that can potentially lead to problems once the data is replicated to the rest of the enterprise. A CSV (Comma Separated Value) file is a file easily readable in Excel. Once the Schema update is complete.0). There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. In such cases. in which the PDC is responsible for processing all updates in a given domain. LDIFDE is a command that can be used to import and export objects to and from the AD into a LDIF-formatted file. This is similar to the role given to a primary domain controller (PDC) in earlier versions of Windows (such as Microsoft Windows NT 4. CSVDE can do more than just import users. ● What are the FSMO roles? Who has them by default? What happens when each one fails? ***** Windows 2000/2003 Multi-Master Model A multi-master enabled database. ● What's the difference between LDIFDE and CSVDE? Usage considerations? CSVDE is a command that can be used to import and export objects to and from the AD into a CSV-formatted file. while CSVDE can only import and export objects. To update the schema of a forest. it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. Windows 2000/2003 incorporates methods to prevent conflicting Active Directory updates from occurring. Consult your help file for more info. the Active Directory performs updates to certain objects in a single-master fashion.DSGet As far as DSGet is concerned. For certain types of changes. A LDIF (LDAP Data Interchange Format) file is a file easily readable in any text editor. I will not go to length into this powerful command. Although this resolution method may be acceptable in some cases. The major difference between CSVDE and LDIFDE (besides the file format) is the fact that LDIFDE can be used to edit and delete existing AD objects (not just users).Summary .
the PDC emulator role holder retains the following functions: Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated ● preferentially to the PDC emulator. Note: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a Global Catalog server (GC). As a result. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. Infrastructure Master: When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain. ● Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator. it represents the reference by the GUID. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to the domain's RID master. When a DC's allocated RID pool falls below a threshold. The PDC emulator at the root of the forest becomes authoritative for the enterprise. the SID (for references to security principals). When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. and it is not important which domain controller holds the infrastructure master role. Windows 2000/ 2003 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol. all the domain controllers have the current data. there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain.The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. At any one time. In a Windows 2000/2003 domain. there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. All PDC FSMO role holders follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound time partner. and should be configured to gather the time from an external source. cross-domain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that effect will be logged on that DC's event log. If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog. It can also add or remove cross references to domains in external directories. ● Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user. All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. This is because a Global Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. Each DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a domain). . and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security principal SID created in a domain. and the DN of the object being referenced. At any one time. Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage. The PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain.
and what role it holds.Domain-specific and one for each domain. With that knowledge in hand. RID master . member servers.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000/2003.● Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO copy found in the PDC Emulator's SYSVOL share. In order to better understand your AD infrastructure and to know the added value that each DC might possess. The five FSMO roles are: ● ● ● ● ● Schema master .0-based or earlier clients. an AD administrator must have the exact knowledge of which one of the existing DCs is holding a FSMO role. Method #1: Know the default settings The FSMO roles were assigned to one or more DCs during the DCPROMO process. ● The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4. Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). The following table summarizes the FSMO default locations: FSMO Role Number of DCs holding this role Original DC holding the FSMO role The first DC in the first domain in the forest (i. there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest.Forest-wide and one per forest. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. one can accomplish this task by many means. and domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4.0 Server-based PDC or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4. This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations. the administrator can make better arrangements in case of a scheduled shut-down of any given DC. the Forest Root Domain) Schema One per forest Domain Naming One per forest . on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process.Domain-specific and one for each domain. PDC . The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000/2003 environment. This article will list a few of the available methods. unless configured not to do so by the administrator. and better prepare him or herself in case of a non-scheduled cease of operation from one of the DCs. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. At any one time. How to find out which DC is holding which FSMO role? Well.e.Forest-wide and one per forest. Domain naming master . Infrastructure master . However.
3. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press Operation Masters. When you're done click Close. Finding the Schema Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Schema Master Role: 1. Press OK. and Infrastructure Master FSMO Roles: 1. 6. Select Active Directory Schema. 4. Press OK. You should receive a success confirmation. Select the appropriate tab for the role you wish to view. Use this table to see which tool can be used for what FSMO role: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Finding the RID Master. Right-click the Active Directory Users and Computers icon again and press Operation Masters. and Infrastructure Masters via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain-Specific RID Master.dll 2. When you're done click Close. 3. On the Console menu. 3. 2. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. including the Forest Root Domain. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. 2. Press Add and press Close. Finding the Domain Naming Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain Naming Master Role: 1. PDC Emulator. Which snap-in should I use? Schema snap-in AD Domains and Trusts snap-in AD Users and Computers snap-in . any Tree Root Domain. press Add/Remove Snap-in.RID One per domain The first DC in a domain (any domain. 5.dll library by pressing Start > RUN and typing: regsvr32 schmmgmt. Register the Schmmgmt. PDC Emulator. 4. Press Add. or any Child Domain) PDC Emulator Infrastructure One per domain One per domain Method #2: Use the GUI The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of some of the AD snap-ins. From the Run command open an MMC Console by typing MMC.
and then press ENTER. type Select operation target. 3.On any domain controller. Click Finish. 8. Method #5: Use the Replmon tool The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. Method #4: Use the Netdom command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. Type q 3 times to exit the Ntdsutil prompt. select the Search the Directory for the server to add.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. and then press ENTER again. and then click OK. 1. type q. and also about other objects and settings. On any domain controller. In the Add Server to Monitor window. 2. Type connect to server <servername>. Replmon. and then press ENTER again. 3. about any DC. 1. click Run. Just like Netdom. In the site list select your site. Make sure your AD domain name is listed in the drop-down list. and click to select the server you want to query. Click the Active Directory Schema icon. After it loads right-click it and press Operation Masters. Replmon can be used for a wide verity of tasks. 4. 4. You must either download it separately (from here Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools) or by obtaining the correct Support Tools pack for your operating system. click Run. Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. 2. and then press ENTER. and then press ENTER. and then click OK. At the select operation target: prompt. mostly with those that are related with AD replication. type REPLMON in the Open box. click Start. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. click Run. 2. and then click OK.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. click Start. At the FSMO maintenance: prompt. Download Windows XP SP1 Deploy Tools). type Ntdsutil in the Open box. 1. such as GPOs and FSMO roles. But Replmon can also provide valuable information about the AD. 5. Type roles. 1. Install the package before attempting to use the tool. type netdom query /domain:<domain> fsmo (where <domain> is the name of YOUR domain).7. expand it. Method #3: Use the Ntdsutil command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Ntdsutil command. type ?. At the server connections: prompt. Netdom. On any domain controller. and then press ENTER. type List roles for connected server. . and then press ENTER again. Type connections. 6. Right-click Monitored servers and select Add Monitored Server. 2. Press the Close button. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use. type CMD in the Open box.In the Command Prompt window. The Support Tools pack can be found in the \Support\Tools folder on your installation CD (or you can Download Windows 2000 SP4 Support Tools. click Start.
This will NOT place additional stress on the DCs. ● If all domain controllers are not also global catalog servers. but you should bear in mind that most considerations are also true when planning Windows 2000 AD FSMO roles. Multiple Domain Forest In a multiple domain forest. 6. Click on the FSMO Roles tab and read the results. and ensure that this DC is never designated as a global catalog server (unless the child domain only contains one DC. leave all of the FSMO roles on the first domain controller in the forest. Single Domain Forest In a single domain forest. Windows Server 2003 Active Directory is a bit different than the Windows 2000 version when dealing with FSMO placement. leave the PDC emulator. then you have no choice but to leave it in place). However.5. ●In each child domain. use the following guidelines: ● In the forest root domain: ● If all domain controllers are also global catalog servers. 7. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. Right-click the server that is now listed in the left-pane. while allowing GC-related applications (such as Exchange Server) to easily perform GC queries. move all of the FSMO roles to a DC that is not a global catalog server. You should also configure all the domain controller as a Global Catalog servers. as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory.For each server that holds one or more . leave all of the FSMO roles on the first DC in the forest. Configure a standby operations master . ● What FSMO placement considerations do you know of? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. Click Ok when you're done. RID master. In this article I will only deal with Windows Server 2003 Active Directory. and Infrastructure master roles on the first DC in the domain. and select Properties.
you must locate the domain naming master on a server that hosts the global catalog. To create a connection object on the current operations master: 1. and then click Connection. A highly available DC is one that uses computer hardware that enables it to remain operational even during a hardware failure.Expand the name of the server that is currently hosting the operations master role to display NTDS Settings. What will happen if you keep a FSMO role offline for a long period of time? This table has the info: FSMO Role Loss implications . 3. ● Configure the RID master as a direct replication partner with the standby or backup RID master. it is not necessary for the domain naming master to be on a global catalog server.operations master roles. select the name of the standby I operations master then click OK. For example. Although most FSMO losses can be dealt with within a matter of hours (or even days at some cases).n the Find Domain Controllers dialog box. The standby operations master should have a manually created replication ● connection to the domain controller that it is the standby operations master for. If the forest is set to a functional level of Windows Server 2003. expand the Sites folder to see the list of available sites. enter an appropriate name for the connection object or accept the default name and click OK.Expand the site name in which the current role holder is located to display the Servers folder. some FSMO roles. 2. and it should be in the same site.FSMO functions require that the FSMO role holder is highly available at all times. To create a connection object on the standby operations master perform the same procedure as above. 7. 5. click New. Right-click NTDS Settings. make another DC in the same domain available as a standby operations master. Note regarding Windows 2000 Active Directory domains: If the forest is set to a functional level of Windows 2000 native. and point the connection to the current FSMO role holder. Server performance and availability Most FSMO roles require that the domain controller that holds the roles be: Highly available server . Expand the Servers folder to see a list of the servers in that site. such as the PDC Emulator role.In Active Directory Sites and Services snap-in. 4. should never be offline for more than a few minutes at a time. having a RAID1 or RAID5 configuration enables the server to keep running even if one hard disk fails. in the console tree in the left pane. 6. where all domain controllers are also global catalog servers.In the New Object-Connection dialog box. This configuration reduces the risk of losing data when you seize the role because it minimizes replication latency. Making a DC as a standby operation master involves the following actions: ● The standby operations master should not be a global catalog server except in a single domain environment.
Group memberships may be incomplete. Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. That is why you should: ● Increase the size of the DC's processing power. One exception is the performance of the PDC Emulator.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. ● Reduce the priority and the weight of the service (SRV) record in DNS to give preference for authentication to other domain controllers in the site. ● ● I want to look at the RID allocation table for a DC. However. FSMO roles usually do not place stress on the server's hardware. then there will be no impact. Unless you are going to run DCPROMO. then you will not miss this FSMO role. there will be no time synchronization in the domain. ● Do not make the DC a global catalog server. you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem.A high-capacity domain controller is one that has comparatively higher processing power than other domain controllers to accommodate the additional work load of holding the operations master role. It has a faster CPU and possibly additional memory and network bandwidth. If you only have one domain. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. Moving the FSMO roles while both the original FSMO role holder and the future FSMO role holder are online and operational is called Transferring. NT 4. However. Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Not necessarily high capacity server . so there is no need to reduce replication latency for a seize operation). unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week. mainly when used in Windows 2000 Mixed mode along with old NT 4.Schema The schema cannot be extended. ● Do not require that the standby domain controller be a direct replication partner (Seizing the PDC emulator role does not result in lost data. and is described in this .0 BDCs. Will be missed soon. What do I do? What's the difference between transferring a FSMO role and seizing one? Transferring FSMO Role Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). ● Centrally locate this DC near the majority of the domain users.
Right-click the Active Directory Users and Computers icon again and press Operation Masters. in the snap-in. for example. right-click the icon next to Active Directory Users and Computers and press Connect to Domain Controller. PDC Emulator. when the original FSMO role holder went offline or became non operational for a long period of time. and Infrastructure Masters via GUI To Transfer the Domain-Specific RID Master. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. The process of moving the FSMO role from a non-operational role holder to a different DC is called Seizing.exe command-line utility or by using an MMC snap-in tool. and Infrastructure Master FSMO Roles: 1.this must be considered when shutting down a domain controller that has an FSMO role for maintenance. 5. the target. However. and is described in the Seizing FSMO Roles article. and press OK. for example a server in a shut-down state. PDC Emulator. you can use one of the following three MMC snap-in tools: ● ● ● Active Directory Schema snap-in Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in To transfer the FSMO role the administrator must be a member of the following group: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Transferring the RID Master. to a different DC. the administrator might consider moving the FSMO role from the original. FSMO roles are not automatically relocated during the shutdown process . Select the appropriate tab for the role you wish to transfer and press the Change Administrator must be a member of Schema Admins Enterprise Admins Domain Admins . 2. 4. If you are NOT logged onto the target domain controller. In a graceful transfer of an FSMO role between two domain controllers.article. non-operational holder. Select the domain controller that will be the new role holder. a synchronization of the data that is maintained by the FSMO role owner to the server receiving the FSMO role is performed prior to transferring the role to ensure that any changes have been recorded before the role change. However. You can transfer FSMO roles by using the Ntdsutil. Depending on the FSMO role that you want to transfer. The transfer of an FSMO role is the suggested form of moving a FSMO role between domain controllers and can be initiated by the administrator or by demoting a domain controller. the transfer process is not initiated automatically by the operating system. 3.
type Ntdsutil in the Open box. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. Press OK all the way out. press Add/Remove Snap-in. 6. 4. Select Active Directory Schema. Transferring the Schema Master via GUI To Transfer the Schema Master Role: 1. click Run. and then press ENTER. Right-click right-click the Active Directory Schema icon again and press Operation Masters. From the Run command open an MMC Console by typing MMC. On any domain controller. 2. and then press ENTER. rightclick the Active Directory Schema icon in the Console Root and press Change Domain Controller. Transferring the Domain Naming Master via GUI To Transfer the Domain Naming Master Role: 1. 6. You should receive a success confirmation. 2. 3. Select the domain controller that will be the new role holder and press OK. Type connect to server <servername>. Press Add. 7. Register the Schmmgmt. Press the Change button. Press OK. and then press ENTER. Press Specify . 6. 8. Press Add and press Close. Press OK to confirm the change. Transferring the FSMO Roles via Ntdsutil To transfer the FSMO roles from the Ntdsutil command: Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. and then click OK... 1. 1. in the snap-in. Press OK all the way out. Press OK. click Start. Press OK all the way out.button. Press OK. type ?. 7. in the snap-in. Press the Change button. 5. Type roles. 10. 1. If you are NOT logged onto the target domain controller. On the Console menu. . and then press ENTER. 7. 3. right-click the icon next to Active Directory Domains and Trusts and press Connect to Domain Controller.dll library by pressing Start > RUN and typing: 1. 9. 5. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use.. If you are NOT logged onto the target domain controller. Press OK to confirm the change. and type the name of the new role holder. 4. 2. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press Operation Masters. Type connections.
However.exe. and transfer the FSMO roles to a reliable computer. should be performed only if the original FSMO role owner will not be brought back into the environment. At the server connections: prompt. almost none. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. 3. The process of moving the FSMO role from a non-operational role holder to a different DC is called Seizing. the best thing to do is to try and get the server online again. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the transfer.1. If a DC holding a FSMO role fails. What will happen if you do not perform the seize in time? This table has the info: FSMO Role Loss implications .Forest-wide and one per forest.Domain-specific and one for each domain.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. For example. Since none of the FSMO roles are immediately critical (well. type q and press ENTER until you quit Ntdsutil. However. 1. to transfer the RID Master role. The five FSMO roles are: ● ● ● ● ● Schema master . you would type transfer rid master: Options are: 1. Click on Yes. and then press ENTER again. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. After you transfer the roles. try to get it back on line.Forest-wide and one per forest. and is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article. If a DC becomes unreliable. Type transfer <role>. the administrator might consider moving the FSMO role from the original.Domain-specific and one for each domain. non-operational holder. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. type q. Infrastructure master . and is described in this article. to a different DC. the loss of the PDC Emulator FSMO role might become a problem unless you fix it in a reasonable amount of time). Only seize a FSMO role if absolutely necessary when the original role holder is not connected to the network. Domain naming master . where <role> is the role you want to transfer. RID master . 2. PDC . in most cases. so it is not a problem to them to be unavailable for hours or even days. This operation. Moving the FSMO roles while both the original FSMO role holder and the future FSMO role holder are online and operational is called Transferring. Seizing the FSMO ROLES. when the original FSMO role holder went offline or became non operational for a long period of time. Restart the server and make sure you update your backup. Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). Administrators should use extreme caution in seizing FSMO roles.
as this table lists: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID Administrator must be a member of Schema Admins Enterprise Admins Domain Admins Can transfer back to original Restrictions Original must be reinstalled . then the original domain controller must not be activated in the forest again. Will be missed soon. there will be no time synchronization in the domain. Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate. If you only have one domain. Group memberships may be incomplete. Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Important: If the RID. Unless you are going to run DCPROMO. then you will not miss this FSMO role. unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week. or Domain Naming FSMOs are seized. NT 4. in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. then there will be no impact. The following table summarizes the FSMO seizing restrictions: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Another consideration before performing the seize operation is the administrator's group membership. It is necessary to reinstall Windows if these servers are to be used again. However. Schema.Schema The schema cannot be extended. you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem.
follow these steps: Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. to seize the RID Master role. and then press ENTER. and then press ENTER. Type connect to server <servername>. and then press ENTER. C:\WINDOWS>ntdsutil 2. type ?. and then press ENTER.. and then click OK. and then press ENTER again. fsmo maintenance: connections server connections: 2.PDC Emulator Infrastructure To seize the FSMO roles by using Ntdsutil. 1. 1. Connected to server100 using credentials of locally logged on user. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the seize. At the server connections: prompt. where <role> is the role you want to seize. . ntdsutil: roles fsmo maintenance: Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. server connections: connect to server server100 Binding to server100 . fsmo maintenance: Seize infrastructure master Attempting safe transfer of infrastructure FSMO before seizure. For example. Server connections: 1. click Start.. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use. Type connections. On any domain controller. server connections: q fsmo maintenance: 2. you would type seize rid master: Options are: Seize domain naming master Seize infrastructure master Seize PDC Seize RID master Seize schema master 7. click Run. Click on Yes. Type seize <role>. type q. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. Type roles.
CN=Configuration.CN=SERVER100.DC=dpetri.CN=Servers. The current FSMO holde r could not be contacted.CN=Default-FirstSite-Name. data 1722 Win32 error returned is 0x20af(The requested FSMO operation failed.il/seizing_fsmo_roles.CN=Configuration.CN=NTDS Settings..DC=net Domain .CN=Servers.DC=dpetri. Transfer of infrastructure FSMO failed.CN=Servers.CN=SERVER200. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you've seized all the required FSMO roles. Determine which roles are to be on which remaining domain controllers so that all five roles are not on only one server.DC=dpetri.DC=net RID . 2.CN=Default-FirstSite-Name.CN=Configuration.CN=NTDS Settings. or role transfer error. Note: Do not put the Infrastructure Master (IM) role on the same domain controller as the Global Catalog server.DC=dpetri.CN=Servers.CN=Sites. and then press ENTER until you quit the Ntdsutil tool.DC=dpetri.CN=Configuration.CN=SERVER200. After you seize or transfer the roles.. type q. proceeding with seizure .) ) Depending on the error code this may indicate a connection. problem 5002 (UNAVAILABLE) .ldap_modify_sW error 0x34(52 (Unavailable).petri.CN=NTDS Settings. 1.CN=Sites. ldap.DC=net PDC .DC=net fsmo maintenance: Note: All five roles need to be in the forest.CN=Sites.CN=SERVER100.CN=Servers.CN=SERVER100. Better look of this answer can be found at http://www. Ldap extended error message is 000020AF: SvcErr: DSID-03210300.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=Default-FirstSite-Name.CN=Sites. If the first domain controller is out of the forest then seize all roles. This is because a GC server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a GC server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold.htm ● Which FSMO role should you NOT seize? Why? .CN=Default-First-SiteName.co.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=Sites. Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema .DC=net Infrastructure .CN=DefaultFirst-Site-Name.CN=Configuration.
What are the GPC and the GPT? Where can I find them? What are GPO links? What special things can I do to them? What can I do to prevent inheritance from above? How can I override blocking of inheritance? How can you determine what GPO was and was not applied for a user? Name a few ways to do that. What are administrative templates? What's the difference between software publishing and assigning? Can I deploy non-MSI software with GPO? You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper.pol file exist.il/ mcse_system_administrator_active_directory_interview_questions.petri. Where are group policies stored? %SystemRoot%System32\GroupPolicy What is GPT and GPC? .● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● How do you configure a "stand-by operation master" for any of the roles? How do you backup AD? How do you restore AD? How do you change the DS Restore admin password? Why can't you restore a DC that was backed up 4 months ago? What are GPOs? What is the order in which GPOs are applied? Name a few benefits of using GPMC. yet his user and computer accounts are in the right OU. My Documents. A user claims he did not receive a GPO. Why can’t I? Universal groups are allowed only in native-mode Windows Server 2003 environments.htm Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Security questions What’s the difference between local. Native mode requires that all domain controllers be promoted to Windows Server 2003 Active Directory. printers etc.co. Why doesn’t LSDOU work under Windows NT? If the NTConfig. global and universal groups? Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain resources.) on the computers in one department. where the policies are applied to Local machines. Sites. What is LSDOU? It’s group policy inheritance model. it has the highest priority among the numerous policies. I am trying to create a new universal user group. Start menu. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains. Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains. What will you look for? Name a few differences in Vista GPOs Name some GPO settings in the computer and user parts. How would you do that? Source : http://www. and everyone else there gets the GPO. Domains and Organizational Units.
security settings for the group. but do not want the user to gain access over it. What do you do? gponame–> User Configuration–> Windows Settings–> Remote Installation Services–> Choice Options is your friend. Plus.zap files.zap text file can be used to add applications using the Software Installer. You want to create a new group policy but do not wish to inherit. What’s contained in administrative template conf.System . Where is GPT stored? %SystemRoot%\SYSVOL\sysvol\domainname\Policies\GUID You change the group policies.Group policy template and group policy container. Where is secedit? It’s now gpupdate. If the group policy is removed or changed. it uses . Which one has the highest priority? The computer settings take priority. and now the computer and user settings are in conflict. You want to set up remote installation procedure. but MSI file is not available. What is "tattooing" the Registry? The user can view and modify user preferences that are not stored in maintained portions of the Registry. How frequently is the client policy refreshed? 90 minutes give or take. How do you fight tattooing in 2003 installations? User Configuration . rather than the Windows Installer.adm? Microsoft NetMeeting policies How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine? Via group policy.Group Policy . What can be restricted on Windows Server 2003 that wasn’t there in previous products? Group Policy in Windows Server 2003 determines a users right to modify network and dial-up TCP/IP properties. .enable . the user preference will persist in the Registry.Enforce Show Policies Only. What do you do? A . then Software Restriction Policies. Make sure you check Block inheritance among the options when creating the policy. Users may be selectively restricted from modifying their IP address and other network configuration parameters. What’s the difference between Software Installer and Windows Installer? The former has fewer privileges and will probably require user intervention.Administrative Templates . You need to automatically install an app. How do you fight tattooing in NT/2000 installations? You can’t.
if at least one group has Deny permission for the file/folder. IPC$. A fault-tolerant root node stores the Dfs topology in the Active Directory. but cannot access it from a Win98 box. Even if the user can’t drill down the file/ folder tree using My Computer. Can you use Start->Search with DFS shares? Yes. Thus. if a shared folder is inaccessible or if the Dfs root server is down. Use the UNC path. users are left with no link to the shared resources. but not inherited by files within a folder. Explan the List Folder Contents permission on the folder in NTFS. user will be denied access. which is replicated to other domain controllers. NETLOGON. only 2000 and 2003 clients can access Server 2003 fault-tolerant shares. Where exactly do fault-tolerant DFS shares store information in Active Directory? In Partition Knowledge Table. Can he access it? It is possible for a user to navigate to a file for which he does not have folder permission. regardless of other group permissions. Only native NTFS provides extensive permission control on both remote and local files. What’s the major difference between FAT and NTFS on a local machine? FAT and FAT32 provide no security over locally logged-on users. user will have the same permission. Same as Read & Execute. For a user in several groups. but he has no folder permission to read it. newly created subfolders will inherit this permission. particularly those who move between workstations or those who must periodically work offline. However. For a user in several groups. applications. with no file-locking . and stored files for users. are Allow permissions restrictive or permissive? Permissive. both have support for sharing. This involves simply knowing the path of the file object. What problems can you have with DFS installed? Two users opening the redundant copies of the file at the same time. What’s the difference between standalone and fault-tolerant DFS (Distributed File System) installations? The standalone server stores the Dfs directory tree structure or topology locally. Thus. What hidden shares exist on Windows Server 2003 installation? Admin$.What does IntelliMirror do? It helps to reconcile desktop settings. which is then replicated to other domain controllers. How do FAT and NTFS differ in approach to user shares? They don’t. We’re using the DFS fault-tolerant installation. if at least one group has Allow permission for the file/folder. are Deny permissions restrictive or permissive? Restrictive. Drive$. he can still gain access to the file using the Universal Naming Convention (UNC). I have a file to which the user has access. The best way to start would be to type the full path of a file into Run… window. redundant root nodes may include multiple connections to the same data residing in different shared folders. print$ and SYSVOL. not client.
involved in DFS. I can’t seem to access the Internet. how is it possible to attack the password lists. you can’t. however. Only one file will be propagated through DFS. use the System option in Control Panel from the Advanced tab and select Startup.*. What hashing algorithms are used in Windows 2003 Server? RSA Data Security’s Message Digest 5 (MD5). not any account that’s part of the Administrators group.254. How does Windows 2003 Server try to prevent a middle-man attack on encrypted line? Time stamp is attached to the initial client request. What’s the number of permitted unsuccessful logons on Administrator account? Unlimited. The name for the technology is APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing). How do you double-boot a Win 2003 server box? The Boot. Remember. Install a standalone one. that it’s the Administrator account. though. and the Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1). We’ve installed a new Windows-based DHCP server. and hidden to prevent unwanted editing.254.*. Describe how the DHCP lease is obtained? It’s a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request. To change the Boot. What do you do if earlier application doesn’t run on Windows Server 2003? When an application that ran on an earlier legacy version of Windows cannot be loaded during . Is Kerberos encryption symmetric or asymmetric? Symmetric. encrypted with the shared key. If hashing is one-way function and Windows Server uses hashing for storing passwords. system.* netmask is assigned to Windows machines running 98/2000/XP if the DHCP server is not available.ini timeout and default settings. I run Microsoft Cluster Server and cannot install fault-tolerant DFS. produces a 160-bit hash. changing the contents and then saving. produces a 128-bit hash. What third-party certificate exchange protocols are used by Windows 2003 Server? Windows Server 2003 uses the industry standard PKCS-10 certificate request and PKCS-7 certificate response to exchange CA certificates with third-party certificate authorities.ini file is set as read-only.*. don’t have any access to the corporate network and on ipconfig my address is 169. specifically the ones using NTLMv1? A cracker would launch a dictionary attack by hashing every imaginable term used for password and then compare the hashes. (b) IP offer. What’s the difference between guest accounts in Server 2003 and other editions? More restrictive in Windows Server 2003. How many passwords by default are remembered when you check "Enforce Password History Remembered"? User’s last 6 passwords. the users do not seem to be getting DHCP leases off of it? The server must be authorized first with the Active Directory. © IP selection and (d) acknowledgement. What happened? The 169. Yeah.
no more queues are available. What is presentation layer responsible for in the OSI model? The presentation layer establishes the data format prior to passing it along to the network application’s interface. and |. since + is not a special character (and neither is C). ^. Structural classes are developed from either the modification of an existing structural type or the use of one or more abstract classes. @. Where’s ASP cache located on IIS 6. NEAR. Which characters should be enclosed in quotes when searching the index? &. OR. You can combine several networks and devices connected via several adapters by enabling IP routing.sys in IIS? It is the point of contact for all incoming HTTP requests. but what about "Applicatoin Partition in main DC". This is accomplished by right-clicking the application or setup program and selecting Properties –> Compatibility –> selecting the previously supported operating system. ( ). What’s the role of http. as it used to be in IIS 5. It listens for requests and queues them until they are all processed. Does Windows Server 2003 support IPv6? Yes. available from the Resource Kit).? A Case: A Min DC (Windows 2003) & A BDC (windows 2000 Server) when the time of replication. and it’s a new feature for the 2003 product. run ipv6. AND. $. . The structural class is important to the system administrator in that it is the only type from which new Active Directory objects are created. All partition will replicated. How would you search for C++? Just enter C++. Are the searches case-sensitive? No.? What is Active Directory schema? The Active Directory schema contains formal definitions of every object class that can be created in an Active Directory forest it also contains formal definitions of every attribute that can exist in an Active Directory object. What’s the order of precedence of Boolean operators in Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Indexing Service? NOT. How many group policies can be applied to an OU? How many objects can be created in a Directory Partition? In Active Directory Replication. What is socket pooling? Non-blocking socket usage. What snap-in administrative tools are available for Active Directory? Active Directory Domains and Trusts Manager. you must run the compatibility mode function. TCP/IP networks perform this task at the application layer. Active Directory Replication (optional.0. introduced in IIS 6. Active Directory Sites and Services Manager.the setup function or if it later malfunctions. Can Windows Server 2003 function as a bridge? Yes. #.0? On disk. which FSMO roles is participating in replication.exe from command line to disable it. Active Directory Users and Group Manager. available from adminpak) What types of classes exist in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory? Structural class. or the Web server is shut down. as opposed to memory. What about Barnes&Noble? Should be searched for as Barnes’&’Noble. More than one application can use a given socket. Active Directory Schema Manager (optional.
It follows IPv4 as the second version of the Internet Protocol to be formally adopted for general use. Global Catalog . system.0.x [where x.x. ip v6 it is a 128 bit size address.0.0. O (Offer) : Once the packet is received by the DHCP server. LDAP and Global Catalog? SMTP – 25.ini timeout and default settings. POP3 – 110. IMAP4 – 143. DHCP Server leases the IP addresses to the clients as follows: DORA D (Discover) : DHCP Client sends a broadcast packets to identify the dhcp server. use the System option in Control Panel from the Advanced tab and select Startup.0 0.3268 What is a default gateway? The exit-point from one network and entry-way into another network. What is Global Catalog Server? A global catalog server is a domain controller it is a master searchable database that contains information about every object in every domain in a forest. anycast address loopback address of ip v6 is ::1 How do you double-boot a Win 2003 server box? The Boot. . The global catalog contains a complete replica of all objects in Active Directory for its host domain. often the router of the network.Active Directory stores and retrieves information from a wide variety of applications and services.x. A (Acknowledge) : DHCP server will send an ack packet which contains the IP address. POP3. How do you set a default route on an Cisco router? ip route 0. and contains a partial replica of all objects in Active Directory for every other domain in the forest. unicast address 2. What do you do if earlier application doesn’t run on Windows Server 2003? When an application that ran on an earlier legacy version of Windows cannot be loaded during the setup function or if it later malfunctions. This is accomplished by right-clicking the application or setup program and selecting Properties –> Compatibility –> selecting the previously supported operating system. it is in hexa decimal format.0. R (Request) : Client will now contact the DHCP server directly and request for the IP address. IMAP4. It have two important functions: ● Provides group membership information during logon and authentication ● Helps users locate resources in Active Directory What is the ntds. These 3 types: 1. multicast address 3. the server will send the packet containing Source IP and Source MAC. What is IPv6? Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer IP standard used by electronic devices to exchange data across a packet-switched internetwork. RPC – 135.ini file is set as read-only. you must run the compatibility mode function.tit file default size? 40 MB What are the standard port numbers for SMTP. This is total 8 octants each octant size is 16 bits separated with “:”. this packet will contain the source MAC. To change the Boot. and hidden to prevent unwanted editing.x.x.0 x. LDAP – 389.x represents the destination address] Describe the lease process of the DHCP server. RPC.
Winkey + D shows the desktop. Where are the Windows NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) and its Backup Domain Controller (BDC) in Server 2003? The Active Directory replaces them. While access to common resources is desired. An underlying principle of the Active Directory is that everything is considered an object—people. the Active Directory Installation Wizard contacts an existing DC to update the directory and replicate from the DC the required portions of the directory. Win 98. changes to password policies. Winkey + E opens Windows Explorer showing My Computer. (3) Kerberos delegation to N-tier application in another forest. In order to be located on a network. servers. What’s new in Windows Server 2003 regarding the DNS management? When DC promotion occurs with an existing forest. The Active Directory Installation Wizard verifies a proper configuration of the DNS infrastructure. How long does it take for security changes to be replicated among the domain controllers? Security-related modifications are replicated within a site immediately. Winkey + SHIFT+ M undoes minimization. however. workstations. and (4) user principal name (UPN) credentials. How can you authenticate between forests? Four types of authentication are used across forests: (1) Kerberos and NTLM network logon for remote access to a server in another forest. Unique trade or brand names often give rise to separate DNS identities. These changes include account and individual user lockout policies. XP. which operating systems can you revert to? Win ME. Winkey + R opens Run dialog. Organizations form partnerships and joint ventures. When should you create a forest? Organizations that operate on radically different bases may require separate trees with distinct namespaces. every DC must register in DNS DC locator DNS records. Winkey + F1 opens Help. Winkey + M minimizes all. What are the Windows Server 2003 keyboard shortcuts? Winkey opens or closes the Start menu. Winkey + L locks the computer. Organizations merge or are acquired and naming continuity is desired. Winkey + TAB moves the focus to the next application in the taskbar. Winkey + U opens the Utility Manager. Note. documents. If the wizard fails to locate a DC. Winkey + SHIFT + TAB moves the focus to the previous application in the taskbar. Winkey + B moves the focus to the notification area. What is Active Directory? Active Directory is a network-based object store and service that locates and manages resources. changes to computer account passwords. printers. a separately defined tree can enforce more direct administrative and security restrictions. All DNS configuration debugging and reporting activity is done with the Active Directory Installation Wizard. Winkey + F opens the Search panel. and makes these resources available to authorized users and groups. and modifications to the Local Security Authority (LSA). Winkey + CTRL + F opens the Search panel with Search for Computers module selected.If you uninstall Windows Server 2003. Now all domain controllers share a multimaster peer-topeer read and write relationship that hosts copies of the Active Directory. (2) Kerberos and NTLM interactive logon for physical logon outside the user’s home forest. and devices. Each object has certain attributes and its own security access control list (ACL). it performs debugging and reports what caused the failure and how to fix the problem. 2000. . that you cannot upgrade from ME and 98 to Windows Server 2003. Winkey + BREAK displays the System Properties dialog box. How do you get to Internet Firewall settings? Start –> Control Panel –> Network and Internet Connections –> Network Connections.
Anything special you should do when adding a user that has a Mac? "Save password as encrypted clear text" must be selected on User Properties Account Tab Options. it provides a streamlined alternative by applying a combination of attributes with a single include action. SIDs from the security token are mapped to the access control list (ACL) of any object the user attempts to access. Every group to which the user belongs has an associated SID. when the 1988 X. The Credential Management feature provides a secure store of user credentials that includes passwords and X. The structural class is important to the system administrator in that it is the only type from which new Active Directory objects are created. nor is it in common use for the development of objects in Windows Server 2003 environments. Think of abstract classes as frameworks for the defining objects. there was typically one GC on every site in order to prevent user logon failures across the network. The auxiliary class is a list of attributes.What snap-in administrative tools are available for Active Directory? Active Directory Domains and Trusts Manager. Auxiliary class. Active Directory Schema Manager (optional. What remote access options does Windows Server 2003 support? . This type does not use the structural. 88 class. the SID will be different. available from adminpak) What types of classes exist in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory? Structural class. If you delete a user account and attempt to recreate it with the same user name and password. available from the Resource Kit). What do you do with secure sign-ons in an organization with many roaming users? Credential Management feature of Windows Server 2003 provides a consistent single signon experience for users. which determines access levels to objects throughout the system and network. Every domain has at least one GC that is hosted on a domain controller.500 specification was adopted. since the Macs only store their passwords that way. In Windows 2000. it is given a unique access number known as a security identifier (SID). and auxiliary definitions. The 88 class includes object classes defined prior to 1993. Active Directory Users and Group Manager. Active Directory Replication (optional. abstract. What is Global Catalog? The Global Catalog authenticates network user logons and fields inquiries about objects across a forest or tree. If I delete a user and then create a new account with the same username and password. Rather than apply numerous attributes when creating a structural class. Abstract class. Structural classes are developed from either the modification of an existing structural type or the use of one or more abstract classes. This can be useful for roaming users who move between computer systems. would the SID and permissions stay the same? No.509 certificates. Active Directory Sites and Services Manager. Abstract classes are so named because they take the form of templates that actually create other templates (abstracts) and structural and auxiliary classes. The user and related group SIDs together form the user account’s security token. How is user account security established in Windows Server 2003? When an account is created. How do you delete a lingering object? Windows Server 2003 provides a command called Repadmin that provides the ability to delete lingering objects in the Active Directory.
Where are the settings for all the users stored on a given machine? \Document and Settings\All Users What languages can you use for log-on scripts? JavaScipt. In a site-to-site VPN. dial-in with callback. connecting a branch office network to a company headquarters network.com. although MPLS does not provide encryption. Most routers and firewalls now support IPsec and so can be used as a VPN gateway for the private network behind them. The VPN gateway is responsible for encapsulating and encrypting outbound traffic.Dial-in. DOS batch files (. when the user logs off. that VPN gateway behaves as described above for site-to-site VPNs. and relays the packet towards the target host inside its private network. Where are the documents and settings for the roaming profile stored? All the documents and environmental settings for the roaming user are stored locally on the system. the peer VPN gateway strips the headers. Upon receipt. and. or even . The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) over IPsec is present in Windows 2000 and XP and is more secure than PPTP. to a peer VPN gateway at the target site. Remote access VPN protocols are more varied. depending on how large his profile folder is. they send and receive normal TCP/IP traffic through a VPN gateway. If the target host inside the private network returns a response. The Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) has been included in every Windows operating system since Windows 95. In a remote access VPN.exe) What are the differences between a site-to-site VPN and a VPN client connecting to a VPN server? What protocols are used for these? > EXPERT RESPONSE Site-to-site VPNs connect entire networks to each other -. . Remote access VPNs connect individual hosts to private networks -. VBScript. decrypts the content. Another site-to-site VPN protocol is Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). the first time a roaming user logs on to a new system the logon process may take some time.for example. every host must have VPN client software (more on this in a minute).for example. Whenever the host tries to send any traffic. The most common secure tunneling protocol used in site-to-site VPNs is the IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). hosts do not have VPN client software. all changes to the locally stored profile are copied to the shared server folder. VPN. the VPN gateway performs the reverse process to send an encrypted response back to the VPN client over the Internet. Therefore.bat. the VPN client software encapsulates and encrypts that traffic before sending it over the Internet to the VPN gateway at the edge of the target network. travelers and teleworkers who need to access their company's network securely over the Internet. Upon receipt. an extension to the standard IP protocol used by the Internet and most corporate networks today. Many VPN gateways use IPsec alone (without L2TP) to deliver . sending it through a VPN tunnel over the Internet.
These "SSL VPNs" are often referred to as "clientless." but it is more accurate to say that they use web browsers as VPN clients. watch my New directions in VPN searchSecurity webcast. ActiveX control. . and a VPN gateway that supports the same protocol and options/extensions for remote access. or temporary Win32 program that is removed when the session ends). or read this InfoSec Magazine article on SSL VPNs. which connect remote hosts to an entire private network. Over the past few years. Also. unlike PPTP. usually in combination with dynamicallydownloaded software (Java applet. and IPsec VPNs. many vendors have released secure remote access products that use SSL and ordinary web browsers as an alternative to IPsec/L2TP/PPTP VPNs. L2TP. All of these approaches require VPN client software on every host.remote access VPN services. To learn more about VPN protocols and topologies. SSL VPNs tend to connect users to specific applications protected by the SSL VPN gateway.
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