U3AEA04 ELEMENTS OF AERONAUTICS

LTPC 3003

OBJECTIVE To introduce the basic concepts of aerospace engineering and the current developments in the field. UNIT I Historical Evaluation 9 Early airplanes, Multiplanes, biplanes and monoplanes, Developments in aerodynamics, materials, structures and propulsion over the years. UNIT II Aircraft and Rocket Configurations 9 Components of an airplane and their functions, Different types of flight vehicles, classifications. Basic instruments for flying, Principles of operation of rocket, types of rockets. UNIT III Introduction to Principles of Flight 9 Physical properties and structure of the atmosphere, Temperature, pressure and altitude relationships, Evolution of lift, drag and moment. Different types of drag. UNIT IV Introduction to Aerodynamics and Propulsion 9

Aerodynamic forces on aircraft – classification of NACA aerofoils, High lift devices, aspect ratio, wing loading, Mach number, centre of pressure and aerodynamic centre-aerofoil characteristics-lift, drag curves. Basic ideas about piston, turboprop and jet engines, Use of propeller and jets for thrust production. UNIT V Introduction to Airplane Structures and Materials 9 General types of construction, Monocoque, semi-monocoque. Typical wing and fuselage structure. Metallic and non-metallic materials, Use of aluminium alloy, titanium, stainless steel and composite materials. TOTAL: 45 periods TEXT BOOK 1. Anderson, J.D., “Introduction to Flight”, 5th edition.

REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Kermode, A.C., “Flight without Formulae”, McGraw-Hill, 1997. Kermode, A.C., “Mechanics Of Flight”, 5th Edition. John Cutler, “Understanding Aircraft Structures” , 3rd Edition. Titterton, “Aircraft Materials & Processes”, 3rd Edition. Norman Dave, “ Interactive Aeronautics “ , McGraw-Hill. Murugaperumal, “ Aircraft Jet Engines & Rocket Propulsion “.

UNIT – I
Historical Evaluation

PART - A
1. Biplanes: Type of airplane in which two wings are placed one above the other to increase the lift produced with minimum speed. (e.g) Wright Flyer – I 2. Monoplanes Type of airplane in which only one wings will be there placed along the lateral axis of aircraft.(e.g) most modern air crafts are monoplanes. 3. Biplane interference: The condition in a biplane in which the high pressure on under surface of upper wing low pressure on upper surface of lower using, results in interference between two wings. Thus lift is reduced. 4. An ornithopter:The concepts of wings flapped up and down by various mechanical mechanisms, powered by some type of human arm, leg or lady movement was given by Leonardo da vinci in late 15 th century. This is termed as ornithopter. 5. Triplane: Type of airplane in which three wings are placed one above the other. The wings are called as low wing, mid wing and shoulder wing. 6. Differentiate between Monoplanes and Biplanes. Monoplanes Biplanes

Two wings placed one above other. They are a) Only one wing is present. a) Upper wing and b) Lift produced will be loss compared to biplane b) Lower wing lift produced will be high but not exactly double the monoplane Biplane interference will occur c) Biplane interference will not occur

7. Differentiate between Lighter than Aeroplanes and Heavier than Aeroplanes. Lighter than Aeroplanes Heavier than Aeroplanes

Based on Archimedes principles. Based on lift produced by a moving body. Pay load is very less control and manocurve is Payload is very high control and manocurve is tedius simple.

Engines are not used for propulsion

Engines are used for propulsion.

8. What is the difference between Airmen and Chauffeurs? Airmen Chauffeurs

a) Air man are those who recognized the need a) Chauffeurs are those who just makes
to get up in the air, fly around with gliders engine and fix, in air frame and gets into air. and obtain the feel of an airplane before engine was used for powered flight. b) They are interested in flight control in air b) They interested in thrust and light.

9. Whirling arm apparatus. Whirling arm apparatus is the one which is used by cay by to test air foils. This is nothing but a airfoil mounted on the end of a long rod, which was rotated at some speed to generate a flow of air over airfoil, which allowed the measurement of aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure on lifting surface. 10. Glider: Gliders are un powered airframes, which has very large lift producing surfaces and less weight. 11. Four forces acting on an aero plane. i) lift Perpendicular to direction of relative wind ii) Drag Parallel to direction of relative wind iii) Thrust produces forward motion iv) Weight force of gravity 12. Lift: A force on airplane which is perpendicular to the direction of relative wind and opposite in the direction of weight in level flight. 13. Drag: A force acting on aero plan, which is parallel to the direction of relative wind a opposite to thrust direction under level flight. 14. Composition of aluminum alloy used in modern aircraft. i) Duralumin Al-93.5% Cu-4.4% Mn-1.5% Mg-0.6% 15. How aircrafts propelled during early days? Some basic propulsion methods are i) Paddle wheel mechanism ii) Jn Bocing 747 Al-80% Steel-17% Titanium-3%

He also stated that lift is generated by a region of low pressure on the upper surface of using. lilienthal build a powered machine. 1783. The balloon was inflated and buoyed up by hot air from an open fire burning in a large wicker basket underneath. the prime mover was carbonic acid gas motor that twisted six states at each using tip. Felix Du Temple made the first successful powered model airplane in monoplane type swept. when a balloon carrying Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis d‟ Arlandes ascended into the air and drifted 5 miles across Paris. the first successful airship. In 1857. In 1905 samuel Pierpont Langley designed and builded a series of powered aircraft which finally culminated in two attempted piloted flights. . In 1893. Mozhaiski designed a steam powered monoplane. etc. obviously an ornithoptes type ideal to mimic the natural mode of propulsion for birds. PART . driving a 5-ft diameter propeller by pitcher. full size airplane.B DEVELOPMENTS IN PROPULSION AND MATERIALS:Human effort to fly literally got off the ground on November 21. In Temple achieved the world first powered take off by a piloted. In April 1843. it was powered by some type of hot air engined. In 1810. In 1849. In this type the engine is inside a closed fuselage. In 1884 Alexander F. William Samuel Hendon (1812-1888) was contemporary of cay by. Sir George Cay by used a paddle wheel mechanism for the propulsion of his aero plane. Hawk was designed with 4hp engine weighing about 40lt.ii) iii) iv) Steam engine Flapper using type Reciprocating engine. propelled by a steam engine was built. he built and tested a full – size airplane of trip lane type called “The Boy carrier” and the vertical and horizontal fail surfaces are made and propulsive mechanism is flapper wing type. In 1874. he published in England a design for a fixed using airplane powered by steam engine driving two propelled called the aerial steam carriage. driving two propellers. however. In 1799. In 1897. Forward wings and was powered by lock work. It was the first time humans had been lifted off the ground for a sustained period of time.

The resulting engine produced 52. he built a whirling – arm apparatus for testing air foils similar to wind tunnels and also designed a model glider. . powered by a 1-hp steam engines of langley‟s own design.4 hp and yet weighted only 208 lt. the spectacular gasoline fueled Wright engine. It had two propellers between the wings. George cayley in 1799 gave concept of fixed using for generating lift. different from wide paddle like shape The efficiency of propeller used to 76% DEVELOPMENTS IN STRUCTURE OVER THE YEARS:The idea of flying come to human from birds. wright‟s atleast would have designed six new engines. the advanced propellers are used in flyer III During 1905 to 1908. For first time in history that lift is generated by a region of low pressure on the upper surface of the using. By means of bicycle type chains. In Wright flyer I. the European designers were quick to adopt the long. driving two pushes propellers. with which he made force test on airfoils. In 1804. powered by a steam engine. Using 1. In 1909. Willbar‟s build theirs own engine of 12 hp and 200 lp weight. He represented first modern – configuration of air plane with a fixed wing and horizontal and vertical tail. The early greek myth of daedalus and his son I carus. In 1903. a paddles for a propulsion and combined horizontal and vertical (cruciform) tail for stability. He then build nearly 100 different types of rubber – band – powered model airplanes. The first commissioned Stephan Balzer of New York to produce such an engine. Daedalus and his son made flying model both escaped from prison. graduating to steam – powered models in 1892. slender shape wright‟s propeller. Departing from his earlier use of steam Langley correctly decided that the gasoline fueled engine was the proper prime mover for air craft. Imprisoned on the Island of crete.Cay lay build a large whirling arm.5-hp gasoline fueled engine he made successful flight with quarter scale size. Leonards da vinci have designed many or nithopters during 15th century it is a human powered flight by flapping wing. In 1809 cayley explained that when surface inclined at some angle to the direction of motion will generate lift and that a cambered surface will do this more efficiently than a flat surface. In 1905.

Chanute designed a hang gliders and biplane glider which introduced by the effective platt truss method of structural rigging. Langley stepped directly to the full size airplane.The first successful air ship. A pilot – operated elevator and rudder A fuselage in the form of a car. they made wright flyer I of using span 40 feet 4 inch and used double rubber behind the wings and a double elevator in front of the wings. In 1903. willur wined the term using warping and led to their first aircraft. . in that most of the lift of a wing was obtained from the portion near the leading edge and using with high aspect ratio was the most efficient for producing lift. was built by Henri Gifford in Paris in 1852 in 1849. In willur‟s model the use of using twist to control airplane in lateral (rolling) motion and aibrons are used on modern airplanes for this purpose. otto lilienthal designed and flow the first successful controlled gliders in history with birdlike platform of the using lilienthal used cambered (carried) airfoil shaped on the using and incorporated vertical and horizontal tail planes in the back for stability. with modification in vertical rudder behind the wings. A full size biplane glider was ready by September 1900. propelled by a steam by a steam engine. In 1901. In September 20. He mounted this on tandem winged aircraft on a catapult to provide an assisted take off.forward wings and in 1884 he made steam powered plane In 1866. Tricycle landing gear In 1857. Francis H. it had 17 ft using span and a horizontal elevator in front of the wings. with a dihedral for lateral stability An adjustable cruciform tail for longitudinal directional stability. Felix Du temple made a monoplane with swept. they made about 200 different airfoil shapes. 1902 number 3 glider of biplane type flow with wing span of 32-ft 1. The modulation are i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) A main using at an angle of incidence for lift. Glider 2 was made of larger using span of 22-ft using span. and was usually flows on strings from the ground. In 1903. In 1891. a trip lane kite with using span of 5 ft in 1899. In 1896. In 1902. with a pilot‟s seat and three – wheel under carriage A tubular beam and box beam construction. wenhem published paper. he built and tested a full – size airplane.inch.

Thus the structure of air craft have attained several stages of improvements and made into a fine structure with high rigid strength and very less drag for effective airborne of air craft. In 1909. Al in reality formed and machined has reasonable cost is corrosion – resistant.4% cu. double rubber and improved propellers was made.6% Mg. such as wing attachment fittings. ailerons quickly became the favored mechanical means for lateral control. high – temperature materials to withstand the high rates of aerodynamic heating at hypersonic speeds. In 1915. Therefore alloys of Al are used. 4. In 1914. costing about 5 to 10 times more than Al. wright flyer II made with a smaller using camber (airfoil curvature) and a more powerful and efficient engine. and flap tracks steel in an alloy of iron and carbon. large biplane elevator. Steel:For a typical commercial transport. and has an excellent strength – to – weight ratio. steel makes up about 17% of the structure. The first metal covered airplanes were designed by Miyo Junkens. Al. typical steel alloys have about 1% carbon. But some supersonic air craft have to use titanium because of the high skin temperatures due to aerodynamic heating. Aluminium: It is the most widely used material in aircraft structures.to – weight ratio than aluminum and retains its strength at higher temperatures however it is hard to form and machine and in expensive. . with more progress flyer III with slightly lower using area. this alloy is also called duralumin. High temperature Nickel alloys: The hypersonic airplanes require advanced. Some nickel – based alloys are capable of withstanding the temperatures associated with moderate hypersonic speeds. Titanium: Titanium has a better strength. He finet used all steel. Stainless steel is an alloy of steel and chromium that has good corrosion resistant properties. an alloy consisting of 93.5% Mn and 0. the most common being Al 2024. which proved to be too heavy. Modern commercial transports such as Boeing 749 use aluminum for about 80% of the structure. engines fittings. he turned to the use of duralumin.5%. MATERIALS: Some of the materials commonly used in flight structures. Henri Farman III introduced flap like ailerons at the trailing edge near wing tips. continuing to present day. landing gears. 1. In its pure from Al in two self for aircraft use. In 1905. increased airfoil camber.In 1904. If in used in those areas requiring very high strength.

A very large wing areas are required for flight. the nockhead – martin F-22 has 28% of its structure made up of composite material with 33% Al. 24% Ti. Remembering how the pressure is distributed round a wing section let us put two such section let us put two such sections together. The increase pressure on the under surface of the upper wing is not to so effective as it was when it was alone – still less is the decreased pressure. For example. . thus both upper and lower wings suffer. one above the other. The biplane structure seemed more suited than the monoplane to give as what we most required. It is naturally come from birds but the biplane idea seems to be a purely man made invention. Strength without weight so far the biplane seemed to have all the advantages why then. that the monoplane has always been superior. There is in fact. a nickel – based alloy. as an aerofoil. Above the lower wing so effective. so the idea is at least as old as the history of flight. has it proved the loser in the long run. which is greater on a biplane – with its four wing tips-than on a monoplane of the same wing area and so the overall lift 1 drag ratio of the monoplane is better than that of the bipolar. Generally composites mean “made up of distinct components”. Composites are quite different from metals. Biplanes: Biplanes is plane using two aerofoils one placed above other.The hypersonic aircraft X-15 made by usage of inconel. and advantage of the biplane was that this large area could arranged in a more compact fashion. At any rate of. 5% steel and 10% miscellaneous. though some naturalists claim that there are biplane insects. Composites: Composites materials can yield at least a 25% reduction in weight. making the finished aeroplane more convenient to handle both on the ground and in the air. in both their composition and physical properties. the first plane to fly was a biplane. and observe the effect. an interference between the two wings and this is called bipolar interference. It is as a wing. Another way of thinking of it is to consider the induced drag.

4 miles south of kitty Hawk. It was so successful. it was called back ward (or) Negative stagger. It had a 17-ft using span and a horizontal elevator in front of the wings and was usually flown on strings from the ground. As with all wright machines. it has a horizontal elevator in front of the wings. This led to their first air craft. 1902. A full size biplane glider was ready by September 1900 and was flown in October of that year at kity Hawk. The wrights were not loose to being satisfied with their results when they returned to Dayton after their 1901 tests with the number 2 glider. the largest of wright gliders to data.Fig. This new glider was somewhat larger. which was flown in 1902. Between September 1901 and August 1902 the wrights under took a major program of aeronautical research. Willur look up the study of bird flight as a guide on the path toward mechanical flight.  When the leading edge of the upper plane was infront of the leading edge of the lower plane it was called forward (or) positive stagger. They built a wind tunnel in their bicycle shop in Dayton and tested more than 200 different airfoil shapes. Willur wrote to smithronian institution in May 1899 for papers and books on aeronautics in turn her received a brief bibliography of flying. It was a biplane glider with a 32 ft 1-inch wing span. To eliminate the interference by staggering the planes. That is separating them horizontally rather than vertically. a biplane kite with a using spane of 5 ft in August 1899. After several modifications. They set a distance record of 622. They designed a force balance to measure accurately the lift a drag. the wrightor added a vertical ladder behind the wings. Wright Brothers contribution and their development in obtaining their successful flight Willur and orille wright – Inventors of the first practical airplane they are called the premier aeronautical engineers of history. During 1902.  When behind it. It first flew at kill Devil Hills on September 20. Willur and orbille preceded to build their number 2 glider moving their base of operations to kill Devils Hills. The biplane enthusiasts full of confidence owing to the structural superiority of the bipolar persistently endeavored to minimize this disadvantage. both brothers began to suspect the existing data that appeared in the aeronautical literature. The papers of Wilbur and orvile wright in 1901 led to their number 3 glider. they tested number 2 during July and August of 1901.5 ft and a duration . with a 22-ft wing span. they made more than 1000 perfect flights.

record of 26s. In the process, both Wilbur and orville become highly skilled and proficient pilots, something‟s that would later be envied world wide. They designed and burst their own engine during the winter months of 1903 It produced 12hp and weighed about 200lt. moreover, they conducted their own research which allowed them to design an effective propeller. Wilbur and orville built their flyer I from scratch during the summer of 1903. After orville‟s first flight on that December 17, three more flight were made during the morning, the last covering 852 if an remaining in the air for 59s the In may 1904, their second powered machine, the Wright flyer II was ready this air craft had a smaller wing camber and more powerful and efficient engine. More progress was made in 1905. The Wright flyer III was ready by June. The wing area was slightly smaller than that of the flyer II, the airfoil camber was increased back to what it had been in 1903. biplane elevators was made larger and was placed. Composites and advanced materials in aircraft

The Lockheed F-22 uses composites for the atleast a third of its structure. For many years, aircraft designers could propose theoretical designs that they could not build because the materials needed to construct them did not exist (The term “unobtainium” is sometimes used to identify materials that are desired but not yet available.) For instance, large spaceplanes like the Space Shuttle would have proven extremely difficult, if not impossible, to build without heat – resistant ceramic tiles to protect them during re – entry. And high – speed forward-swept-wing airplanes like Grumman‟s experimental X-29 or the Russian Sukhoi S-27 Berkut would not have been possible without the development of composite materials to keep their wings from bending out of shape. Composites are the most important materials to be adapted for aviation since the use of aluminium in the 1920s. composites are materials that are combinations of two or more organic or inorganic components. One material serves as a “matrix,” which is the material that holds everything together, while the other materials serves as a reinformcement, in the form of fibres embedded in the matrix. until recently, the most common matrix materials were ”thermosetting” materials such as epoxy, bismaleimide, or polymide. The reinforcing materials can be glass fibre, boron fibre, carbon fibre, or other more exoitic mixtures.

Fiberglas is the most common composite material, and consists of glass fibres embedded in a resin matrix. Fiberglas was first used widely in the 1950s for boats and automobiles, and today most cars have fiberglass bumpers covering a steel frame Fiberglas was first used in the boeing 707 passenger jet in the 1950s, where it comprised about two percent of the structure. By the 1960s, other composite materials became available, in particular boron fibre and graphite, embedded in epoxy resins. The U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy began research into using these materials for aircraft control surfaces like ailerons and rudders. The first major military production use of boron fibre was for the horizontal stabilizers on the Navy‟s F-14 Tomcat interceptor. By 1981, the British Aerospace-McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier flew with over 25 percent of its structure made of composite materials. Making composite structures is more complex than manufacturing most metal structures. To make a composite structure, the composite material, in tape or fabric form, is laid out and put in a mould under heat and pressure. The resin matrix material flows and when the heat is removed, it solidifies. It can be formed into various shapes. In some cases, the fibres are wound tightly to increase strength. One useful feature of composites is that they can be layered, with the fibres in each layer running in a different direction. This allows materials engineers to design structures that behave in certain ways. For instance, they can design a structure that will bend in one direction, but not another. The designers of the Grumman X-29 experimental plane used this attribute of composite materials to design forward – step wings that did not bend up at the tips like metal wings of the same shape would have bent in flight. The greatest value of composite materials is that they can be both lightweight and strong. The heavier an aircraft weighs, the more fuel it burns, so reducing weight is important to aeronautical engineers. Despite their strength and low weight, composites have not been a miracle solution for aircraft structures. Composites are hard to inspect for flaws. Some of them absorb moisture. Most importantly, they can be expensive, primarily because they are labour intensive and often require complex and expensive fabrication machines. Aluminium, by contrast, is easy to manufacture and repair. Anyone who has ever gotten into a minor car accident has learned that dented metal can be hammered back into shape, but a crunched fiberglass bumper has to be completely replaced. The same is true for many composite materials used in aviation. Modern airliners use significant amounts of composites to achieve lighter weight. About ten percent of the structural weight of the Boeing 777, for instance, is composite material. Modern military aircraft, such as the F-22, use composites for at least a third of their structures, and some experts have predicted that future military aircraft will be more than two – thirds composite materials. But for now, military aircraft use substantially greater percentages of composite materials than commercial passenger aircraft primarily because of the different ways that commercial and military aircraft are maintained. Aluminum is a very tolerant material and can take a great deal of punishment before it fails. It can be dented or punctured and still hold together. Composites are not like this. If they are damaged, they require immediate repair, which is difficult and expensive. An airplane made entirely from aluminium can be repaired almost anywhere. This is not the case for composite materials, particularly as they use different and more exotic materials. Because of this, composites

will probably always be used more in military aircraft, which are constantly being maintained, than in commercial aircraft, which have to require less maintenance. Thermoplastics are a relatively new material that is replacing thermosets as the matrix material for composites. They hold much promise for aviation applications. One of their big advantages is that they are easy to produce. They are also more durable and tougher than thermosets, particularly for light impacts, such as when a wrench dropped on a wing accidentally. The wrench could easily crack a thermoset material but would bounce off a thermoplastic composite material. In addition to composites, other advance materials are under development for aviation. During the 1980s, many aircraft designers became enthusiastic about ceramics, which seemed particularly promising for lightweight jet engines, because they could tolerate hotter temperatures than conventional metals. But their brittleness and difficulty to manufacture ewer major draw backs, and research on ceramics for many aviation applications decreased by the 1990s.

Many modern light aircraft are constructed in composite material such as this Glasair Aluminium still remains a remarkably useful material for aircraft structures and metallurgists have worked hard to develop better aluminium alloys (a mixture of aluminium and other materials). In particular, aluminium-lithium is the most successful of these alloys. It is approximately ten percent lighter than standard aluminium. Beginning in the later 1990s it was used for the Space Shuttle‟s large External Tank in order to reduce weight and enable the shuttle to carry more payload. Its adoption by commercial aircraft manufacturers has been slower, however, due to the expense of lithium and the greater difficulty of using aluminium lithium (in particular, it requires

The word “aerodynamics” itself was not officially documented until 1837.C.much care during welding). “each part is always pressed by the whole weight of the column perpendicularly above it. basically restating Aristotle‟s theory of a hundred years earlier. the deeper the objects is in the fluid. in 250 B. He comprehended that every point on the surface of a body immersed in a fluid was subject to some force due to the fluid. her presented his law of floating bodies that formed a basic principle of lighter-than-air vehicles. and particularly air. It concerns the forces that these gaseous fluids. “He observed that the pressure exerted on an object immersed in a fluid is directly proportional to its depth in the fluid. Leonardo da vinci sketched various flow fields over objects in a flowing stream. Aristotle conceived the notion air has weight and observed that a body moving through a fluid encounters resistance. literally “air in motion. and producability. who have to accustom themselves to changes in pressure both on the way does into the sea and again on the way up to the surface. Aristotle in 350 B. He stated that a fluid –either in liquid or a gaseous form – is continuous. also has a place in the history of aerodynamics. . now structural designers also deal with fail – safety. But it is likely that aluminium lithium will eventually become a widely used material for both commercial and military aircraft. directly experience this phenomenon. maintenance and inspectablility. Archimedes another Greek philosopher. the observation of fluids and their effect on objects can be traced back to the Greek philosopher. However. corrosion.C.” is the branch of the larger field of fluid dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other gaseous fluids. fatigue. In other words. EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamics. Without the science of aerodynamics. the greater the pressure on it. Aircraft Structural Design Introduction Although the major focus of structural design in the early development of aircraft was on strength. in a fluid. exert on bodies moving through it. Deep-sea divers. He stated that. A hundred years later. modem flight would be impossible.

the Italian painter. and thinker Leonardo da vinci began documenting his aerodynamic theories and ideas for flying machines in personal notebooks. the area of a cross section of a river multiplied by the velocity of the water flowing through that section equals the same number at any point in the river. This became known as the “wind tunnel principal. As a result of his studies. This is known as the law of continuity (Area Velocity=constant or AV=constant).at a greater velocity. if the depth of an object is doubled. Leonardo da Vinci’s ornithoptger design Leonardo noticed another phenomenon that would prove useful in the study of aerodynamics. he first believed the birds fly by flapping their wings.” For example. the results are the same aerodynamically whether a runner moves at 10 miles per hour in calm air and if the wind is blowing at 10 miles per hour past a stationary person. in order to set a stagnant fluid in motion. Archimedes also demonstrated that. sculptor. and thought that this motion would have to occur for manmade aircraft to rise. and this forward motion allowed air to pass across the bird‟s wings to create lift. In 1490. the pressure on the fluid must be increased or decreased. The next contribution to aerodynamics did not occur until the end of the 1400s. pressure decreases. which is a fundamental principal in modem aerodynamics. He noticed that water in a river moved faster. He also observed the different ways in which a fluid flowed around and objectcalled a flow field. The law of continuity demonstrates the conservation of mass.where the river narrowed.A direct proportional relationship means that it one part increases. He also determined that drag on an object . he designed several ornithopters – machines that were intended to copy the action of a bird‟s wing with the muscle power being supplied by man. His other designs included those for the first helicopter and a parachute. But these designs did not leave the drawing board. the other will increase by the same factor. An avid observer of birds and nature. Physicists and mathematicians use the Greek letter alpha ( ) to denote such a relationship. It was the movement of the wing relative to the air and the resulting reaction that produced the lift necessary to fly. As altitude increases (negative depth). Leonardo also stated that the aerodynamic results are the same if an object moves through the fluid at a given velocity or if the fluid flows past the object at rest at the same velocity. He later correctly concluded that the flapping of the wings created forward motion. The resultant movement will take place in the direction of the decreasing pressure. the pressure exerted on the object would double as well (Depth Pressure). In numerical terms. The opposite would also be true. Applied to pressure and depth.

Further. pressure decreases. an associate of Benmouli‟s. His apparatus consisted of a whirling arm device in which weight (M) turned a drum and rotated the test object (P).d Euler. and his ideas remained unknown until the 19th century. The Italian mathematician and inventor Galileo Galilel built on Archimedes‟ work and discovered that the drag exerted on a body from a moving fluid is directly proportional to density of the fluid. the French scientist Edme Manotte demonstrated that drag is proportional to the square of the velocity of an object (D V2). Leonardo pointed out the benefits of streamlining as a way to reduce an object‟s drag.) In 1738. Thus. However. The density of air (a fluid) changes with its distance from the Earth‟s surface. an object passing through air high above the Earth‟s surface will encounter less drag than the same object passing through air close to the Earth‟s surface. in a flowing fluid. also an associate of Bernoulli. introduced a model for fluid flows and an equation for the principle of the conservation of mass. Benjamin Robins. as such. (Remember that air is a fluid). as velocity increases. The French scientist Jean le Rond d‟Alembert.is directly proportional to the area of the object. Leonardo‟s notebooks were not discovered until centuries later. The greater the area of an object. proved that air resistance was a critical factor in the flight of projectiles in 1746. The English scientist and mathematician Sir Isaag Newton presented a derivation of the drag equation of a body in 1687: Drag SV2(where is density and S is cross – sectional area of the body. the greater the drag. Dutch mathematician Christiaan Huygens had been testing this theory since 1669 and published his results with the same conclusion in 1690. the British mathematician. Other scientists used his research as a foundation for further research. derived equations from Bemouili‟s and d‟Alembert‟s principles. becoming less dense the farther it is above the Earth‟s surface and. The most famous of these became known us “Bemoulli‟s Principle. He further presented the idea that velocity and acceleration can vary between different points in fluid flow.” It states that. Scientists working in the 17th century contributed several theories relating to drag. This became . A very dense fluid produces more drag on objects passing through it than a less dense fluid. In 1673. exerting less pressure. Density describes the mass or an object per unit volume. the Dutch scientist Daniel Bemouli published his findings on the relationship between pressure and velocity in flowing fluids. Swis mathematician Leonha.

and k is a constant. He proposed the equation D=kSV 2. and the value of this constant was debated for years. V is the air velocity. mathematicians. though at the time they could not be solved and applied. Laplace developed an equation that would help solve Euler‟s equations. including the Wright brothers. . This would help explain the behavior of fluid flow. Stability in his designs came with the use of dihedral – an important concept still used today He first made public the notion that a fixed-wing aircraft was possible in 1804 in his major publication. This constant became known as Smeatorn‟s coefficient. Lagrange introduced a new model for fluid flow as well as new equations for calculating velocity and pressure. In addition to these theoretical advancements. In 1732. experiments in aerodynamics were also producing more practical results. Euler also introduced equations for fluid flow. he realized the importance of the wing angle of attack and that curved surfaces (camber) would produced more limit than flat one. It is still used in modem aerodynamics and physics. Borda verified and proposed modifications to current aerodynamic theories and was able to show the effect that the movement of one object had on another nearby object.a key concept for understanding how lift is created. In 1789. He understood the basic forces acting on a wing and built a glider with awing and a tail unit that new successfully. In 1788. where D is the drag. which Smeaton claimed was necessary in the equation. “On Aerial Navigation. S is the surface area. and scientists are part of the foundation of the science of aerodynamics. a device that enables the calculation of velocity at a point in a flowing fluid. used this coefficient. They paved the way for the aerodynamic developments that would occur during the nineteenth century. as well as for those who would eventually achieve heavier than air flight. The French scientist Jean-charies Borda published the results of his own whirling arm experiments in 1763. Italian mathematician Joseph Lagrange and French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace studied Euler‟s findings and tried to solve his equations. In 1759.” which described the theoretical problems of flight. The English engineer Benjamin Robins performed experiments in 1746 using a whirling arm device and a pendulum to measure drag at low and high speeds. the French chemist Henri Pilot invented the Pilot tube. Those making the first attempts at flight. Laplace also successfully calculated the speed of sound. Sir George Cayley of England is generally recognized at the father of modem aerodynamics. The contributions of all of these thinkers. the English engineer John Snmeaton also used a whirling arm device to measure the drag exerted on a surface by moving air.

UNIT – II
Aircraft and Rocket Configurations

PART – A
1. List out the different classifications of flight vehicles.
AIRCRAFT

LIGATER – THAN – AIR

HEAVIER – THAN – AIR

Power – Driven

Non-power – Driven

Man-power – Driven

2. Differentiate between a gyroplane and a helicopter. Helicopter Rotor power driven Gyroplane Rotor not power driven

3. Explain how an airship or balloon is kept in the air. By Archimedes principle, when a body is immersed in a fluid, a force acts upwards upon if helping to support its weight, and this upwards force is equal to the weight of the fluid which is displaced by body. 4. State the two kinds of aircraft.
AIRCRAFT

LIGHTER – THAN – AIR

HEAVIER – THAN – AIR

5. What are the basic instruments of flying? 1. Altimeter

2. Air speed indicator 3. Mach Indicator 4. Turn and slip indicator 5. Artificial horizon. 6. What are the three main control surfaces used in an aircraft? Elevator Rudder Aileron 7. What is the purpose of elevator? The elevators are control surfaces that control the nose up – and – down pitching motion. When the deflected downward the cost on the tail is increased, pulling the tail up and the nose of the airplane down. 8. Name the secondary control surfaces used in an aircraft.     Slats Flaps Spoilers Trim tab

9. What is the purpose of rudder and ailerons? Rudder: The rudder is a control surface that control surface that can turn the nose of the airplane to the right or left (called yawing). Ailerons: The ailerons are control surfaces that control the rolling motion of the airplane around the fuselage. Example: When left aileron is deflected downward and the right aileron is deflect upwards, lift is increased on the left wing and decreased on the right wing, causing the airplane to roll to the rich. Auxiliary airfoil surface, mounted forward of a main airfoil, to maintain a smooth airflow over the main airfoil upper surface. 10. What are called Slats and what is its function? Auxiliary air foil surface, mounted forward of a main air foil, to maintain a smooth air flow over the main air foil upper surface.

Briefly explain about the Altimeter and air speed indicator. The Altimeter The word “altimeter” means “height measurer.” Would that the instrument were true to its name! The so-called altimeter which is used in aero planes is nothing more or less than an aneroid barometer, such as is used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere for the purpose of forecasting the weather. The only real modification is that the dial is marked in thousands of feet instead of in inches or millimeters of mercury, and this makes it just about as capable of measuring the height as the barometer is of foretelling the weather. What it does do is to record the pressure. As we go up, the pressure goes down, because there is less weight of air on top of us; but unfortunately the rate at which the pressure goes down varies from day to day, depending chiefly on the temperature and other effects, which also vary from day to day. Thus it is impossible to mark off or calibrate the scale of an altimeter so that each pressure corresponds to a definite height; the best that can be done is to assume some average set of conditions of temperature and pressure, to mark the scale of the instrument to suit these conditions, and then correct the readings for any large departure from such standard conditions. This set of average conditions has been laid down, and, as mentioned in Section 4, is called the International Standard Atmosphere (fig). When an aeroplane makes a test flight, or some attempt on an altitude record, the height which counts is not the height reached according to the altimeter, nor is it the actual height above the ground; it is the height which we estimate it would have reached had the conditions of the atmosphere all the way up corresponded to those of the Standard Atmosphere. It is not a very satisfactory state of affairs, but we cannot do any better until we can devise an instrument which will really measure height, instead of just pressure. Not only does an altimeter fail to record the correct height when flying, but it does not necessarily read zero when at sea level, since the atmospheric pressure varies considerably from time to the at the earth‟s surface. After all, that is how a bareometer works, and the altimeter is only a barometer. For this reason, altimeters are fitted with an adjustment so that they can be made to read zero (or the height of the aerodrome) before starting on a flight. It does onto by any means follow that they will read zero on return to earth. In a flight of a few hours there may be considerable change in atmospheric pressure, and there is also a certain amount of lag in the instrument. For these reasons it is very important when flying over high ground or mountainous districts in foggy weather not to put too much faith in the altimeter. Although this is usually impressed upon pilots, accidents have occurred from this cause. Modern altimeters are very much more sensitive than the old types. Some of them have three hands, one making a complete revolution every 1,000 ft, the next one every 10,000 it, and the third in 100, 000 ft. There is hardly any lag in such an instrument; in fact, such sensitivity would be of no advantage if there were any serious lag. Another refinement is that, instead of turning the dial to set the zero, the pointers are moved, and when they read zero a little window at

however sensitive the barometric type of altimeter may be. with all its faults still holds its own. straight and level flight. it still cannot measure true height in the atmosphere. and we have repeatedly noticed the close connection with angle of attack. The usual type of air-speed indicator consists of a thin corrugated metal box very like that used in an aneroid barometer. then. the altimeter. It is true that he would prefer to know the ground speed.the bottom of the instrument gives the reading of the barometer. gliding. The other is closed at the end. when the aircraft touches the ground. to measure the true height of an aircraft above sea level? In certain instances it can be done by taking three simultaneous sight from the ground. Special “computers” are provided for this purpose. while for the purpose of flying from one place to another the navigator must known both the air speed of the aeroplane and the velocity of the wind. The Air-Speed Indicator Throughout the book we have talked of air speed. by radio or other means. there is a best speed for each. Figure: Pilot-static head This consists of two tubes. one of which has an open end facing the air flow-called a pilot tube. except under a very unlikely set of standardized conditions. for most purposes. and though we never know how high we are flying we can either assume ignorance and hope that the altimeter is right. or by various radio and radar devices. but along the sides are several small holes which allow the . But. but no instrument can be devised to measure this directly. or we can try to be very clever and work out how high we ought to be. This is a great help in instrument flying. or by some echo system such as is used for submarines. climbing. one has only to set this reading on the altimeter and. by an alternative setting. whatever may be the altitude of the aerodrome. In taking off. is placed the pitoot-static head Fig. Is it possible. one has only to set this reading on the altimeter and. and the pilot much prefers to know his air speed. But. the aneroid barometer. and landing. A great advantage of this method is that if one can find out. the hands will all point to zero or. turning. At some convenient place on the aeorplane. the reading of the barometer at any aerodrome at which one wishes to land. where it will be exposed to the wind yet not affected by slipstream or other interference. to the correct height of the airfield.

When the aeroplane is at rest relative to the air.h. and the real air speed the true air speed. metal tubing is used to communicate the pressures to the instrument in the pilot‟s cockpit. so is the lift on the wings correspondingly reduced.h. and this tube is called the static tube.p. are not equally spaced. . Other speeds of flight. but at this increased speed the air-speed indicator will continue to read. m. and thus we can understand why the numbers round the dial of the instrument. Figure: Concentric pitot-static tube Sometimes the pressure near the pitot tube is by no means atmospheric. and outside it (fig). and so on. and since the difference between the two pressures depends on the density as well as on the air speed.. In modern types the two tubes are often combined into one. and the static pressure is taken from some other part of the aeroplane altogether.h.. But wherever the pitot head. or open. The error.atmospheric pressure to enter. and the static vent. The pressure on the pitoto tube. The error is quite appreciable. rather an interesting point about this incorrect reading of the air-speed indicator at height. 70. will go up in proportion to the square of the speed. and at 40. Therefore the stalling speed of the aeroplane will increase with height.p. The instrument then reads the difference between these two pressure which is automatically translated by the dial into miles per hour or knots. depending on the air speed. just like all air resistances. but when traveling through the air the pitot. in other words. when the indicator reads 100 m. are affected in the same way. tube will record a higher pressure.p. When we fly higher. the density of the air will become less. the static tube concentric with the pitot tube. the same stalling speed as when near the ground. we call the speed recorded by the instrument the indicated air speed. the ordinary atmospheric pressure will be communicated by the tubes to both sides of the box and the instrument needle will be at “o”.p. at 30. such as the speed for maximum range. 60. has a distinct advantage from the pilot‟s point of view in that. the indicator will read incorrectly. There is. whatever the height the aeroplane stalls at the same indicated speed. may be.000 ft.000 ft a reading of 100 m. the true air speed is about 160 m.g.h. while the static tube will still record the atmospheric pressure. 50. at twice the speed to pressure will be four times as much. however. and thus a higher speed is necessary to support the aeroplane in flight. when the aeroplane is about to stall. for instance.h.p. on the instrument means that we are really traveling at more than 200 m. Just in the same proportion as the pressure on the metal box is reduced by the smaller air density. the pitot tube being connected to one side of the metal box and the static to the other. e.

but they are outside the scope of this book. lift is increased on the left wing deflected upward.True air speed can be measured by a system of rotating vanes or cups called an anemometer. elevator and rudder These are hinged surfaces usually at the trailing edge of the wings and tail that can be rotated up and down. Describe about the primary control surface in detail. Ailerons and Elevators: Elevator Aileron Figure: The ailerons are control surfaces that control of the rolling motion of airplane around the fuselage Example: When left aileron is deflected downward the right aileron is deflected upward. This instrument is used at meteorological stations for measuring wind velocity. For navigational purposes elaborate instruments have been devised for measuring true speed. The elevators are control surfaces that controls nose up and down pitching motion. . but it is not very satisfactory for use on aircraft. There are three basic control on an airplane ailerons. lift is increased on the left wing decreased on the right wing causing the airplane to roll to the right.

114 Write short notes on Lateral control and longitudinal control. Figure: . Rudder: Figure: Rudder is control surface can turn nose of airplane to the right or left. 215 & 218 3. Lateral control The usual method of obtaining lateral control is by means of ailerons hinged at the rear of each main plane near the wing tips.When a elevator is deflected down wards the lift on the tail is increased. pulling the tail up and nose of airplane down. It is called yawing 1.

e. The Coanda effect keeps the transonic jets attached to the metal surface. The ailerons are connected to the control column by a complete system of control wires (figure) by a rigid system of rods. increasing the lift on the righthand wings. having the ability to scoop up fresh loads many times in a single mission. air-sea rescue. i. the Canadair CL-215 proves that large piston-engined aircraft are not obsolete! Powered by 2. decreasing the lift on the left wing and thus adding to the effect. The two 25-tonne thrust turbofans blow their jets across the top of the wing. or again by some poweroperated system. the Boeing YC-14 was the first to large aircraft to use USB (uperr-surface blowing). This time it is a sideways movement of the control column which moves the ailerons and does so in such a way that once again the control is instinctive. this amphibian is used mainly as a water bomber to fight forest fires. one of the most potent forms of powered lift. so with flaps depressed (as here) they end up deflected sharply down. by torque tubes inside the wings.500-hp Pratt&Whitney R-2800 engines. enormously increasing lift. at the same time the left ailerons will have been raised. Figure: Plate 6: Here seen in service with the Royal Thai Navy. Other mission include anti-smuggling patrols.Plate 5: Here seen with landing gear extended. The huge tail is needed for control at the very speeds that can safely be reached. if the control column is moved to the left the right-hand ailerons will go down. thus banking the aeroplane to the left. . medevac and utility transport.

however. Figure: Longitudinal control-direction of movements In order to achieve this result it will be seen that in an ordinary simple control system the wires must be crossed between the control column and the elevators.Figure: Lateral control-general arrangement Sometimes the control column has no sideways movement. pneumatic or electric. i. Longitudinal Control Longitudinal control of an aeroplane is nearly always provided by elevators attached to the rear of the tail plane. or by a wheel similar to the steering wheel on a car. thus causing the nose of the aeroplane to drop Fig. and lateral control is effected by a type of handlebars. instead of employing two wires which will tend to become slack. . causing a certain amount of backlash in the system. these may take the form of a rigid rod serving both to push and to pull the elevators from top or bottom only. hydraulic. The control is instinctive. the elevators are lowered and the upward force on the tail is increased. The principle is best illustrated by the old-fashioned system in which the elevators were connected by control wires and levers to the control column in the pilot‟s cockpit. when the column is pushed forward. or they may rely simply on the torsion of a rod or tube. or the whole control system may be poweroperated. In modern practice. more positive controls are nearly always used.e.

.Explain with a neat sketch components of an aero plane and their functions.

Figure: Parts of an aeroplane .

. left and right. a shape called an airfoil. Empennage is another term sometimes used to refer to the aft portion of the fuselage plus the horizontal and vertical tails. The wing is made up of two halves. when viewed from behind. either passengers. or weapons. cylindrical tubes or sometimes rectangular box shapes. These halves are connected to each other by means of the fuselage. as illustrated below. Most fuselages are long. cargo. If we were to cult through a wing and look at its cross – section.Figure: Basic components of an aircraft Fuselage: The fuselage is that portion of the aircraft that usually contains the crew and payload. we would see that a traditional airfoil has a rounded leading edge and a sharp trailing edge. Wing: The wing is the most important part of an aircraft since it produces the lift that allows a plane to fly. A wing produces lift because of its special shape. All of the other major components of the aircraft are attached to the fuselage.

the tail usually needs to produce a force pointed downward.Figure: Definition of an airfoil Engine: The other key component that makes an airplane go is its engine. the horizontal stabilizer produces a counteracting force to push the nose in the opposite direction and restore equilibrium. Horizontal stabilizer: If an aircraft consists of only a wing or a wing and fuselage. The horizontal stabilizer. The horizontal tail is essentially a miniature wing since it is also made up of an airfoil cross – section. Many aircraft house the engine(s) within the fuselage itself. Most larger planes. When in equilibrium. . but they can all be classified in two major categories. or engines. also known as the horizontal tail. have their engines mounted in separate pods hanging below the wing or sometimes attached to the fuselage. performs this function when an aircraft is disturbed in pitch. and these are still common today on light general aviation planes. To do so. Stability is defined as the tendency of an aircraft to return to its initial state following a disturbance from that state. however. a quantity called down force. if some disturbance forces the nose up or down. we say that an aircraft is in its trim condition. These pods are called nacelles. Aircraft use several different kinds of engines. it is inherently unstable. In other words. The tail produces a force similar to lift that balances out the lift of the wing to keep the plane in equilibrium. Early aircraft from the Wright Flyer until World War II used propeller – driven piston engines. But most modern aircraft now use some form of a jet engine.

we call these items control surfaces. aircraft need some additional components that give the pilot the ability to control the direction of the plane. the vertical tail produces a counteracting force that pushes the nose in the opposite direction to restore equilibrium. forces that are pointed up or down from the aircraft. functions in the same way as the horizontal tail. Such a deflection increases the down force produced by the horizontal tail causing the nose to pitch upward. Mean while the vertical tail produces a force pointed to one side of the aircraft. It can be deflected up or down to produce a change in the down force produced by the horizontal tail. or vertical tail. The vertical tail is also made of an airfoil cross – section and produces forces just like a wing or horizontal tail. except that it provides stability for a disturbance in yaw. Basic control surfaces: In addition to the wing and tail surfaces. This force is called side – force. Yaw is the side – to – side motion of the nose. The difference is that a wing or horizontal tail produces lift or down force. . Figure: Aircraft control surfaces and axes of motion Elevator: The elevator is located on the horizontal stabilizer. The angle of deflection is considered positive when the trailing edge of the elevator is deflected upward.Vertical stabilizer: The vertical stabilizer. so if a disturbance causes the nose to deflect to one side.

The greater lift generated on the left wing causes the aircraft to roll to the right. The angle of deflection is usually considered positive when the trailing edge of the rudder is deflected towards the right wing. The angle of deflection is usually considered positive when the aileron on the left wing deflects downward and that on the right wing deflects upward. Aileron: Ailerons are located on the tips of each wing. but a few important items were left out for simplicity.Rudder: The rudder is located on the vertical stabilizer. They are deflected in opposite direction (one goes trailing edge up. the lift increases whereas the lift decreases on the other wing whose aileron is deflected upward. Additional components: We‟ve already seen the major parts of a typical plane. On the wing with the aileron deflected down ward. The effects of these control surfaces and the conventions for positive deflection angles are summarized in the following diagram. It can be deflected to either side to produce a change in the side – force produced by the vertical tail. the other trailing edge down) to produce a change in the lift produced by each wing. The wing with more lift rolls upward causing the aircraft to go into a bank. Let‟s go back and discuss a few of these items. Such a deflection creates a side – force to the left which causes the nose to yaw to the right. Figure: Aircraft control surfaces and positive deflection angles 3. .

In addition to flaps on the trailing edge of a wing. are also used to increase life. a second major category is flaps on the leading edge.Figure: Components of an aircraft Flap: Flaps are usually located along the trailing edge of both the left and right wing. typically inboard of the ailerons and close to the fuselage. However. . Flaps are most often used during takeoff and landing to increase the lift the wings generate at a given speed. These leading – edge flaps. more often called slats. More information on slats and flaps is available here. This effect allows a plane to takeoff or land at a slower speed than would be possible with out the flaps. flaps only deflect down ward to increase the lift produced by both wings simultaneously. Flaps are similar to ailerons in that they affect the amount of lift created by the wings.

we will add further detail and complexity to illustrate the complex nature of modern control surfaces. Summary: This discussion has provided an overview of the basic parts and control surfaces of a typical aircraft. In order to keep a plane in a steady. This system has two large main gear units located near the middle of the plane and a single smaller nose gear unit near the nose of the aircraft. . In a future installment. Nose & main gear: The landing gear is used during takeoff. These control tabs may be located on other surfaces as well. the elevator usually has to be deflected by some small amount. landing. Meanwhile. Yet there are still many more features related to control surfaces that we have not seen. we discussed that the horizontal stabilizer and elevator are used to provide stability and control in pitch. By deflecting the tab up or down. The trim tab can be through of almost as a “mini – elevator”. a cabin is typically a compartment within the fuselage where passengers are seated. Nonetheless. the elevator is fitted with a small “tab” that creates that elevator deflection automatically. Since it would be very tiring for a pilot to physically hold the control stick in position to keep the elevator at that deflection angle for an entire flight. the purpose of all these tabs is the same. such as a rudder control tab or a balance tab on the aileron. level orientation. Most planes today use what is called a tricycle landing gear arrangement. The pilot can set the deflection of the trim tab which will cause the elevator to remain at the deflection required to remain trimmed. This compartment contains the control yolks (or sticks) and equipment the crew use to sent commands to the control surfaces and engines as well as to monitor the operation of the vehicle. it increases or decreases the down force created by the elevator and forces the elevator to a certain position. and to taxi on the ground. but most of the time the term cockpit is applied to a compartment at the front of the fuselage where the pilots and flight crew sit.Cabin & cockpit: Sometimes these two terms are used synonymously. Trim tab: The above diagram illustrates a “trim tab” located on the elevator. In the previous section.

Power driven Gliders Sailplanes Kites Aero plane Rotorcraft Ornithopter Land plane Sea plane Amphibian Helicopter (rotor power driven ) Gyroplane (rotor not power driven) Cyclogyro (paddle – wheel type motor) Float plane Flying boat Lighter than air aircraft: The name itself indicates.How the air planes are classified? Discuss about various types of flight vehicles with schematic sketches wherever possible. that the aircraft is lighter than air. These depend for their lift on a well – known scientific fact usually called „Archimedes principle‟. helping to support its weight and this upward fore is equal to the weight of the fluid which is displaced by the body. Free balloons: Free balloons are also comes under this category that means the balloons one flown in the air with the help of gases such as a helium.. An airship can carry a maximum up to 2 to 3 persons.. hydrogen etc. a force acts upwards upon it. free balloons or kite balloons obtains its lift in precisely the same way (ie) By Archimedes Principle. Aircraft Lighter than air Heavier than air Airships Free balloons Captive balloons Power driven Non . Air ships. Airship: A power driven aircraft that is light than air. The principles states that „when a body is immersed in a fluid. .Power driven Man .

So as in aero plane. In order to fly such aircraft.. So that it could not fly in air without any definite shape. Since. there is steady flow of air over such aircrafts. it can stay in air for a long time). the power provided to the craft is by means of rotor (ie) a rotating member that can take off the aircraft to a specified height and it can be flown. Cyclogyro . Aero plane: The aero plane must be given some power. power driven aircrafts play a dominant role today. aerofoil shapes should be maintained for such aircrafts. The rotor craft designs are 1. Helicopter 2.Heavier than air aircraft: Here in the aircraft solid metals are used. etc. the power is provided mainly by engines and as well as propulsion systems. (ie) the aircraft can be flown with the help of certain factors like engines. Power driven aircrafts are nothing but aircrafts which are provided with external power supply. Gyroplane 3. Power driven: Under the heavier than aircrafts. so that it can fly. Figure: Rotor craft: Here. these types of aircrafts are found to be airborne (ie.

which is having blades that rotates up to a certain speed. that makes the helicopter to lift up and so it can fly. Gliders: Gliders are those aircrafts which comes under non – power driven such that it can fly without engines and also it should be start to fly from some elevated places like maintains etc. the power is given mainly by the mechanism of flapping wings up and down. . Figure: Orinithopler Non – Power driven: Non – power driven aircrafts are those crafts which can flown without the help of any external power supply (ie) there is no presence of engines. the power is driven by a rotor. Ornithopter Here in the ornithopters.Helicopter: Here in the helicopter.

the . which powers the local hydraulic pump to provide high pressure hydraulic fluid to the hydraulic actuator via the servo value. such as on an active. the number of central hydraulic systems can be reduced compared to using only conventional hydraulic actuators. This is accomplished by overcoming both of the two major difficulties that have been cited herein for the electric and hybrid actuators of the prior art. [0015] By coupling the LBHAs to appropriate flight control surfaces. the airplane remains controllable with loss of all central hydraulic systems. [0018] The force fight problem associated with coupling dissimilar actuators on a surface and using them in an active – active fashion is resolved according to this invention by continuously controlling the actuator in the same manner as a conventional hydraulic actuator and providing as backup only alternate power source. Other types of monitoring and control schemes may also be used instead. the LBHA remains functional with electrical power following a partial or complete failure of the central hydraulic system. for example. namely EHA and EBHA. When this observed pressure falls below a certain threshold. even when the LBHA is used continuously during normal operation. During normal operation. the local electronic controller determines that this central hydraulic system has failed and t urns on the electrical motor. This is because during normal operation and operation following the failure of the central hydraulic system. [0017] The LBHA overcomes the reduced reliability problem by using the low – reliability components only as backup following the failure of a central hydraulic system or during specific phases of flight. the operation is more reliable and the life of the motor and pump are extended. The local motor and pump are upstream of the servo valve and in parallel with the central hydraulic lines. a backup system is provided that has a local electric motor and pump for some or all of the hydraulic actuators. therefore.Hydraulic Actuator and Electronic actuator system: Brief summary of the invention: [0014] According to principles of the present invention. A common servo value for the hydraulic actuator is used under a unified electrical control system for both the central hydraulic system and the backup system. Therefore. namely that of reduced reliability and force fight. the hydraulic actuator receives pressurized fluid from one of the central hydraulic systems and the fluid flow to the chambers is controlled by a servo valve. A major advantage that the LBHA offers over these prior art actuators is that it enables this reduction in the central hydraulic system for airplanes with flight control surfaces which are controlled in an active – active fashion. Failure of the hydraulic system is detected by the local electronic controller that monitors the output signal of a pressure sensor. The local electronic controller also uses the pressure reading for closed – loop feedback control. [0016] As explained in the background of the invention. This ensures that there is no substantial force fight when LBHA is used in an active – active fashion with a hydraulic actuator or another LBHA on the same surface. A local back up hydraulic actuator (LBHA) has two power sources. some prior art approaches provide a reduction in the number of hydraulic systems. central hydraulic as primary and electrical as backup. The electrical part of the LBHA can be switched of during much of flight so the life of the motor and pump is greatly extended. and the pressure is maintained at the normal level. In this manner.active surface.

[0021] A further advantage is that the backup system has a separate power source. so that increased availability of power is provided to the actuator. Figure: Six basic instruments in a light twin – engine airplane arranged in the basic – T. and vertical speed indicator. together with the motor and controller. which. enable reduction in the number of actuators coupled to a surface compared to only using conventional hydraulic actuators. Flight instruments: From Wikipedia. [0019] In addition to enabling the reduction of hydraulic systems and resolving the problems associated with applying electric or hybrid actuators of prior art in an active – active fashion. rather than also provide servo control of the system. Because of this. such as takeoff and landing. the motor driver and control device. system is already under power and is assisting in the operation. airspeed and altitude. The local pump‟s role is to provide increased local pressure. permitting both to operate at the same time when appropriate. the local pump can be a one – way pump rather than a two – way pump. with the only difference being the source of hydraulic power. and increasing the reliability of operation. From top left airspeed indicator. [0020] The inventive system also provides the advantage that during critical flight phases. thus simplifying the motor. while having higher reliability. Check values are provided between the central hydraulic system and the local backup system. lighter.LBHA is controlled in the same manner through the servo valve. providing one LBHA in conjunction with at least one hydraulic actuator for a particular surface is able to ensure that the likelihood of a complete loss of the power to position the surface correctly is negligible. the free encyclopedia Most aircraft are equipped with a standard set of flight instruments which give the pilot information about the aircraft‟s attitude. central or local. the LBHA also offers other advantages. beading indicator. both the main system and the backup system can be in operation. for example. namely electric power. turn coordinator. . the backup. altimeter. is lower in weight and cost. while achieving and equivalent or better level of safety. and simpler individual actuators than otherwise would have been possible. With the LBHA. This may. This may also enable smaller. attitude indicator. so that there is no time lost for control while the backup system comes on. In the event of failure of the main system.

This is a primary instrument flight and is also useful in conditions of poor visibility. Pilots are trained to use other instruments in combination should this instrument or its power fail. It works by measuring the ram – air pressure in the aircraft‟s pitot tube. Figure: Attitude indicator (also known as an artificial horizon) Shows the aircraft‟s relative to the horizon. It is adjustable for local barometric pressure (referenced to sea level) which must be set correctly to obtain accurate altitude readings. From this the pilot can tell whether are level and if the aircraft nose is pointing above or below the horizon. temperature and humidity) in order to obtain the true airspeed. and for wind conditions in order to obtain the speed over the ground. The indicated airspeed must be corrected for air density (which varies with altitude.Most aircraft have these seven basic flight instruments: Figure: Altimeter: Gives the aircraft‟s height (usually in feet or meters) above some reference level (usually sea – level) by measuring the local air pressure. . Figure: Airspeed indicator Shows the aircraft‟s speed (usually in knots) relative to the surrounding air.

Displays the aircraft‟s heading with respect to magnetic north. though usually not in aviation applications. In many advanced aircraft. descending. For purposes of navigation it may be necessary to correct the direction indicated (which points to a magnetic pole) in order to obtain direction of true north or south (which points to the earth‟s axis of rotation). For this reason. While reliable in steady level flight it can give confusion indications when turning. and is therefore subject to drift errors (called precession) which must be periodically corrected by calibrating the instrument to the magnetic compass. Magnetic compass: Shows the aircraft‟s heading relative to magnetic north.Figure: The flight instruments of a Slings by T – 67 Firefly two – seat light airplane. climbing. or accelerating due to the inclination of the earth‟s magnetic field. the heading indicator is also used for aircraft operation. but also assists with navigation. Sometimes also called the gyrocompass. Figure: Heading indicator Also know as the directional gyro. or DG. Principle of operation is a spinning gyroscope. . the heading indicator is replaced by a Horizontal Situation Indicator (HIS) which provides the same heading information. The basic T is present on the left side primary pilot station.

Internally mounted inclinometer displays „quality‟ of turn. the turn and bank is typically only seen in aircraft manufactured prior to that time. also called the turn and slip indicator. displays of turn and rate of turn. Figure: Vertical speed indicator Also sometimes called a variometer Senses changing air pressure and displays that information to the pilot as a rate of climb or descent. Replaced the older turn and bank indicator.Figure: Turn and bank indicator or turn coordinator The turn and bank indicator. or in Gliders manufactured in Europe. whether the turn is correctly coordinated. A turn coordinator displays rate and direction of roll while the aircraft is rolling.e. Replaced in the late sixties and early seventies by the newer turn coordinator. . as opposed to an uncoordinated turn. usually in feet per minute or meters per second. Internally mounted inclinometer also displays quality of turn. i. where in the aircraft would be in either a slip or a skid. displays rate and direction of turn while the aircraft is not rolling.

turn – coordinator and vertical – speed. The attitude indicator is in top center.Figure: Schempp – Hirth Janus – C glider Instrument panel equipped for “cloud flying”. In the former type. The other two. Arrangement in instrument panel: Most aircraft built since about 1953 have four of the flight instruments located in a standardized arrangement known as the “basic T”. airspeed to the left. but are given more latitude in placement. often on the windscreen center post. The turn and bank indicator is top center. servo – assisted. or fully power operated. In newer aircraft with glass cockpit instruments the layout of the displays conform to the basic T arrangement. altitude to the right and heading indicator under the attitude indicator. driving two electronic variometer displays to the right. are usually found under the airspeed and altitude. The magnetic compass will be above the instrument panel. hydraulic pressure is transmitted via pipes to a servo – actuator which helps the . The heading indicator is replaced by a GPS – driven computer with wind and glide data. Flight instrument Pitot – static instrument: Altimeter: Airspeed indicator – Machmeter – Vertical speed indicator Gyroscople instruments: Attitude indicator – Heading indicator – Horizontal Situation Indicator – Turn and back indicator – Turn coordinator Navigation: Horizontal Situation Indicator – Course Deviation Indicator – Inertial Navigation System – GPS Other magnetic compass – Yaw string. Figure: Tabs fitted on elevators and rudder of an old Catalina flying boat Powered servo controls: Powered controls may take two forms.

for example. The q – feel unit is a device which is attached to the mechanical control linkage to increase its stiffness in proportion to increases n dynamic pressure. On military aircraft. which move the control surfaces. some form of artificial feel has to be introduced. Once control by electrical signals is accepted. no mechanical override is provided. Therefore. rather than just the speed. Generally. The actuators are electrically or hydraulically operated rams motors. This system is known as fly – by – light and over comes problems due to electromagnetic interference.mechanical linkage to move the surface. and some military aircraft have been found to be very vulnerable in this respect. efficiency and even safety of aircraft. This system is inadequate. The force actually required at the control surface. also –called q – feel device can be added. The deliberate jamming of electronic circuitry by means of powerful electromagnetic beams is also a possibility. (q is the symbol conventionally used to denote dynamic pressure). even if power is lost. so a crude form of feel could be provided by attaching springs to the control column. Fly – by – wire can thus dramatically improve the performance. if not destroying. At constant altitude. The latter system is known as fly – by – wire. mechanical controls feed heavier the further they are pulled. navigation. autostabilisation. Nowadays. The detonation of nuclear weapons would cause very strong electromagnetic signals capable of upsetting. To over come this problem. The system is similar to the servo – assisted steering and braking system of car. Feedback or feel: One problem with power – operated controls is that the pilot has no direct feel for the amount of force that the control surface is producing. As an alternative to electrical signal transmission. The mechanical linkage can be used to operate the control surface. fly – by – wire and fly – by – light: In pure power operation. it becomes convenient to incorporate sophisticate electronic processing into the circuit. Such processing can be used to alter the response to control inputs. because the control loads should also increase as the flight speed increase. conventional electronic circuits. with increasing emphasis on digital systems. although the controls will then feel very heavy. radar ad weapons control system are all integrated in varying degrees. or approaching very close to the stall on landing. much . and can follow for manoeuvres such as flying in a stalled or an unstable condition. or electrically to actuators. It also allows for coordinated control surface movement that would be too complex for a pilot to manage unaided. Control signals may be transmitted hydraulically. depends on the dynamic pressure 1 2 V . the controls will. directly from valves attached to the control column. Power control. Such systems have demonstrated a high level of reliability and are being increasingly used. however. modulated light signals may be transmitted along optical fibres. require 2 sixteen times more force to operate them at 800 km /h than at 200 km/h. the flight control.

so did the control forces required. and the force required to move the pilot‟s control stick is increased appropriately. Reversing the procedure might be unwise. Kermode (1996) describes the historical development of tabs. Early aircraft and small modern types use a direct mechanical linkage between the control surface and the pilot control stick. less prone to vibration problems. Deflection of the tab downwards causes the trailing edge of the surface of lift. in front of the hinge line. masses may also be added to the control surfaces to alter the natural frequency of oscillation. in which the force required to move the control surface is sensed. The position of the hinge line can be arranged so that the resultant force acts just behind it. hands – off. the position of the resultant force changes with angle of attack. as this would cause the control surface to be unstable. since they produce a stiffer system. it is possible to make a small aircraft feel and handle like a large one. and are actuated independently of the main surface actuating system. By using the electronic processing of the feedback signal. Various means of coupling the tab and primary surface were devised. setting them so that the control surface produces just the right amount of force to keep the aircraft flying steadily. as trying to throw a 747 around like a Pitts Special could cause problems. Such trim tabs are controlled by a separate trim wheel in the cockpit or flight deck. thus producing only a small moment. Alternatively push – pull rods and twisting torque – tubes may be used. Figure shows the complex system used on an executive jet. Unfortunately. and some considerable ingenuity went into devising means of reducing these loads. A rather crude external form of mass balancing may be seen figure. and inertia does not cause it to move relative to the aircraft during manoeuvres. The top of the rudder projects forward. and are in some ways preferred. speed. . It is particularly important that the resultant force should not be in front of the hinge line. used on many aircraft up to the 1950s. that is. as illustrated in figure. As described later. A typical arrangement. As the speed and size of aircraft increased. producing a large turning moment in the primary control surface. Nowadays tabs are normally used primarily for trimming the control surfaces. The rudder actuating wire may just be seen under the tailplane on the Auster shown in figure. towards the hinge line. The handling of new untested aircraft types is often simulated by artificially modifying the control of an existing different aircraft type. so that it is difficult to devise an arrangement that produces small forces under all conditions.more sophisticated feedback systems are used. In addition to such aerodynamic balancing the control surface mass should also be balanced so that gravity forces do not pull it down in level flight. and run away in the direction of the ever – increasing force. is seen in figure. thereby moving the centre of pressure of the rudder forwards. The linkage normally consists of an arrangement of multi – stranded wires and pulleys. and deflection angle. Servo – tabs and trim tabs: Another means of reducing the load required is to use a servo – tab. but such arrangements are now largely obsolete.

On recent aircraft designs. Cockpit Instruments: Altimeter . Movable trim tabs can provide restricted emergency control in the case of a failure in the primary control surface system.Figure: External mass balance weights were used on the tail of the Venom Figure: A servo – tab Downward deflection of the tab increases the lift on the main control surface causing it to deflect upwards The force required to operate the tab is considerably less than that which would be needed to operate the main control surface directly Trim tabs allow an aircraft to be flown virtually. hands – off. may sometimes be used. their purpose being to „tune‟ the control surfaces to give a good balance. they may provide the only manual means of control. Fixed trim tabs. in the form of small strips of metal affixed to the trailing edge. Tabs may be seen in figure. for much of the time. or even literally.

For these reasons it is very important when flying over high ground or mountainous districts in foggy weather not to put too much faith in the altimeter. in fact. one has only to set this reading on the altimeter and. nor is it the actual height above the ground. Some of them have three hands. This is a great help in instrument flying. Although this is usually impressed upon pilots. such as is used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere for the purpose of forecasting the weather. and there is also a certain amount of lag in the instrument.” Would that the instrument were true to its name! The so-called altimeter which is used in aero planes is nothing more or less than an aneroid barometer.000 it. Not only does an altimeter fail to record the correct height when flying. the height which counts is not the height reached according to the altimeter. such sensitivity would be of no advantage if there were any serious lag. depending chiefly on the temperature and other effects. and this makes it just about as capable of measuring the height as the barometer is of foretelling the weather. which also vary from day to day. one making a complete revolution every 1. except under a very unlikely set of standardized conditions. In a flight of a few hours there may be considerable change in atmospheric pressure. that is how a bareometer works. the reading of the barometer at any aerodrome at which one wishes to land. it still cannot measure true height in the atmosphere. it is the height which we estimate it would have reached had the conditions of the atmosphere all the way up corresponded to those of the Standard Atmosphere. the hands will all point to zero or.000 ft. when the aircraft touches the ground. accidents have occurred from this cause. Thus it is impossible to mark off or calibrate the scale of an altimeter so that each pressure corresponds to a definite height. but unfortunately the rate at which the pressure goes down varies from day to day. is called the International Standard Atmosphere (fig). the pointers are moved. For this reason. the best that can be done is to assume some average set of conditions of temperature and pressure. But. and. or some attempt on an altitude record. Another refinement is that. the pressure goes down. After all. by an alternative setting. since the atmospheric pressure varies considerably from time to the at the earth‟s surface. but we cannot do any better until we can devise an instrument which will really measure height. and then correct the readings for any large departure from such standard conditions. and the altimeter is only a barometer. altimeters are fitted with an adjustment so that they can be made to read zero (or the height of the aerodrome) before starting on a flight. whatever may be the altitude of the aerodrome. one has only to set this reading on the altimeter and. A great advantage of this method is that if one can find out. . It does onto by any means follow that they will read zero on return to earth. instead of just pressure. When an aeroplane makes a test flight. to mark the scale of the instrument to suit these conditions. because there is less weight of air on top of us. The only real modification is that the dial is marked in thousands of feet instead of in inches or millimeters of mercury. As we go up. however sensitive the barometric type of altimeter may be. Modern altimeters are very much more sensitive than the old types. and when they read zero a little window at the bottom of the instrument gives the reading of the barometer. 000 ft. and the third in 100. the next one every 10. It is not a very satisfactory state of affairs. There is hardly any lag in such an instrument. What it does do is to record the pressure. as mentioned in Section 4. but it does not necessarily read zero when at sea level. instead of turning the dial to set the zero.The word “altimeter” means “height measurer. This set of average conditions has been laid down. by radio or other means. to the correct height of the airfield.

The usual type of air-speed indicator consists of a thin corrugated metal box very like that used in an aneroid barometer.Is it possible. and we have repeatedly noticed the close connection with angle of attack. But. to measure the true height of an aircraft above sea level? In certain instances it can be done by taking three simultaneous sight from the ground. or we can try to be very clever and work out how high we ought to be. and though we never know how high we are flying we can either assume ignorance and hope that the altimeter is right. . and landing. the static tube concentric with the pitot tube. Air Speed Indicator Throughout the book we have talked of air speed. where it will be exposed to the wind yet not affected by slipstream or other interference. Special “computers” are provided for this purpose. gliding. The other is closed at the end. Figure: Pilot-static head This consists of two tubes. then. but no instrument can be devised to measure this directly. one of which has an open end facing the air flow-called a pilot tube. with all its faults still holds its own. is placed the pitoot-static head Fig. In modern types the two tubes are often combined into one. turning. there is a best speed for each. the aneroid barometer. In taking off. for most purposes. and the pilot much prefers to know his air speed. climbing. At some convenient place on the aeorplane. but along the sides are several small holes which allow the atmospheric pressure to enter. the altimeter. while for the purpose of flying from one place to another the navigator must known both the air speed of the aeroplane and the velocity of the wind. and this tube is called the static tube. or by various radio and radar devices. and outside it (fig). or by some echo system such as is used for submarines. It is true that he would prefer to know the ground speed. straight and level flight.

000 ft. 60.g. 50.h. the indicator will read incorrectly. at 30. when the aeroplane is about to stall. so is the lift on the wings correspondingly reduced.h. the same stalling speed as when near the ground.h. we call the speed recorded by the instrument the indicated air speed. rather an interesting point about this incorrect reading of the air-speed indicator at height. while the static tube will still record the atmospheric pressure. But wherever the pitot head. Therefore the stalling speed of the aeroplane will increase with height. may be.h. e. the pitot tube being connected to one side of the metal box and the static to the other. depending on the air speed. the ordinary atmospheric pressure will be communicated by the tubes to both sides of the box and the instrument needle will be at “o”. however. will go up in proportion to the square of the speed. and thus we can understand why the numbers round the dial of the instrument. and so on..Figure: Concentric pitot-static tube Sometimes the pressure near the pitot tube is by no means atmospheric.. but at this increased speed the air-speed indicator will continue to read.000 ft a reading of 100 m. in other words. for instance. and at 40. When the aeroplane is at rest relative to the air. when the indicator reads 100 m. tube will record a higher pressure.p. just like all air resistances. The error is quite appreciable. m.p. at twice the speed to pressure will be four times as much. Other speeds of flight. The pressure on the pitoto tube. or open. and the real air speed the true air speed. When we fly higher. The instrument then reads the difference between these two pressure which is automatically translated by the dial into miles per hour or knots. and the static pressure is taken from some other part of the aeroplane altogether. are not equally spaced. on the instrument means that we are really traveling at more than 200 m. . has a distinct advantage from the pilot‟s point of view in that. but when traveling through the air the pitot.p. such as the speed for maximum range. the true air speed is about 160 m. There is. are affected in the same way. metal tubing is used to communicate the pressures to the instrument in the pilot‟s cockpit. the density of the air will become less.p. and since the difference between the two pressures depends on the density as well as on the air speed. Just in the same proportion as the pressure on the metal box is reduced by the smaller air density. and thus a higher speed is necessary to support the aeroplane in flight.p.h. whatever the height the aeroplane stalls at the same indicated speed. The error. and the static vent. 70.

True air speed can be measured by a system of rotating vanes or cups called an anemometer. at the speed of sound or above it. at the speed of sound. it is traveling at half the speed of sound. It is so simple. As we shall soon se.75.p.p. or threequarters.h. but its Mach number. it isn‟t just at the speed of sound that curious things happen. but at what fraction of the particular speed of sound it is traveling-in other words what matters is. The rate at which sound travels in air depends on the temperature is the controlling factors).h. or even at the speed of sound itself or at two or three times that speed. 0. and it is useful. flight at subsonic speeds which is what we have so far considered.e. and flight at supersonic speeds in which we are in a new world altogether and all the rules are so much the opposite from what we have already learnt that it reminds us of Alice Through the Looking-glass. sonic. we specified under normal atmospheric conditions. but they are outside the scope of this book. according to the temperature at the time. we know that when an aeroplane is traveling at 380 m. i. 0. Our subject then falls into there quite distinct parts. Here. or nine-tenths of the speed of sound. a Mach number of 0. 760 m. 1. and supersonic speeds. 0.5? Well.p. 2 and 3.. but just to compare them with the speed of sound-and that when we first said that the speed of sound. When there is no need to specify the actual Mach number and we only wish to indicate that a body. that the reader may well ask why it is necessary at all-if the speed of sound is 760 m. or above the speed of sound. respectively. while at the temperature of the stratosphere an aeroplane may be traveling below the speed of sound. but over quite a range of speeds which include that speed.p. What matters is not that it is going at 700 m..h. or the air flow.5. Thus at the temperature of ground level conditions of the International Standard Atmosphere (conditions which rarely apply in practice) the speed of sound is about 760 m. not its speed. This is expressed in terms of Mach numbers.p. This instrument is used at meteorological stations for measuring wind velocity. at least. in fact. but it is not very satisfactory for use on aircraft. therefore. . Thus the Mach numbers in the examples given above would be. Mach Numbers Since the speed of sound is so important it is sometimes convenient to speak of the speed of aeroplanes in relation to the speed of sound and to say that they are traveling at half. the lower the temperature the lower the speed of sound.5 simply meaning that the aeoplane is traveling at half the speed of sound.. An observant reader-especially if he has already fallen into some of our traps-may have noticed that we have been rather careful throughout this argument not to give the actual speeds of rifle bullets and so on. That is the clue. why wrap the thing in mystery by saying that it is traveling at a Mach number of 0. it ins‟t-in this case-just an attempt to blind people with science. as it happens. was as near as matters.h. is traveling at less than the speed of sound. flight at transonic speeds which ahs problems all of its own. For navigational purposes elaborate instruments have been devised for measuring true speed. is a highbrow term which anyone can understand.h. to introduce the word transonic. it is usual and convenient to use the Latin words and to speak of subsonic.9.

boost gauges for superchargers. The air temperature is needed for various corrections to speed. water thermometers for water cooled engines. dynamos and motors. They are usually driven by suction from an engine-driven pump or from double venture tubes exposed to the air stream. so does the model. air-pressure gauges. is of great value in instrument flying. which not only detects any tendency of the aeroplane to yaw. if he is flying on the darkest on the darkest of nights. and for this purpose an ordinary thermometer may be fitted on some exposed part. oxygen apparatus must be installed. which will be mentioned in the following paragraphs. Incidentally. which shows the position of a small model aeroplane relative to a horizon marked on the instrument. to be more exact. carrying and dropping bombs. even if the pilot cannot see the real horizon at all. is indispensable in high-speed aircraft. For high flying. The lower needle on this indicates the rate of turn and is worked by the precession of a gyroscope. the upper needle indicates side-slip and is worked by a pendulum. is usually fitted to modern aircraft. oil-pressure gauges. and may revolve at 10. A rateof-climb indicator or. the model moves above the horizon. and. If the aeroplane banks to right or left. and this needs special instruments all to itself as does the pressurization of cabins. having done so. height. like so many of these modern luxury instruments. This third gyroscopic instrument in common use is the turn and side-slip indicator.m. but it is no longer fantastic to imagine that in the future aeroplanes will be flying about. the model goes below the horizon. and so on. fuel flowmeters.” the robot or automatic pilot. without any pilots at all-indeed guided missiles are already doing just this.Turn and slip indicator These two instruments together-the artificial horizon and the directional gyro-are the basis of “George. and so on in record or test flights. On the electrical side there may be anything varying from the simple switch used for the engine ignition to a complete system of lighting and heating. There are not many other instruments concerned with the actual flight of the aeroplene. If the nose of the real aeroplane goes down. That sounds wonderful indeed. Perhaps the most striking of all such instruments is the artificial horizon. oil-temperature gauges. fuel-contents gauges.000 r. pitch or roll but. an instrument which shows either rate of ascent or rate of descent. Artificial horizon An instrument panel in a modern aeroplane may contain at least three instruments which depend on gyroscopes. if the nose goes up. or . and perhaps even fighting each other. For any kind of serious flying it is indispensable. and full radio and radar installation with all its attendant instruments. fuel-pressure gauges. we must not forget what is perhaps the most useful of all man-made instruments-the clock or watch.p. A machmeter. moves the controls until it is once more flying correctly. which has already been mentioned. Apart from the aircraft itself the engine or engine will need revolution indicators.

instead of possessing the property of pointing towards the north. and the pilot usually sets it to correspond to the compass course. when the column is pushed forward. though lacking the chief attribute of the latter.e. Only those who have tried to fly “blind” can possibly conceive the value of such an instrument. It is worked by a gyroscope which is so mounted that its axis does not move even though the aeroplane (and with it the case of the instrument) may pitch or roll. or . The answer is simple. the elevators are lowered and the upward force on the tail is increased. it will remain in any position in which the pilot likes to set it. thus causing the nose of the aeroplane to drop Fig. The principle is best illustrated by the old-fashioned system in which the elevators were connected by control wires and levers to the control column in the pilot‟s cockpit. It is very like a compass except that. Simpler in principle. Controls: a) Longitudinal control b) Lateral control and c) Directional control Longitudinal control Longitudinal control of an aeroplane is nearly always provided by elevators attached to the rear of the tail plane. but no less useful in practice. The reader may well ask what its justification may be. causing a certain amount of backlash in the system. it settle down at once after at turn.“under the hood”. In modern practice. just as the artificial horizon shows pitch or roll. The directional gyro responds more quickly to the slights turn. Actually it is marked off in degrees just like a compass. i. seeing that it seems to act like a compass. The control is instinctive. these may take the form of a rigid rod serving both to push and to pull the elevators from top or bottom only. is the directional gyro. however. instead of employing two wires which will tend to become slack. Figure: Longitudinal control-direction of movements In order to achieve this result it will be seen that in an ordinary simple control system the wires must be crossed between the control column and the elevators. it is unaffected by acceleration and the various magnetic errors of the compass. he can always tell the attitude of his aeroplane. This detects any turn of the aeroplane. more positive controls are nearly always used.

Lateral control The usual method of obtaining lateral control is by means of ailerons hinged at the rear of each main plane near the wing tips. enormously increasing lift. pneumatic or electric. the Boeing YC-14 was the first to large aircraft to use USB (upper-surface blowing). Figure: Plate 5: Here seen with landing gear extended. The huge tail is needed for control at the very speeds that can safely be reached. . so with flaps depressed (as here) they end up deflected sharply down. or the whole control system may be poweroperated. The Coanda effect keeps the transonic jets attached to the metal surface. one of the most potent forms of powered lift. The two 25-tonne thrust turbofans blow their jets across the top of the wing.they may rely simply on the torsion of a rod or tube. hydraulic.

if the control column is moved to the left the right-hand ailerons will go down. increasing the lift on the righthand wings. the Canadair CL-215 proves that large piston-engined aircraft are not obsolete! Powered by 2. thus banking the aeroplane to the left. by torque tubes inside the wings. i. at the same time the left ailerons will have been raised. having the ability to scoop up fresh loads many times in a single mission. medevac and utility transport. this amphibian is used mainly as a water bomber to fight forest fires. The ailerons are connected to the control column by a complete system of control wires (figure) by a rigid system of rods. This time it is a sideways movement of the control column which moves the ailerons and does so in such a way that once again the control is instinctive. Other mission include anti-smuggling patrols. air-sea rescue. or again by some poweroperated system.Figure: Plate 6: Here seen in service with the Royal Thai Navy. Figure: Lateral control-general arrangement .500-hp Pratt&Whitney R-2800 engines. decreasing the lift on the left wing and thus adding to the effect.e.

and lateral control is effected by a type of handlebars. They ingest air from the surrounding atmosphere and use the oxygen in the air as the oxidizer for the chemical burning process that extracts the heat energy from the fuel. In this instance it is not wise to stress the point that the control movement is instinctive.) . to obtain as large a thrust as possible with a given mass flow. the mass of which is clearly limited by the weight-carrying capacity of the vehicle. Figure: Directional control-general arrangement Rocket Engines The gas turbine and reciprocating internal combustion engines are both air-breathing power plants. but it is exactly the opposite to what happens on a bicycle when the handlebars are moved in the same way as the rudder bar.Sometimes the control column has no sideways movement. The rudder is connected by wires or rods or by a power-operated system to a rudder bar or rudder pedals on the floor of the cockpit (Fig. A rocket is the only means of obtaining thrust in a vacuum or near vacuum such as exists outside or neat the outer edge of the atmosphere. A rocket is a device that burns fuel and an oxidizer. because some people claim that it works the wrong way and should be altered to make it instinctive. It all sounds instinctive enough. . Directional control Directional control is by rudder. The forward thrust is obtained by applying a rearward momentum to the products of combustion. the rearward velocity must be as large as possible. both of which are carried by the vehicle. Therefore. If the left foot is pushed forward. or by a wheel similar to the steering wheel on a car. which has very much the same effect as on a ship. the rudder moves to the left (the wires not being crossed) and the aeorplane turns to the left. Only the fuel is carried aboard the vehicle.

There are two basic types of rockets. such as liquid oxygen. ammonia.g. which in turn are accelerated and ejected at a high velocity through a nozzle. liquid propellant rockets and solid propellant rockets. In the combustion chamber the propellants react to form hot gases at high pressure. . or hydrogen peroxide. or liquid hydrogen). red fuming nitric acid.. The propellants consist of a liquid oxidizer. The momentum imparted to the gases per unit times equal to the thrust developed by the rocket. A schematic diagram of a liquid propellant system is shown in figure. gasoline. Liquid propellant rockets employ liquid propellants that are fed under pressure from tanks into the combustion chamber. and a liquid fuel (e.

The solid propellant charge contains all the chemical elements necessary for complete combustion. A liquid rocket propulsion system is relatively complicated since it requires several precision valves. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons. Rocket Propulsion Elements. such as modified nitrocellulose-type gun powder. The body of the propellant is called the grain. The grain may be a heterogeneous mixture of several chemicals. It may be a homogeneous charge special chemicals. as well as for the initial launch and acceleration of missiles and spacecraft. From Sutton and Ross. Solid rockets are usually limited to short-duration firing (1/10 to 25 s). Figure shows a cross section of a solid propellant rocket motor. . valves or pumps are not required. propellant rocket system. The propellants usually have a plastic like caked appearance and burn on their exposed surfaces to form hot exhaust gases at a nearly constant rate. a complex fed mechanism with propellant pumps and turbines. This type of rocket is simple since a feed system. 1976. New York. or a propellant p[pressurizing device. for example a mixture of oxidizing crystals of per chlorate in a matrix of an organic. Solid propellant rockets contain all the propellant within the combustion chamber. Solid propellant rockets have been widely used for jet-assisted takeoff (JATO) purposes for aircraft with marginal takeoff performance. Long-duration solid rockets require excessively large and heavy combustion chambers.Figure: Simplified schematic diagram of a liquid. plastic like fuel such as asphalt.

Assume that the rocket is operating in a vacuum without gravitational forces. The only forces acting on the rocket are the reaction to the exhaust gases being expelled through the rocket nozzle and the nozzle exit pressure acting over the exit area. Figure: Rocket in flight.Figure: Sectional view of typical solid propellant rocket motor. and exposed burning surface of the grain influence the burning characteristics of the rocket and largely determine the operating pressure in the combustion chamber. Therefore. N (lb) dm/dt = mass flow rate of the exhaust gases. the flow is similar to the supersonic wind tunnel flow discussed in Chapter 7. From Newton‟s second law. The shape. the time rate of change of linear momentum of a body. kg/s (slugs/s) Ve = exhaust gas velocity relative to the rocket. in this case the exhaust gases. the force on the exhaust gases is F1 Ve dm dt where F1 = force. the thrust. size. and the duration. m/s (ft/s) Since a rocket is designed to maintain essentially constant temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber or reservoir. Se. . Rocket motor performance Consider a rocket in flight as shown in Figure. is proportional to the force acting on it.

If the rocket is then ignited. Since most rockets experience very large variations in atmospheric pressure along their flight path. exit area is designed for an intermediate altitude that produces the most efficient overall performance for the rocket powered vehicle. is F Ve dm p e Se dt If the rocket motor were immersed in the atmosphere at V0 = 0 and with zero thrust (Ve = 0). although the loss is small for quite large deviations from the optimum area. and for a given exit area the exit velocity is constant.ce is equal to the actual exhaust velocity when pe = p0. The later is the major part of the thrust. The effective exhaust velocity is defined by the equation Ce F dm / dt The effective exhaust velocity is a fractious velocity equal to the actual exhaust velocity plus the increment in exhaust velocity that would produce the thrust increment actually contributed by the pressure term (pe-p0)Se. where the pressure will be determined by the throat area. From Newton‟s third law. the exit area S e. and the combustion chamber (reservoir) pressure in accordance with the one-dimensional compressible fluid equations in Chapter 7. A rocket nozzle design that permits the expansion of the propellant products to the pressure of the surrounding fluid is said to have an optimum expansion ratio. An exit area differing from the optimum area will result in less rocket thrust. all the pressures remain the same except at the nozzle exit. and pe. in a vacuum. the force imposed on the exhaust gas by the rocket engine is equal to the force exerted on the engine by the exhaust gases.The combustion chamber pressure is always high enough to obtain sonic velocity at the throat or minimum section of the nozzle. atmospheric pressure p0 would act on all surfaces and the net pressure effect would be zero. The equation of Chapter 7 apply. The additional force due to pressure is then F and the total thrust is F Ve pe p0 Se dm dt pee p0 Se Because of the relationship between Se. maximum thrust is obtained when the exhaust pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. The other component is the pressure term given by p eSe. . Ve. so the total thrust.

It can be defined as the thrust that can be obtained with a propellant weight flow of 1 unit per second. from equation. N (lb). Thus specific impulse Isp F dm / dt g Since. It is the reciprocal of specific fuel consumption. The exhaust velocity for a particular rocket can be determined from equation. It Ft Isp dm gt dt Isp Wp where W p is the total weight of propellant. F c e dm/ dt . which. . Thus the performance of a rocket depends primarily on specific impulse. c pTe so 2 Ve 2 c 0TT Ve 2c p TT Te 2c p TT 1 Te TT Since Te / TT pe / pT 1 equation . Isp Ce g The total impulse It is the Integral of thrust F over the operating duration t.An important performance parameter for rockets is specific impulse or specific thrust. with a typical value of about 3048 m/s (10.000 ft/s). The magnitude of ce for chemical rockets ranges from 2000 m/s (6562 ft/s) to 4000 m/s (13. and cp R/ 1 equation .123 ft/s). It t 0 F dt t 0 sp I dm g dt dt For constant thrust. is proportional to the effective exhaust velocity ce. in turn.

for preliminary design of rockets. This.1 shows the combustion chamber temperature. Table 17. and the threat to personnel handling the equipment.Ve 2 RTT 1 1 pe pT 1 / From equation. Note that the specific impulse as calculated for Table is simply V e/g. and a high TT will increase the exhaust velocity and therefore will be more efficient.. TT is a function of the chemical reaction of the fuel and the oxidizer. The other two factors in equation are the constants R and . The exit pressure pe is determined by the rocket exit area. the exhaust velocity. However. the universal gas constant = 8314 J/K-kg mole. in turn. The molecular weight of air is 28. the ratio of pT to pe has been taken as 68. the resulting specific impulse. suffers from being extremely corrosive and toxic. pe = p0 in equation). the values we have been using so far for R and are applicable only to a particular gas. which is usually designed to bring the exit pressure equal to the ambient pressure at the average height during the burning phase of the rocket flight path. because the composition and temperature of the gas are changing as the gas flows through the rocket motor.35. The choice of a rocket fuel must be made not only on the basis of its performance but also after consideration of the difficultly of designing the storage tanks. is not really a constant at all. and the constants R and . and for several rocket fuel-oxidizer combinations. Also. pe/pT. air. We can see from equation that a fuel-oxidizer combination with a high value of R. Hydrogen-fluorine. for example. which results from a low molecular-weight M. this is because the assumed rocket has been designed so that the exit pressure is equal to the ambient pressure (i. Unfortunately. we can see that the exhaust velocity is a function of T T.03. The gas constant R is more generally defined as the universal gas constant R divided by the molecular weight of the gas. the pumps and piping that bring the fuel the difficulty of designing the storage tanks. Thus T T depends primarily on the propellant mixture. the molecular weight of the products of combustion. Thus R R M where R. Any fueloxidizer combination at a particular pressure will burn at a particular temperature determined by the heat of reaction and called the adiabatic flame temperature.2 and 1. is determined by the rate at which the pumps drive fuel into a liquid rocket engine combustion chamber or by the burning surface area in a solid propellant rocket combustion chamber.e.96. this corresponds to a . Other factors must also be considered. PT is dependent on the nozzle throat area and the mass flow rate at which the rocket fuel and oxidizer are consumed. the motor itself. is often taken as some average between 1. M. the pumps and piping that bring the fuel to the motor.

at sea level. At the design altitude of 17 km. 25 times the sea-level standard pressure). Thus pT = 25 x 101.5.. The exit molecular weight of the combustion products is 9.8 3774 fluorine Hydrogen2689 8.26 .33 1. The exit area is designed for a standard pressure altitude of 17 km.03. a combination widely used to compare rocket engine performance. The chamber pressure is 25 atm (i. pe = po.5 385 384 1. Example: A rock motor using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as the fuel and oxidizer has a combustion chamber temperature and pressure of 2700 K and 25 atm. the nozzle exit area will be designed to give an exit pressure equal to the ambient pressure at 17 km.1.533. and the thrust of the engine.9 3760 oxygen apT/pe = 68. 8852 N/m2.24 1. the given problem is then Isp. respectively. 325 = 2. specific impulse. calculate the exit velocity.combustion chamber pressure of 1000 lb/in2.9 2788 oxygen Hydrogen3869 11. may be assumed as 1. The use of equation to determine rocket motor performance is shown in the following example. sea level. Solution: Since the rocket is designed for an altitude of 17 km. Also determine the Mach number and the area at the exit.. this pressure is.26. m/s combination temperature combustion K products Kerosene3555 21.e. by interpolation. Table: Typical properties of several liquid rocket propellants FuelCombustion Molecular oxidizer chamber weight of Ve. s 28. From Table A. The rocket motor throat area is 0. 125 N/m2.07 m2.

79m / s 8852 2.26 2 875. pe pt 1 / Ve 2 1 RTT 1 R R M 8314 9.26 1 3971. where ce = Ve.126 .533.2 2700 1 1.26 1 / 1. Isp is from equation.3 962.533.79 9.2 and =1.26 1 / 1.5 875.From equation.125 1.2 840.26 840.29s pe pT and Te Tt / 1 T so that e TT pe pT 1/ Te 8852 2700 2.26 Since the nozzle is designed with pe = p0.125 1.79 962. Ve g 3971.26 Then Ve 1.62m/ s Me Ve ae 3971.8 405.62 4. Isp From equation.26 875.3K Then the speed of sound at the nozzle exit is ae and RTe 1.

Note that figure is not applicable since we are not working with air and is not. An unusual design used in converting a small piston-engine-powered commuter airplane from a twin-engine configuration to a trimotor was to place the center engine on the vertical tail. propulsive efficiency. structural weight. The arrangement of the propulsive units influences aircraft safety.75 1.126 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 / 1 M 2 e 2.879N 68.3 0.51 kg/s and thrust 3971.26 / 0.51 303.79 = 76. for single-engine airplanes. so we must find dm/dt.5 and Se Sl* 517.0121 1. pe Then dm dt dm peSe Ve dt pe 8852 RTe 875.0121kg kg/m3 0. maximum lift.5 0.26 1 4.79 76.318lb Propulsion-Airframe integration Propulsion-airframe integration is the process of locating the power plants and designing their installation to meat many operating requirements while minimizing drag and weight penalties.592 3971. the mass flow rate. drag. at the fuselage nose.26 2 517.07 22. Se Sl* 2 1 M2 e 1 4. the propeller requirements almost always place the engines on the wing or.26 2 2 0. maintainability.The area of the exit is found from equation. For prop-driven aircraft. A recent trend in turboprop executive aircraft has .126 2.2 840. control.592m2 Thrust = Ve (dm/dt). and aircraft growth potential. flutter.

is Prat & Whitney Canada (PWC). at the rear of the engines. One of their most highly produced machines is the J79 series Fig. was never put into production but remains a viable competitor among propfan designs. Forward fan designers claim fewer problems resulting from foreign-object damage. used in the McDonnell Douglas/Northrop F-18 Fig. they claim that the forward fan in the cold section of the engine for highest durability and reliability and minimum sealing problems. while the General Electric F110 (fig) is installed in the General Dynamics F-16. The CF6 series is installed in the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and MD-11. the engine can be accelerated faster. the variable-angle first six stator stages in the compressor (see chap. Three points worth noting about thee engine are the ariable-angle inlet guide vanes. forward-fan engine called the TF39 Fig. and the Boeing 747 and 767. all of which are also discussed in this chapter.been to place the engines on the rear portion of the wing. but it was never widely accepted. and an affan counterpart. The Rockwell International B1 Bomber uses the General electric F101. since most of the foreign material will be thrown radically outward and not passed through the rest of the engine. longitudinal control. For this reason. this turbine was then attached to counter rotating. General electric has developed a series of engines using the same basic gas generator (core) portion of the engine. A low-bypass General Electric turbofan engine is the F404. currently used in the McDonnel Douglas F-4 and formerly used on the General Dynamics B-58 and other aircraft. In addition. the CJ805-23 Fig. A commercial version of this engine was called the CJ805-3. the center of gravity is also far aft. General Electric‟s venture into the ultra-high-bypass-ratio propfan area is based on their aft-fan concept. one of the largest airplanes in the world. called Unducted Fan (UDF). The pusher propellers. As an interesting aside. is “gas coupled” to the primary engine as opposed to the mechanical coupling used in many of the Pratt & Whitney designs and others. and the moment arm of the horizontal tail is small. In addition to its aft-fan designs. but it has changed the fan and the number of turbines needed to drive the fan. 5) and the location and method of driving the fan in the CJ805-23 engine. Placing the fan in the rear and having it gas coupled is claimed to compromise basic engine performance to a lesser degree. A no afterburning derivative . are behind the aft bulkhead of the passenger cabin. The fan. located in the rear. respectively. and the aft-fan blades are automatically anti-iced by thermal conduction. which powers the Lockheed C5A and B Galaxy. wide-chord. This company produces several engines. A Canadian division of Part & Whitney. A General Electric F404 engine was modified by placing a multistage. Figure summarizes the PWC product line. The engine. a medium-bypass turbofan. Because the engines are so far aft. was used in the Convair 880 and the Convair 990. The latter is actually the fundamental design objective because it reduces the noise and vibration in the cabin caused by the propellers. General Electric also produces a high-bypass-ratio. free-power turbine at the rear of the engine. carbon/epoxy composite fan blades. the Airbus Industrie A-300 and A-310. United Technologies. From the TF39. General Electric Axial compressor Engines Another major manufacturer of both large and small axial-flow gas turbines in this country is the General Electric Company.. Furthermore.

In addition to the turbojet and turbofan engines. The Rolls Royce Tyne Fig. also builds the Olympus 593. a major difference being the location of the power take-off shaft. The Rolls-Royce spey Fig. The engine is specifically designed to drive helicopter rotor blades by a jet reaction at the tips. The CJ610. has found wide acceptance in this country and is used in the Lockheed L-1011. Both are free-power turbine engines. and engine with a mixed exhaust. is called the West wind 1124 and Astra 1125 and is powered by the Allied Signal Garrett TFE731 engine Fig. in particular. two of which are installed on many models of the Falcon fanjet. British Aerospace Corporation (B. now made in Israel. which powered the Douglas B-66. Rolls-royce. Northrop Talon T38 (F5). General Electric manufactures the T58 (fig) and the T64 Fig. and are used to power a variety of Sikorsky and Boeing helicopters. Fan air and primary airflow are both vectored (directed) in an appropriate direction in order to achieve the desired line of thrust. for use in the supersonic British Aerospace Aerospatiale Concorde.of the General Electric F110. or J85 Fig. The RB211. Like Pratt & Whitney. The airflow from both the gas generator and the air pump is mixed together. the Fig. . a requirement typical of all turboprop/turbofan designs. Grumman Hawkeye. Other Axial Compressor Engines Still other examples of axial-flow machines are the Allison Engine Company J71 Fig. which powers the DeHavilland Trident.. in collaboration with SNECMA of France. one of the few afterburning commercial engines. is slated for the Boeing 777. used in the Lockheed Hercules and Electra. is another unusual design of British manufacture. The Oryx manufactured by D. the F18-GE-100. Lockheed P-3. As might be expected. Lockheed C130. the compressor and the load of the propeller require the use of many turbine wheels. and the General Electric 90B1 Fig. 767. The Jet Commander. the Boeing 747. Convair 580 Conversion. and 777. all three-spool turbofan engines. and the Airbus Industrie A330. powers the Northrop B-2. Since the 501 is a turboprop. General Electric has developed an aft-fan version of the CJ610 called the CF700 (fig). British manufacturers have com up with some interesting variations of the axial-flow engine. For example.A. The engine is installed in the V/STOL Hawker Harrier. The power produced by the gas-generator section of the engine is used to drive another axial-flow compressor. 757. resulting in an extremely high-volume airflow. is used in the early Gates Lear Jet. driving the Lockheed S3A and the Fairchild Republic A-10 aircraft. and the Allison Engine Company 501 series or T56 engine Fig. The Rolls-Royce/Bristol Produce is another form of engine designed to produce highvolume airflows. the Allison Engine Company has also designed an axial-flow turboprop engine incorporating a fixed regenerator. and Grumman E-2C. is a two-spool turboprop engine with an integral gearbox for use in the Caadair 44.. The TF34 Fig is one of General Electric‟s small turbofan engines. Although it was never put into production. and the early Jet Commander. Napier and Son Ltd. General Electric manufactures a series of smaller gas turbine engines.C) One-Eleven.

their T53 and T55 series engines Fig. A feature of these engines is the reverse-flow combustion chamber design mentioned previously. The engine has also been used to power the STP Special at the Indianapolis 500 race. single-shaft versus free-power turbine. and has an interchangeable gearbox.. the T63 (model 250) fig. front-end power extraction. the Bell Jet Ranger helicopter. has an axial-centrifugal compressor (some variations of this engine use only a centrifugal compressor) and incorporates many unusual design features. Shorts 360. An important producer of axial-centrifugal engines in this country is AlliedSignal Lycoming Fig. and several foreign aircraft. the fan is geared down. since the best number of revolutions per minute (rpm) for the fan is. in their several versions. the main difference is in the number of compressor and freepower turbine stages. As can be seen in this chapter. which powers the Cessna CitationJet. In the ALF502. . Another interesting design from PWC. with the power takeoff at the front. Cheyenne. also incorporation a reverse-flow combustion chamber to keep the engine short. Allison Engine Company‟s bid for the small turbine market. lower than the best rpm for the gas-generator compressor (core engine) or any turbine wheel. and others. and the engine weighs about 140 lb [64 kilograms (kg)] yet produces over 400 hp [298 kw] in some versions. the axial-centrifugal-flow engines exhibit the greatest variability and design innovation. number of spools. the Piper Aircraft Corp. On this machine. Cessna Conquest. The axial part of the compressor is only about 4. All of the various permutations and combinations of compressor design. Figures 2-87 and 2-86 show two small turbofans. The AlliedSignal Garrett ATF3 is a perfect example Fig. a few Bell helicopters. For example. At the time of this writing. in most cases. most turbofan engine fans are either coupled to one of the compressors or to a group of turbines independent of the gas-generator compressor turbine(s). Beech King Air. is the JT15d fig. with an axial-and centrifugal-style compressor: the Williams International FJ-44. can be found on these engines. location of the power-takeoff shaft. used on the Cessna Citation. Two later engines developed by AlliedSignal Lycoming are the LTS/LTP (fig) series of small turboshaft/turboprop engines and the ALF502 (Fig). type of combustion chamber. Either case requires a compromise. The turbo shaft variation of this engine is installed in the Hughes OH-6 Light Observation Helicopter (LOH). have been designed for wide application in both conventional and rotary wing aircraft. so the low pressure turbine and highbypass-ratio fan can each turn at an appropriate rpm. including the Beech Starship. like the propeller on many piston engines. contains a single combustion chamber. and the F107 Wr-400 used in the cruise missile. The mechanically independent free-power turbine drives a coaxial throughshaft to provide cold. The highly produced and used Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC) PT6A engine also uses a reverse-flow combustion chamber. the air enters toward the rear and flows forward. many other engine manufacturers use the reverse-flow burner concept in their designs.5 inch (in) diameter. it can be disassembled in minutes with ordinary hand tools.Axial-Centrifugal Compressor Engines As a group. Both engines use the same basic concept and arrangement of parts. It is currently in use on many twin engine aircraft in business and commuter operation. etc.

and the driving the load. It is sometimes fitted with an integral inlet particle separator located at the forward end. An engine that shows great promise. the model 214 Bell helicopter. The mixedflow design is similar in appearance to the single-entry centrifugal compressor. Reverse-flow combustion chambers are also used. two-spool engine. The engine is used in the Britannia aircraft. gas-producer and power turbines and exhaust through either a single-or double-exhaust nozzle. The Bristol Proteus Fig. free-power turbine driving the propeller output shaft through a series of reduction gears. with the geared front fan coupled through a planetary gearbox to the low-pressure axial spool. used this design. 124 Westwind.A. but The mixed-flow compressor does not fall into any of the three main categories. axial-centrifugal compressor and a two-stage. This machine is a medium-bypass. as do many other types.I. is to AlliedSignal Garrett TFE731 Fig. British designers and manufacturers have produced an unusual axialcentrifugal flow engine. Mixed-Flow Compressor Engine The mixed-flow compressor does not fall into any of the three main categories. the I.Most small gas turbines use the free-power turbine method of driving the load. Once again. The mixed-flow design is similar in appearance to the single-entry centrifugal compressor. and the Boeing engine in Fig. This engine is designed to be installed in the Sikorsky Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft (UTTAS) UH60A. Hot gases then expand through the single-stage. . but the blade arrangement provides a different type of airflow. and the McDonnell Douglas Army Attack Helicopter (AAH) AH64. The Fairchild J44 engine Fig. The compressor receives its air axially. GE is now producing an axial-centrifugal engine called the T700 (commercial version CT7) Fig. The engine will be found on late model Lear Jerts. The centrifugalcompressor. and other aircraft. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited in twin combustors. but it discharges this air at some angle between the straight-though flow of the axial compressor and the radial flow of the centrifugal compressor. high-pressure spool is driven by a single turbine. and combines many of the design innovations discussed at the beginning of the section on the axial-centrifugal compressor. Air is compressed by a single axial stage. 2-26 is no exception. followed by a single centrifugal stage. incorporates a reverse-flow.

3. It is p represented by ha. How drag disaffected by air density? From the formula for relative drag produced on the body R 1 Cd PV 2 . ISA:. Absolute attitude: Absolute attitude is defined as the attitude of the plane from the centre of the earth.UNIT – III Introduction to Principles of Flight PART – A 2. As the P increases the mass of air p molecules striking the wing increases which in turn increases the energy to be supplied to displace the air molecules hitting the mane/it absorbs energy: R increases with p. pressure. Ha = ha + r (m) hG ha r . density etc existing throughout the world.(International standard Atmosphere) It is the Atmospheric manual containing the mean values of the temp. 4.SF 2 Cd coeff as drag P-density R is disectly proportional to p V-Velocity thus drag increases as pineseases SF Pr ontal area In other means.

These are verified with the eqn. . 12. Pressure distribution over an aerofoil:- Figure: 11. How pressure and density varies with attitude? Pressure decreases with the increase in attitude. density also decrease with the increase in attitude. What do you mean by lift & drag? Figure: Lift is the force component on the wing/plane which is responsible for the up & down movement drag is the unwanted force component on the plane which resists motion and always lie opp to the direction of motion.Figure: 10.

h2 h1 RT e T2 go dR isothermal region p2 p1 go . according .it is never the same from day to day. For this reason we have been forced to adopt an average set of conditions (as shown in figure) called the International Standard Atmosphere. they do serve as a standard for comparing the performances of aircraft.Figure: P2 P1 go . For instance. when a height record is attempted.h2 h1 gradient region T2 go 1 aR e RT isothermal region gradient region where dh go – all due to glave in the rea level a – lapse rate . from hour to hour. the height allowed is not the height actually achieved but the height allowed is not the height actually achieved but the height which. Although there may never be a day when the conditions of the atmosphere all the way up are exactly the same as those average conditions.dT PART – B Short notes on ISA:The most aggravating feature of the atmosphere is its changeability.

supply him with oxygen and heat his clothing artificially. . So it is no good choosing a lucky day!. enclose the pilot in air-tight suit. At record breaking heights we already have to pump air into the engine. the higher we get.to calculation. So far as aircraft are concerned. of this reason it is hardly surprising to find that estimates of the maximum height vary from 50 to 250 miles or more –rather a wide range. for the simple reason that the change from atmosphere to space is so gradual it is impossible to decide on a definite dividing line. while the aircraft itself can hardly get sufficient support in air that not got onequarter the thickness of the air near the ground. It is not easy to say how far the atmosphere actually extends. would have been achieved if the conditions had been those of the International Standard Atmosphere. the more difficult does it become to go any higher.

Fig: The International Standard Atmosphere .

the air molecules approaches the wave at a velocity vend at pressure p and density p and leaves the wave at an a velocity vtdvat pressure p+2p and density p+dp applying continuity eqn. can any longer leave them out of consideration. but in the space beyond it. V + dv.Nor is it surprising that estimates of temperature in even higher regions of the atmosphere vary very considerably-between temperatures both above and below anything known on earthwhen the air is so thin it isn‟t the temperature of the air that matters so much as the temperature of the outer surfaces of the aircraft. we have become very interested. Let us examine the wave in focus. e. no book on flight. Figure: P. IT is producing sound and the sound is traveling at an velocity of a m/s. we shall have more to say about them towards the end of the book. V p + dp. speaking with respect to the wave.1 dpdv  o (A cannot change since area of the steam tube remains same before & after the wave) . and although they may not even fly (according to our definition). with or without formulae. But in these days of missiles. and spaceships. Derive an expression for the speed of sound:Consider an aircraft is flying at a certain velocity. no only in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. satellites. These may not be aircraft (as we have defined the term). p + dp. we have PVA PV p dp v dv A p dp v dv PV pdV dpV dpdV O=pdv+dpv dpv=pdv .

From the culer‟s momentum eqn dp dv sub (2) in (1) vdv dP v 2 vd dp p pv dp v2 dp v dp dp 3 Zn this sound transmission there is no heat transfer in the process and also there is no friction and so it is an isentropic flow process. and therefore Paft Pbef Vbef Vaft m m xaft xbef paft pbef Paft Paft P p C Pbef Pbef P=Cp Constnat =C= P p 4 m-mass Pr operty after the wave Pr operty before he wave and dp d d cp d c 1 C  p  5 sub (5) in (3) .

V V vp  PV=mRT P P V m  RT RT RT By substuting the values of an ideal gas V = 340.29 m/s UNIT – IV Introduction to Aerodynamics and Propulsion PART – A 1. Aspect ratio:It is defined as the ratio of the wing span to the chord of the wing if it has a constant chord. Otherwise it is the ratio of the wing span to the plan area of the wing b b n S AR b c S – Plan area AR b2 S Figure: Camber: . Define AR & Camber.

Aerodynamic centre:It is a point on the chord of the aerofoil where these is no change in the moment. Types of drag: (i) (ii) (iii) Form drag (or) pressurizing Skin fiction (or) surface friction drag Boundary layer drag 6.(M) It is defined as the ratio of the velocity of the aircraft (or) air (or) an object(v) to the velocity of sound (a) V M no units a 3. 4. Airfoil:Airfoil is the cross section of the wing whose upper surface is more bulged than surface to produce tight. Mach number:. 5.Camber is defined as the max distance between the chord and the mean camber line Mean camber line Chord Chamber Figure: 2. Centre of pressure:it is a point where the total pressure force acts on the aerofoil. PART-B The Turbojet Engine .

Large frontal area of propeller and engine combination that necessitates longer landing gears for low-wing airplanes but does not necessarily increase parasitic drag 5. Long takeoff roll 4. with a 20 percent reduction in thrust-specific fuel . multibladed. accessories. low-velocity gas stream created by the additional turbine stages needed to drive the extra load of the propeller. More complicated design and heavier weight than a turbojet 3. long-distance flights. Ability to take advantage of high ram-pressure ratios These characteristics suggest that the turbojet engine would be best for high-speed. all of which goes through the engine.Which deals with engine theory. since propeller efficiencies fall off rapidly with increasing airspeeds because of shock wave formations. However. wide-chord propellers. the turbine of a turbojet is designed to extract only enough power from the hot gas stream to drive the compressor and accessories. A discussion of propulsive efficiency follows in the next chapter. highaltitude. The Turboprop Engine Propulsion in a turboprop engine is accomplished by the conversion of the majority of the gas-steam energy into mechanical power to drive the compressor. Turboprops are currently limited in speeds to approximately 500 mph [805 km/h]. which results in shorter takeoff rolls but falls off rapidly as develop high thrust at low airspeeds because the propeller can accelerate large quantities of air at zero forward velocity of the airplane. Possibility of efficient reverse thrust These characteristics show that turboprop engines are superior for lifting heavy loads off short and medium-length runways. Low thrust at low forward speeds 2. High propulsive efficiency at low airspeeds. thrust-specific fuel consumption (TSFC) at low altitudes and airspeeds. Lowest TSFC 4. said to be more efficient than the high-bypass-ratio turbofan. Only a small amount (approximately 10 percent of “jet” thrust is available in the relatively low-pressure. The turbojet characteristics and uses are as follows: 1. Lightest specific weight (weight per pound of thrust produced) 6. or extend. points out that a turbojet derives its thrust by highly accelerating a small mass of air. a disadvantage that decreases as altitude and airspeed increase 3. Relatively high. 2. The turboprop characteristics and uses are as follows: 1. Small frontal area. Since a high “jet” velocity is required to obtain an acceptable amount of thrust. resulting in low drag and reduced ground-clearance problems 5. and the propeller load. this limitation by experimenting with small diameter. researchers in the Hamilton Standard division of United Technologies Corporation and others are trying to overcome. All of the propulsive force produced by a jet engine is derived from the imbalance of forces within the engine itself Fig.

In terms of actual airflow. for a 500 lb/s airflow engine. If the fan air is ducted to the rear. Aluminum blades large enough to deliver sufficient thrust and absorb high engine power and of the right shape are also too heavy and flexible to resist straightening out from a curved and tapered aluminum spar bonded to a fiberglass. had a bypass ratio of approximately 1:1. or the two gas streams may be kept separate for the entire length of the engine. As shown in chapter 3. The first generation of turbofan designs. and as a result the turbofan engine is much quieter. or cold stream. The fan produces this additional force or thrust without increasing fuel flow. the static fan discharge pressure must be less than the total pressure in the primary engine‟s exhaust. and total pressure. pressure times the area equals a force. For example. the static pressure can be reduced and the dynamic pressure increased. As in the turboprop. or it can be ducted back to mix with the primary engine‟s air at the rear (long duct). Table shows the fan. about 50 percent of the air went through the engine core as primary airflow. On some long duct engines the primary and secondary airflow may be mixed internally and then exit from a common nozzle. Second generation turbofans like the General Electric CF6 (fig). that is. dynamic. the fan thus provides a greater percentage of the total thrust produced by the engine. such as the Pratt & Whitney JT3D engine series. and about 50 percent went through the fan as secondary airflow. or air will not flow. or by an independent turbine located to the rear of the compressor drive turbine. One fundamental difference between he turbofan and turboprop engine is that the airflow through the fan is controlled by design so that the air velocity relative to the fan blades is unaffected by the aircraft‟s speed. This design eliminates the loss in operational efficiency at high airspeeds that limits the maximum airspeed of propeller-driven aircraft. or the turbine will not be able to extract the energy required to drive the compressor and fan. The Turbofan Engine The turbofan engine has a duct-enclosed fan mounted at the front or rear of the engine and driven either mechanically geared down or at the same speed as the compressor. airflow for an engine with a total airflow of 1000 lb/s at several different bypass ratios. primary engine exhaust gas velocities and pressures are low because of the extra turbine stages needed to drive the fan. This composite construction produces a more rigid blade one-half the weight of a comparable conventional aluminum blade. . airflow and the core. airfoil-shaped shell filled with a plastic like foam material. the total fan pressure must be higher than the static gas pressure in the primary engine‟s exhaust. By closing down the area of flow of the fan duct. The obvious advantage is that the propeller hub and the pitch-changing mechanism located within can be lighter and the blade will more closely maintain its correct aerodynamic position. Either the fan air can exit separately from the primary engine air (short duct). the Pratt & Whitney JT9D (Fig. For a discussion of static. Also illustrate two methods of handling the fan air. Other engines with different airflows will have different fan and core airflows for similar bypass ratios. The efficiency of the fan engine is increased over that of the pure jet by converting more of the fuel energy into pressure energy rather than the kinetic (dynamic) energy of a high-velocity exhaust gas stream.consumption. divide each fan and core airflow in half for a given bypass ratio. or hot stream. By the same token.) and the Rolls Royce RB211 Fig have bypass rations on the order of 5:1 or 6:1.

00 5. such as the General Electric CF6 and Pratt & Whitney 4000 series shown in Figs. This action results in increased gross thrust due to an increase in pressure times an area. the turbofan thrust is not penalized with increasing airspeed. resulting in increased operating economy and aircraft range over the turbojet. up to approximately Mach 1 with current fan designs. the are fan jet nozzle is increased. no noise suppressor is needed. Very-lowbypass-ratio turbofan engines (less than one) are being used on some fighter aircraft capable of supersonic speeds. 3. The turbofan characteristics and uses are as follows: 1. Considerable noise level reduction of 10 to 20 percent over the turbojet reduces acoustic fatigue in surrounding aircraft parts and is less objectionable to people on the ground. of course.50 Fan Airflow lb/s 858 834 800 750 667 500 429 333 Core Airflow lb/s 143 167 200 750 333 500 572 667 This process expands the gas. and. 5.00 4. Fan engines show a definite superiority over the pure jet engines at speed below Mach 1.00 1. However. development that would not be conducive to good gas turbine design. Others. Table: Fan and core airflow for different bypass ratios.00 3.00 0. and increased thrust-specific fuel consumption. Increased thrust at forward speeds similar to a turboprop results in a relatively short takeoff. The large-diameter fan would require a much lower rpm to keep the blade tips below the speed of sound.75 0. TSFC and specific weight fall between turbojet and turboprop. Also. Ground clearances are less than turboprop but not as good as turbojet. At high speeds. 2. unlike the turboprop.Emphasis on the use and development of the turbofan engine in recent years is due largely to the development of the transonic blade. the increased drag offered by the fan more than offsets the greater net thrust produced. the speed of present-day commercial aircraft. require small frontal areas. the inlet guide vanes have . 4. On newer fan engines. which. in order to keep the fan discharge air at the same pressure. The disadvantage of the fan for high-speed aircraft can be offset at least partially by burning fuel in the fan discharge air. Bypass Ratio 6.00 2. Weight falls between the turbojet and turboprop.

which is considered to be a large problem for high-bypass-ratio fan engines. The principle of jet propulsion is obtained from the application of Newton‟s law of motion. Two thrust reversers are required if the fan air and primary engine air exit through separate fan nozzles. It consists of air plus combustion products. The air breathing engines are classified as: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Turbojet engine Turbo prop engine Pulse jet (or) flying bomb and Ram jet engine Turbo Jet Engine It is a most common type of air breathing engine whose essential features are shown in figure. the advantage of which is the short fan duct with corresponding low duct loss. Other fan-noise-reducing features are also incorporated.been eliminated to reduce the fan noise. Jet Propulsion It is the propulsion of jet aircraft or other missiles by the reaction of jet coming out with a high velocity. Since all the air craft engines breaths air from the surrounding atmosphere hence it is called air – breathing engines. 7. It is nothing but reaction principle. . The noise level is reduced by the elimination by the fan blades cutting through the wakes behind the vanes. 6. The term jet propulsion is used where the oxygen is obtained from the surrounding atmosphere. The turbofan is superior to the turbojet in “hot day” performance.

Inlet diffuser Air . where they expand partially to provide drive power for the turbine. The turbine is directly connected the compressor and all the power developed by the turbine is to drive the compressor and the auxiliary devices. The function of the diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into a static pressure rise. The high pressure and high temperature gases then enters the turbine. Suitable for long distance flights at higher altitudes and speeds. Then fuel nozzle supplies fuel continuously and continuous combustion takes place at constant pressure. The T – S diagram or ideal and actual cycle is shown in figure Figure: i – 1 1 – 2 compressor 2–3 Combustion chamber 3–4 Turbine 4–e Nozzle or tail pipe Advantages: 1. Therefore the drag is less 2. combustion chamber. After this air enters to the compressor. (axial or centrifugal) which further compresses the air to a very high pressure and delivers it to the combustion chamber. After the gases leave the turbine. compressor.Figure: Components of Turbo Jet Engines This engine consists of inlet diffuser. they expand further in the exhaust nozzle and are ejected with a very high velocity than the flight velocity to produce a thrust for propulsion. turbine and an exhaust nozzle. Lower frontal area due to the absence of fan.

the major difference being that the turbine is designed so that it develops shaft power for deriving a propeller to provide most of the propulsive thrust (90%). Since a diffuser is at the inlet. Thus the turbo – prop engine drives most of its propulsive thrust from the propeller and drives only a small portion (10 to 25%) from the exhaust nozzle. Sudden decrease of speed is difficult to achieve. Since this engine has a compressor it is capable of operating under static conditions. The diffuser. 2. 3. . only little energy is left out for producing jet thrust. 4. compressor. Long runway is required due to slower acceleration. exhaust nozzle.3. etc. Turbo Prop Engine: It is very similar to turbo jet engine . guided missiles and piloted aircrafts. compressor and combustion chamber functions are as same as the turbo jet engine. Applications: Turbo jet engines are used in military aircrafts. the turbine extracts much more power than the turbo – jet engine. 4. Figure: Components of Turbo – Prop Engine The engine consists of a diffuser. turbine. 6. However. Reheat can be possible to increase the thrust. and only a small amount jet thrust is produced in the nozzle is shown in figure. reduction gear and a propeller. Lower weight per unit thrust at design speed and altitude. combustion chamber. in the turbo prop engine. part of the compression is done by it without any work input. When all of this energy is extracted from the high temperature gases. because the turbine provides power for both the compressor and the propeller. Propulsive efficiency and thrust are lower at lower speeds Thrust specific fuel consumption is high at low speeds and altitudes. Disadvantages: 1. It is not economical for short distance flights. 5. 5.

Thrust reversal is possible by varying the blade angle. The highly heated products of combustion are then allowed to expand in the exhaust nozzle section and are discharged from the engine with a speed greater than that of entering air. subsonic diffuser section. Heavier propeller. Advantages: 1. The engine consists of a supersonic diffuser. combustion chamber and a discharge nozzle section. a reduction gear must be placed between the turbine shaft and the propeller to enable the propeller to operate efficiently. The frontal area is being blocked on account of large diameter propeller which increases the co – efficient of drag. Ram Jet Engine: The simplest types of air – breathing engine is the Ram jet engine which is shown in figure. where the fuel burners are located and here the air is heated to a high temperature (1600 0 C to 20000 C) by the continuous combustion of fuel. called the “ram pressure”. the efficiency drastically decreases. . Used for shorter distance travels. compressor and turbine decreases pay load capacity. a thrust „F‟ is developed in the direction of flight. Because of the rate of increase in momentum of the working fluid flowing through the engine. The air then flows into the combustion chamber. 4. The TSFC based on thrust is low High acceleration at lower speed enables to a shorter run way. 2. A reduction gear is required to transmit the power from the turbine shaft to the propeller shaft.Since the shaft rotation speed of gas turbine engine is very high. 5. Air from the atmosphere enters the supersonic diffuser where in its static pressure increased and the velocity of air is reduced. Engine is heavier and more complicated. 5. 3. 4. 3. If the speed of the engine increases above 600 Kmph. Propulsive efficiency is very high. The function of a supersonic and subsonic diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into a pressure rise. ( C < 600 Kmph) Disadvantages: 1. Then the air enters the subsonic diffuser it is compressed further. this gives the advantage of decreasing the speed drastically. 2.

combustion chamber. Disadvantages: A starting device is required to propel ram jet up to supersonic speed. 5. the larger the ram pressure and consequently larger the thrust. Applications: Uses as guided missiles and high supersonic speed aircrafts. because. erosion occurs at the exit of the nozzle. Its fuel consumption decreases with flight speed and approaches reasonable values when the flight Mach number is between 2 to 4. 2. High temperature and pressure can be employed. It has low thermal efficiency and high TSFC. and therefore.Figure: Components of Ram Jet Engine The cycle pressure ratio of ram jet engine depends upon its flight velocity. it is suitable for propelling supersonic missiles. 3. compressor and turbine. Since the flight speed is very high. the co – efficient of drag is low. 3. Therefore to attain the required flight speed some kind of starting device must be required such as launching rockets. Pay load capacity is very high due to the absence of fan. Consequently the turbine is also eliminated. it is not self – operating at zero flight velocity. Advantages: 1. the function of a turbine in just to run the compressor. . 2. It increases the mechanical efficiency due to the absence of sliding and moving parts. Since the frontal area is less. valve grid (contains springs that close on their own spring pressure). the pressure rise in the diffuser (ram pressure) is very high and this eliminates the compressor. Altitude limitation is there. 4. 4. Due to high temperature of gas coming out from the nozzle. Pulse Jet or Flying Bomb: Figure a pulse jet engine which consists of a inlet diffuser. spark plug and a discharge nozzle. 1. the higher the flight velocity. Since the rum jet engine cannot operate under static conditions as there will be no pressure rise in the diffuser.

Thrust: .Figure: Components of Pulse Jet Engine The function of a diffuser is to change the kinetic energy of the entering air into static pressure rise by slowing down the air velocity. Drag co – efficient is less due to smaller frontal area. Disadvantages: 1. due to the high temperature of gases coming out from the nozzle. 2. Advantages: 1. There is a rapid increase in pressure. When a certain pressure drop exits across the valve grid. Limited flight speed and altitude. propeller and turbine. where they expand and escape with higher velocity than the entrance velocity. where fuel is injected and mixed with air. Nozzle erosion occurs. cheap for subsonic flights and well adopted to pilot less aircraft. Due to the absence of sliding and moving parts mechanical efficiency is very high. Since firing in the combustor is intermittent and therefore intermittent thrust is produced. It gives higher pay load capacity due to the absence of compressor. Thus the thrust is produced at the nozzle exit. It is simple in construction and cheap. which causes the valve to close rapidly and surges the products of combustion rearward into the nozzle. The pulse – jet engine is a simple. 2. Severe vibrations and high intensity of noise due to intermittent combustion. Hence combustion takes place with spark ignition. 3. the valves will open and allow the fresh air to enter the combustion chamber. 4. It is suitable for subsonic flights. 3.

. Mass flow rate at inlet of the engine is m a and the mass flow rate at exit is ma mf Kg/sec.e.m a u . the remaining flows through the engine without any change in the momentum flux. The flow of air (internal and external) is separated by the solid boundaries of the engine casing. . Ce = Cj (Jet velocity). . . . Momentum thrust Fmom = ma mf Ce . Figure: Flow of Gases in Turbo Jet Engine Ambient air enters the jet engine at a pressure P a and velocity „u‟ and after expansion hot gases leave from the nozzle at a pressure Pe and high velocity Ce. If Pe = Pa the expansion is complete i. Jet Thrust (Turbo Jet Engine) The two section 1 – 1 and 2 – 2 of an imaginary control surface for a turbo jet engine is shown in figure.The force which propels the aircraft forward at a given speed is called propulsive force or thrust. . This propulsive force is mainly depends on the velocity of gases at the exit of the nozzle in turbo jet engines and from the propeller in turbo prop engines. The net thrust on the engine = momentum thrust + pressure thrust F = Fmom + Fpr . Part of the air flow at section 1 – 1 is swallowed by the jet engine and experiences change in momentum flux.

Therefore. Figure: Flow through a Turbo – Prop Engine The pressure at section 1 – 1 and outside the boundary is ambient. Therefore. F ma C j 1 . the thrust on the propeller and the aircraft is due to the change in momentum flux between inlet and outlet section. . . . u Cj = m a Cj [ 1 - ] .Pressure thrust Fpr = (Pe – Pa ) Ae Net thrust F = ma mf Ce . The thrust on the propeller F = m a (Cj – u) Where Cj = Jet velocity and u = flight speed The flight to jet velocity ratio or effective speed ratio u Cj . A flow boundary similar to the walls of a duct which separates the fluid at rest and fluid in motion. The air flow pattern before and after the propeller is shown in figure.m a u + Ae (Pe – Pa) Propeller Thrust: Figure shows the air flow takes place across the propeller of a turbo prop engine. .

Figure shows the utilization of power of the fuel in a turbo jet engine.Propulsive. Figure: Utilization of Power in Aircraft Propulsion . by „Cj‟ the above equation becomes . m C2 j 2 2u Cj u u2 2 Cj u u Cj u Cj u p Divide both Nr. Thermal and Overall Efficiencies The performance of an aircraft population system can be analyzed by various efficiencies. m Cj u u 1 . Power input to the engine (Fuel power) = mf Q f Power output from the engine = Propulsive power (or) Thrust power F 1 . m C2 u2 j 2 u = (Pout – Pin) Propulsive Efficiency ( p) Pr opulsive efficiency= Propulsive power (or) Thrust power Power output of the engine . and Dr.

Applications. The propulsive efficiency versus speed ratio for turbo jet and turbo prop engine is shown in figure. Fig. In normal conditions when the speed ratio ( ) increases. = 0. a comparison between the various engine forms can be made. the propulsive efficiency is maximum. turbofan. . u = Cj. Maximum thrust is needed during take – off period. the propulsive efficiency ( p) will also increases.. Therefore „Cj‟ must be always greater than „u‟ when the aircraft is flying. p = 100%. Summaries of these characteristics and uses follow. and propfan engines By converting the shaft horsepower of the turboprop into pounds of thrust and the fuel consumption per horsepower into fuel consumption per pound of thrust. but the specific thrust Case (b): When the speed of aircraft equals to the speed of jet i. As the graphs indicate. and evaluation of the turbojet. each engine type has its advantages and limitations. but the specific thrust is zero.p 2 1 2 1 1 1 p 2 Cj u p Case (a): When the speed of air craft u = 0. comparisons. shows how the various engines compare in thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption versus airspeed. Figure: Comparison of Turbo Jet Engines Characteristics.e. turboprop. The propulsive efficiency can be increased by increasing the jet velocity close to the flight speed where as the thrust power can be increased by increasing the mass flow rate of air or gas through the propulsive device. Assuming that the engines have equivalent compressor ratios and internal temperatures and that they are installed in equal-sized aircraft best suited to the type of engine used.

m C 2 u2 J =2 . by 1 . mf Q f Multiply both Nr. m C2 J 2 0 p th u2 u2 mf Q f Specific Fuel consumption: It is the ratio between fuel consumption rate per unit thrust. m C2 J 2 . m C2 u2 . th = m Cj u u . Substituting equation we get. . mf Q f Overall efficiency ( 0) Propulsive power Power input to the engine through fuel . u 0 . Since the output is in the form of thrust. m Cj u u 1 . the above equation becomes. u Qf mf F Qf mf m Cj u . . and Dr. a thrust fuel consumption is .Thermal Efficiency ( th) th Power output of the engine Power input to the engine through fuel 1 . J 2 1 . TSFC mf F It is an important parameter to compare the engine performance of different types of aircraft propulsion systems. .

propulsive efficiency is decreased. there has been a demand for increasing the thrust output of aircraft power plant for short intervals of time. Fsp F . Therefore. inlet drag will be more and the net specific thrust is reduced using the normal values of cycle variables. the flight must fly at a designed altitude.= Specific Thrust: u TSFC Qf It is defined as the thrust produced per unit mass flow rate through the propulsive device. Isp = = F . Effect of Altitude: At higher altitude. W u Cj g u u 1 g mg 1 Effect of Forward Speed: The forward speed of the aircraft affects the compressor inlet pressure and temperature. As flight velocity increases. higher rates of climb and increased performance at altitude during combat manoeuvres. m It is an another useful parameter for comparing the different types of propulsion devices. Specific Impulse: It is defined as the thrust produced per unit weight flow rate through the propulsive device. the ambient temperature and pressure is very less. The following methods of thrust augmentation for turbo jet engines are: (a) After . m Cj u . It is also an another useful performance parameter in aircraft propulsion devices. Therefore.burning: . This ambient air is not sufficient to propel the aircraft engines. . Thrust Augmentation: To achieve better take – off performance.

and the airfoil section that help to form the shape of the wing. 2.Burning additional fuel in the tail pipe between the turbine exhaust section and entrance section of the exhaust nozzle is shown in figure. Ribs:The spars the run along the span of the wing. (b) Injecting Refrigerants: Injecting refrigerants. The spars are basically cantilever beams extending from the fuselage carry through structure. resulting in increased thrust. Figure: After Burner This method of thrust augmentation increases the enthalpy of air entering the nozzle. Differentiate between monocoque and semi-monocoque construction. Thus the jet velocity at the nozzle exit is increased. This method of thrust augmentation increases the mass flow rate of air and decreases the compressor work. . with heights that reach from the bottom to the top surface of the wing. these airfoil shapes are called the wing ribs. water or water – alcohol mixture at some point between inlet and exit sections of the air compressor. What are the functions of ribs and spars? Spars:The wing spars which are large I-beams that run most of the span of wing. UNIT-V Introduction to Airplane Structures and Materials 1.

corrosion resistant. What are the different types of fuselage structure? 1. 6. State the uses of aluminium alloys in aircraft industry. 3. 4. aluminium is too short for aircraft use. 5. 3. formers and longerons. Monocoque shell Geodetic construction D-Spar construction Box-Spar construction Semi-monocoque 7. Composite materials are quite different from metals in both their composition and physical properties. Semi-monocoque:An aircraft structure in which the outer skin in inadequate to carry the primary stresses. Enumerate the composite materials. State the uses of titanium in aircraft industries. Composite materials are bringing about a revolution in aircraft structures because for the same load the composite structure can yield at least a 25% reduction in weight. and is reinforced by frames. What is box truss structure? . reasonable cost. 5. Supersonic aircraft have to use titanium because of the skin temperatures due to aerodynamic heating. and has an excellent strength to weight ratio. 2.Monocoque:A structure in which the outer skin carries the primary stresses and is free of internal bracing.  It is pure form. Titanium has a better strength-to-weight ratio than aluminium and retains its strength at higher temperatures. 4.  Aluminium is readily formed and machined.

and hydrogen must never be ignored. its high-temperature properties are disappointing. Machine welding with an inert gas atmosphere has proven most successful. fuselage skin adjacent to the engine outlet. The ultimate and yield strengths of titanium drop fast above 800 oF. Types.A box truss is a structure composed of three or more chords connected by transverse and/or diagonal structural elements. housing compartments. Types. large ratio antennas. . What is monocoque shell? Monocoque is a construction technique that supports structural load using an object‟s external skin.000oF where strength is not important. Titanium has some merit for short-time exposure up to 2. and many bridge structures. In view of titanium‟s high melting temperature. spacer rings. and uses of Titanium and its alloys. Sharp tools are essential in machining techniques because titanium has a tendency to resist or back away from the cutting edge of tools. characteristics. wing surfaces. Monocoque construction was first widely used in aircraft. nitrogen. as in aircraft fire walls. In applications where the declines might be tolerated. Box trusses are commonly used in certain types of electric power pylons. and uses Titanium alloys are being used in quantity for jet engine compressor wheels. This stands in contrast with using an internal framework (or truss) that is then covered with a non-load-bearing skin. Titanium and titanium alloys are used chiefly for parts that require good corrosion resistance. It is readily welded. and airframe parts such as engine pads. 8.300 oF. the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen from the air at temperatures above 1.000oF makes the metal so brittle on long exposure that it soon becomes worthless. ducting. and armor plate. Characteristics. compressor blades. although the titanium may require more intermediate anneals. Practically anything that can be deep drawn in low-carbon steel can be duplicated in commercially pure titanium. PART – B 1. moderate strength up to 600oF. Both commercially pure and alloy titanium can absorb large amounts of cold-work without cracking. fire walls. approximately 3. and lightweight. but the tendency of the metal to absorb oxygen. starting in the 1930s.

pure or alloyed. Composites are materials consisting of a combination of high-strength stiff fibers embedded in a common matrix (binder) material. In recent years. There are numerous combinations of composite materials being studied in laboratories and a number of types currently used in the production of aircraft components. When touched with a grinding wheel. Write a short note on composite material. When rubbed with a piece of glass. This has become particularly evident with the advent of the F/A-18. is easily identified. 2. The much stiffer fibers of graphite. However. The trend is toward minimum use of boron/epoxy because of the cost when compared to current generation of graphite/epoxy composites. boron poly-amide. Composites are attractive structural materials because they provide a high strength/weight ratio and offer design flexibility. there is a growing requirement to train you in the use of advanced composite materials. Composite structures are made of a number of fiber and epoxy resin laminates. graphite polyamide. it makes white spark traces that end in brilliant white bursts. the properties of these materials can be adjusted to more efficiently match the requirements of specific applications. AV-8B. As a result. and Kevlar® epoxies have given composite materials structural properties superior to the metal alloys they have replaced. coated boron titanium. graphite fibers and epoxy resin. boron-coated boron aluminum. Kevlar®/epoxy. has been used for some time in various aircraft components. boron. These laminates can number from 2 to greater than 50. for example.Identification of Titanium:Titanium metal. Composite materials are replacing and supplementing metallic materials in various aircraft structural components. and CH-53E aircraft. the replacement of metallic materials with more advanced composite materials has rapidly accelerated. The first materials were used with laminated fiber glass radomes and helicopter rotor blades. and it is anticipated that composite materials will continue to comprise much of the structure in future aircraft. and boron/epoxy. SH-60B. . Examples of composite materials are as follows: graphite/epoxy. the term application for naval aircraft. moistened titanium will leave a dark line similar in appearance to a pencil mark. The use of composites is not new. for example. In contrast to traditional materials of construction. boron graphite epoxy hybrid. Fiber glass. and are generally bonded to a substructure such as aluminum or nonmetallic honeycomb.

and the extent of the damage is difficult to determine visually. The monocoque design may be divided into three classes-monocoque. Primary bending loads are taken by the longerons. and bulkheads. the semimonocoque construction has the skin reinforced by longitudinal members. Discuss the monocoque and semi-monocoque construction. Since no bracing members are present. The welded steel truss was used in smaller Navy aircraft. which usually extend across several points of support. The vertical structural members are referred to as bulkheads. They have some rigidity but are chiefly used for giving shape and for attachment of skin. . In addition to having formers. ! The reinforced shell has the skin reinforced by a complete framework of structural members. ! Semimonocoque design overcomes the strength-to-weight problem of monocoque construction. and formers. Most are considered to be of semimonocoque-type construction. The monocoque design relies largely on the strength of the skin. to carry various loads. Stringers and longerons prevent tension and compression stresses from bending the fuselage. However. There are two general types of fuselage construction-welded steel truss and monocoque designs. The heavier vertical members are located at intervals to allow for concentrated loads. semimonocoque. The longerons are supplemented by other longitudinal members known as stringers. Different portions of the same fuselage may belong to any one of the three classes. and bulkheads to give shape to the fuselage. and reinforced shell ! The true monocoque construction uses formers. the skin must be strong enough to keep the fuselage rigid. These members are also found at points where fittings are used to attach other units. frames. although steel and titanium are found in hightemperature areas. All of these join together to form a rigid fuselage framework. these materials are highly susceptible to impact damage. frame assemblies. In addition. heavy longerons hold the bulkheads and formers. The semimonocoque fuselagies constructed primarily of aluminimum alloy. repair differs from traditional metallic repair techniques. frame assemblies. Stringers are more numerous and lightweight than longerons. 3. The fuselage skin thickness varies with the load carried and the stresses sustained at particular location. The biggest problem in monocoque construction is maintaining enough strength while keeping the weight within limits. The bulkheads and formers hold the stringers. The stringers are smaller and lighter than longerons and serve as fill-ins. or covering. such as the wings and stabilizers. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) is required to analyze the extent of damage that the effectiveness of repairs.Figure: Sandwich construction However. and it is still being used in some helicopters. the skin carries the primary stresses. The strong.

They extend from the fuselage to the tip of the wing. such as wires or struts. The construction of an aircraft wing is shown in figure. The wing must be constructed so that it holds its aerodynamics shape under the extreme stresses of combat maneuvers or wing loading. and all wing stations are measured (right or left) from this point (in inches). A complete wing assembly consists of the surface providing lift for the support of the aircraft. Ribs give the wing section its shape. Most NAVY aircraft are designed with a wing a wing referred to as a wet wing. Ribs extend from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing. Most aircraft wings have a removable tip. Wing station (WS) 0 is located at the centerline of the fuselage. which streamlines the outer end of the wing. The wet wing is sealed with a fuel-resistant compound as it is built. . All the load carried by the wing is taken up by the spars. slats. and speed brakes. The wing holds fuel without the usual rubber cells or tanks. The wings of most naval aircraft are of all metal. Wing construction is similar in most modern aircraft. Spars are the main structural members of the wing. The spars are designed to have great bending strength. Write a short note on wings structure. and they transmit the air load from the wing covering to the spars. The particular design of a wing depends on many factors. speed. rate of climb. Various points on the wing are located by wing station numbers (fig). The wing can be fastened to the fuselage without the use of external bracing. they may be folded for carrier use. In its simplest form. Often. The more complex aircraft may have a variety of devices. full cantilever construction. A full cantilever wing structure is very strong. This term describes the wing that is constructed so it can be used as a fuel cell. such as leading edge flaps. Note: The flight control surfaces on a simple wing may include only ailerons and trailing edge flaps. weight. some wings have a false spar to support the ailerons and flaps. It also provides the necessary flight control surface. such as the size. Wing structures carry some of the heavier loads found in the aircraft structure. Wings develop the major portion of the lift of a heavier-than-air aircraft. the wing is a framework made up of spars and ribs and covered with metal. In addition to the main spars.4. and use of the aircraft. spoilers.

The outstanding characteristic of aluminum is its light weight. aluminium resembles silver. magnesium. Commercially pure aluminum is a white. lustrous metal. light in weight and corrosion resistant.Figure: PART – C 1. Commercially pure aluminum melts at the comparatively low temperature of 1. The total percentage of alloying elements is seldom more than 6 or 7 percent in the wrought aluminum alloys. its corrosion-resisting qualities. show little attack in corrosive environments. those alloys in which substantial percentages of copper are used are more susceptible to corrosive action.216oF. It is nonmagnetic. or chromium. or magnesium and silicon. and uses Aluminium is one of the most widely used metals in modern aircraft construction. Aluminum combined with various percentages of other metals (generally copper. characteristics. magnesium. Aluminum alloys in which the principal alloying ingredients are either manganese. and uses of aluminium and its alloys. Types. and is an excellent conductor of electricity. Types. manganese. although it possesses a characteristic bluish tinge of its own. and its comparative ease of fabrication. characteristics. It is vital to the aviation industry because of its high strength/weight ratio. On the other hand. and chromium) form the alloys that are used in aircraft construction. . In color.

Table: Aluminum – 99. It may be rolled into sheets as thin as 0. 1330. Most aluminum alloy sheet stock used in aircraft construction ranges from 0. One disadvantage of aluminum maybe divided into two classes-casing alloys (those suitable for casting in sand. Likewise. the second digit in the designation indicates modifications in impurity limits. 2xxx indicates an aluminum ally in which copper is the major alloying element. it indicates that there is no special control on individual impurities.30 percent aluminum without special control on impurities. being used for stringers. etc. rivets. wrought aluminum and wrought aluminum alloys are designated by a four-digit index system. for it is very malleable and ductile. and die castings) and the wrought alloys (those that may be shaped by rolling. some of the larger aircraft use sheet stock that may be as thick as 0. Wrought Alloys:Wrought alloys are divided into two classes-nonheat treatable and heat treatable. the wrought alloys are the most widely used in aircraft construction. 3xxx indicates an aluminum alloy with manganese as the major alloying element. etc. grouped by major alloying element: Copper ………………………………………………………………………2xxx . or to well within the strength range of structural steel. and extruded sections. by cold-working. The first digit of the designation indicates the major alloying element or alloy group. Casting alloys are not extensively used in aircraft. By alloying with other metals.00 percent or greater. 1075. If the second digit is zero. Under this arrangement. or forging). The last two of the four digits indicate the minimum aluminum percentage. etc. the tensile strength may be raised to as high as 96. The lxxx indicates aluminum of 99.Commercially pure aluminum has a tensile strength of about 13. Of the two.000 psi. although strong.016 to 0. indicate the same aluminum purity with special control on one or more impurities. together with the use of heat-treating processes. alloy 1030 indicates 99. Thus. indicate 99. Aluminum products are identified by a universally used designation system. 1275. its strength may be approximately doubled.. bulkheads.0356 inch. Aluminum alloy material. Heat-treatable alloys may be hardened by heat treatment. Alloys 1130.0017 inch or drawn into wire 0. only one group (6xxx) designates more than one alloying element.000 psi.00 percent minimum and greater …………………… 1xxx Aluminum alloys.75 percent aluminum. permanent mold. In the 1xxx group. however. 1175. as shown in table.004 inch in diameter. 1230. is easily worked. drawing.096 inch in thickness. skin. Although most aluminum alloys contain several alloying elements. strain hardening (cold-working) is the only means of increasing the tensile strength. or by the application of both processes.. but by rolling or other cold-working processes. In the nonheat-treatable class.

The last two of the four digits have no special significance. variations in treatment. Digits are added to the T to indicate certain Greater strength is obtainable in the heat-treatable alloys. Alloy 7075 may be ordered in the W condition. Heat-treatable alloys commonly used in aircraft construction ( in order of increasing strength) are 6061. Solution heat treatment consists of heating the metal to a high temperature followed by a rapid quench in cold water. 6062. stressed-skin covering. it indicates the original alloy. If the second digit in the designation is zero. Alloys 2024 is used for airfoil covering and fitting. the second digit indicates alloy modifications. The letter H indicates strain hardened.. Alloys 6061. assigned consecutively. and other structural members. They are often used in aircraft in preference to the nonheat-treatable alloys. 2014. The letter T indicates fully heat treated. or annealed. Alloys in this group cannot be strengthened by heat treatment. The temper designation follows the alloy designation and shows the actual condition of the metal. or rolled. The letter F following the alloy designation indicates the “as fabricated condition. in which no effort has been made to control the mechanical properties of the metal.……………… 3xxx Silicon ……………………………………………………………………… 4xxx Magnesium ……………………………………………………………… 5xxx Magnesium and silicon ……………………………………………………6xxx Zinc ………………………………………………………………………… 7xxx Other elements …………………………………………………………… 8xxx In the 2xxx through 8xxx groups. and 7178. since it is stronger. This in an unstable temper. specified. hand-drawn. while numbers 1 through 9. The letter O indicates dead soft. 2017. indicate alloy modifications. 6062. Alloy 2017 is used for rivets. 6063. It may be used wherever 2017 is . It is always separated from the alloy designation by a dash. and 6063 are sometimes used for oxygen and hydraulic lines and in some applications as extrusions and sheet metal. but serve only to identify the different alloys in the group. applicable only to those alloys that spontaneously age at room temperature. 2024. The letter W indicates solution heat treated.Manganese ………………………………………………. 7075. Additional digits are added to the H to indicate the degree of strain hardening. hence the term nonheat-treatabel. cold-worked. condition.

In view of titanium‟s high melting temperature. moderate strength up to 600oF. Substantially higher strength without too much sacrifice of workability can be obtained in 5052. Alclade sheets are available in all tempers of 2014. Alloy 7178 contains a small Nonheat-treatable alloys used in aircraft construction are 1100. Alclad is the name given to standard aluminum alloys that have been coated on both sides with a thin layer of pure aluminum. fairings. They may be hardened only by cold-working. annealing effect. These do not respond to any heat treatment other than a softening. but retains enough work ability that it is usually preferred over 1100 in most applications. . It contains a small percentage of manganese and is stronger and harder than 1100. as does alloy 7075. It is used where more strength is required than that obtainable from 2017 or 2024. amount of chromium as a stabilizing agent. This alloy is used for fuel tanks. the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen from the air at temperatures above 1. Alloy 5052 is used for fuel lines. hydraulic lines. it is preferred over 1100 and 3003 in many applications. and lightweight. Alclad has very good corrosion-resisting qualities and is used exclusively for exterior surfaces of aircraft. Types. Titanium and Titanium Alloys Titanium and titanium alloys are used chiefly for parts that require good corrosion resistance. and wing tips. approximately 3. Titanium has some merit of short-time exposure up to 2. Explain in detail the main group of materials used in aircraft construction. ducting. Alloy 7178 is used where highest strength is necessary. and armor plate. fuel tanks. spacer rings. It is readily welded.300 oF. This alloy is similar to 2017 and 2024 in that it contains a high percentage of copper. 2017. and corrosion resistance are desirable. and 7178.000oF where strength is not important. In applications where the declines might be tolerated. and airframe parts such as engine pads. Alloy 1100 is used where strength is not an important factor. and uses Titanium alloys are being used in quantity for jet engine compressor wheels. and 505. 7075. characteristics.Alloy 2014 is used for extruded shapes and forgings. Sharp tools are essential in machining techniques because titanium has a tendency to resist or back away from the cutting edge of tools. compressor blades. wing surfaces.000oF makes the metal so brittle on long exposure that it soon becomes worthless. economy. Alloy 3003 is similar to 1100 and is generally used for the same purposes. and for the repair of wing tips and tanks. its high-temperature properties are disappointing. fuselage skin adjacent to the engine outlet. oil tanks. but where weight. 3003. housing compartments. fire walls. as in aircraft fire walls. The ultimate and yield strengths of titanium drop fast above 800 oF. 2.

000 to 67.but the tendency of the metal to absorb oxygen. Its use as a structural material is limited because of its great weight. It is the only reddish-colored metal. and when cold-rolled or cold-drawn. However.Brass is copper alloy containing zinc and small amounts of aluminum. its tensile strength increases. phosphorous. The ultimate tensile strength of copper varies greatly. the tensile strength is about 25. as well as parts that come in contact with salt water. Bronzes. Identification of Titanium: Titanium metal.Bronzes are copper alloys containing tin. This metal has good casting and finishing properties and machines freely. Practically anything that can be deep drawn in lowcarbon steel can be duplicated in commercially pure titanium. When rubbed with a piece of glass. copper is used primarily for the electrical system and for instrument tubing and bonding. some of its outstanding characteristics. ranging from 40. this metal has an ultimate tensile strength of 50. and it is second only to silver in electrical conductivity. 000 psi and can be elongated 18 percent. moistened titanium will leave a dark line similar in appearance to a pencil mark with an inert gas atmosphere has proven most successful. The true bronzes have up to 25 percent tin. Brass with a zinc content of 30 to 35 percent is very ductile. although the titanium may require more intermediate anneals. and tin. Wrought aluminum bronzes are almost as . They would find greater usefulness in structures if it were not for their strength/weight ratio as compared with alloy steels. Both commercially pure and alloy titanium can absorb large amounts of cold-work without cracking. manganese. Its strength can be increased by heat treatment. Copper and Copper Alloys Most commercial copper is refined to a purity of 99. Among the copper alloys are the copper aluminum alloys. “Red brass. Because it is very malleable and ductile. When touched with a grinding wheel. It is used in making bolts and nuts. lead. although the titanium may require more intermediate anneals. “Muntz metal” is a brass composed of 60 percent copper and 40 percent zinc. it makes white spark traces that end in brilliant white bursts. In aircraft. is easily identified. 000 psi. It has excellent corrosionresistant qualities when in contact with saltwater. of which the aluminum bronzes rank very high in aircraft usage. For cast copper. copper is ideal for making wire. Machine welding with an inert gas atmosphere has proven most successful. BRASS. while that containing 45 percent has relatively high strength. It is corroded by salt water. magnesium. especially for such items as tube fittings in aircraft.” sometimes termed bronze because of its tin content.000 psi. such as its high electrical and heat conductivity. in many cases overbalance the weight factor. nitrogen. but those below 11 percent are most useful.9 percent minimum copper plus silver. iron. As cast. and hydrogen must never be ignored. but is not affected by fresh water. is used in fuel and oil line fittings. Practically anything that can be deep drawn in low-carbon steel can be duplicated in commercially pure titanium. pure or alloyed. nickel. Both commercially pure and alloy titanium can absorb large amounts of cold-work without cracking.

1 percent manganese. 000 psi.working. and 2 percent mixture of manganese. and 2 percent of other elements. These copper-based alloys contain up to 16 percent of aluminum (usually 5 to 11 percent) to which other metals such as iron.strong and ductile as medium-carbon steel. iron. Aluminum bronzes have good tearing qualities. hardness. 9 percent aluminum. thus entitling this metal to classification among the tough alloys. 3 percent silicon. It has a tensile strength of 65. landing gears. precision bearings and bushings. and slide linears. air pumps. strips. and occasionally nickel or tin.15 percent carbon. iron. and forgings. nickel. can be successfully welded and ahs working properties similar to those of steel. hot-or cold-rolled. zinc. Although not a bronze in the true sense of the word because of its small tin content. extruded. 000 psi that. Monel has been used for parts demanding both strength and high resistance to corrosion. great strength. bars. Because of these properties. and sufficient nickel to increase the percentage of elongation. and brackets. and are resistant to corrosion. This metal can be formed. This metal consists of 67 percent nickel. such as exhaust manifolds and carburetor needle valves and sleeves. corrosion-resistant copper zinc alloy containing aluminum. have high strength combined with ductility. In aircraft. and for structural parts subject to corrosion. cast aluminum bronze is used in gun mounts. The most valuable feature of this metal is that the physical properties can be greatly stepped up by heat 1-33 treatment-the tensile strength rising from 70. it is generally used for machined parts. It is a recently developed alloy containing about 97 percent copper.000 psi in the annealed state to 200. spring washers. manganese. Monel. and resistance to both shock and fatigue. and posses a high degree of resistance to corrosion by air. and aluminum. Otherwise it is used in catapults.4 percent iron. sheets. K-Monel .000 psi in the heat-treated state. and chemicals. Beryllium Copper Beryllium copper is one of the most successful of all the copper-based alloys. Silicon bronze is composed of abut 95 percent copper. They are readily forged. silicon bronze has high strength and great corrosion resistance and is used variably. salt water. adaptable to castings and hot. for operating retractable landing gears. combines the properties of high strength and excellent corrosion resistnace. and nonsparking tools. In rod form. Cast aluminum bronzes. bearings. or manganese maybe added. it responds only ot cold-working. may be increased to 160. 30 percent copper. It cannot be hardened by heat treatment. shock. tough. Monel has been successfully used for gears and chains. and 0. and fatigue. drawn. using about 89 percent copper.or cold. 1. and pump parts. The resistance of beryllium copper to fatigue and wear makes it suitable for diaphragms. Because of these properties. These alloys are useful in areas exposed to salt water and corrosive gases. Monel Monel. the leading high-nickel alloy. 2 percent beryllium. by means of cold-working. plates. tin. Manganese bronze is an exceptionally high-strength. condenser bolts. and some react to heat treatment. or rolled to any desired shape. they are used for diaphragms and gears. Aluminum bronzes are available in rods. ball cages.

but when ti is alloyed with zinc. and structural members in aircraft that are subjected to corrosive attacks. employing a rubber pad as the female die. from waste liquors of potash. or by press or leaf brakes. and from seawater. Annealed sheet can be heated to 600oF. An excellent surface finish can be produced. Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys Magnesium. Magnesium alloy sheets can be worked in much the same manner as other sheet metal with one exception-the metal must be worked while hot. Magnesium is used extensively in the manufacture of helicopters. There is no tendency of the metal to tear or drag. and manganese. The Guerin process is the most widely used method for forming and shallow drawing. Magnesium is probably more widely distributed in nature than any other metal. However. chains. Its low resistance to corrosion has been a factor in reducing its use in conventional aircraft. magnesium is more easily formed than other materials. Standard machine operations can be performed to tolerances of a few tenthousandths of an inch. Power requirements for magnesium alloys are about one-sixth of those for mild steel. Usually the maximum speeds of machine tools can be used with heavy cuts and high feed rates. Sheets can be sheared in much the same way as other metals. A straight bend with a short radius can be made by the Guerin process. K-Monel has been successfully used for gears. forging can be accomplished in mechanical presses or with drop hammers. copper. However. grinding is not essential. With about 10 million pounds of magnesium in 1 cubic mile of seawater. A better edge will result on a sheet over 0. its high thermal conductivity makes it difficult to ignite and prevents its burning. which bends the work to the Sharpe of the male die. magnesium dust and fine chips are ignited. It will not burn until the melting point is reached. K-Monel can be successfully welded. Their properties compare favorably with those of cast aluminum. and. . It is corrosion resistant and capable of hardening by heat treatment. It is produced by adding a small amount of aluminum to the Monel formula.064 inch thick if it is sheared hot. from underground brines.K-Monel is a nonferrous alloy containing mainly nickel. under certain conditions.064 inch. compensations are offered by the fact that in the ranges used. but heard-rolled sheet should not be heated above 275 oF. in most cases. although. 3. and aluminum. is a silvery-white material weighing only two-thirds as much as aluminum. hydraulic presses are ordinarily used. which is a disadvantage. In forging. Magnesium alloys possess good casting characteristics. which is approximately 1. as shown in figure 1-24. When in large sections. except that a rough flaky fracture is produced on sheets thicker than about 0. The machining characteristics of magnesium alloys are excellent. it produces an alloy having the highest strength/weight ratio. The structure of magnesium is such that the alloys work harden rapidly at room temperatures. Write a note on types of fuselage structure. This alloy is nonmagnetic at all temperatures. there is no danger of a dwindling Supply. the world‟s lightest structural metal. aluminum. The work is usually done at temperatures ranging from 450 oF. It can be obtained from such ores as dolomite and magnetite. Magnesium does not possess sufficient strength in its pure state for structural uses. Magnesium embodies fire hazards of an unpredictable nature.200 oF.

2) Geodetic construction Airframe geodetic fuselage structure exposed by battle damage Geodetic structural elements were used by Barnes Wallis for British Vickers between the wars and into World War II to form the whole of the fuselage. uniform load bearing structure is within the completed aircraft. The aerodynamic shape is completed by additional elements called formers and stringers and is then covered with fabric and painted. covering. where a complete welded truss structure is delivered with the fitting of other components. In this type of construction multiple flat strip stringers are wound about the formers in opposite spiral . This method is especially suitable for amateur-build aircraft kits. as it ensures that a robust. and finishing completed by the user. Most early aircraft used this technique with wood and wire trusses and this type of structure is still in use in many lightweight aircraft using welded steel tube trusses. including its aerodynamic shape. with emphasis on using linked triangular elements.1) Box truss structure The structural elements resemble those of a bridge.

a series of frame in the shape of the fuselage cross sections are held in position on a rigid fixture. As the accuracy of the final product is determined largely by the costly fixture. where the layers of plywood are formed over a “plug” or within a mold. The use of molded fiberglass using negative (“female”) molds (which give a nearly finished product) is prevalent in the series production of many modern sailplanes. Monocoque shell In this method. 3. but requiring more effort in finishing (see the Rutan VariEze). strong. Semi-monocoque This is the preferred method of constructing an all-aluminum fuselage. and rigid and hand the advantage of being made almost entirely of wood. controls. as the skin. The geodesic structure is also redundant and so can survive localized damage without catastrophic failure.e. Both monocoque and semi-monocoque are referred to as “stressed skin” structures as all or a portion of the external load (i. forming a basket-like appearance. It should be noted that no plywood-skin fuselage is truly monocoque. A fabric covering over the structure completed the aerodynamic shell (see the Vickers Wellington for an example of a large warplane which uses this process). A simple form of this used in some amateur-built aircraft uses rigid expanded foam plastic as the core. the exterior surface of the fuselage is also the primary structure. which is then fitted out with wiring. this form is suitable for series production. Early examples of this type include the Douglass Aircraft DC-2 and DC-3 civil aircraft and the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. These are in turn covered with a skin of sheet aluminum. and interior equipment such as seats and luggage bins. where a large number of identical aircraft are to be produced. attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives. The use of molded composites for fuselage structures is being extended to large passenger aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner (using pressure molding on female molds). Most modern large aircraft are built using this technique. First. and from discrete masses such as the engine) is taken by the surface covering. This proved to be light. An example of a larger molded plywood aircraft is the de Havilland Mosquito fighter/light bomber of World War II . in which multiple sheets are laid with the grain in differing directions to give the monocoque type below. or jig. all the load from internal pressurization is carried (as skin tension) by the external skin . A later form of this structure uses fiberglass cloth impregnated with polyester or epoxy resin. The logical evolution of this is the creation of fuselages using molded plywood. In addition. eliminating the necessity of fabricating molds. A similar construction using aluminum alloy was used in the Vickers Warwick with less materials than would be required for other structural types. A typical early form of this (see the Lockheed Vega) was built using molded plywood. instead of plywood. but use several large sections constructed in this fashion which are then joined with fasteners to form the complete fuselage. with a fiberglass covering. from wings and empennage. since stiffening elements are incorporated into the structure to carry concentrated loads that would otherwise buckle the thin skin. These frames are then joined with lightweight longitudinal elements called stringers.directions. The fixture is then disassembled and removed from the completed fuselage shell. Most metal light aircraft are constructed using this process.

(McDonnell Douglas Corp.) .Figure: Construction of the wing for the Dc-10.

Stops the yaw. (Lockheed California Co). .Figure: The internal structure of a modern transport wing.

Kruger flaps 6. Spoilers-Air brakes . Spoilers 10. Three slotted outer flaps 9. Low-Speed Aileron 3.Control surfaces 1. Winglet 2. Three slotted inner flaps 8. Slats 7. Flap track fairing 5. High-Speed Aileron 4.

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