U3AEA04 ELEMENTS OF AERONAUTICS

LTPC 3003

OBJECTIVE To introduce the basic concepts of aerospace engineering and the current developments in the field. UNIT I Historical Evaluation 9 Early airplanes, Multiplanes, biplanes and monoplanes, Developments in aerodynamics, materials, structures and propulsion over the years. UNIT II Aircraft and Rocket Configurations 9 Components of an airplane and their functions, Different types of flight vehicles, classifications. Basic instruments for flying, Principles of operation of rocket, types of rockets. UNIT III Introduction to Principles of Flight 9 Physical properties and structure of the atmosphere, Temperature, pressure and altitude relationships, Evolution of lift, drag and moment. Different types of drag. UNIT IV Introduction to Aerodynamics and Propulsion 9

Aerodynamic forces on aircraft – classification of NACA aerofoils, High lift devices, aspect ratio, wing loading, Mach number, centre of pressure and aerodynamic centre-aerofoil characteristics-lift, drag curves. Basic ideas about piston, turboprop and jet engines, Use of propeller and jets for thrust production. UNIT V Introduction to Airplane Structures and Materials 9 General types of construction, Monocoque, semi-monocoque. Typical wing and fuselage structure. Metallic and non-metallic materials, Use of aluminium alloy, titanium, stainless steel and composite materials. TOTAL: 45 periods TEXT BOOK 1. Anderson, J.D., “Introduction to Flight”, 5th edition.

REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Kermode, A.C., “Flight without Formulae”, McGraw-Hill, 1997. Kermode, A.C., “Mechanics Of Flight”, 5th Edition. John Cutler, “Understanding Aircraft Structures” , 3rd Edition. Titterton, “Aircraft Materials & Processes”, 3rd Edition. Norman Dave, “ Interactive Aeronautics “ , McGraw-Hill. Murugaperumal, “ Aircraft Jet Engines & Rocket Propulsion “.

UNIT – I
Historical Evaluation

PART - A
1. Biplanes: Type of airplane in which two wings are placed one above the other to increase the lift produced with minimum speed. (e.g) Wright Flyer – I 2. Monoplanes Type of airplane in which only one wings will be there placed along the lateral axis of aircraft.(e.g) most modern air crafts are monoplanes. 3. Biplane interference: The condition in a biplane in which the high pressure on under surface of upper wing low pressure on upper surface of lower using, results in interference between two wings. Thus lift is reduced. 4. An ornithopter:The concepts of wings flapped up and down by various mechanical mechanisms, powered by some type of human arm, leg or lady movement was given by Leonardo da vinci in late 15 th century. This is termed as ornithopter. 5. Triplane: Type of airplane in which three wings are placed one above the other. The wings are called as low wing, mid wing and shoulder wing. 6. Differentiate between Monoplanes and Biplanes. Monoplanes Biplanes

Two wings placed one above other. They are a) Only one wing is present. a) Upper wing and b) Lift produced will be loss compared to biplane b) Lower wing lift produced will be high but not exactly double the monoplane Biplane interference will occur c) Biplane interference will not occur

7. Differentiate between Lighter than Aeroplanes and Heavier than Aeroplanes. Lighter than Aeroplanes Heavier than Aeroplanes

Based on Archimedes principles. Based on lift produced by a moving body. Pay load is very less control and manocurve is Payload is very high control and manocurve is tedius simple.

Engines are not used for propulsion

Engines are used for propulsion.

8. What is the difference between Airmen and Chauffeurs? Airmen Chauffeurs

a) Air man are those who recognized the need a) Chauffeurs are those who just makes
to get up in the air, fly around with gliders engine and fix, in air frame and gets into air. and obtain the feel of an airplane before engine was used for powered flight. b) They are interested in flight control in air b) They interested in thrust and light.

9. Whirling arm apparatus. Whirling arm apparatus is the one which is used by cay by to test air foils. This is nothing but a airfoil mounted on the end of a long rod, which was rotated at some speed to generate a flow of air over airfoil, which allowed the measurement of aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure on lifting surface. 10. Glider: Gliders are un powered airframes, which has very large lift producing surfaces and less weight. 11. Four forces acting on an aero plane. i) lift Perpendicular to direction of relative wind ii) Drag Parallel to direction of relative wind iii) Thrust produces forward motion iv) Weight force of gravity 12. Lift: A force on airplane which is perpendicular to the direction of relative wind and opposite in the direction of weight in level flight. 13. Drag: A force acting on aero plan, which is parallel to the direction of relative wind a opposite to thrust direction under level flight. 14. Composition of aluminum alloy used in modern aircraft. i) Duralumin Al-93.5% Cu-4.4% Mn-1.5% Mg-0.6% 15. How aircrafts propelled during early days? Some basic propulsion methods are i) Paddle wheel mechanism ii) Jn Bocing 747 Al-80% Steel-17% Titanium-3%

In 1857. lilienthal build a powered machine. In Temple achieved the world first powered take off by a piloted. In 1799. it was powered by some type of hot air engined. full size airplane. the first successful airship. etc. Sir George Cay by used a paddle wheel mechanism for the propulsion of his aero plane. obviously an ornithoptes type ideal to mimic the natural mode of propulsion for birds. He also stated that lift is generated by a region of low pressure on the upper surface of using. propelled by a steam engine was built. Forward wings and was powered by lock work. . when a balloon carrying Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis d‟ Arlandes ascended into the air and drifted 5 miles across Paris. In 1874. In 1893. he published in England a design for a fixed using airplane powered by steam engine driving two propelled called the aerial steam carriage. driving two propellers. driving a 5-ft diameter propeller by pitcher. however. In 1905 samuel Pierpont Langley designed and builded a series of powered aircraft which finally culminated in two attempted piloted flights. In 1884 Alexander F. the prime mover was carbonic acid gas motor that twisted six states at each using tip. he built and tested a full – size airplane of trip lane type called “The Boy carrier” and the vertical and horizontal fail surfaces are made and propulsive mechanism is flapper wing type. William Samuel Hendon (1812-1888) was contemporary of cay by. The balloon was inflated and buoyed up by hot air from an open fire burning in a large wicker basket underneath.B DEVELOPMENTS IN PROPULSION AND MATERIALS:Human effort to fly literally got off the ground on November 21. Mozhaiski designed a steam powered monoplane. In April 1843.ii) iii) iv) Steam engine Flapper using type Reciprocating engine. PART . In this type the engine is inside a closed fuselage. In 1810. Hawk was designed with 4hp engine weighing about 40lt. 1783. It was the first time humans had been lifted off the ground for a sustained period of time. Felix Du Temple made the first successful powered model airplane in monoplane type swept. In 1849. In 1897.

It had two propellers between the wings. . powered by a 1-hp steam engines of langley‟s own design. By means of bicycle type chains. The resulting engine produced 52. He represented first modern – configuration of air plane with a fixed wing and horizontal and vertical tail.5-hp gasoline fueled engine he made successful flight with quarter scale size. Willbar‟s build theirs own engine of 12 hp and 200 lp weight. Leonards da vinci have designed many or nithopters during 15th century it is a human powered flight by flapping wing. In Wright flyer I. In 1905. driving two pushes propellers. The first commissioned Stephan Balzer of New York to produce such an engine. For first time in history that lift is generated by a region of low pressure on the upper surface of the using. different from wide paddle like shape The efficiency of propeller used to 76% DEVELOPMENTS IN STRUCTURE OVER THE YEARS:The idea of flying come to human from birds. In 1804. the European designers were quick to adopt the long. He then build nearly 100 different types of rubber – band – powered model airplanes. a paddles for a propulsion and combined horizontal and vertical (cruciform) tail for stability. he built a whirling – arm apparatus for testing air foils similar to wind tunnels and also designed a model glider. the spectacular gasoline fueled Wright engine. In 1903. with which he made force test on airfoils. the advanced propellers are used in flyer III During 1905 to 1908. Using 1. In 1809 cayley explained that when surface inclined at some angle to the direction of motion will generate lift and that a cambered surface will do this more efficiently than a flat surface. wright‟s atleast would have designed six new engines.Cay lay build a large whirling arm. The early greek myth of daedalus and his son I carus. graduating to steam – powered models in 1892. Imprisoned on the Island of crete. Daedalus and his son made flying model both escaped from prison. slender shape wright‟s propeller. George cayley in 1799 gave concept of fixed using for generating lift.4 hp and yet weighted only 208 lt. powered by a steam engine. Departing from his earlier use of steam Langley correctly decided that the gasoline fueled engine was the proper prime mover for air craft. In 1909.

forward wings and in 1884 he made steam powered plane In 1866. A full size biplane glider was ready by September 1900. was built by Henri Gifford in Paris in 1852 in 1849. In September 20. He mounted this on tandem winged aircraft on a catapult to provide an assisted take off. In 1891. with a pilot‟s seat and three – wheel under carriage A tubular beam and box beam construction. Glider 2 was made of larger using span of 22-ft using span. In 1903. otto lilienthal designed and flow the first successful controlled gliders in history with birdlike platform of the using lilienthal used cambered (carried) airfoil shaped on the using and incorporated vertical and horizontal tail planes in the back for stability. they made wright flyer I of using span 40 feet 4 inch and used double rubber behind the wings and a double elevator in front of the wings. they made about 200 different airfoil shapes. Langley stepped directly to the full size airplane. In 1901. Chanute designed a hang gliders and biplane glider which introduced by the effective platt truss method of structural rigging. In willur‟s model the use of using twist to control airplane in lateral (rolling) motion and aibrons are used on modern airplanes for this purpose. The modulation are i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) A main using at an angle of incidence for lift. with a dihedral for lateral stability An adjustable cruciform tail for longitudinal directional stability. and was usually flows on strings from the ground. 1902 number 3 glider of biplane type flow with wing span of 32-ft 1. in that most of the lift of a wing was obtained from the portion near the leading edge and using with high aspect ratio was the most efficient for producing lift. In 1902. Felix Du temple made a monoplane with swept.inch. In 1896. Francis H. wenhem published paper. In 1903. A pilot – operated elevator and rudder A fuselage in the form of a car. Tricycle landing gear In 1857. he built and tested a full – size airplane. propelled by a steam by a steam engine. willur wined the term using warping and led to their first aircraft. a trip lane kite with using span of 5 ft in 1899.The first successful air ship. it had 17 ft using span and a horizontal elevator in front of the wings. . with modification in vertical rudder behind the wings.

Titanium: Titanium has a better strength. If in used in those areas requiring very high strength. double rubber and improved propellers was made. In 1915.In 1904. the most common being Al 2024. Steel:For a typical commercial transport. Al. In its pure from Al in two self for aircraft use. Modern commercial transports such as Boeing 749 use aluminum for about 80% of the structure. .to – weight ratio than aluminum and retains its strength at higher temperatures however it is hard to form and machine and in expensive. high – temperature materials to withstand the high rates of aerodynamic heating at hypersonic speeds. landing gears. MATERIALS: Some of the materials commonly used in flight structures. this alloy is also called duralumin. which proved to be too heavy. and has an excellent strength – to – weight ratio. Henri Farman III introduced flap like ailerons at the trailing edge near wing tips. he turned to the use of duralumin. High temperature Nickel alloys: The hypersonic airplanes require advanced. large biplane elevator. an alloy consisting of 93. The first metal covered airplanes were designed by Miyo Junkens.6% Mg. In 1905. Some nickel – based alloys are capable of withstanding the temperatures associated with moderate hypersonic speeds. ailerons quickly became the favored mechanical means for lateral control. typical steel alloys have about 1% carbon. But some supersonic air craft have to use titanium because of the high skin temperatures due to aerodynamic heating. Stainless steel is an alloy of steel and chromium that has good corrosion resistant properties. He finet used all steel.5% Mn and 0. 1.4% cu. Therefore alloys of Al are used. In 1914. 4. Al in reality formed and machined has reasonable cost is corrosion – resistant. increased airfoil camber. and flap tracks steel in an alloy of iron and carbon. Aluminium: It is the most widely used material in aircraft structures. wright flyer II made with a smaller using camber (airfoil curvature) and a more powerful and efficient engine. such as wing attachment fittings. In 1909.5%. with more progress flyer III with slightly lower using area. engines fittings. steel makes up about 17% of the structure. continuing to present day. Thus the structure of air craft have attained several stages of improvements and made into a fine structure with high rigid strength and very less drag for effective airborne of air craft. costing about 5 to 10 times more than Al.

It is naturally come from birds but the biplane idea seems to be a purely man made invention. one above the other. though some naturalists claim that there are biplane insects. The biplane structure seemed more suited than the monoplane to give as what we most required. It is as a wing. . the first plane to fly was a biplane. that the monoplane has always been superior. For example.The hypersonic aircraft X-15 made by usage of inconel. a nickel – based alloy. in both their composition and physical properties. and observe the effect. Biplanes: Biplanes is plane using two aerofoils one placed above other. 5% steel and 10% miscellaneous. At any rate of. A very large wing areas are required for flight. has it proved the loser in the long run. which is greater on a biplane – with its four wing tips-than on a monoplane of the same wing area and so the overall lift 1 drag ratio of the monoplane is better than that of the bipolar. Another way of thinking of it is to consider the induced drag. The increase pressure on the under surface of the upper wing is not to so effective as it was when it was alone – still less is the decreased pressure. and advantage of the biplane was that this large area could arranged in a more compact fashion. an interference between the two wings and this is called bipolar interference. Generally composites mean “made up of distinct components”. thus both upper and lower wings suffer. so the idea is at least as old as the history of flight. 24% Ti. Composites are quite different from metals. making the finished aeroplane more convenient to handle both on the ground and in the air. the nockhead – martin F-22 has 28% of its structure made up of composite material with 33% Al. Composites: Composites materials can yield at least a 25% reduction in weight. Strength without weight so far the biplane seemed to have all the advantages why then. as an aerofoil. There is in fact. Above the lower wing so effective. Remembering how the pressure is distributed round a wing section let us put two such section let us put two such sections together.

Wright Brothers contribution and their development in obtaining their successful flight Willur and orille wright – Inventors of the first practical airplane they are called the premier aeronautical engineers of history. both brothers began to suspect the existing data that appeared in the aeronautical literature. It first flew at kill Devil Hills on September 20. The biplane enthusiasts full of confidence owing to the structural superiority of the bipolar persistently endeavored to minimize this disadvantage. they made more than 1000 perfect flights. During 1902. It had a 17-ft using span and a horizontal elevator in front of the wings and was usually flown on strings from the ground. Between September 1901 and August 1902 the wrights under took a major program of aeronautical research. Willur look up the study of bird flight as a guide on the path toward mechanical flight.Fig. The wrights were not loose to being satisfied with their results when they returned to Dayton after their 1901 tests with the number 2 glider. Willur and orbille preceded to build their number 2 glider moving their base of operations to kill Devils Hills. 1902. After several modifications. a biplane kite with a using spane of 5 ft in August 1899. It was a biplane glider with a 32 ft 1-inch wing span. it has a horizontal elevator in front of the wings. it was called back ward (or) Negative stagger. They built a wind tunnel in their bicycle shop in Dayton and tested more than 200 different airfoil shapes. This led to their first air craft.  When the leading edge of the upper plane was infront of the leading edge of the lower plane it was called forward (or) positive stagger. As with all wright machines. This new glider was somewhat larger. A full size biplane glider was ready by September 1900 and was flown in October of that year at kity Hawk. which was flown in 1902. 4 miles south of kitty Hawk. To eliminate the interference by staggering the planes.5 ft and a duration . the wrightor added a vertical ladder behind the wings. They designed a force balance to measure accurately the lift a drag. Willur wrote to smithronian institution in May 1899 for papers and books on aeronautics in turn her received a brief bibliography of flying.  When behind it. they tested number 2 during July and August of 1901. The papers of Wilbur and orvile wright in 1901 led to their number 3 glider. with a 22-ft wing span. They set a distance record of 622. the largest of wright gliders to data. It was so successful. That is separating them horizontally rather than vertically.

record of 26s. In the process, both Wilbur and orville become highly skilled and proficient pilots, something‟s that would later be envied world wide. They designed and burst their own engine during the winter months of 1903 It produced 12hp and weighed about 200lt. moreover, they conducted their own research which allowed them to design an effective propeller. Wilbur and orville built their flyer I from scratch during the summer of 1903. After orville‟s first flight on that December 17, three more flight were made during the morning, the last covering 852 if an remaining in the air for 59s the In may 1904, their second powered machine, the Wright flyer II was ready this air craft had a smaller wing camber and more powerful and efficient engine. More progress was made in 1905. The Wright flyer III was ready by June. The wing area was slightly smaller than that of the flyer II, the airfoil camber was increased back to what it had been in 1903. biplane elevators was made larger and was placed. Composites and advanced materials in aircraft

The Lockheed F-22 uses composites for the atleast a third of its structure. For many years, aircraft designers could propose theoretical designs that they could not build because the materials needed to construct them did not exist (The term “unobtainium” is sometimes used to identify materials that are desired but not yet available.) For instance, large spaceplanes like the Space Shuttle would have proven extremely difficult, if not impossible, to build without heat – resistant ceramic tiles to protect them during re – entry. And high – speed forward-swept-wing airplanes like Grumman‟s experimental X-29 or the Russian Sukhoi S-27 Berkut would not have been possible without the development of composite materials to keep their wings from bending out of shape. Composites are the most important materials to be adapted for aviation since the use of aluminium in the 1920s. composites are materials that are combinations of two or more organic or inorganic components. One material serves as a “matrix,” which is the material that holds everything together, while the other materials serves as a reinformcement, in the form of fibres embedded in the matrix. until recently, the most common matrix materials were ”thermosetting” materials such as epoxy, bismaleimide, or polymide. The reinforcing materials can be glass fibre, boron fibre, carbon fibre, or other more exoitic mixtures.

Fiberglas is the most common composite material, and consists of glass fibres embedded in a resin matrix. Fiberglas was first used widely in the 1950s for boats and automobiles, and today most cars have fiberglass bumpers covering a steel frame Fiberglas was first used in the boeing 707 passenger jet in the 1950s, where it comprised about two percent of the structure. By the 1960s, other composite materials became available, in particular boron fibre and graphite, embedded in epoxy resins. The U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy began research into using these materials for aircraft control surfaces like ailerons and rudders. The first major military production use of boron fibre was for the horizontal stabilizers on the Navy‟s F-14 Tomcat interceptor. By 1981, the British Aerospace-McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier flew with over 25 percent of its structure made of composite materials. Making composite structures is more complex than manufacturing most metal structures. To make a composite structure, the composite material, in tape or fabric form, is laid out and put in a mould under heat and pressure. The resin matrix material flows and when the heat is removed, it solidifies. It can be formed into various shapes. In some cases, the fibres are wound tightly to increase strength. One useful feature of composites is that they can be layered, with the fibres in each layer running in a different direction. This allows materials engineers to design structures that behave in certain ways. For instance, they can design a structure that will bend in one direction, but not another. The designers of the Grumman X-29 experimental plane used this attribute of composite materials to design forward – step wings that did not bend up at the tips like metal wings of the same shape would have bent in flight. The greatest value of composite materials is that they can be both lightweight and strong. The heavier an aircraft weighs, the more fuel it burns, so reducing weight is important to aeronautical engineers. Despite their strength and low weight, composites have not been a miracle solution for aircraft structures. Composites are hard to inspect for flaws. Some of them absorb moisture. Most importantly, they can be expensive, primarily because they are labour intensive and often require complex and expensive fabrication machines. Aluminium, by contrast, is easy to manufacture and repair. Anyone who has ever gotten into a minor car accident has learned that dented metal can be hammered back into shape, but a crunched fiberglass bumper has to be completely replaced. The same is true for many composite materials used in aviation. Modern airliners use significant amounts of composites to achieve lighter weight. About ten percent of the structural weight of the Boeing 777, for instance, is composite material. Modern military aircraft, such as the F-22, use composites for at least a third of their structures, and some experts have predicted that future military aircraft will be more than two – thirds composite materials. But for now, military aircraft use substantially greater percentages of composite materials than commercial passenger aircraft primarily because of the different ways that commercial and military aircraft are maintained. Aluminum is a very tolerant material and can take a great deal of punishment before it fails. It can be dented or punctured and still hold together. Composites are not like this. If they are damaged, they require immediate repair, which is difficult and expensive. An airplane made entirely from aluminium can be repaired almost anywhere. This is not the case for composite materials, particularly as they use different and more exotic materials. Because of this, composites

will probably always be used more in military aircraft, which are constantly being maintained, than in commercial aircraft, which have to require less maintenance. Thermoplastics are a relatively new material that is replacing thermosets as the matrix material for composites. They hold much promise for aviation applications. One of their big advantages is that they are easy to produce. They are also more durable and tougher than thermosets, particularly for light impacts, such as when a wrench dropped on a wing accidentally. The wrench could easily crack a thermoset material but would bounce off a thermoplastic composite material. In addition to composites, other advance materials are under development for aviation. During the 1980s, many aircraft designers became enthusiastic about ceramics, which seemed particularly promising for lightweight jet engines, because they could tolerate hotter temperatures than conventional metals. But their brittleness and difficulty to manufacture ewer major draw backs, and research on ceramics for many aviation applications decreased by the 1990s.

Many modern light aircraft are constructed in composite material such as this Glasair Aluminium still remains a remarkably useful material for aircraft structures and metallurgists have worked hard to develop better aluminium alloys (a mixture of aluminium and other materials). In particular, aluminium-lithium is the most successful of these alloys. It is approximately ten percent lighter than standard aluminium. Beginning in the later 1990s it was used for the Space Shuttle‟s large External Tank in order to reduce weight and enable the shuttle to carry more payload. Its adoption by commercial aircraft manufacturers has been slower, however, due to the expense of lithium and the greater difficulty of using aluminium lithium (in particular, it requires

Aristotle in 350 B. corrosion. her presented his law of floating bodies that formed a basic principle of lighter-than-air vehicles. Archimedes another Greek philosopher. EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamics. He stated that.” is the branch of the larger field of fluid dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other gaseous fluids. literally “air in motion. Deep-sea divers. The word “aerodynamics” itself was not officially documented until 1837. the greater the pressure on it. in 250 B. In other words. “each part is always pressed by the whole weight of the column perpendicularly above it. the observation of fluids and their effect on objects can be traced back to the Greek philosopher. But it is likely that aluminium lithium will eventually become a widely used material for both commercial and military aircraft. Without the science of aerodynamics.much care during welding). He stated that a fluid –either in liquid or a gaseous form – is continuous. “He observed that the pressure exerted on an object immersed in a fluid is directly proportional to its depth in the fluid. It concerns the forces that these gaseous fluids. the deeper the objects is in the fluid. now structural designers also deal with fail – safety.C. . Leonardo da vinci sketched various flow fields over objects in a flowing stream. and particularly air. fatigue. He comprehended that every point on the surface of a body immersed in a fluid was subject to some force due to the fluid. Aircraft Structural Design Introduction Although the major focus of structural design in the early development of aircraft was on strength.C. However. exert on bodies moving through it. Aristotle conceived the notion air has weight and observed that a body moving through a fluid encounters resistance. who have to accustom themselves to changes in pressure both on the way does into the sea and again on the way up to the surface. basically restating Aristotle‟s theory of a hundred years earlier. A hundred years later. directly experience this phenomenon. modem flight would be impossible. also has a place in the history of aerodynamics. in a fluid. and producability. maintenance and inspectablility.

if the depth of an object is doubled.A direct proportional relationship means that it one part increases. An avid observer of birds and nature. This became known as the “wind tunnel principal. He noticed that water in a river moved faster. the other will increase by the same factor. he first believed the birds fly by flapping their wings. pressure decreases. Physicists and mathematicians use the Greek letter alpha ( ) to denote such a relationship. He later correctly concluded that the flapping of the wings created forward motion. and this forward motion allowed air to pass across the bird‟s wings to create lift. The law of continuity demonstrates the conservation of mass. As altitude increases (negative depth). the Italian painter. This is known as the law of continuity (Area Velocity=constant or AV=constant). It was the movement of the wing relative to the air and the resulting reaction that produced the lift necessary to fly. In 1490. and thought that this motion would have to occur for manmade aircraft to rise. the pressure on the fluid must be increased or decreased. His other designs included those for the first helicopter and a parachute. Applied to pressure and depth.at a greater velocity. As a result of his studies. sculptor. and thinker Leonardo da vinci began documenting his aerodynamic theories and ideas for flying machines in personal notebooks.” For example. the area of a cross section of a river multiplied by the velocity of the water flowing through that section equals the same number at any point in the river.where the river narrowed. Archimedes also demonstrated that. the results are the same aerodynamically whether a runner moves at 10 miles per hour in calm air and if the wind is blowing at 10 miles per hour past a stationary person. Leonardo da Vinci’s ornithoptger design Leonardo noticed another phenomenon that would prove useful in the study of aerodynamics. He also observed the different ways in which a fluid flowed around and objectcalled a flow field. he designed several ornithopters – machines that were intended to copy the action of a bird‟s wing with the muscle power being supplied by man. The next contribution to aerodynamics did not occur until the end of the 1400s. Leonardo also stated that the aerodynamic results are the same if an object moves through the fluid at a given velocity or if the fluid flows past the object at rest at the same velocity. The opposite would also be true. which is a fundamental principal in modem aerodynamics. In numerical terms. The resultant movement will take place in the direction of the decreasing pressure. in order to set a stagnant fluid in motion. He also determined that drag on an object . the pressure exerted on the object would double as well (Depth Pressure). But these designs did not leave the drawing board.

exerting less pressure. The density of air (a fluid) changes with its distance from the Earth‟s surface. Thus. an object passing through air high above the Earth‟s surface will encounter less drag than the same object passing through air close to the Earth‟s surface. in a flowing fluid. He further presented the idea that velocity and acceleration can vary between different points in fluid flow. Density describes the mass or an object per unit volume. The French scientist Jean le Rond d‟Alembert. Leonardo‟s notebooks were not discovered until centuries later. The most famous of these became known us “Bemoulli‟s Principle. introduced a model for fluid flows and an equation for the principle of the conservation of mass. proved that air resistance was a critical factor in the flight of projectiles in 1746. the greater the drag. Leonardo pointed out the benefits of streamlining as a way to reduce an object‟s drag. as such. the French scientist Edme Manotte demonstrated that drag is proportional to the square of the velocity of an object (D V2). becoming less dense the farther it is above the Earth‟s surface and.d Euler. Benjamin Robins. Other scientists used his research as a foundation for further research. and his ideas remained unknown until the 19th century. derived equations from Bemouili‟s and d‟Alembert‟s principles. the Dutch scientist Daniel Bemouli published his findings on the relationship between pressure and velocity in flowing fluids. The greater the area of an object. (Remember that air is a fluid). Further.) In 1738. In 1673. pressure decreases. the British mathematician. also an associate of Bernoulli. The English scientist and mathematician Sir Isaag Newton presented a derivation of the drag equation of a body in 1687: Drag SV2(where is density and S is cross – sectional area of the body. The Italian mathematician and inventor Galileo Galilel built on Archimedes‟ work and discovered that the drag exerted on a body from a moving fluid is directly proportional to density of the fluid.is directly proportional to the area of the object. as velocity increases. His apparatus consisted of a whirling arm device in which weight (M) turned a drum and rotated the test object (P).” It states that. an associate of Benmouli‟s. Dutch mathematician Christiaan Huygens had been testing this theory since 1669 and published his results with the same conclusion in 1690. This became . However. A very dense fluid produces more drag on objects passing through it than a less dense fluid. Swis mathematician Leonha. Scientists working in the 17th century contributed several theories relating to drag.

including the Wright brothers. “On Aerial Navigation. Euler also introduced equations for fluid flow. This constant became known as Smeatorn‟s coefficient. the English engineer John Snmeaton also used a whirling arm device to measure the drag exerted on a surface by moving air. The French scientist Jean-charies Borda published the results of his own whirling arm experiments in 1763. Italian mathematician Joseph Lagrange and French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace studied Euler‟s findings and tried to solve his equations. used this coefficient. Lagrange introduced a new model for fluid flow as well as new equations for calculating velocity and pressure. Laplace developed an equation that would help solve Euler‟s equations. and scientists are part of the foundation of the science of aerodynamics. a device that enables the calculation of velocity at a point in a flowing fluid. Sir George Cayley of England is generally recognized at the father of modem aerodynamics. He proposed the equation D=kSV 2. Stability in his designs came with the use of dihedral – an important concept still used today He first made public the notion that a fixed-wing aircraft was possible in 1804 in his major publication. In 1789. mathematicians. experiments in aerodynamics were also producing more practical results. and k is a constant. It is still used in modem aerodynamics and physics. . though at the time they could not be solved and applied. S is the surface area. as well as for those who would eventually achieve heavier than air flight. In 1788. V is the air velocity. where D is the drag. he realized the importance of the wing angle of attack and that curved surfaces (camber) would produced more limit than flat one.a key concept for understanding how lift is created. This would help explain the behavior of fluid flow. Borda verified and proposed modifications to current aerodynamic theories and was able to show the effect that the movement of one object had on another nearby object. The contributions of all of these thinkers. In 1759. Those making the first attempts at flight. The English engineer Benjamin Robins performed experiments in 1746 using a whirling arm device and a pendulum to measure drag at low and high speeds. In 1732. the French chemist Henri Pilot invented the Pilot tube. They paved the way for the aerodynamic developments that would occur during the nineteenth century. Laplace also successfully calculated the speed of sound.” which described the theoretical problems of flight. and the value of this constant was debated for years. In addition to these theoretical advancements. which Smeaton claimed was necessary in the equation. He understood the basic forces acting on a wing and built a glider with awing and a tail unit that new successfully.

UNIT – II
Aircraft and Rocket Configurations

PART – A
1. List out the different classifications of flight vehicles.
AIRCRAFT

LIGATER – THAN – AIR

HEAVIER – THAN – AIR

Power – Driven

Non-power – Driven

Man-power – Driven

2. Differentiate between a gyroplane and a helicopter. Helicopter Rotor power driven Gyroplane Rotor not power driven

3. Explain how an airship or balloon is kept in the air. By Archimedes principle, when a body is immersed in a fluid, a force acts upwards upon if helping to support its weight, and this upwards force is equal to the weight of the fluid which is displaced by body. 4. State the two kinds of aircraft.
AIRCRAFT

LIGHTER – THAN – AIR

HEAVIER – THAN – AIR

5. What are the basic instruments of flying? 1. Altimeter

2. Air speed indicator 3. Mach Indicator 4. Turn and slip indicator 5. Artificial horizon. 6. What are the three main control surfaces used in an aircraft? Elevator Rudder Aileron 7. What is the purpose of elevator? The elevators are control surfaces that control the nose up – and – down pitching motion. When the deflected downward the cost on the tail is increased, pulling the tail up and the nose of the airplane down. 8. Name the secondary control surfaces used in an aircraft.     Slats Flaps Spoilers Trim tab

9. What is the purpose of rudder and ailerons? Rudder: The rudder is a control surface that control surface that can turn the nose of the airplane to the right or left (called yawing). Ailerons: The ailerons are control surfaces that control the rolling motion of the airplane around the fuselage. Example: When left aileron is deflected downward and the right aileron is deflect upwards, lift is increased on the left wing and decreased on the right wing, causing the airplane to roll to the rich. Auxiliary airfoil surface, mounted forward of a main airfoil, to maintain a smooth airflow over the main airfoil upper surface. 10. What are called Slats and what is its function? Auxiliary air foil surface, mounted forward of a main air foil, to maintain a smooth air flow over the main air foil upper surface.

Briefly explain about the Altimeter and air speed indicator. The Altimeter The word “altimeter” means “height measurer.” Would that the instrument were true to its name! The so-called altimeter which is used in aero planes is nothing more or less than an aneroid barometer, such as is used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere for the purpose of forecasting the weather. The only real modification is that the dial is marked in thousands of feet instead of in inches or millimeters of mercury, and this makes it just about as capable of measuring the height as the barometer is of foretelling the weather. What it does do is to record the pressure. As we go up, the pressure goes down, because there is less weight of air on top of us; but unfortunately the rate at which the pressure goes down varies from day to day, depending chiefly on the temperature and other effects, which also vary from day to day. Thus it is impossible to mark off or calibrate the scale of an altimeter so that each pressure corresponds to a definite height; the best that can be done is to assume some average set of conditions of temperature and pressure, to mark the scale of the instrument to suit these conditions, and then correct the readings for any large departure from such standard conditions. This set of average conditions has been laid down, and, as mentioned in Section 4, is called the International Standard Atmosphere (fig). When an aeroplane makes a test flight, or some attempt on an altitude record, the height which counts is not the height reached according to the altimeter, nor is it the actual height above the ground; it is the height which we estimate it would have reached had the conditions of the atmosphere all the way up corresponded to those of the Standard Atmosphere. It is not a very satisfactory state of affairs, but we cannot do any better until we can devise an instrument which will really measure height, instead of just pressure. Not only does an altimeter fail to record the correct height when flying, but it does not necessarily read zero when at sea level, since the atmospheric pressure varies considerably from time to the at the earth‟s surface. After all, that is how a bareometer works, and the altimeter is only a barometer. For this reason, altimeters are fitted with an adjustment so that they can be made to read zero (or the height of the aerodrome) before starting on a flight. It does onto by any means follow that they will read zero on return to earth. In a flight of a few hours there may be considerable change in atmospheric pressure, and there is also a certain amount of lag in the instrument. For these reasons it is very important when flying over high ground or mountainous districts in foggy weather not to put too much faith in the altimeter. Although this is usually impressed upon pilots, accidents have occurred from this cause. Modern altimeters are very much more sensitive than the old types. Some of them have three hands, one making a complete revolution every 1,000 ft, the next one every 10,000 it, and the third in 100, 000 ft. There is hardly any lag in such an instrument; in fact, such sensitivity would be of no advantage if there were any serious lag. Another refinement is that, instead of turning the dial to set the zero, the pointers are moved, and when they read zero a little window at

however sensitive the barometric type of altimeter may be. But. or by various radio and radar devices. Figure: Pilot-static head This consists of two tubes. turning. it still cannot measure true height in the atmosphere. one has only to set this reading on the altimeter and. one has only to set this reading on the altimeter and. and landing. But. while for the purpose of flying from one place to another the navigator must known both the air speed of the aeroplane and the velocity of the wind. with all its faults still holds its own. for most purposes. and we have repeatedly noticed the close connection with angle of attack. This is a great help in instrument flying. is placed the pitoot-static head Fig. gliding. straight and level flight. whatever may be the altitude of the aerodrome. there is a best speed for each. except under a very unlikely set of standardized conditions. by radio or other means. then. one of which has an open end facing the air flow-called a pilot tube. to measure the true height of an aircraft above sea level? In certain instances it can be done by taking three simultaneous sight from the ground. The Air-Speed Indicator Throughout the book we have talked of air speed. The usual type of air-speed indicator consists of a thin corrugated metal box very like that used in an aneroid barometer. Is it possible. the reading of the barometer at any aerodrome at which one wishes to land. or by some echo system such as is used for submarines.the bottom of the instrument gives the reading of the barometer. but along the sides are several small holes which allow the . Special “computers” are provided for this purpose. when the aircraft touches the ground. by an alternative setting. and though we never know how high we are flying we can either assume ignorance and hope that the altimeter is right. The other is closed at the end. or we can try to be very clever and work out how high we ought to be. climbing. the altimeter. At some convenient place on the aeorplane. to the correct height of the airfield. where it will be exposed to the wind yet not affected by slipstream or other interference. and the pilot much prefers to know his air speed. It is true that he would prefer to know the ground speed. In taking off. the aneroid barometer. but no instrument can be devised to measure this directly. the hands will all point to zero or. A great advantage of this method is that if one can find out.

p. depending on the air speed.p. and thus we can understand why the numbers round the dial of the instrument. The error.atmospheric pressure to enter. and at 40.. The pressure on the pitoto tube. Therefore the stalling speed of the aeroplane will increase with height. the ordinary atmospheric pressure will be communicated by the tubes to both sides of the box and the instrument needle will be at “o”. rather an interesting point about this incorrect reading of the air-speed indicator at height. and outside it (fig). the same stalling speed as when near the ground. such as the speed for maximum range. and since the difference between the two pressures depends on the density as well as on the air speed. has a distinct advantage from the pilot‟s point of view in that. but at this increased speed the air-speed indicator will continue to read.h. however. at twice the speed to pressure will be four times as much. . In modern types the two tubes are often combined into one.h. 50. But wherever the pitot head. The instrument then reads the difference between these two pressure which is automatically translated by the dial into miles per hour or knots. on the instrument means that we are really traveling at more than 200 m. and so on. e. Other speeds of flight. There is. but when traveling through the air the pitot. when the indicator reads 100 m. and the static pressure is taken from some other part of the aeroplane altogether. are affected in the same way.h. will go up in proportion to the square of the speed. and the static vent.p. and this tube is called the static tube. or open. we call the speed recorded by the instrument the indicated air speed. m. 60. The error is quite appreciable.h. tube will record a higher pressure. and thus a higher speed is necessary to support the aeroplane in flight. 70. at 30. whatever the height the aeroplane stalls at the same indicated speed. just like all air resistances. and the real air speed the true air speed.000 ft. the static tube concentric with the pitot tube. so is the lift on the wings correspondingly reduced.p. for instance. Figure: Concentric pitot-static tube Sometimes the pressure near the pitot tube is by no means atmospheric.h. in other words. the pitot tube being connected to one side of the metal box and the static to the other..p. are not equally spaced. the indicator will read incorrectly. the density of the air will become less. When the aeroplane is at rest relative to the air.000 ft a reading of 100 m. while the static tube will still record the atmospheric pressure. When we fly higher. Just in the same proportion as the pressure on the metal box is reduced by the smaller air density. metal tubing is used to communicate the pressures to the instrument in the pilot‟s cockpit. the true air speed is about 160 m. when the aeroplane is about to stall. may be.g.

. lift is increased on the left wing deflected upward. elevator and rudder These are hinged surfaces usually at the trailing edge of the wings and tail that can be rotated up and down. but they are outside the scope of this book. This instrument is used at meteorological stations for measuring wind velocity. The elevators are control surfaces that controls nose up and down pitching motion. but it is not very satisfactory for use on aircraft.True air speed can be measured by a system of rotating vanes or cups called an anemometer. There are three basic control on an airplane ailerons. lift is increased on the left wing decreased on the right wing causing the airplane to roll to the right. Ailerons and Elevators: Elevator Aileron Figure: The ailerons are control surfaces that control of the rolling motion of airplane around the fuselage Example: When left aileron is deflected downward the right aileron is deflected upward. Describe about the primary control surface in detail. For navigational purposes elaborate instruments have been devised for measuring true speed.

Lateral control The usual method of obtaining lateral control is by means of ailerons hinged at the rear of each main plane near the wing tips. It is called yawing 1. 114 Write short notes on Lateral control and longitudinal control. pulling the tail up and nose of airplane down.When a elevator is deflected down wards the lift on the tail is increased. Figure: . Rudder: Figure: Rudder is control surface can turn nose of airplane to the right or left. 215 & 218 3.

i. Other mission include anti-smuggling patrols. so with flaps depressed (as here) they end up deflected sharply down. The two 25-tonne thrust turbofans blow their jets across the top of the wing. the Canadair CL-215 proves that large piston-engined aircraft are not obsolete! Powered by 2. increasing the lift on the righthand wings. The ailerons are connected to the control column by a complete system of control wires (figure) by a rigid system of rods. Figure: Plate 6: Here seen in service with the Royal Thai Navy. The huge tail is needed for control at the very speeds that can safely be reached. at the same time the left ailerons will have been raised.Plate 5: Here seen with landing gear extended. . having the ability to scoop up fresh loads many times in a single mission. decreasing the lift on the left wing and thus adding to the effect.e. if the control column is moved to the left the right-hand ailerons will go down. this amphibian is used mainly as a water bomber to fight forest fires. by torque tubes inside the wings. The Coanda effect keeps the transonic jets attached to the metal surface. air-sea rescue.500-hp Pratt&Whitney R-2800 engines. one of the most potent forms of powered lift. medevac and utility transport. enormously increasing lift. This time it is a sideways movement of the control column which moves the ailerons and does so in such a way that once again the control is instinctive. the Boeing YC-14 was the first to large aircraft to use USB (uperr-surface blowing). or again by some poweroperated system. thus banking the aeroplane to the left.

or by a wheel similar to the steering wheel on a car. causing a certain amount of backlash in the system. . In modern practice. hydraulic. Longitudinal Control Longitudinal control of an aeroplane is nearly always provided by elevators attached to the rear of the tail plane. or they may rely simply on the torsion of a rod or tube. however. when the column is pushed forward.Figure: Lateral control-general arrangement Sometimes the control column has no sideways movement. these may take the form of a rigid rod serving both to push and to pull the elevators from top or bottom only. i. thus causing the nose of the aeroplane to drop Fig. The control is instinctive. instead of employing two wires which will tend to become slack. Figure: Longitudinal control-direction of movements In order to achieve this result it will be seen that in an ordinary simple control system the wires must be crossed between the control column and the elevators.e. more positive controls are nearly always used. the elevators are lowered and the upward force on the tail is increased. or the whole control system may be poweroperated. pneumatic or electric. and lateral control is effected by a type of handlebars. The principle is best illustrated by the old-fashioned system in which the elevators were connected by control wires and levers to the control column in the pilot‟s cockpit.

Explain with a neat sketch components of an aero plane and their functions. .

Figure: Parts of an aeroplane .

or weapons. All of the other major components of the aircraft are attached to the fuselage. when viewed from behind. Empennage is another term sometimes used to refer to the aft portion of the fuselage plus the horizontal and vertical tails. left and right.Figure: Basic components of an aircraft Fuselage: The fuselage is that portion of the aircraft that usually contains the crew and payload. a shape called an airfoil. These halves are connected to each other by means of the fuselage. Most fuselages are long. cylindrical tubes or sometimes rectangular box shapes. . Wing: The wing is the most important part of an aircraft since it produces the lift that allows a plane to fly. as illustrated below. The wing is made up of two halves. we would see that a traditional airfoil has a rounded leading edge and a sharp trailing edge. If we were to cult through a wing and look at its cross – section. A wing produces lift because of its special shape. either passengers. cargo.

Many aircraft house the engine(s) within the fuselage itself. the tail usually needs to produce a force pointed downward. These pods are called nacelles. or engines. it is inherently unstable. Early aircraft from the Wright Flyer until World War II used propeller – driven piston engines. however. But most modern aircraft now use some form of a jet engine. and these are still common today on light general aviation planes.Figure: Definition of an airfoil Engine: The other key component that makes an airplane go is its engine. To do so. Most larger planes. The horizontal stabilizer. also known as the horizontal tail. but they can all be classified in two major categories. performs this function when an aircraft is disturbed in pitch. The tail produces a force similar to lift that balances out the lift of the wing to keep the plane in equilibrium. In other words. Aircraft use several different kinds of engines. . have their engines mounted in separate pods hanging below the wing or sometimes attached to the fuselage. Stability is defined as the tendency of an aircraft to return to its initial state following a disturbance from that state. Horizontal stabilizer: If an aircraft consists of only a wing or a wing and fuselage. we say that an aircraft is in its trim condition. if some disturbance forces the nose up or down. The horizontal tail is essentially a miniature wing since it is also made up of an airfoil cross – section. a quantity called down force. the horizontal stabilizer produces a counteracting force to push the nose in the opposite direction and restore equilibrium. When in equilibrium.

This force is called side – force. we call these items control surfaces. or vertical tail. Yaw is the side – to – side motion of the nose. except that it provides stability for a disturbance in yaw. Figure: Aircraft control surfaces and axes of motion Elevator: The elevator is located on the horizontal stabilizer. aircraft need some additional components that give the pilot the ability to control the direction of the plane. functions in the same way as the horizontal tail. The vertical tail is also made of an airfoil cross – section and produces forces just like a wing or horizontal tail. It can be deflected up or down to produce a change in the down force produced by the horizontal tail. Such a deflection increases the down force produced by the horizontal tail causing the nose to pitch upward. Mean while the vertical tail produces a force pointed to one side of the aircraft. forces that are pointed up or down from the aircraft. the vertical tail produces a counteracting force that pushes the nose in the opposite direction to restore equilibrium. The difference is that a wing or horizontal tail produces lift or down force. . The angle of deflection is considered positive when the trailing edge of the elevator is deflected upward.Vertical stabilizer: The vertical stabilizer. so if a disturbance causes the nose to deflect to one side. Basic control surfaces: In addition to the wing and tail surfaces.

Rudder: The rudder is located on the vertical stabilizer. but a few important items were left out for simplicity. The angle of deflection is usually considered positive when the trailing edge of the rudder is deflected towards the right wing. On the wing with the aileron deflected down ward. The angle of deflection is usually considered positive when the aileron on the left wing deflects downward and that on the right wing deflects upward. They are deflected in opposite direction (one goes trailing edge up. Additional components: We‟ve already seen the major parts of a typical plane. The wing with more lift rolls upward causing the aircraft to go into a bank. Aileron: Ailerons are located on the tips of each wing. the lift increases whereas the lift decreases on the other wing whose aileron is deflected upward. It can be deflected to either side to produce a change in the side – force produced by the vertical tail. Figure: Aircraft control surfaces and positive deflection angles 3. The greater lift generated on the left wing causes the aircraft to roll to the right. the other trailing edge down) to produce a change in the lift produced by each wing. The effects of these control surfaces and the conventions for positive deflection angles are summarized in the following diagram. Such a deflection creates a side – force to the left which causes the nose to yaw to the right. . Let‟s go back and discuss a few of these items.

. These leading – edge flaps.Figure: Components of an aircraft Flap: Flaps are usually located along the trailing edge of both the left and right wing. In addition to flaps on the trailing edge of a wing. More information on slats and flaps is available here. are also used to increase life. Flaps are most often used during takeoff and landing to increase the lift the wings generate at a given speed. a second major category is flaps on the leading edge. flaps only deflect down ward to increase the lift produced by both wings simultaneously. more often called slats. Flaps are similar to ailerons in that they affect the amount of lift created by the wings. However. This effect allows a plane to takeoff or land at a slower speed than would be possible with out the flaps. typically inboard of the ailerons and close to the fuselage.

In the previous section. it increases or decreases the down force created by the elevator and forces the elevator to a certain position. Since it would be very tiring for a pilot to physically hold the control stick in position to keep the elevator at that deflection angle for an entire flight. Meanwhile. Most planes today use what is called a tricycle landing gear arrangement. the elevator usually has to be deflected by some small amount. such as a rudder control tab or a balance tab on the aileron. a cabin is typically a compartment within the fuselage where passengers are seated. The trim tab can be through of almost as a “mini – elevator”. Nose & main gear: The landing gear is used during takeoff. but most of the time the term cockpit is applied to a compartment at the front of the fuselage where the pilots and flight crew sit. In a future installment. . In order to keep a plane in a steady. level orientation. and to taxi on the ground. The pilot can set the deflection of the trim tab which will cause the elevator to remain at the deflection required to remain trimmed. These control tabs may be located on other surfaces as well. Nonetheless. By deflecting the tab up or down. landing. we will add further detail and complexity to illustrate the complex nature of modern control surfaces. Trim tab: The above diagram illustrates a “trim tab” located on the elevator. Summary: This discussion has provided an overview of the basic parts and control surfaces of a typical aircraft. we discussed that the horizontal stabilizer and elevator are used to provide stability and control in pitch.Cabin & cockpit: Sometimes these two terms are used synonymously. Yet there are still many more features related to control surfaces that we have not seen. the purpose of all these tabs is the same. the elevator is fitted with a small “tab” that creates that elevator deflection automatically. This compartment contains the control yolks (or sticks) and equipment the crew use to sent commands to the control surfaces and engines as well as to monitor the operation of the vehicle. This system has two large main gear units located near the middle of the plane and a single smaller nose gear unit near the nose of the aircraft.

hydrogen etc. Air ships. Airship: A power driven aircraft that is light than air.. These depend for their lift on a well – known scientific fact usually called „Archimedes principle‟.Power driven Man . free balloons or kite balloons obtains its lift in precisely the same way (ie) By Archimedes Principle. helping to support its weight and this upward fore is equal to the weight of the fluid which is displaced by the body.. .Power driven Gliders Sailplanes Kites Aero plane Rotorcraft Ornithopter Land plane Sea plane Amphibian Helicopter (rotor power driven ) Gyroplane (rotor not power driven) Cyclogyro (paddle – wheel type motor) Float plane Flying boat Lighter than air aircraft: The name itself indicates.How the air planes are classified? Discuss about various types of flight vehicles with schematic sketches wherever possible. Aircraft Lighter than air Heavier than air Airships Free balloons Captive balloons Power driven Non . The principles states that „when a body is immersed in a fluid. that the aircraft is lighter than air. a force acts upwards upon it. Free balloons: Free balloons are also comes under this category that means the balloons one flown in the air with the help of gases such as a helium. An airship can carry a maximum up to 2 to 3 persons.

Gyroplane 3. Since. the power is provided mainly by engines and as well as propulsion systems. Power driven: Under the heavier than aircrafts. aerofoil shapes should be maintained for such aircrafts. etc. Figure: Rotor craft: Here.. (ie) the aircraft can be flown with the help of certain factors like engines. there is steady flow of air over such aircrafts. power driven aircrafts play a dominant role today. In order to fly such aircraft. The rotor craft designs are 1. the power provided to the craft is by means of rotor (ie) a rotating member that can take off the aircraft to a specified height and it can be flown.Heavier than air aircraft: Here in the aircraft solid metals are used. Power driven aircrafts are nothing but aircrafts which are provided with external power supply. So that it could not fly in air without any definite shape. Aero plane: The aero plane must be given some power. so that it can fly. Helicopter 2. So as in aero plane. it can stay in air for a long time). Cyclogyro . these types of aircrafts are found to be airborne (ie.

the power is driven by a rotor. . Gliders: Gliders are those aircrafts which comes under non – power driven such that it can fly without engines and also it should be start to fly from some elevated places like maintains etc. the power is given mainly by the mechanism of flapping wings up and down. that makes the helicopter to lift up and so it can fly. which is having blades that rotates up to a certain speed.Helicopter: Here in the helicopter. Ornithopter Here in the ornithopters. Figure: Orinithopler Non – Power driven: Non – power driven aircrafts are those crafts which can flown without the help of any external power supply (ie) there is no presence of engines.

[0017] The LBHA overcomes the reduced reliability problem by using the low – reliability components only as backup following the failure of a central hydraulic system or during specific phases of flight. The local motor and pump are upstream of the servo valve and in parallel with the central hydraulic lines. the airplane remains controllable with loss of all central hydraulic systems. some prior art approaches provide a reduction in the number of hydraulic systems. such as on an active. A common servo value for the hydraulic actuator is used under a unified electrical control system for both the central hydraulic system and the backup system. the hydraulic actuator receives pressurized fluid from one of the central hydraulic systems and the fluid flow to the chambers is controlled by a servo valve. the LBHA remains functional with electrical power following a partial or complete failure of the central hydraulic system. This is because during normal operation and operation following the failure of the central hydraulic system. A local back up hydraulic actuator (LBHA) has two power sources. The electrical part of the LBHA can be switched of during much of flight so the life of the motor and pump is greatly extended. which powers the local hydraulic pump to provide high pressure hydraulic fluid to the hydraulic actuator via the servo value. In this manner. Other types of monitoring and control schemes may also be used instead. the operation is more reliable and the life of the motor and pump are extended. This is accomplished by overcoming both of the two major difficulties that have been cited herein for the electric and hybrid actuators of the prior art. Therefore. Failure of the hydraulic system is detected by the local electronic controller that monitors the output signal of a pressure sensor. therefore. even when the LBHA is used continuously during normal operation. A major advantage that the LBHA offers over these prior art actuators is that it enables this reduction in the central hydraulic system for airplanes with flight control surfaces which are controlled in an active – active fashion. This ensures that there is no substantial force fight when LBHA is used in an active – active fashion with a hydraulic actuator or another LBHA on the same surface. [0015] By coupling the LBHAs to appropriate flight control surfaces. The local electronic controller also uses the pressure reading for closed – loop feedback control. [0016] As explained in the background of the invention. a backup system is provided that has a local electric motor and pump for some or all of the hydraulic actuators. During normal operation. the .active surface. namely EHA and EBHA. the number of central hydraulic systems can be reduced compared to using only conventional hydraulic actuators. [0018] The force fight problem associated with coupling dissimilar actuators on a surface and using them in an active – active fashion is resolved according to this invention by continuously controlling the actuator in the same manner as a conventional hydraulic actuator and providing as backup only alternate power source. central hydraulic as primary and electrical as backup. and the pressure is maintained at the normal level.Hydraulic Actuator and Electronic actuator system: Brief summary of the invention: [0014] According to principles of the present invention. When this observed pressure falls below a certain threshold. the local electronic controller determines that this central hydraulic system has failed and t urns on the electrical motor. for example. namely that of reduced reliability and force fight.

enable reduction in the number of actuators coupled to a surface compared to only using conventional hydraulic actuators. while achieving and equivalent or better level of safety. Figure: Six basic instruments in a light twin – engine airplane arranged in the basic – T. From top left airspeed indicator. In the event of failure of the main system. attitude indicator. This may. turn coordinator. [0020] The inventive system also provides the advantage that during critical flight phases. lighter. the free encyclopedia Most aircraft are equipped with a standard set of flight instruments which give the pilot information about the aircraft‟s attitude. which.LBHA is controlled in the same manner through the servo valve. with the only difference being the source of hydraulic power. Check values are provided between the central hydraulic system and the local backup system. permitting both to operate at the same time when appropriate. beading indicator. altimeter. system is already under power and is assisting in the operation. while having higher reliability. the motor driver and control device. The local pump‟s role is to provide increased local pressure. central or local. and increasing the reliability of operation. the LBHA also offers other advantages. rather than also provide servo control of the system. so that there is no time lost for control while the backup system comes on. . the backup. for example. is lower in weight and cost. With the LBHA. Flight instruments: From Wikipedia. [0021] A further advantage is that the backup system has a separate power source. and vertical speed indicator. namely electric power. airspeed and altitude. the local pump can be a one – way pump rather than a two – way pump. together with the motor and controller. This may also enable smaller. Because of this. both the main system and the backup system can be in operation. and simpler individual actuators than otherwise would have been possible. so that increased availability of power is provided to the actuator. thus simplifying the motor. [0019] In addition to enabling the reduction of hydraulic systems and resolving the problems associated with applying electric or hybrid actuators of prior art in an active – active fashion. such as takeoff and landing. providing one LBHA in conjunction with at least one hydraulic actuator for a particular surface is able to ensure that the likelihood of a complete loss of the power to position the surface correctly is negligible.

From this the pilot can tell whether are level and if the aircraft nose is pointing above or below the horizon. The indicated airspeed must be corrected for air density (which varies with altitude. It is adjustable for local barometric pressure (referenced to sea level) which must be set correctly to obtain accurate altitude readings. . Pilots are trained to use other instruments in combination should this instrument or its power fail. Figure: Attitude indicator (also known as an artificial horizon) Shows the aircraft‟s relative to the horizon. temperature and humidity) in order to obtain the true airspeed.Most aircraft have these seven basic flight instruments: Figure: Altimeter: Gives the aircraft‟s height (usually in feet or meters) above some reference level (usually sea – level) by measuring the local air pressure. It works by measuring the ram – air pressure in the aircraft‟s pitot tube. Figure: Airspeed indicator Shows the aircraft‟s speed (usually in knots) relative to the surrounding air. This is a primary instrument flight and is also useful in conditions of poor visibility. and for wind conditions in order to obtain the speed over the ground.

Figure: Heading indicator Also know as the directional gyro. or accelerating due to the inclination of the earth‟s magnetic field. but also assists with navigation. and is therefore subject to drift errors (called precession) which must be periodically corrected by calibrating the instrument to the magnetic compass. climbing. The basic T is present on the left side primary pilot station. Sometimes also called the gyrocompass. Magnetic compass: Shows the aircraft‟s heading relative to magnetic north. the heading indicator is also used for aircraft operation. For purposes of navigation it may be necessary to correct the direction indicated (which points to a magnetic pole) in order to obtain direction of true north or south (which points to the earth‟s axis of rotation). the heading indicator is replaced by a Horizontal Situation Indicator (HIS) which provides the same heading information. While reliable in steady level flight it can give confusion indications when turning.Figure: The flight instruments of a Slings by T – 67 Firefly two – seat light airplane. For this reason. . In many advanced aircraft. Displays the aircraft‟s heading with respect to magnetic north. or DG. though usually not in aviation applications. descending. Principle of operation is a spinning gyroscope.

. i.e.Figure: Turn and bank indicator or turn coordinator The turn and bank indicator. Replaced the older turn and bank indicator. displays rate and direction of turn while the aircraft is not rolling. also called the turn and slip indicator. whether the turn is correctly coordinated. Figure: Vertical speed indicator Also sometimes called a variometer Senses changing air pressure and displays that information to the pilot as a rate of climb or descent. displays of turn and rate of turn. usually in feet per minute or meters per second. where in the aircraft would be in either a slip or a skid. as opposed to an uncoordinated turn. or in Gliders manufactured in Europe. Internally mounted inclinometer also displays quality of turn. Internally mounted inclinometer displays „quality‟ of turn. the turn and bank is typically only seen in aircraft manufactured prior to that time. A turn coordinator displays rate and direction of roll while the aircraft is rolling. Replaced in the late sixties and early seventies by the newer turn coordinator.

altitude to the right and heading indicator under the attitude indicator.Figure: Schempp – Hirth Janus – C glider Instrument panel equipped for “cloud flying”. The magnetic compass will be above the instrument panel. servo – assisted. The turn and bank indicator is top center. turn – coordinator and vertical – speed. The attitude indicator is in top center. In the former type. In newer aircraft with glass cockpit instruments the layout of the displays conform to the basic T arrangement. or fully power operated. but are given more latitude in placement. are usually found under the airspeed and altitude. The heading indicator is replaced by a GPS – driven computer with wind and glide data. airspeed to the left. The other two. Arrangement in instrument panel: Most aircraft built since about 1953 have four of the flight instruments located in a standardized arrangement known as the “basic T”. hydraulic pressure is transmitted via pipes to a servo – actuator which helps the . Figure: Tabs fitted on elevators and rudder of an old Catalina flying boat Powered servo controls: Powered controls may take two forms. driving two electronic variometer displays to the right. Flight instrument Pitot – static instrument: Altimeter: Airspeed indicator – Machmeter – Vertical speed indicator Gyroscople instruments: Attitude indicator – Heading indicator – Horizontal Situation Indicator – Turn and back indicator – Turn coordinator Navigation: Horizontal Situation Indicator – Course Deviation Indicator – Inertial Navigation System – GPS Other magnetic compass – Yaw string. often on the windscreen center post.

and can follow for manoeuvres such as flying in a stalled or an unstable condition. At constant altitude. The force actually required at the control surface. require 2 sixteen times more force to operate them at 800 km /h than at 200 km/h. rather than just the speed. Fly – by – wire can thus dramatically improve the performance. or approaching very close to the stall on landing. Such processing can be used to alter the response to control inputs. for example. the flight control. efficiency and even safety of aircraft. autostabilisation. The deliberate jamming of electronic circuitry by means of powerful electromagnetic beams is also a possibility. The actuators are electrically or hydraulically operated rams motors. if not destroying. Power control. Such systems have demonstrated a high level of reliability and are being increasingly used. although the controls will then feel very heavy. and some military aircraft have been found to be very vulnerable in this respect. depends on the dynamic pressure 1 2 V . The system is similar to the servo – assisted steering and braking system of car. The mechanical linkage can be used to operate the control surface. Control signals may be transmitted hydraulically. It also allows for coordinated control surface movement that would be too complex for a pilot to manage unaided. or electrically to actuators. (q is the symbol conventionally used to denote dynamic pressure). it becomes convenient to incorporate sophisticate electronic processing into the circuit. This system is inadequate. modulated light signals may be transmitted along optical fibres. because the control loads should also increase as the flight speed increase. which move the control surfaces. some form of artificial feel has to be introduced. As an alternative to electrical signal transmission. The detonation of nuclear weapons would cause very strong electromagnetic signals capable of upsetting. fly – by – wire and fly – by – light: In pure power operation.mechanical linkage to move the surface. This system is known as fly – by – light and over comes problems due to electromagnetic interference. mechanical controls feed heavier the further they are pulled. Feedback or feel: One problem with power – operated controls is that the pilot has no direct feel for the amount of force that the control surface is producing. On military aircraft. Generally. also –called q – feel device can be added. with increasing emphasis on digital systems. the controls will. even if power is lost. Therefore. conventional electronic circuits. Once control by electrical signals is accepted. no mechanical override is provided. The q – feel unit is a device which is attached to the mechanical control linkage to increase its stiffness in proportion to increases n dynamic pressure. however. radar ad weapons control system are all integrated in varying degrees. directly from valves attached to the control column. To over come this problem. Nowadays. so a crude form of feel could be provided by attaching springs to the control column. navigation. much . The latter system is known as fly – by – wire.

. setting them so that the control surface produces just the right amount of force to keep the aircraft flying steadily. hands – off. speed. as trying to throw a 747 around like a Pitts Special could cause problems. is seen in figure. Reversing the procedure might be unwise. and are in some ways preferred. Servo – tabs and trim tabs: Another means of reducing the load required is to use a servo – tab.more sophisticated feedback systems are used. As the speed and size of aircraft increased. towards the hinge line. since they produce a stiffer system. that is. Kermode (1996) describes the historical development of tabs. and run away in the direction of the ever – increasing force. masses may also be added to the control surfaces to alter the natural frequency of oscillation. and are actuated independently of the main surface actuating system. and the force required to move the pilot‟s control stick is increased appropriately. The handling of new untested aircraft types is often simulated by artificially modifying the control of an existing different aircraft type. Figure shows the complex system used on an executive jet. in front of the hinge line. The linkage normally consists of an arrangement of multi – stranded wires and pulleys. The top of the rudder projects forward. The position of the hinge line can be arranged so that the resultant force acts just behind it. thereby moving the centre of pressure of the rudder forwards. in which the force required to move the control surface is sensed. In addition to such aerodynamic balancing the control surface mass should also be balanced so that gravity forces do not pull it down in level flight. A rather crude external form of mass balancing may be seen figure. so did the control forces required. It is particularly important that the resultant force should not be in front of the hinge line. Alternatively push – pull rods and twisting torque – tubes may be used. less prone to vibration problems. Early aircraft and small modern types use a direct mechanical linkage between the control surface and the pilot control stick. as this would cause the control surface to be unstable. and inertia does not cause it to move relative to the aircraft during manoeuvres. As described later. as illustrated in figure. producing a large turning moment in the primary control surface. but such arrangements are now largely obsolete. Such trim tabs are controlled by a separate trim wheel in the cockpit or flight deck. so that it is difficult to devise an arrangement that produces small forces under all conditions. Nowadays tabs are normally used primarily for trimming the control surfaces. By using the electronic processing of the feedback signal. and deflection angle. The rudder actuating wire may just be seen under the tailplane on the Auster shown in figure. Deflection of the tab downwards causes the trailing edge of the surface of lift. thus producing only a small moment. the position of the resultant force changes with angle of attack. A typical arrangement. used on many aircraft up to the 1950s. it is possible to make a small aircraft feel and handle like a large one. and some considerable ingenuity went into devising means of reducing these loads. Various means of coupling the tab and primary surface were devised. Unfortunately.

or even literally. On recent aircraft designs. Cockpit Instruments: Altimeter . they may provide the only manual means of control. hands – off. Tabs may be seen in figure. Fixed trim tabs. may sometimes be used. Movable trim tabs can provide restricted emergency control in the case of a failure in the primary control surface system. for much of the time. in the form of small strips of metal affixed to the trailing edge.Figure: External mass balance weights were used on the tail of the Venom Figure: A servo – tab Downward deflection of the tab increases the lift on the main control surface causing it to deflect upwards The force required to operate the tab is considerably less than that which would be needed to operate the main control surface directly Trim tabs allow an aircraft to be flown virtually. their purpose being to „tune‟ the control surfaces to give a good balance.

Although this is usually impressed upon pilots. Another refinement is that. that is how a bareometer works. and there is also a certain amount of lag in the instrument. which also vary from day to day. but we cannot do any better until we can devise an instrument which will really measure height.” Would that the instrument were true to its name! The so-called altimeter which is used in aero planes is nothing more or less than an aneroid barometer. it is the height which we estimate it would have reached had the conditions of the atmosphere all the way up corresponded to those of the Standard Atmosphere. one has only to set this reading on the altimeter and.000 ft. the height which counts is not the height reached according to the altimeter. instead of just pressure. one has only to set this reading on the altimeter and. But. Some of them have three hands. . and the third in 100. Thus it is impossible to mark off or calibrate the scale of an altimeter so that each pressure corresponds to a definite height. whatever may be the altitude of the aerodrome. and when they read zero a little window at the bottom of the instrument gives the reading of the barometer. After all. For these reasons it is very important when flying over high ground or mountainous districts in foggy weather not to put too much faith in the altimeter. but it does not necessarily read zero when at sea level. instead of turning the dial to set the zero. It is not a very satisfactory state of affairs. Not only does an altimeter fail to record the correct height when flying. In a flight of a few hours there may be considerable change in atmospheric pressure. the pressure goes down. and. depending chiefly on the temperature and other effects.000 it. As we go up. altimeters are fitted with an adjustment so that they can be made to read zero (or the height of the aerodrome) before starting on a flight. to the correct height of the airfield. to mark the scale of the instrument to suit these conditions. There is hardly any lag in such an instrument. For this reason.The word “altimeter” means “height measurer. is called the International Standard Atmosphere (fig). When an aeroplane makes a test flight. the hands will all point to zero or. The only real modification is that the dial is marked in thousands of feet instead of in inches or millimeters of mercury. This is a great help in instrument flying. by an alternative setting. the pointers are moved. the best that can be done is to assume some average set of conditions of temperature and pressure. What it does do is to record the pressure. A great advantage of this method is that if one can find out. nor is it the actual height above the ground. 000 ft. and then correct the readings for any large departure from such standard conditions. or some attempt on an altitude record. except under a very unlikely set of standardized conditions. such sensitivity would be of no advantage if there were any serious lag. but unfortunately the rate at which the pressure goes down varies from day to day. This set of average conditions has been laid down. when the aircraft touches the ground. as mentioned in Section 4. Modern altimeters are very much more sensitive than the old types. It does onto by any means follow that they will read zero on return to earth. because there is less weight of air on top of us. such as is used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere for the purpose of forecasting the weather. one making a complete revolution every 1. and the altimeter is only a barometer. the reading of the barometer at any aerodrome at which one wishes to land. in fact. and this makes it just about as capable of measuring the height as the barometer is of foretelling the weather. it still cannot measure true height in the atmosphere. accidents have occurred from this cause. by radio or other means. the next one every 10. since the atmospheric pressure varies considerably from time to the at the earth‟s surface. however sensitive the barometric type of altimeter may be.

but no instrument can be devised to measure this directly. . Figure: Pilot-static head This consists of two tubes. climbing. and though we never know how high we are flying we can either assume ignorance and hope that the altimeter is right. The usual type of air-speed indicator consists of a thin corrugated metal box very like that used in an aneroid barometer. and the pilot much prefers to know his air speed. It is true that he would prefer to know the ground speed. At some convenient place on the aeorplane. while for the purpose of flying from one place to another the navigator must known both the air speed of the aeroplane and the velocity of the wind. to measure the true height of an aircraft above sea level? In certain instances it can be done by taking three simultaneous sight from the ground. the static tube concentric with the pitot tube. turning. where it will be exposed to the wind yet not affected by slipstream or other interference. one of which has an open end facing the air flow-called a pilot tube. In taking off. Air Speed Indicator Throughout the book we have talked of air speed. or by some echo system such as is used for submarines. is placed the pitoot-static head Fig. or by various radio and radar devices. and outside it (fig). then. Special “computers” are provided for this purpose.Is it possible. and this tube is called the static tube. and landing. and we have repeatedly noticed the close connection with angle of attack. But. gliding. straight and level flight. or we can try to be very clever and work out how high we ought to be. for most purposes. In modern types the two tubes are often combined into one. the aneroid barometer. there is a best speed for each. The other is closed at the end. the altimeter. with all its faults still holds its own. but along the sides are several small holes which allow the atmospheric pressure to enter.

so is the lift on the wings correspondingly reduced. has a distinct advantage from the pilot‟s point of view in that.p. But wherever the pitot head.h.Figure: Concentric pitot-static tube Sometimes the pressure near the pitot tube is by no means atmospheric.p. depending on the air speed. Just in the same proportion as the pressure on the metal box is reduced by the smaller air density. and thus a higher speed is necessary to support the aeroplane in flight.h. will go up in proportion to the square of the speed. 60. and at 40. and since the difference between the two pressures depends on the density as well as on the air speed. for instance. are not equally spaced.. The instrument then reads the difference between these two pressure which is automatically translated by the dial into miles per hour or knots. the indicator will read incorrectly. .h. just like all air resistances. The error is quite appreciable. and so on. rather an interesting point about this incorrect reading of the air-speed indicator at height. we call the speed recorded by the instrument the indicated air speed. such as the speed for maximum range. on the instrument means that we are really traveling at more than 200 m.. and thus we can understand why the numbers round the dial of the instrument.p. Therefore the stalling speed of the aeroplane will increase with height. 50. The pressure on the pitoto tube.h.p. and the static vent. but at this increased speed the air-speed indicator will continue to read. when the indicator reads 100 m. the true air speed is about 160 m. Other speeds of flight. When the aeroplane is at rest relative to the air. The error. When we fly higher. when the aeroplane is about to stall.g. the density of the air will become less. and the static pressure is taken from some other part of the aeroplane altogether.h. are affected in the same way. There is. or open. while the static tube will still record the atmospheric pressure. but when traveling through the air the pitot. the ordinary atmospheric pressure will be communicated by the tubes to both sides of the box and the instrument needle will be at “o”.p. and the real air speed the true air speed. the same stalling speed as when near the ground.000 ft. in other words. at 30. however. the pitot tube being connected to one side of the metal box and the static to the other. e. may be. tube will record a higher pressure. m. whatever the height the aeroplane stalls at the same indicated speed. metal tubing is used to communicate the pressures to the instrument in the pilot‟s cockpit.000 ft a reading of 100 m. at twice the speed to pressure will be four times as much. 70.

a Mach number of 0. as it happens. but its Mach number.5? Well. This is expressed in terms of Mach numbers. What matters is not that it is going at 700 m. Mach Numbers Since the speed of sound is so important it is sometimes convenient to speak of the speed of aeroplanes in relation to the speed of sound and to say that they are traveling at half. i. not its speed. it ins‟t-in this case-just an attempt to blind people with science. This instrument is used at meteorological stations for measuring wind velocity. 0. is a highbrow term which anyone can understand.h.p. or above the speed of sound.5 simply meaning that the aeoplane is traveling at half the speed of sound. For navigational purposes elaborate instruments have been devised for measuring true speed. flight at subsonic speeds which is what we have so far considered. respectively.h. was as near as matters.9. but just to compare them with the speed of sound-and that when we first said that the speed of sound. As we shall soon se. but it is not very satisfactory for use on aircraft.. or even at the speed of sound itself or at two or three times that speed.p.e. Thus the Mach numbers in the examples given above would be. 0. The rate at which sound travels in air depends on the temperature is the controlling factors). That is the clue.. but they are outside the scope of this book. to introduce the word transonic.p. is traveling at less than the speed of sound. or the air flow. therefore.h. 1.p. flight at transonic speeds which ahs problems all of its own.True air speed can be measured by a system of rotating vanes or cups called an anemometer. 0.. at the speed of sound. or threequarters. we know that when an aeroplane is traveling at 380 m.h.75. while at the temperature of the stratosphere an aeroplane may be traveling below the speed of sound. that the reader may well ask why it is necessary at all-if the speed of sound is 760 m. Our subject then falls into there quite distinct parts. we specified under normal atmospheric conditions.5. and it is useful. When there is no need to specify the actual Mach number and we only wish to indicate that a body. according to the temperature at the time. or nine-tenths of the speed of sound.h. at least. the lower the temperature the lower the speed of sound. Thus at the temperature of ground level conditions of the International Standard Atmosphere (conditions which rarely apply in practice) the speed of sound is about 760 m. Here. at the speed of sound or above it. but at what fraction of the particular speed of sound it is traveling-in other words what matters is. but over quite a range of speeds which include that speed. why wrap the thing in mystery by saying that it is traveling at a Mach number of 0. and supersonic speeds. An observant reader-especially if he has already fallen into some of our traps-may have noticed that we have been rather careful throughout this argument not to give the actual speeds of rifle bullets and so on. and flight at supersonic speeds in which we are in a new world altogether and all the rules are so much the opposite from what we have already learnt that it reminds us of Alice Through the Looking-glass. .p. It is so simple. sonic. it isn‟t just at the speed of sound that curious things happen. it is traveling at half the speed of sound. in fact. 760 m. it is usual and convenient to use the Latin words and to speak of subsonic. 2 and 3.

If the nose of the real aeroplane goes down. They are usually driven by suction from an engine-driven pump or from double venture tubes exposed to the air stream. That sounds wonderful indeed. and may revolve at 10. is of great value in instrument flying. moves the controls until it is once more flying correctly. dynamos and motors. air-pressure gauges. On the electrical side there may be anything varying from the simple switch used for the engine ignition to a complete system of lighting and heating. water thermometers for water cooled engines. oxygen apparatus must be installed. we must not forget what is perhaps the most useful of all man-made instruments-the clock or watch. if he is flying on the darkest on the darkest of nights. pitch or roll but. fuel flowmeters. if the nose goes up. Apart from the aircraft itself the engine or engine will need revolution indicators. which will be mentioned in the following paragraphs. The air temperature is needed for various corrections to speed. which shows the position of a small model aeroplane relative to a horizon marked on the instrument. the model goes below the horizon. or . For any kind of serious flying it is indispensable. the upper needle indicates side-slip and is worked by a pendulum. and full radio and radar installation with all its attendant instruments. and perhaps even fighting each other.000 r. and so on. boost gauges for superchargers. and this needs special instruments all to itself as does the pressurization of cabins. and for this purpose an ordinary thermometer may be fitted on some exposed part. For high flying. This third gyroscopic instrument in common use is the turn and side-slip indicator. so does the model.” the robot or automatic pilot. Perhaps the most striking of all such instruments is the artificial horizon. and so on in record or test flights. to be more exact. even if the pilot cannot see the real horizon at all. A rateof-climb indicator or. carrying and dropping bombs. is indispensable in high-speed aircraft. fuel-pressure gauges. an instrument which shows either rate of ascent or rate of descent. and. Incidentally. oil-pressure gauges. having done so. oil-temperature gauges. fuel-contents gauges. but it is no longer fantastic to imagine that in the future aeroplanes will be flying about. If the aeroplane banks to right or left. which not only detects any tendency of the aeroplane to yaw. A machmeter. The lower needle on this indicates the rate of turn and is worked by the precession of a gyroscope. which has already been mentioned. like so many of these modern luxury instruments.p. Artificial horizon An instrument panel in a modern aeroplane may contain at least three instruments which depend on gyroscopes.m. without any pilots at all-indeed guided missiles are already doing just this. the model moves above the horizon. There are not many other instruments concerned with the actual flight of the aeroplene.Turn and slip indicator These two instruments together-the artificial horizon and the directional gyro-are the basis of “George. height. is usually fitted to modern aircraft.

instead of possessing the property of pointing towards the north. though lacking the chief attribute of the latter.“under the hood”. i. This detects any turn of the aeroplane. In modern practice. Controls: a) Longitudinal control b) Lateral control and c) Directional control Longitudinal control Longitudinal control of an aeroplane is nearly always provided by elevators attached to the rear of the tail plane. Figure: Longitudinal control-direction of movements In order to achieve this result it will be seen that in an ordinary simple control system the wires must be crossed between the control column and the elevators. it will remain in any position in which the pilot likes to set it. he can always tell the attitude of his aeroplane. The directional gyro responds more quickly to the slights turn. The reader may well ask what its justification may be. is the directional gyro. instead of employing two wires which will tend to become slack. It is worked by a gyroscope which is so mounted that its axis does not move even though the aeroplane (and with it the case of the instrument) may pitch or roll. The principle is best illustrated by the old-fashioned system in which the elevators were connected by control wires and levers to the control column in the pilot‟s cockpit. it is unaffected by acceleration and the various magnetic errors of the compass. it settle down at once after at turn. thus causing the nose of the aeroplane to drop Fig. It is very like a compass except that. or . seeing that it seems to act like a compass. more positive controls are nearly always used. these may take the form of a rigid rod serving both to push and to pull the elevators from top or bottom only. Simpler in principle. Actually it is marked off in degrees just like a compass. the elevators are lowered and the upward force on the tail is increased. however. Only those who have tried to fly “blind” can possibly conceive the value of such an instrument. just as the artificial horizon shows pitch or roll. and the pilot usually sets it to correspond to the compass course.e. causing a certain amount of backlash in the system. when the column is pushed forward. The answer is simple. The control is instinctive. but no less useful in practice.

enormously increasing lift. pneumatic or electric. Figure: Plate 5: Here seen with landing gear extended. The huge tail is needed for control at the very speeds that can safely be reached. . or the whole control system may be poweroperated. so with flaps depressed (as here) they end up deflected sharply down.they may rely simply on the torsion of a rod or tube. hydraulic. one of the most potent forms of powered lift. The two 25-tonne thrust turbofans blow their jets across the top of the wing. the Boeing YC-14 was the first to large aircraft to use USB (upper-surface blowing). Lateral control The usual method of obtaining lateral control is by means of ailerons hinged at the rear of each main plane near the wing tips. The Coanda effect keeps the transonic jets attached to the metal surface.

medevac and utility transport. this amphibian is used mainly as a water bomber to fight forest fires. increasing the lift on the righthand wings. decreasing the lift on the left wing and thus adding to the effect. Figure: Lateral control-general arrangement .500-hp Pratt&Whitney R-2800 engines. or again by some poweroperated system. The ailerons are connected to the control column by a complete system of control wires (figure) by a rigid system of rods. if the control column is moved to the left the right-hand ailerons will go down. thus banking the aeroplane to the left. i. This time it is a sideways movement of the control column which moves the ailerons and does so in such a way that once again the control is instinctive.Figure: Plate 6: Here seen in service with the Royal Thai Navy. having the ability to scoop up fresh loads many times in a single mission. at the same time the left ailerons will have been raised.e. air-sea rescue. Other mission include anti-smuggling patrols. the Canadair CL-215 proves that large piston-engined aircraft are not obsolete! Powered by 2. by torque tubes inside the wings.

If the left foot is pushed forward. A rocket is the only means of obtaining thrust in a vacuum or near vacuum such as exists outside or neat the outer edge of the atmosphere. the rudder moves to the left (the wires not being crossed) and the aeorplane turns to the left. Only the fuel is carried aboard the vehicle. It all sounds instinctive enough. Figure: Directional control-general arrangement Rocket Engines The gas turbine and reciprocating internal combustion engines are both air-breathing power plants. to obtain as large a thrust as possible with a given mass flow. because some people claim that it works the wrong way and should be altered to make it instinctive. or by a wheel similar to the steering wheel on a car. The forward thrust is obtained by applying a rearward momentum to the products of combustion. the rearward velocity must be as large as possible. Therefore. Directional control Directional control is by rudder. In this instance it is not wise to stress the point that the control movement is instinctive. the mass of which is clearly limited by the weight-carrying capacity of the vehicle. The rudder is connected by wires or rods or by a power-operated system to a rudder bar or rudder pedals on the floor of the cockpit (Fig.Sometimes the control column has no sideways movement. .) . They ingest air from the surrounding atmosphere and use the oxygen in the air as the oxidizer for the chemical burning process that extracts the heat energy from the fuel. A rocket is a device that burns fuel and an oxidizer. which has very much the same effect as on a ship. both of which are carried by the vehicle. and lateral control is effected by a type of handlebars. but it is exactly the opposite to what happens on a bicycle when the handlebars are moved in the same way as the rudder bar.

or hydrogen peroxide. such as liquid oxygen. which in turn are accelerated and ejected at a high velocity through a nozzle. ammonia. liquid propellant rockets and solid propellant rockets. red fuming nitric acid. The propellants consist of a liquid oxidizer. and a liquid fuel (e. or liquid hydrogen). The momentum imparted to the gases per unit times equal to the thrust developed by the rocket.. gasoline. Liquid propellant rockets employ liquid propellants that are fed under pressure from tanks into the combustion chamber.There are two basic types of rockets.g. In the combustion chamber the propellants react to form hot gases at high pressure. A schematic diagram of a liquid propellant system is shown in figure. .

It may be a homogeneous charge special chemicals. . such as modified nitrocellulose-type gun powder. propellant rocket system. a complex fed mechanism with propellant pumps and turbines. 1976. Solid propellant rockets have been widely used for jet-assisted takeoff (JATO) purposes for aircraft with marginal takeoff performance. The grain may be a heterogeneous mixture of several chemicals. This type of rocket is simple since a feed system. plastic like fuel such as asphalt.Figure: Simplified schematic diagram of a liquid. The propellants usually have a plastic like caked appearance and burn on their exposed surfaces to form hot exhaust gases at a nearly constant rate. Figure shows a cross section of a solid propellant rocket motor. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons. for example a mixture of oxidizing crystals of per chlorate in a matrix of an organic. From Sutton and Ross. Solid propellant rockets contain all the propellant within the combustion chamber. Rocket Propulsion Elements. The solid propellant charge contains all the chemical elements necessary for complete combustion. as well as for the initial launch and acceleration of missiles and spacecraft. New York. or a propellant p[pressurizing device. Long-duration solid rockets require excessively large and heavy combustion chambers. Solid rockets are usually limited to short-duration firing (1/10 to 25 s). valves or pumps are not required. The body of the propellant is called the grain. A liquid rocket propulsion system is relatively complicated since it requires several precision valves.

kg/s (slugs/s) Ve = exhaust gas velocity relative to the rocket. The shape. is proportional to the force acting on it. Therefore. in this case the exhaust gases. and the duration. Figure: Rocket in flight. . From Newton‟s second law. the flow is similar to the supersonic wind tunnel flow discussed in Chapter 7. Assume that the rocket is operating in a vacuum without gravitational forces. The only forces acting on the rocket are the reaction to the exhaust gases being expelled through the rocket nozzle and the nozzle exit pressure acting over the exit area. Se. the time rate of change of linear momentum of a body. Rocket motor performance Consider a rocket in flight as shown in Figure. and exposed burning surface of the grain influence the burning characteristics of the rocket and largely determine the operating pressure in the combustion chamber. the thrust. size. N (lb) dm/dt = mass flow rate of the exhaust gases. the force on the exhaust gases is F1 Ve dm dt where F1 = force.Figure: Sectional view of typical solid propellant rocket motor. m/s (ft/s) Since a rocket is designed to maintain essentially constant temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber or reservoir.

in a vacuum. An exit area differing from the optimum area will result in less rocket thrust. . all the pressures remain the same except at the nozzle exit. Ve. The equation of Chapter 7 apply. If the rocket is then ignited. so the total thrust.The combustion chamber pressure is always high enough to obtain sonic velocity at the throat or minimum section of the nozzle. although the loss is small for quite large deviations from the optimum area. the exit area S e. and pe. The other component is the pressure term given by p eSe. A rocket nozzle design that permits the expansion of the propellant products to the pressure of the surrounding fluid is said to have an optimum expansion ratio.ce is equal to the actual exhaust velocity when pe = p0. From Newton‟s third law. the force imposed on the exhaust gas by the rocket engine is equal to the force exerted on the engine by the exhaust gases. atmospheric pressure p0 would act on all surfaces and the net pressure effect would be zero. exit area is designed for an intermediate altitude that produces the most efficient overall performance for the rocket powered vehicle. and the combustion chamber (reservoir) pressure in accordance with the one-dimensional compressible fluid equations in Chapter 7. The additional force due to pressure is then F and the total thrust is F Ve pe p0 Se dm dt pee p0 Se Because of the relationship between Se. The later is the major part of the thrust. and for a given exit area the exit velocity is constant. where the pressure will be determined by the throat area. maximum thrust is obtained when the exhaust pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. The effective exhaust velocity is defined by the equation Ce F dm / dt The effective exhaust velocity is a fractious velocity equal to the actual exhaust velocity plus the increment in exhaust velocity that would produce the thrust increment actually contributed by the pressure term (pe-p0)Se. Since most rockets experience very large variations in atmospheric pressure along their flight path. is F Ve dm p e Se dt If the rocket motor were immersed in the atmosphere at V0 = 0 and with zero thrust (Ve = 0).

. is proportional to the effective exhaust velocity ce. It t 0 F dt t 0 sp I dm g dt dt For constant thrust. Thus specific impulse Isp F dm / dt g Since. F c e dm/ dt . and cp R/ 1 equation . c pTe so 2 Ve 2 c 0TT Ve 2c p TT Te 2c p TT 1 Te TT Since Te / TT pe / pT 1 equation . It Ft Isp dm gt dt Isp Wp where W p is the total weight of propellant. N (lb).000 ft/s). The magnitude of ce for chemical rockets ranges from 2000 m/s (6562 ft/s) to 4000 m/s (13. with a typical value of about 3048 m/s (10.123 ft/s). Isp Ce g The total impulse It is the Integral of thrust F over the operating duration t. from equation. in turn. Thus the performance of a rocket depends primarily on specific impulse. which.An important performance parameter for rockets is specific impulse or specific thrust. The exhaust velocity for a particular rocket can be determined from equation. It can be defined as the thrust that can be obtained with a propellant weight flow of 1 unit per second. It is the reciprocal of specific fuel consumption.

we can see that the exhaust velocity is a function of T T. Note that the specific impulse as calculated for Table is simply V e/g. and for several rocket fuel-oxidizer combinations. and the constants R and . the ratio of pT to pe has been taken as 68. because the composition and temperature of the gas are changing as the gas flows through the rocket motor. We can see from equation that a fuel-oxidizer combination with a high value of R.. Other factors must also be considered.35. This. Table 17. M. is not really a constant at all. which results from a low molecular-weight M. the universal gas constant = 8314 J/K-kg mole. The exit pressure pe is determined by the rocket exit area. Thus R R M where R. air. Also. this is because the assumed rocket has been designed so that the exit pressure is equal to the ambient pressure (i. the molecular weight of the products of combustion. the exhaust velocity.96.2 and 1. and a high TT will increase the exhaust velocity and therefore will be more efficient. Thus T T depends primarily on the propellant mixture.e. Unfortunately. and the threat to personnel handling the equipment. The other two factors in equation are the constants R and .03. TT is a function of the chemical reaction of the fuel and the oxidizer. is often taken as some average between 1. the motor itself. the values we have been using so far for R and are applicable only to a particular gas. is determined by the rate at which the pumps drive fuel into a liquid rocket engine combustion chamber or by the burning surface area in a solid propellant rocket combustion chamber. The choice of a rocket fuel must be made not only on the basis of its performance but also after consideration of the difficultly of designing the storage tanks. this corresponds to a . pe = p0 in equation). in turn. the resulting specific impulse.1 shows the combustion chamber temperature. which is usually designed to bring the exit pressure equal to the ambient pressure at the average height during the burning phase of the rocket flight path. the pumps and piping that bring the fuel to the motor. for example. suffers from being extremely corrosive and toxic. The molecular weight of air is 28. Any fueloxidizer combination at a particular pressure will burn at a particular temperature determined by the heat of reaction and called the adiabatic flame temperature. Hydrogen-fluorine. However. for preliminary design of rockets. the pumps and piping that bring the fuel the difficulty of designing the storage tanks.Ve 2 RTT 1 1 pe pT 1 / From equation. pe/pT. The gas constant R is more generally defined as the universal gas constant R divided by the molecular weight of the gas. PT is dependent on the nozzle throat area and the mass flow rate at which the rocket fuel and oxidizer are consumed.

From Table A.33 1. the given problem is then Isp. m/s combination temperature combustion K products Kerosene3555 21.5 385 384 1. The exit molecular weight of the combustion products is 9.. 325 = 2. and the thrust of the engine. Also determine the Mach number and the area at the exit. Example: A rock motor using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as the fuel and oxidizer has a combustion chamber temperature and pressure of 2700 K and 25 atm. may be assumed as 1.9 3760 oxygen apT/pe = 68. Thus pT = 25 x 101. Solution: Since the rocket is designed for an altitude of 17 km.combustion chamber pressure of 1000 lb/in2. 25 times the sea-level standard pressure).26.07 m2. The rocket motor throat area is 0. at sea level. The use of equation to determine rocket motor performance is shown in the following example. pe = po. specific impulse. respectively.03. 8852 N/m2.26 .8 3774 fluorine Hydrogen2689 8.9 2788 oxygen Hydrogen3869 11. Table: Typical properties of several liquid rocket propellants FuelCombustion Molecular oxidizer chamber weight of Ve. 125 N/m2. this pressure is. by interpolation.1. sea level. s 28.5.. the nozzle exit area will be designed to give an exit pressure equal to the ambient pressure at 17 km. The exit area is designed for a standard pressure altitude of 17 km. a combination widely used to compare rocket engine performance.e.533.24 1. At the design altitude of 17 km. The chamber pressure is 25 atm (i. calculate the exit velocity.

where ce = Ve. Ve g 3971.26 Then Ve 1.62 4.125 1.62m/ s Me Ve ae 3971.79 962.2 840. Isp From equation.533.533.3K Then the speed of sound at the nozzle exit is ae and RTe 1.26 2 875.26 Since the nozzle is designed with pe = p0.26 840.126 . Isp is from equation.29s pe pT and Te Tt / 1 T so that e TT pe pT 1/ Te 8852 2700 2.26 875.26 1 / 1.125 1.79 9.2 2700 1 1.2 and =1.5 875.3 962. pe pt 1 / Ve 2 1 RTT 1 R R M 8314 9.26 1 / 1.79m / s 8852 2.8 405.From equation.26 1 3971.

control. and aircraft growth potential. flutter.26 2 517. The arrangement of the propulsive units influences aircraft safety.26 / 0.07 22. at the fuselage nose.879N 68.3 0. drag. so we must find dm/dt.The area of the exit is found from equation. pe Then dm dt dm peSe Ve dt pe 8852 RTe 875.51 kg/s and thrust 3971.592 3971. A recent trend in turboprop executive aircraft has .79 76.592m2 Thrust = Ve (dm/dt).0121kg kg/m3 0.2 840. propulsive efficiency.318lb Propulsion-Airframe integration Propulsion-airframe integration is the process of locating the power plants and designing their installation to meat many operating requirements while minimizing drag and weight penalties. structural weight. the propeller requirements almost always place the engines on the wing or. for single-engine airplanes. For prop-driven aircraft.26 2 2 0. maintainability.26 1 4.5 and Se Sl* 517.0121 1. Se Sl* 2 1 M2 e 1 4.51 303.5 0.126 2. the mass flow rate. An unusual design used in converting a small piston-engine-powered commuter airplane from a twin-engine configuration to a trimotor was to place the center engine on the vertical tail. Note that figure is not applicable since we are not working with air and is not.126 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 / 1 M 2 e 2. maximum lift.75 1.79 = 76.

carbon/epoxy composite fan blades. they claim that the forward fan in the cold section of the engine for highest durability and reliability and minimum sealing problems. The pusher propellers. This company produces several engines. at the rear of the engines. was used in the Convair 880 and the Convair 990. United Technologies. General Electric‟s venture into the ultra-high-bypass-ratio propfan area is based on their aft-fan concept. General Electric Axial compressor Engines Another major manufacturer of both large and small axial-flow gas turbines in this country is the General Electric Company. General electric has developed a series of engines using the same basic gas generator (core) portion of the engine. A Canadian division of Part & Whitney. called Unducted Fan (UDF). In addition to its aft-fan designs. The fan. and the aft-fan blades are automatically anti-iced by thermal conduction. and an affan counterpart. Figure summarizes the PWC product line. The Rockwell International B1 Bomber uses the General electric F101. For this reason. but it has changed the fan and the number of turbines needed to drive the fan. this turbine was then attached to counter rotating. one of the largest airplanes in the world. located in the rear. longitudinal control. 5) and the location and method of driving the fan in the CJ805-23 engine. Because the engines are so far aft. but it was never widely accepted. while the General Electric F110 (fig) is installed in the General Dynamics F-16. One of their most highly produced machines is the J79 series Fig.been to place the engines on the rear portion of the wing. was never put into production but remains a viable competitor among propfan designs. and the moment arm of the horizontal tail is small. and the Boeing 747 and 767. The engine. A commercial version of this engine was called the CJ805-3. forward-fan engine called the TF39 Fig. Placing the fan in the rear and having it gas coupled is claimed to compromise basic engine performance to a lesser degree. which powers the Lockheed C5A and B Galaxy. is Prat & Whitney Canada (PWC).. From the TF39. the variable-angle first six stator stages in the compressor (see chap. The latter is actually the fundamental design objective because it reduces the noise and vibration in the cabin caused by the propellers. A General Electric F404 engine was modified by placing a multistage. used in the McDonnell Douglas/Northrop F-18 Fig. are behind the aft bulkhead of the passenger cabin. the CJ805-23 Fig. since most of the foreign material will be thrown radically outward and not passed through the rest of the engine. currently used in the McDonnel Douglas F-4 and formerly used on the General Dynamics B-58 and other aircraft. In addition. Furthermore. respectively. As an interesting aside. wide-chord. a medium-bypass turbofan. The CF6 series is installed in the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and MD-11. Three points worth noting about thee engine are the ariable-angle inlet guide vanes. the engine can be accelerated faster. the Airbus Industrie A-300 and A-310. A no afterburning derivative . the center of gravity is also far aft. General Electric also produces a high-bypass-ratio. A low-bypass General Electric turbofan engine is the F404. Forward fan designers claim fewer problems resulting from foreign-object damage. free-power turbine at the rear of the engine. is “gas coupled” to the primary engine as opposed to the mechanical coupling used in many of the Pratt & Whitney designs and others. all of which are also discussed in this chapter.

C) One-Eleven. and engine with a mixed exhaust. resulting in an extremely high-volume airflow. the compressor and the load of the propeller require the use of many turbine wheels. the Allison Engine Company has also designed an axial-flow turboprop engine incorporating a fixed regenerator. The engine is specifically designed to drive helicopter rotor blades by a jet reaction at the tips. Grumman Hawkeye. Lockheed C130. the Fig. for use in the supersonic British Aerospace Aerospatiale Concorde. also builds the Olympus 593. . General Electric has developed an aft-fan version of the CJ610 called the CF700 (fig). and the Allison Engine Company 501 series or T56 engine Fig. The engine is installed in the V/STOL Hawker Harrier.. The Rolls-Royce/Bristol Produce is another form of engine designed to produce highvolume airflows. The Oryx manufactured by D. The power produced by the gas-generator section of the engine is used to drive another axial-flow compressor. driving the Lockheed S3A and the Fairchild Republic A-10 aircraft. and the Airbus Industrie A330. which powered the Douglas B-66. is slated for the Boeing 777. As might be expected. In addition to the turbojet and turbofan engines. and 777. in collaboration with SNECMA of France. is another unusual design of British manufacture. and Grumman E-2C. General Electric manufactures a series of smaller gas turbine engines. used in the Lockheed Hercules and Electra. For example. two of which are installed on many models of the Falcon fanjet. now made in Israel. The RB211. 767.A. Convair 580 Conversion. Rolls-royce. is a two-spool turboprop engine with an integral gearbox for use in the Caadair 44. and the early Jet Commander. Fan air and primary airflow are both vectored (directed) in an appropriate direction in order to achieve the desired line of thrust. the F18-GE-100. all three-spool turbofan engines. is called the West wind 1124 and Astra 1125 and is powered by the Allied Signal Garrett TFE731 engine Fig. and are used to power a variety of Sikorsky and Boeing helicopters. British Aerospace Corporation (B. is used in the early Gates Lear Jet. The CJ610. Both are free-power turbine engines. General Electric manufactures the T58 (fig) and the T64 Fig. Other Axial Compressor Engines Still other examples of axial-flow machines are the Allison Engine Company J71 Fig. Since the 501 is a turboprop. The Jet Commander. a major difference being the location of the power take-off shaft. Like Pratt & Whitney. one of the few afterburning commercial engines.of the General Electric F110. The TF34 Fig is one of General Electric‟s small turbofan engines. The Rolls Royce Tyne Fig. The airflow from both the gas generator and the air pump is mixed together. or J85 Fig. powers the Northrop B-2. 757.. Northrop Talon T38 (F5). in particular. a requirement typical of all turboprop/turbofan designs. and the General Electric 90B1 Fig. The Rolls-Royce spey Fig. British manufacturers have com up with some interesting variations of the axial-flow engine. Although it was never put into production. which powers the DeHavilland Trident. the Boeing 747. has found wide acceptance in this country and is used in the Lockheed L-1011. Lockheed P-3. Napier and Son Ltd.

Both engines use the same basic concept and arrangement of parts. It is currently in use on many twin engine aircraft in business and commuter operation. At the time of this writing. in most cases. and several foreign aircraft. etc. The AlliedSignal Garrett ATF3 is a perfect example Fig. Cheyenne. is the JT15d fig. the T63 (model 250) fig. with the power takeoff at the front. the air enters toward the rear and flows forward. the Bell Jet Ranger helicopter. The turbo shaft variation of this engine is installed in the Hughes OH-6 Light Observation Helicopter (LOH). Either case requires a compromise. All of the various permutations and combinations of compressor design. the axial-centrifugal-flow engines exhibit the greatest variability and design innovation. with an axial-and centrifugal-style compressor: the Williams International FJ-44. front-end power extraction. location of the power-takeoff shaft. a few Bell helicopters. have been designed for wide application in both conventional and rotary wing aircraft. Two later engines developed by AlliedSignal Lycoming are the LTS/LTP (fig) series of small turboshaft/turboprop engines and the ALF502 (Fig). and others. Allison Engine Company‟s bid for the small turbine market. contains a single combustion chamber. Cessna Conquest. For example. which powers the Cessna CitationJet. The engine has also been used to power the STP Special at the Indianapolis 500 race. In the ALF502. lower than the best rpm for the gas-generator compressor (core engine) or any turbine wheel.5 inch (in) diameter. Shorts 360. Figures 2-87 and 2-86 show two small turbofans. used on the Cessna Citation. A feature of these engines is the reverse-flow combustion chamber design mentioned previously. The mechanically independent free-power turbine drives a coaxial throughshaft to provide cold. An important producer of axial-centrifugal engines in this country is AlliedSignal Lycoming Fig. number of spools. since the best number of revolutions per minute (rpm) for the fan is. single-shaft versus free-power turbine. has an axial-centrifugal compressor (some variations of this engine use only a centrifugal compressor) and incorporates many unusual design features. many other engine manufacturers use the reverse-flow burner concept in their designs. Beech King Air. so the low pressure turbine and highbypass-ratio fan can each turn at an appropriate rpm. the Piper Aircraft Corp. like the propeller on many piston engines.. and the engine weighs about 140 lb [64 kilograms (kg)] yet produces over 400 hp [298 kw] in some versions. the main difference is in the number of compressor and freepower turbine stages. can be found on these engines. and has an interchangeable gearbox. Another interesting design from PWC. their T53 and T55 series engines Fig. also incorporation a reverse-flow combustion chamber to keep the engine short. in their several versions. The highly produced and used Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC) PT6A engine also uses a reverse-flow combustion chamber. the fan is geared down. On this machine. As can be seen in this chapter. it can be disassembled in minutes with ordinary hand tools. most turbofan engine fans are either coupled to one of the compressors or to a group of turbines independent of the gas-generator compressor turbine(s). including the Beech Starship. type of combustion chamber. The axial part of the compressor is only about 4. .Axial-Centrifugal Compressor Engines As a group. and the F107 Wr-400 used in the cruise missile.

Mixed-Flow Compressor Engine The mixed-flow compressor does not fall into any of the three main categories. followed by a single centrifugal stage. This machine is a medium-bypass. the model 214 Bell helicopter. used this design. and the driving the load. two-spool engine. The engine will be found on late model Lear Jerts. The Bristol Proteus Fig. gas-producer and power turbines and exhaust through either a single-or double-exhaust nozzle. Once again. The Fairchild J44 engine Fig. is to AlliedSignal Garrett TFE731 Fig. GE is now producing an axial-centrifugal engine called the T700 (commercial version CT7) Fig. axial-centrifugal compressor and a two-stage. high-pressure spool is driven by a single turbine.Most small gas turbines use the free-power turbine method of driving the load. An engine that shows great promise. with the geared front fan coupled through a planetary gearbox to the low-pressure axial spool. Air is compressed by a single axial stage. British designers and manufacturers have produced an unusual axialcentrifugal flow engine. the I. and other aircraft. The centrifugalcompressor. 124 Westwind. The mixedflow design is similar in appearance to the single-entry centrifugal compressor.A. 2-26 is no exception. and the McDonnell Douglas Army Attack Helicopter (AAH) AH64. It is sometimes fitted with an integral inlet particle separator located at the forward end. but it discharges this air at some angle between the straight-though flow of the axial compressor and the radial flow of the centrifugal compressor. but The mixed-flow compressor does not fall into any of the three main categories. free-power turbine driving the propeller output shaft through a series of reduction gears. and the Boeing engine in Fig. The mixed-flow design is similar in appearance to the single-entry centrifugal compressor. The compressor receives its air axially. as do many other types. and combines many of the design innovations discussed at the beginning of the section on the axial-centrifugal compressor. The engine is used in the Britannia aircraft. Hot gases then expand through the single-stage. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited in twin combustors. Reverse-flow combustion chambers are also used.I. . but the blade arrangement provides a different type of airflow. incorporates a reverse-flow. This engine is designed to be installed in the Sikorsky Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft (UTTAS) UH60A.

SF 2 Cd coeff as drag P-density R is disectly proportional to p V-Velocity thus drag increases as pineseases SF Pr ontal area In other means. ISA:. As the P increases the mass of air p molecules striking the wing increases which in turn increases the energy to be supplied to displace the air molecules hitting the mane/it absorbs energy: R increases with p. Absolute attitude: Absolute attitude is defined as the attitude of the plane from the centre of the earth. 4.UNIT – III Introduction to Principles of Flight PART – A 2. density etc existing throughout the world.(International standard Atmosphere) It is the Atmospheric manual containing the mean values of the temp. It is p represented by ha. Ha = ha + r (m) hG ha r . pressure. 3. How drag disaffected by air density? From the formula for relative drag produced on the body R 1 Cd PV 2 .

These are verified with the eqn. 12. . Pressure distribution over an aerofoil:- Figure: 11. density also decrease with the increase in attitude. How pressure and density varies with attitude? Pressure decreases with the increase in attitude. What do you mean by lift & drag? Figure: Lift is the force component on the wing/plane which is responsible for the up & down movement drag is the unwanted force component on the plane which resists motion and always lie opp to the direction of motion.Figure: 10.

when a height record is attempted. For instance. according .dT PART – B Short notes on ISA:The most aggravating feature of the atmosphere is its changeability. the height allowed is not the height actually achieved but the height allowed is not the height actually achieved but the height which. Although there may never be a day when the conditions of the atmosphere all the way up are exactly the same as those average conditions. they do serve as a standard for comparing the performances of aircraft.Figure: P2 P1 go .h2 h1 RT e T2 go dR isothermal region p2 p1 go . For this reason we have been forced to adopt an average set of conditions (as shown in figure) called the International Standard Atmosphere.h2 h1 gradient region T2 go 1 aR e RT isothermal region gradient region where dh go – all due to glave in the rea level a – lapse rate . from hour to hour.it is never the same from day to day.

. It is not easy to say how far the atmosphere actually extends. for the simple reason that the change from atmosphere to space is so gradual it is impossible to decide on a definite dividing line. while the aircraft itself can hardly get sufficient support in air that not got onequarter the thickness of the air near the ground. So far as aircraft are concerned. the more difficult does it become to go any higher. enclose the pilot in air-tight suit.to calculation. So it is no good choosing a lucky day!. the higher we get. would have been achieved if the conditions had been those of the International Standard Atmosphere. supply him with oxygen and heat his clothing artificially. At record breaking heights we already have to pump air into the engine. of this reason it is hardly surprising to find that estimates of the maximum height vary from 50 to 250 miles or more –rather a wide range.

Fig: The International Standard Atmosphere .

we have PVA PV p dp v dv A p dp v dv PV pdV dpV dpdV O=pdv+dpv dpv=pdv . These may not be aircraft (as we have defined the term). V p + dp. Derive an expression for the speed of sound:Consider an aircraft is flying at a certain velocity. and spaceships. the air molecules approaches the wave at a velocity vend at pressure p and density p and leaves the wave at an a velocity vtdvat pressure p+2p and density p+dp applying continuity eqn.1 dpdv  o (A cannot change since area of the steam tube remains same before & after the wave) . and although they may not even fly (according to our definition). e. speaking with respect to the wave. p + dp. we have become very interested. Let us examine the wave in focus. with or without formulae. can any longer leave them out of consideration. IT is producing sound and the sound is traveling at an velocity of a m/s.Nor is it surprising that estimates of temperature in even higher regions of the atmosphere vary very considerably-between temperatures both above and below anything known on earthwhen the air is so thin it isn‟t the temperature of the air that matters so much as the temperature of the outer surfaces of the aircraft. V + dv. no book on flight. Figure: P. but in the space beyond it. satellites. we shall have more to say about them towards the end of the book. But in these days of missiles. no only in the upper reaches of the atmosphere.

and therefore Paft Pbef Vbef Vaft m m xaft xbef paft pbef Paft Paft P p C Pbef Pbef P=Cp Constnat =C= P p 4 m-mass Pr operty after the wave Pr operty before he wave and dp d d cp d c 1 C  p  5 sub (5) in (3) .From the culer‟s momentum eqn dp dv sub (2) in (1) vdv dP v 2 vd dp p pv dp v2 dp v dp dp 3 Zn this sound transmission there is no heat transfer in the process and also there is no friction and so it is an isentropic flow process.

V V vp  PV=mRT P P V m  RT RT RT By substuting the values of an ideal gas V = 340. Define AR & Camber. Aspect ratio:It is defined as the ratio of the wing span to the chord of the wing if it has a constant chord. Otherwise it is the ratio of the wing span to the plan area of the wing b b n S AR b c S – Plan area AR b2 S Figure: Camber: .29 m/s UNIT – IV Introduction to Aerodynamics and Propulsion PART – A 1.

Mach number:. 5. PART-B The Turbojet Engine .Camber is defined as the max distance between the chord and the mean camber line Mean camber line Chord Chamber Figure: 2. Airfoil:Airfoil is the cross section of the wing whose upper surface is more bulged than surface to produce tight.(M) It is defined as the ratio of the velocity of the aircraft (or) air (or) an object(v) to the velocity of sound (a) V M no units a 3. 4. Aerodynamic centre:It is a point on the chord of the aerofoil where these is no change in the moment. Centre of pressure:it is a point where the total pressure force acts on the aerofoil. Types of drag: (i) (ii) (iii) Form drag (or) pressurizing Skin fiction (or) surface friction drag Boundary layer drag 6.

Since a high “jet” velocity is required to obtain an acceptable amount of thrust. Large frontal area of propeller and engine combination that necessitates longer landing gears for low-wing airplanes but does not necessarily increase parasitic drag 5. Only a small amount (approximately 10 percent of “jet” thrust is available in the relatively low-pressure. However. or extend. More complicated design and heavier weight than a turbojet 3. Possibility of efficient reverse thrust These characteristics show that turboprop engines are superior for lifting heavy loads off short and medium-length runways. researchers in the Hamilton Standard division of United Technologies Corporation and others are trying to overcome. 2. the turbine of a turbojet is designed to extract only enough power from the hot gas stream to drive the compressor and accessories. Lowest TSFC 4. High propulsive efficiency at low airspeeds. thrust-specific fuel consumption (TSFC) at low altitudes and airspeeds. Ability to take advantage of high ram-pressure ratios These characteristics suggest that the turbojet engine would be best for high-speed. all of which goes through the engine. which results in shorter takeoff rolls but falls off rapidly as develop high thrust at low airspeeds because the propeller can accelerate large quantities of air at zero forward velocity of the airplane. said to be more efficient than the high-bypass-ratio turbofan. resulting in low drag and reduced ground-clearance problems 5. wide-chord propellers. Lightest specific weight (weight per pound of thrust produced) 6. long-distance flights. Relatively high. low-velocity gas stream created by the additional turbine stages needed to drive the extra load of the propeller. with a 20 percent reduction in thrust-specific fuel . Small frontal area. The turboprop characteristics and uses are as follows: 1. The Turboprop Engine Propulsion in a turboprop engine is accomplished by the conversion of the majority of the gas-steam energy into mechanical power to drive the compressor. accessories. A discussion of propulsive efficiency follows in the next chapter. All of the propulsive force produced by a jet engine is derived from the imbalance of forces within the engine itself Fig. Long takeoff roll 4. The turbojet characteristics and uses are as follows: 1. points out that a turbojet derives its thrust by highly accelerating a small mass of air. since propeller efficiencies fall off rapidly with increasing airspeeds because of shock wave formations.Which deals with engine theory. this limitation by experimenting with small diameter. highaltitude. and the propeller load. a disadvantage that decreases as altitude and airspeed increase 3. Turboprops are currently limited in speeds to approximately 500 mph [805 km/h]. Low thrust at low forward speeds 2. multibladed.

or it can be ducted back to mix with the primary engine‟s air at the rear (long duct). . or hot stream. for a 500 lb/s airflow engine. the static pressure can be reduced and the dynamic pressure increased. the fan thus provides a greater percentage of the total thrust produced by the engine. had a bypass ratio of approximately 1:1. pressure times the area equals a force. As shown in chapter 3. dynamic. airflow and the core. The Turbofan Engine The turbofan engine has a duct-enclosed fan mounted at the front or rear of the engine and driven either mechanically geared down or at the same speed as the compressor. One fundamental difference between he turbofan and turboprop engine is that the airflow through the fan is controlled by design so that the air velocity relative to the fan blades is unaffected by the aircraft‟s speed. the static fan discharge pressure must be less than the total pressure in the primary engine‟s exhaust. primary engine exhaust gas velocities and pressures are low because of the extra turbine stages needed to drive the fan. For example. and as a result the turbofan engine is much quieter. or by an independent turbine located to the rear of the compressor drive turbine. The first generation of turbofan designs. For a discussion of static. or the turbine will not be able to extract the energy required to drive the compressor and fan.) and the Rolls Royce RB211 Fig have bypass rations on the order of 5:1 or 6:1. Either the fan air can exit separately from the primary engine air (short duct). airfoil-shaped shell filled with a plastic like foam material. This composite construction produces a more rigid blade one-half the weight of a comparable conventional aluminum blade. By closing down the area of flow of the fan duct.consumption. such as the Pratt & Whitney JT3D engine series. In terms of actual airflow. The fan produces this additional force or thrust without increasing fuel flow. By the same token. and about 50 percent went through the fan as secondary airflow. Also illustrate two methods of handling the fan air. airflow for an engine with a total airflow of 1000 lb/s at several different bypass ratios. As in the turboprop. or the two gas streams may be kept separate for the entire length of the engine. about 50 percent of the air went through the engine core as primary airflow. If the fan air is ducted to the rear. and total pressure. Second generation turbofans like the General Electric CF6 (fig). the Pratt & Whitney JT9D (Fig. The obvious advantage is that the propeller hub and the pitch-changing mechanism located within can be lighter and the blade will more closely maintain its correct aerodynamic position. The efficiency of the fan engine is increased over that of the pure jet by converting more of the fuel energy into pressure energy rather than the kinetic (dynamic) energy of a high-velocity exhaust gas stream. or air will not flow. Other engines with different airflows will have different fan and core airflows for similar bypass ratios. Aluminum blades large enough to deliver sufficient thrust and absorb high engine power and of the right shape are also too heavy and flexible to resist straightening out from a curved and tapered aluminum spar bonded to a fiberglass. that is. Table shows the fan. divide each fan and core airflow in half for a given bypass ratio. This design eliminates the loss in operational efficiency at high airspeeds that limits the maximum airspeed of propeller-driven aircraft. or cold stream. the total fan pressure must be higher than the static gas pressure in the primary engine‟s exhaust. On some long duct engines the primary and secondary airflow may be mixed internally and then exit from a common nozzle.

in order to keep the fan discharge air at the same pressure.00 5.50 Fan Airflow lb/s 858 834 800 750 667 500 429 333 Core Airflow lb/s 143 167 200 750 333 500 572 667 This process expands the gas. no noise suppressor is needed. development that would not be conducive to good gas turbine design. Very-lowbypass-ratio turbofan engines (less than one) are being used on some fighter aircraft capable of supersonic speeds.00 4. Table: Fan and core airflow for different bypass ratios. The turbofan characteristics and uses are as follows: 1. Increased thrust at forward speeds similar to a turboprop results in a relatively short takeoff.Emphasis on the use and development of the turbofan engine in recent years is due largely to the development of the transonic blade. unlike the turboprop.00 2. up to approximately Mach 1 with current fan designs. This action results in increased gross thrust due to an increase in pressure times an area. which. the increased drag offered by the fan more than offsets the greater net thrust produced. However. 4. and increased thrust-specific fuel consumption. Considerable noise level reduction of 10 to 20 percent over the turbojet reduces acoustic fatigue in surrounding aircraft parts and is less objectionable to people on the ground. At high speeds. require small frontal areas. Others. 3.00 0. 2. resulting in increased operating economy and aircraft range over the turbojet. the inlet guide vanes have .75 0. 5. the are fan jet nozzle is increased. of course. the speed of present-day commercial aircraft. Ground clearances are less than turboprop but not as good as turbojet. The disadvantage of the fan for high-speed aircraft can be offset at least partially by burning fuel in the fan discharge air. such as the General Electric CF6 and Pratt & Whitney 4000 series shown in Figs.00 3. the turbofan thrust is not penalized with increasing airspeed. On newer fan engines. Weight falls between the turbojet and turboprop. Bypass Ratio 6.00 1. Also. and. TSFC and specific weight fall between turbojet and turboprop. Fan engines show a definite superiority over the pure jet engines at speed below Mach 1. The large-diameter fan would require a much lower rpm to keep the blade tips below the speed of sound.

which is considered to be a large problem for high-bypass-ratio fan engines. The principle of jet propulsion is obtained from the application of Newton‟s law of motion. . Other fan-noise-reducing features are also incorporated. It consists of air plus combustion products. It is nothing but reaction principle. The air breathing engines are classified as: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Turbojet engine Turbo prop engine Pulse jet (or) flying bomb and Ram jet engine Turbo Jet Engine It is a most common type of air breathing engine whose essential features are shown in figure. The noise level is reduced by the elimination by the fan blades cutting through the wakes behind the vanes. 7. Since all the air craft engines breaths air from the surrounding atmosphere hence it is called air – breathing engines. Jet Propulsion It is the propulsion of jet aircraft or other missiles by the reaction of jet coming out with a high velocity. the advantage of which is the short fan duct with corresponding low duct loss. The turbofan is superior to the turbojet in “hot day” performance. Two thrust reversers are required if the fan air and primary engine air exit through separate fan nozzles. 6. The term jet propulsion is used where the oxygen is obtained from the surrounding atmosphere.been eliminated to reduce the fan noise.

they expand further in the exhaust nozzle and are ejected with a very high velocity than the flight velocity to produce a thrust for propulsion. After this air enters to the compressor. The high pressure and high temperature gases then enters the turbine. Inlet diffuser Air . Therefore the drag is less 2.Figure: Components of Turbo Jet Engines This engine consists of inlet diffuser. where they expand partially to provide drive power for the turbine. (axial or centrifugal) which further compresses the air to a very high pressure and delivers it to the combustion chamber. turbine and an exhaust nozzle. The T – S diagram or ideal and actual cycle is shown in figure Figure: i – 1 1 – 2 compressor 2–3 Combustion chamber 3–4 Turbine 4–e Nozzle or tail pipe Advantages: 1. Suitable for long distance flights at higher altitudes and speeds. Lower frontal area due to the absence of fan. combustion chamber. Then fuel nozzle supplies fuel continuously and continuous combustion takes place at constant pressure. The function of the diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into a static pressure rise. compressor. After the gases leave the turbine. The turbine is directly connected the compressor and all the power developed by the turbine is to drive the compressor and the auxiliary devices.

combustion chamber. Disadvantages: 1. However. . the major difference being that the turbine is designed so that it develops shaft power for deriving a propeller to provide most of the propulsive thrust (90%). compressor and combustion chamber functions are as same as the turbo jet engine. and only a small amount jet thrust is produced in the nozzle is shown in figure. 5. guided missiles and piloted aircrafts. The diffuser. part of the compression is done by it without any work input. Since this engine has a compressor it is capable of operating under static conditions. Thus the turbo – prop engine drives most of its propulsive thrust from the propeller and drives only a small portion (10 to 25%) from the exhaust nozzle. Long runway is required due to slower acceleration. 5. 3. Applications: Turbo jet engines are used in military aircrafts. Propulsive efficiency and thrust are lower at lower speeds Thrust specific fuel consumption is high at low speeds and altitudes. turbine. It is not economical for short distance flights. 4. the turbine extracts much more power than the turbo – jet engine. Lower weight per unit thrust at design speed and altitude. When all of this energy is extracted from the high temperature gases. because the turbine provides power for both the compressor and the propeller. exhaust nozzle. reduction gear and a propeller. Turbo Prop Engine: It is very similar to turbo jet engine . 6. etc. 4. Reheat can be possible to increase the thrust. 2. in the turbo prop engine. Sudden decrease of speed is difficult to achieve. only little energy is left out for producing jet thrust.3. Figure: Components of Turbo – Prop Engine The engine consists of a diffuser. compressor. Since a diffuser is at the inlet.

The air then flows into the combustion chamber. 5. compressor and turbine decreases pay load capacity. 5. ( C < 600 Kmph) Disadvantages: 1. Ram Jet Engine: The simplest types of air – breathing engine is the Ram jet engine which is shown in figure. 3. Propulsive efficiency is very high. 4. A reduction gear is required to transmit the power from the turbine shaft to the propeller shaft. Air from the atmosphere enters the supersonic diffuser where in its static pressure increased and the velocity of air is reduced. Thrust reversal is possible by varying the blade angle. The function of a supersonic and subsonic diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into a pressure rise. combustion chamber and a discharge nozzle section. a reduction gear must be placed between the turbine shaft and the propeller to enable the propeller to operate efficiently. the efficiency drastically decreases. Engine is heavier and more complicated. Heavier propeller. where the fuel burners are located and here the air is heated to a high temperature (1600 0 C to 20000 C) by the continuous combustion of fuel. If the speed of the engine increases above 600 Kmph. 2. a thrust „F‟ is developed in the direction of flight. The TSFC based on thrust is low High acceleration at lower speed enables to a shorter run way. The engine consists of a supersonic diffuser.Since the shaft rotation speed of gas turbine engine is very high. 2. this gives the advantage of decreasing the speed drastically. Because of the rate of increase in momentum of the working fluid flowing through the engine. The frontal area is being blocked on account of large diameter propeller which increases the co – efficient of drag. 4. The highly heated products of combustion are then allowed to expand in the exhaust nozzle section and are discharged from the engine with a speed greater than that of entering air. 3. subsonic diffuser section. Used for shorter distance travels. Advantages: 1. called the “ram pressure”. Then the air enters the subsonic diffuser it is compressed further. .

combustion chamber. erosion occurs at the exit of the nozzle. the higher the flight velocity. It has low thermal efficiency and high TSFC. it is suitable for propelling supersonic missiles. because. Since the rum jet engine cannot operate under static conditions as there will be no pressure rise in the diffuser. Its fuel consumption decreases with flight speed and approaches reasonable values when the flight Mach number is between 2 to 4. 4. . Altitude limitation is there. 5. Since the frontal area is less. 3. 4. Due to high temperature of gas coming out from the nozzle. and therefore. Consequently the turbine is also eliminated. Pulse Jet or Flying Bomb: Figure a pulse jet engine which consists of a inlet diffuser. the larger the ram pressure and consequently larger the thrust. the pressure rise in the diffuser (ram pressure) is very high and this eliminates the compressor. It increases the mechanical efficiency due to the absence of sliding and moving parts. 1. it is not self – operating at zero flight velocity. valve grid (contains springs that close on their own spring pressure). Therefore to attain the required flight speed some kind of starting device must be required such as launching rockets. 3. Disadvantages: A starting device is required to propel ram jet up to supersonic speed. Since the flight speed is very high. spark plug and a discharge nozzle. Advantages: 1. the co – efficient of drag is low.Figure: Components of Ram Jet Engine The cycle pressure ratio of ram jet engine depends upon its flight velocity. the function of a turbine in just to run the compressor. High temperature and pressure can be employed. compressor and turbine. Pay load capacity is very high due to the absence of fan. Applications: Uses as guided missiles and high supersonic speed aircrafts. 2. 2.

The pulse – jet engine is a simple. Hence combustion takes place with spark ignition. the valves will open and allow the fresh air to enter the combustion chamber. When a certain pressure drop exits across the valve grid. Drag co – efficient is less due to smaller frontal area. Limited flight speed and altitude. Thrust: . Nozzle erosion occurs. 3. cheap for subsonic flights and well adopted to pilot less aircraft. It is simple in construction and cheap. 4. propeller and turbine. There is a rapid increase in pressure. It gives higher pay load capacity due to the absence of compressor. where they expand and escape with higher velocity than the entrance velocity. Severe vibrations and high intensity of noise due to intermittent combustion. 2. Due to the absence of sliding and moving parts mechanical efficiency is very high. due to the high temperature of gases coming out from the nozzle. Advantages: 1. 2.Figure: Components of Pulse Jet Engine The function of a diffuser is to change the kinetic energy of the entering air into static pressure rise by slowing down the air velocity. Since firing in the combustor is intermittent and therefore intermittent thrust is produced. 3. where fuel is injected and mixed with air. It is suitable for subsonic flights. Disadvantages: 1. Thus the thrust is produced at the nozzle exit. which causes the valve to close rapidly and surges the products of combustion rearward into the nozzle.

Momentum thrust Fmom = ma mf Ce . The flow of air (internal and external) is separated by the solid boundaries of the engine casing. Jet Thrust (Turbo Jet Engine) The two section 1 – 1 and 2 – 2 of an imaginary control surface for a turbo jet engine is shown in figure. .e.The force which propels the aircraft forward at a given speed is called propulsive force or thrust. Ce = Cj (Jet velocity). . Mass flow rate at inlet of the engine is m a and the mass flow rate at exit is ma mf Kg/sec. . Figure: Flow of Gases in Turbo Jet Engine Ambient air enters the jet engine at a pressure P a and velocity „u‟ and after expansion hot gases leave from the nozzle at a pressure Pe and high velocity Ce. .m a u . The net thrust on the engine = momentum thrust + pressure thrust F = Fmom + Fpr . If Pe = Pa the expansion is complete i. This propulsive force is mainly depends on the velocity of gases at the exit of the nozzle in turbo jet engines and from the propeller in turbo prop engines. .. the remaining flows through the engine without any change in the momentum flux. Part of the air flow at section 1 – 1 is swallowed by the jet engine and experiences change in momentum flux.

Pressure thrust Fpr = (Pe – Pa ) Ae Net thrust F = ma mf Ce . the thrust on the propeller and the aircraft is due to the change in momentum flux between inlet and outlet section. Therefore. u Cj = m a Cj [ 1 - ] . A flow boundary similar to the walls of a duct which separates the fluid at rest and fluid in motion. . F ma C j 1 . . Therefore. The thrust on the propeller F = m a (Cj – u) Where Cj = Jet velocity and u = flight speed The flight to jet velocity ratio or effective speed ratio u Cj . Figure: Flow through a Turbo – Prop Engine The pressure at section 1 – 1 and outside the boundary is ambient. The air flow pattern before and after the propeller is shown in figure. . .m a u + Ae (Pe – Pa) Propeller Thrust: Figure shows the air flow takes place across the propeller of a turbo prop engine.

Figure: Utilization of Power in Aircraft Propulsion .Propulsive. by „Cj‟ the above equation becomes . m C2 j 2 2u Cj u u2 2 Cj u u Cj u Cj u p Divide both Nr. Power input to the engine (Fuel power) = mf Q f Power output from the engine = Propulsive power (or) Thrust power F 1 . m Cj u u 1 . Thermal and Overall Efficiencies The performance of an aircraft population system can be analyzed by various efficiencies. m C2 u2 j 2 u = (Pout – Pin) Propulsive Efficiency ( p) Pr opulsive efficiency= Propulsive power (or) Thrust power Power output of the engine . Figure shows the utilization of power of the fuel in a turbo jet engine. and Dr.

a comparison between the various engine forms can be made. In normal conditions when the speed ratio ( ) increases. turboprop. u = Cj. Summaries of these characteristics and uses follow. shows how the various engines compare in thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption versus airspeed. Therefore „Cj‟ must be always greater than „u‟ when the aircraft is flying.. The propulsive efficiency can be increased by increasing the jet velocity close to the flight speed where as the thrust power can be increased by increasing the mass flow rate of air or gas through the propulsive device. Figure: Comparison of Turbo Jet Engines Characteristics. The propulsive efficiency versus speed ratio for turbo jet and turbo prop engine is shown in figure. As the graphs indicate. and evaluation of the turbojet. Fig. the propulsive efficiency is maximum. = 0. but the specific thrust is zero.p 2 1 2 1 1 1 p 2 Cj u p Case (a): When the speed of air craft u = 0. turbofan. each engine type has its advantages and limitations. comparisons. and propfan engines By converting the shaft horsepower of the turboprop into pounds of thrust and the fuel consumption per horsepower into fuel consumption per pound of thrust. Maximum thrust is needed during take – off period. but the specific thrust Case (b): When the speed of aircraft equals to the speed of jet i. p = 100%. Assuming that the engines have equivalent compressor ratios and internal temperatures and that they are installed in equal-sized aircraft best suited to the type of engine used.e. . Applications. the propulsive efficiency ( p) will also increases.

a thrust fuel consumption is . TSFC mf F It is an important parameter to compare the engine performance of different types of aircraft propulsion systems. m C2 u2 . u 0 . . the above equation becomes. m C2 J 2 0 p th u2 u2 mf Q f Specific Fuel consumption: It is the ratio between fuel consumption rate per unit thrust. and Dr. . mf Q f Overall efficiency ( 0) Propulsive power Power input to the engine through fuel . by 1 . . m C 2 u2 J =2 . mf Q f Multiply both Nr.Thermal Efficiency ( th) th Power output of the engine Power input to the engine through fuel 1 . Substituting equation we get. m C2 J 2 . m Cj u u 1 . Since the output is in the form of thrust. th = m Cj u u . J 2 1 . u Qf mf F Qf mf m Cj u .

Thrust Augmentation: To achieve better take – off performance. W u Cj g u u 1 g mg 1 Effect of Forward Speed: The forward speed of the aircraft affects the compressor inlet pressure and temperature. Specific Impulse: It is defined as the thrust produced per unit weight flow rate through the propulsive device. As flight velocity increases. . Isp = = F . inlet drag will be more and the net specific thrust is reduced using the normal values of cycle variables.burning: . Therefore. Effect of Altitude: At higher altitude. the flight must fly at a designed altitude. propulsive efficiency is decreased.= Specific Thrust: u TSFC Qf It is defined as the thrust produced per unit mass flow rate through the propulsive device. The following methods of thrust augmentation for turbo jet engines are: (a) After . there has been a demand for increasing the thrust output of aircraft power plant for short intervals of time. m Cj u . It is also an another useful performance parameter in aircraft propulsion devices. Therefore. the ambient temperature and pressure is very less. This ambient air is not sufficient to propel the aircraft engines. higher rates of climb and increased performance at altitude during combat manoeuvres. Fsp F . m It is an another useful parameter for comparing the different types of propulsion devices.

2. and the airfoil section that help to form the shape of the wing. UNIT-V Introduction to Airplane Structures and Materials 1. The spars are basically cantilever beams extending from the fuselage carry through structure. (b) Injecting Refrigerants: Injecting refrigerants. This method of thrust augmentation increases the mass flow rate of air and decreases the compressor work. these airfoil shapes are called the wing ribs. water or water – alcohol mixture at some point between inlet and exit sections of the air compressor. Thus the jet velocity at the nozzle exit is increased. Differentiate between monocoque and semi-monocoque construction.Burning additional fuel in the tail pipe between the turbine exhaust section and entrance section of the exhaust nozzle is shown in figure. Ribs:The spars the run along the span of the wing. Figure: After Burner This method of thrust augmentation increases the enthalpy of air entering the nozzle. . What are the functions of ribs and spars? Spars:The wing spars which are large I-beams that run most of the span of wing. resulting in increased thrust. with heights that reach from the bottom to the top surface of the wing.

2. 5. State the uses of titanium in aircraft industries. and is reinforced by frames. Supersonic aircraft have to use titanium because of the skin temperatures due to aerodynamic heating.Monocoque:A structure in which the outer skin carries the primary stresses and is free of internal bracing. 4.  Aluminium is readily formed and machined. aluminium is too short for aircraft use. Monocoque shell Geodetic construction D-Spar construction Box-Spar construction Semi-monocoque 7. State the uses of aluminium alloys in aircraft industry. formers and longerons. 3. Enumerate the composite materials. 5. 6. 4. Composite materials are bringing about a revolution in aircraft structures because for the same load the composite structure can yield at least a 25% reduction in weight. Composite materials are quite different from metals in both their composition and physical properties. corrosion resistant. Titanium has a better strength-to-weight ratio than aluminium and retains its strength at higher temperatures. Semi-monocoque:An aircraft structure in which the outer skin in inadequate to carry the primary stresses.  It is pure form. and has an excellent strength to weight ratio. What is box truss structure? . 3. What are the different types of fuselage structure? 1. reasonable cost.

wing surfaces. Titanium has some merit for short-time exposure up to 2. Titanium and titanium alloys are used chiefly for parts that require good corrosion resistance. the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen from the air at temperatures above 1. and many bridge structures. Monocoque construction was first widely used in aircraft. nitrogen. spacer rings. Types. Practically anything that can be deep drawn in low-carbon steel can be duplicated in commercially pure titanium. Machine welding with an inert gas atmosphere has proven most successful. starting in the 1930s. Characteristics. and airframe parts such as engine pads. It is readily welded. moderate strength up to 600oF. and lightweight. Box trusses are commonly used in certain types of electric power pylons. What is monocoque shell? Monocoque is a construction technique that supports structural load using an object‟s external skin. In applications where the declines might be tolerated. characteristics. . Sharp tools are essential in machining techniques because titanium has a tendency to resist or back away from the cutting edge of tools.300 oF. but the tendency of the metal to absorb oxygen. and hydrogen must never be ignored. fuselage skin adjacent to the engine outlet.000oF where strength is not important. The ultimate and yield strengths of titanium drop fast above 800 oF. approximately 3. This stands in contrast with using an internal framework (or truss) that is then covered with a non-load-bearing skin. 8. PART – B 1. compressor blades. In view of titanium‟s high melting temperature. and uses Titanium alloys are being used in quantity for jet engine compressor wheels. and armor plate. large ratio antennas. Both commercially pure and alloy titanium can absorb large amounts of cold-work without cracking. fire walls. ducting. although the titanium may require more intermediate anneals. housing compartments. Types. as in aircraft fire walls.000oF makes the metal so brittle on long exposure that it soon becomes worthless. its high-temperature properties are disappointing. and uses of Titanium and its alloys.A box truss is a structure composed of three or more chords connected by transverse and/or diagonal structural elements.

This has become particularly evident with the advent of the F/A-18. is easily identified. Kevlar®/epoxy. coated boron titanium.Identification of Titanium:Titanium metal. has been used for some time in various aircraft components. boron graphite epoxy hybrid. boron poly-amide. boron-coated boron aluminum. Fiber glass. When rubbed with a piece of glass. However. The trend is toward minimum use of boron/epoxy because of the cost when compared to current generation of graphite/epoxy composites. Examples of composite materials are as follows: graphite/epoxy. there is a growing requirement to train you in the use of advanced composite materials. SH-60B. Composite materials are replacing and supplementing metallic materials in various aircraft structural components. for example. graphite polyamide. graphite fibers and epoxy resin. and boron/epoxy. the term application for naval aircraft. The use of composites is not new. boron. Composites are attractive structural materials because they provide a high strength/weight ratio and offer design flexibility. and are generally bonded to a substructure such as aluminum or nonmetallic honeycomb. the properties of these materials can be adjusted to more efficiently match the requirements of specific applications. 2. and CH-53E aircraft. it makes white spark traces that end in brilliant white bursts. Write a short note on composite material. AV-8B. The much stiffer fibers of graphite. The first materials were used with laminated fiber glass radomes and helicopter rotor blades. These laminates can number from 2 to greater than 50. the replacement of metallic materials with more advanced composite materials has rapidly accelerated. pure or alloyed. There are numerous combinations of composite materials being studied in laboratories and a number of types currently used in the production of aircraft components. and Kevlar® epoxies have given composite materials structural properties superior to the metal alloys they have replaced. When touched with a grinding wheel. . Composite structures are made of a number of fiber and epoxy resin laminates. moistened titanium will leave a dark line similar in appearance to a pencil mark. for example. and it is anticipated that composite materials will continue to comprise much of the structure in future aircraft. In contrast to traditional materials of construction. Composites are materials consisting of a combination of high-strength stiff fibers embedded in a common matrix (binder) material. As a result. In recent years.

Since no bracing members are present. which usually extend across several points of support. All of these join together to form a rigid fuselage framework. and it is still being used in some helicopters. frame assemblies. The strong. . Different portions of the same fuselage may belong to any one of the three classes. The welded steel truss was used in smaller Navy aircraft. The fuselage skin thickness varies with the load carried and the stresses sustained at particular location. The bulkheads and formers hold the stringers. to carry various loads. and bulkheads to give shape to the fuselage. and the extent of the damage is difficult to determine visually. frames. and formers. Primary bending loads are taken by the longerons. These members are also found at points where fittings are used to attach other units. Stringers are more numerous and lightweight than longerons. repair differs from traditional metallic repair techniques. the semimonocoque construction has the skin reinforced by longitudinal members. However. ! The reinforced shell has the skin reinforced by a complete framework of structural members. and bulkheads. Most are considered to be of semimonocoque-type construction. The heavier vertical members are located at intervals to allow for concentrated loads. ! Semimonocoque design overcomes the strength-to-weight problem of monocoque construction. In addition. such as the wings and stabilizers. or covering. frame assemblies. In addition to having formers. although steel and titanium are found in hightemperature areas. heavy longerons hold the bulkheads and formers. The monocoque design may be divided into three classes-monocoque. The biggest problem in monocoque construction is maintaining enough strength while keeping the weight within limits. the skin must be strong enough to keep the fuselage rigid. these materials are highly susceptible to impact damage. The vertical structural members are referred to as bulkheads. semimonocoque. They have some rigidity but are chiefly used for giving shape and for attachment of skin. The longerons are supplemented by other longitudinal members known as stringers. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) is required to analyze the extent of damage that the effectiveness of repairs. There are two general types of fuselage construction-welded steel truss and monocoque designs. The semimonocoque fuselagies constructed primarily of aluminimum alloy. The stringers are smaller and lighter than longerons and serve as fill-ins. 3. Discuss the monocoque and semi-monocoque construction. the skin carries the primary stresses. The monocoque design relies largely on the strength of the skin. and reinforced shell ! The true monocoque construction uses formers.Figure: Sandwich construction However. Stringers and longerons prevent tension and compression stresses from bending the fuselage.

Various points on the wing are located by wing station numbers (fig). The more complex aircraft may have a variety of devices. speed. and all wing stations are measured (right or left) from this point (in inches). they may be folded for carrier use. the wing is a framework made up of spars and ribs and covered with metal. In addition to the main spars. spoilers. Wing station (WS) 0 is located at the centerline of the fuselage. It also provides the necessary flight control surface. . All the load carried by the wing is taken up by the spars. Wing structures carry some of the heavier loads found in the aircraft structure. slats. The spars are designed to have great bending strength. full cantilever construction. The wet wing is sealed with a fuel-resistant compound as it is built. Ribs extend from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing. A complete wing assembly consists of the surface providing lift for the support of the aircraft. Often. The wing can be fastened to the fuselage without the use of external bracing. The wing must be constructed so that it holds its aerodynamics shape under the extreme stresses of combat maneuvers or wing loading. and speed brakes. Write a short note on wings structure. Spars are the main structural members of the wing. which streamlines the outer end of the wing. rate of climb. A full cantilever wing structure is very strong. This term describes the wing that is constructed so it can be used as a fuel cell. Ribs give the wing section its shape. and use of the aircraft. and they transmit the air load from the wing covering to the spars. The wing holds fuel without the usual rubber cells or tanks. The particular design of a wing depends on many factors. They extend from the fuselage to the tip of the wing. weight.4. The construction of an aircraft wing is shown in figure. some wings have a false spar to support the ailerons and flaps. such as wires or struts. such as leading edge flaps. Wings develop the major portion of the lift of a heavier-than-air aircraft. Most aircraft wings have a removable tip. In its simplest form. The wings of most naval aircraft are of all metal. Wing construction is similar in most modern aircraft. Most NAVY aircraft are designed with a wing a wing referred to as a wet wing. Note: The flight control surfaces on a simple wing may include only ailerons and trailing edge flaps. such as the size.

216oF. The total percentage of alloying elements is seldom more than 6 or 7 percent in the wrought aluminum alloys. lustrous metal. and its comparative ease of fabrication. . aluminium resembles silver. Commercially pure aluminum is a white. its corrosion-resisting qualities. Aluminum alloys in which the principal alloying ingredients are either manganese. On the other hand. and is an excellent conductor of electricity. show little attack in corrosive environments.Figure: PART – C 1. and uses Aluminium is one of the most widely used metals in modern aircraft construction. Types. Aluminum combined with various percentages of other metals (generally copper. or magnesium and silicon. It is vital to the aviation industry because of its high strength/weight ratio. manganese. Types. characteristics. those alloys in which substantial percentages of copper are used are more susceptible to corrosive action. It is nonmagnetic. In color. and chromium) form the alloys that are used in aircraft construction. although it possesses a characteristic bluish tinge of its own. The outstanding characteristic of aluminum is its light weight. or chromium. magnesium. magnesium. and uses of aluminium and its alloys. characteristics. light in weight and corrosion resistant. Commercially pure aluminum melts at the comparatively low temperature of 1.

the wrought alloys are the most widely used in aircraft construction. the tensile strength may be raised to as high as 96. strain hardening (cold-working) is the only means of increasing the tensile strength. indicate 99. One disadvantage of aluminum maybe divided into two classes-casing alloys (those suitable for casting in sand. If the second digit is zero. only one group (6xxx) designates more than one alloying element. grouped by major alloying element: Copper ………………………………………………………………………2xxx . wrought aluminum and wrought aluminum alloys are designated by a four-digit index system. Aluminum alloy material. Of the two. It may be rolled into sheets as thin as 0. 1330. Under this arrangement. 3xxx indicates an aluminum alloy with manganese as the major alloying element. some of the larger aircraft use sheet stock that may be as thick as 0. 1175. Aluminum products are identified by a universally used designation system. 2xxx indicates an aluminum ally in which copper is the major alloying element. or forging). The first digit of the designation indicates the major alloying element or alloy group. Although most aluminum alloys contain several alloying elements. 1275. permanent mold. being used for stringers.Commercially pure aluminum has a tensile strength of about 13. Thus. for it is very malleable and ductile. Table: Aluminum – 99. as shown in table. Likewise.30 percent aluminum without special control on impurities. 1230. alloy 1030 indicates 99. but by rolling or other cold-working processes.0017 inch or drawn into wire 0. 1075. bulkheads. By alloying with other metals. although strong. by cold-working. and die castings) and the wrought alloys (those that may be shaped by rolling.000 psi. rivets. together with the use of heat-treating processes. Heat-treatable alloys may be hardened by heat treatment. Most aluminum alloy sheet stock used in aircraft construction ranges from 0.000 psi.016 to 0.004 inch in diameter. In the 1xxx group. or to well within the strength range of structural steel. skin.. is easily worked. it indicates that there is no special control on individual impurities. its strength may be approximately doubled. The lxxx indicates aluminum of 99. etc. however.096 inch in thickness. In the nonheat-treatable class. and extruded sections. Wrought Alloys:Wrought alloys are divided into two classes-nonheat treatable and heat treatable.00 percent or greater. Alloys 1130. indicate the same aluminum purity with special control on one or more impurities. or by the application of both processes. drawing.. etc. The last two of the four digits indicate the minimum aluminum percentage. the second digit in the designation indicates modifications in impurity limits. etc. Casting alloys are not extensively used in aircraft.0356 inch.00 percent minimum and greater …………………… 1xxx Aluminum alloys.75 percent aluminum.

They are often used in aircraft in preference to the nonheat-treatable alloys. The letter W indicates solution heat treated. variations in treatment. but serve only to identify the different alloys in the group. 2024. hence the term nonheat-treatabel. hand-drawn. The last two of the four digits have no special significance. 6062. Alloys in this group cannot be strengthened by heat treatment. Alloys 2024 is used for airfoil covering and fitting. If the second digit in the designation is zero. The letter H indicates strain hardened. 2017. and 7178. Solution heat treatment consists of heating the metal to a high temperature followed by a rapid quench in cold water. in which no effort has been made to control the mechanical properties of the metal. cold-worked. The letter F following the alloy designation indicates the “as fabricated condition. The letter T indicates fully heat treated. 7075. Digits are added to the T to indicate certain Greater strength is obtainable in the heat-treatable alloys. 2014.……………… 3xxx Silicon ……………………………………………………………………… 4xxx Magnesium ……………………………………………………………… 5xxx Magnesium and silicon ……………………………………………………6xxx Zinc ………………………………………………………………………… 7xxx Other elements …………………………………………………………… 8xxx In the 2xxx through 8xxx groups. the second digit indicates alloy modifications. or annealed. stressed-skin covering. Heat-treatable alloys commonly used in aircraft construction ( in order of increasing strength) are 6061. indicate alloy modifications. The letter O indicates dead soft. This in an unstable temper. condition. The temper designation follows the alloy designation and shows the actual condition of the metal. since it is stronger. applicable only to those alloys that spontaneously age at room temperature. Additional digits are added to the H to indicate the degree of strain hardening. 6063. specified. It may be used wherever 2017 is .Manganese ………………………………………………. Alloys 6061. and other structural members. 6062. assigned consecutively.. while numbers 1 through 9. or rolled. Alloy 2017 is used for rivets. and 6063 are sometimes used for oxygen and hydraulic lines and in some applications as extrusions and sheet metal. It is always separated from the alloy designation by a dash. Alloy 7075 may be ordered in the W condition. it indicates the original alloy.

Substantially higher strength without too much sacrifice of workability can be obtained in 5052.300 oF. characteristics. These do not respond to any heat treatment other than a softening. and airframe parts such as engine pads. The ultimate and yield strengths of titanium drop fast above 800 oF. and armor plate.000oF where strength is not important. moderate strength up to 600oF. In applications where the declines might be tolerated. spacer rings. and wing tips. 2.000oF makes the metal so brittle on long exposure that it soon becomes worthless. Types. and 505. This alloy is used for fuel tanks. and uses Titanium alloys are being used in quantity for jet engine compressor wheels. amount of chromium as a stabilizing agent. fairings. They may be hardened only by cold-working. fuselage skin adjacent to the engine outlet. . Alloy 5052 is used for fuel lines. but retains enough work ability that it is usually preferred over 1100 in most applications. Alloy 1100 is used where strength is not an important factor. Titanium and Titanium Alloys Titanium and titanium alloys are used chiefly for parts that require good corrosion resistance. 7075. its high-temperature properties are disappointing. 3003. Alclade sheets are available in all tempers of 2014. annealing effect. Sharp tools are essential in machining techniques because titanium has a tendency to resist or back away from the cutting edge of tools. economy. as in aircraft fire walls. as does alloy 7075.Alloy 2014 is used for extruded shapes and forgings. ducting. This alloy is similar to 2017 and 2024 in that it contains a high percentage of copper. It is used where more strength is required than that obtainable from 2017 or 2024. but where weight. Alloy 7178 is used where highest strength is necessary. Titanium has some merit of short-time exposure up to 2. the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen from the air at temperatures above 1. In view of titanium‟s high melting temperature. Alloy 3003 is similar to 1100 and is generally used for the same purposes. and corrosion resistance are desirable. hydraulic lines. Alclad has very good corrosion-resisting qualities and is used exclusively for exterior surfaces of aircraft. Alloy 7178 contains a small Nonheat-treatable alloys used in aircraft construction are 1100. 2017. and 7178. It contains a small percentage of manganese and is stronger and harder than 1100. approximately 3. and lightweight. housing compartments. fuel tanks. compressor blades. oil tanks. it is preferred over 1100 and 3003 in many applications. and for the repair of wing tips and tanks. Alclad is the name given to standard aluminum alloys that have been coated on both sides with a thin layer of pure aluminum. It is readily welded. Explain in detail the main group of materials used in aircraft construction. wing surfaces. fire walls.

phosphorous. Machine welding with an inert gas atmosphere has proven most successful.” sometimes termed bronze because of its tin content. They would find greater usefulness in structures if it were not for their strength/weight ratio as compared with alloy steels.Bronzes are copper alloys containing tin.9 percent minimum copper plus silver. In aircraft. Practically anything that can be deep drawn in low-carbon steel can be duplicated in commercially pure titanium. it makes white spark traces that end in brilliant white bursts. some of its outstanding characteristics. copper is used primarily for the electrical system and for instrument tubing and bonding. this metal has an ultimate tensile strength of 50. but those below 11 percent are most useful. 000 psi and can be elongated 18 percent. manganese. 000 psi. BRASS. It is the only reddish-colored metal. as well as parts that come in contact with salt water. especially for such items as tube fittings in aircraft. of which the aluminum bronzes rank very high in aircraft usage. For cast copper. Its strength can be increased by heat treatment. It is used in making bolts and nuts. although the titanium may require more intermediate anneals. pure or alloyed. lead. while that containing 45 percent has relatively high strength. Copper and Copper Alloys Most commercial copper is refined to a purity of 99. iron. magnesium. It is corroded by salt water. Both commercially pure and alloy titanium can absorb large amounts of cold-work without cracking. such as its high electrical and heat conductivity. It has excellent corrosionresistant qualities when in contact with saltwater. Brass with a zinc content of 30 to 35 percent is very ductile. is used in fuel and oil line fittings. When touched with a grinding wheel. Among the copper alloys are the copper aluminum alloys. although the titanium may require more intermediate anneals. and tin. and hydrogen must never be ignored. However. copper is ideal for making wire. but is not affected by fresh water. its tensile strength increases. This metal has good casting and finishing properties and machines freely. Bronzes. and when cold-rolled or cold-drawn. “Red brass. ranging from 40. The true bronzes have up to 25 percent tin. “Muntz metal” is a brass composed of 60 percent copper and 40 percent zinc. When rubbed with a piece of glass.but the tendency of the metal to absorb oxygen.000 psi. Wrought aluminum bronzes are almost as . Practically anything that can be deep drawn in lowcarbon steel can be duplicated in commercially pure titanium. Identification of Titanium: Titanium metal. the tensile strength is about 25. As cast. is easily identified.Brass is copper alloy containing zinc and small amounts of aluminum. The ultimate tensile strength of copper varies greatly. nickel.000 to 67. in many cases overbalance the weight factor. Both commercially pure and alloy titanium can absorb large amounts of cold-work without cracking. and it is second only to silver in electrical conductivity. moistened titanium will leave a dark line similar in appearance to a pencil mark with an inert gas atmosphere has proven most successful. Its use as a structural material is limited because of its great weight. nitrogen. Because it is very malleable and ductile.

tin. drawn. It has a tensile strength of 65. zinc. Beryllium Copper Beryllium copper is one of the most successful of all the copper-based alloys. and forgings.strong and ductile as medium-carbon steel. may be increased to 160. cast aluminum bronze is used in gun mounts. adaptable to castings and hot. and some react to heat treatment. and nonsparking tools. Because of these properties. landing gears. using about 89 percent copper. the leading high-nickel alloy. 2 percent beryllium. 000 psi. hot-or cold-rolled. ball cages.4 percent iron. and sufficient nickel to increase the percentage of elongation. extruded. Monel. They are readily forged. Monel Monel. Because of these properties. and pump parts. Cast aluminum bronzes. or rolled to any desired shape. bearings. and slide linears. K-Monel . silicon bronze has high strength and great corrosion resistance and is used variably. and resistance to both shock and fatigue. manganese.working. and brackets. plates. for operating retractable landing gears. precision bearings and bushings. In rod form. air pumps. by means of cold-working. salt water. and posses a high degree of resistance to corrosion by air. shock. and aluminum. they are used for diaphragms and gears. spring washers. Aluminum bronzes are available in rods. or manganese maybe added. Silicon bronze is composed of abut 95 percent copper. great strength. nickel. 30 percent copper. bars. strips.000 psi in the heat-treated state. condenser bolts. 1 percent manganese. Monel has been used for parts demanding both strength and high resistance to corrosion. In aircraft.15 percent carbon. 000 psi that. 1. and 2 percent of other elements. corrosion-resistant copper zinc alloy containing aluminum. tough. sheets. hardness. The resistance of beryllium copper to fatigue and wear makes it suitable for diaphragms.000 psi in the annealed state to 200. It is a recently developed alloy containing about 97 percent copper. and chemicals. it responds only ot cold-working. 9 percent aluminum. Monel has been successfully used for gears and chains. Aluminum bronzes have good tearing qualities. and 0. and 2 percent mixture of manganese. can be successfully welded and ahs working properties similar to those of steel. combines the properties of high strength and excellent corrosion resistnace. it is generally used for machined parts. These alloys are useful in areas exposed to salt water and corrosive gases. iron. Although not a bronze in the true sense of the word because of its small tin content. This metal can be formed. These copper-based alloys contain up to 16 percent of aluminum (usually 5 to 11 percent) to which other metals such as iron. Otherwise it is used in catapults. This metal consists of 67 percent nickel.or cold. It cannot be hardened by heat treatment. and are resistant to corrosion. The most valuable feature of this metal is that the physical properties can be greatly stepped up by heat 1-33 treatment-the tensile strength rising from 70. such as exhaust manifolds and carburetor needle valves and sleeves. have high strength combined with ductility. Manganese bronze is an exceptionally high-strength. and occasionally nickel or tin. iron. thus entitling this metal to classification among the tough alloys. 3 percent silicon. and fatigue. and for structural parts subject to corrosion.

Magnesium is probably more widely distributed in nature than any other metal. A better edge will result on a sheet over 0. When in large sections. Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys Magnesium. forging can be accomplished in mechanical presses or with drop hammers.K-Monel is a nonferrous alloy containing mainly nickel. The structure of magnesium is such that the alloys work harden rapidly at room temperatures. it produces an alloy having the highest strength/weight ratio. and aluminum. except that a rough flaky fracture is produced on sheets thicker than about 0. Magnesium alloy sheets can be worked in much the same manner as other sheet metal with one exception-the metal must be worked while hot. is a silvery-white material weighing only two-thirds as much as aluminum. It is produced by adding a small amount of aluminum to the Monel formula. It can be obtained from such ores as dolomite and magnetite. its high thermal conductivity makes it difficult to ignite and prevents its burning. 3. With about 10 million pounds of magnesium in 1 cubic mile of seawater. The machining characteristics of magnesium alloys are excellent. which is approximately 1. grinding is not essential. from underground brines. A straight bend with a short radius can be made by the Guerin process. but when ti is alloyed with zinc. copper. which bends the work to the Sharpe of the male die. but heard-rolled sheet should not be heated above 275 oF. Magnesium alloys possess good casting characteristics. and structural members in aircraft that are subjected to corrosive attacks. K-Monel has been successfully used for gears. compensations are offered by the fact that in the ranges used. as shown in figure 1-24. K-Monel can be successfully welded. there is no danger of a dwindling Supply. Magnesium does not possess sufficient strength in its pure state for structural uses. However. from waste liquors of potash.064 inch. Magnesium embodies fire hazards of an unpredictable nature. Usually the maximum speeds of machine tools can be used with heavy cuts and high feed rates. the world‟s lightest structural metal. Their properties compare favorably with those of cast aluminum. and manganese. This alloy is nonmagnetic at all temperatures. Sheets can be sheared in much the same way as other metals. The Guerin process is the most widely used method for forming and shallow drawing. or by press or leaf brakes. which is a disadvantage. chains. magnesium dust and fine chips are ignited. under certain conditions. . However. It will not burn until the melting point is reached. aluminum. It is corrosion resistant and capable of hardening by heat treatment. employing a rubber pad as the female die. Write a note on types of fuselage structure. although. Power requirements for magnesium alloys are about one-sixth of those for mild steel. Annealed sheet can be heated to 600oF. In forging. There is no tendency of the metal to tear or drag. Standard machine operations can be performed to tolerances of a few tenthousandths of an inch. magnesium is more easily formed than other materials. Its low resistance to corrosion has been a factor in reducing its use in conventional aircraft.064 inch thick if it is sheared hot. hydraulic presses are ordinarily used.200 oF. Magnesium is used extensively in the manufacture of helicopters. and. and from seawater. in most cases. The work is usually done at temperatures ranging from 450 oF. An excellent surface finish can be produced.

where a complete welded truss structure is delivered with the fitting of other components. uniform load bearing structure is within the completed aircraft. In this type of construction multiple flat strip stringers are wound about the formers in opposite spiral . This method is especially suitable for amateur-build aircraft kits. 2) Geodetic construction Airframe geodetic fuselage structure exposed by battle damage Geodetic structural elements were used by Barnes Wallis for British Vickers between the wars and into World War II to form the whole of the fuselage. covering. Most early aircraft used this technique with wood and wire trusses and this type of structure is still in use in many lightweight aircraft using welded steel tube trusses. and finishing completed by the user. The aerodynamic shape is completed by additional elements called formers and stringers and is then covered with fabric and painted.1) Box truss structure The structural elements resemble those of a bridge. with emphasis on using linked triangular elements. as it ensures that a robust. including its aerodynamic shape.

since stiffening elements are incorporated into the structure to carry concentrated loads that would otherwise buckle the thin skin. The use of molded composites for fuselage structures is being extended to large passenger aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner (using pressure molding on female molds). Both monocoque and semi-monocoque are referred to as “stressed skin” structures as all or a portion of the external load (i.e. Most modern large aircraft are built using this technique. instead of plywood. First. all the load from internal pressurization is carried (as skin tension) by the external skin . controls. where a large number of identical aircraft are to be produced. Most metal light aircraft are constructed using this process. as the skin. but requiring more effort in finishing (see the Rutan VariEze). A later form of this structure uses fiberglass cloth impregnated with polyester or epoxy resin. An example of a larger molded plywood aircraft is the de Havilland Mosquito fighter/light bomber of World War II . this form is suitable for series production. The use of molded fiberglass using negative (“female”) molds (which give a nearly finished product) is prevalent in the series production of many modern sailplanes. the exterior surface of the fuselage is also the primary structure. Early examples of this type include the Douglass Aircraft DC-2 and DC-3 civil aircraft and the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. These frames are then joined with lightweight longitudinal elements called stringers. and from discrete masses such as the engine) is taken by the surface covering. A typical early form of this (see the Lockheed Vega) was built using molded plywood. and rigid and hand the advantage of being made almost entirely of wood. Semi-monocoque This is the preferred method of constructing an all-aluminum fuselage. a series of frame in the shape of the fuselage cross sections are held in position on a rigid fixture. forming a basket-like appearance. The geodesic structure is also redundant and so can survive localized damage without catastrophic failure. This proved to be light. where the layers of plywood are formed over a “plug” or within a mold. A similar construction using aluminum alloy was used in the Vickers Warwick with less materials than would be required for other structural types. A simple form of this used in some amateur-built aircraft uses rigid expanded foam plastic as the core. from wings and empennage. in which multiple sheets are laid with the grain in differing directions to give the monocoque type below. The logical evolution of this is the creation of fuselages using molded plywood. and interior equipment such as seats and luggage bins. It should be noted that no plywood-skin fuselage is truly monocoque. Monocoque shell In this method. In addition. The fixture is then disassembled and removed from the completed fuselage shell.directions. eliminating the necessity of fabricating molds. These are in turn covered with a skin of sheet aluminum. As the accuracy of the final product is determined largely by the costly fixture. 3. which is then fitted out with wiring. attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives. but use several large sections constructed in this fashion which are then joined with fasteners to form the complete fuselage. A fabric covering over the structure completed the aerodynamic shell (see the Vickers Wellington for an example of a large warplane which uses this process). with a fiberglass covering. strong. or jig.

Figure: Construction of the wing for the Dc-10.) . (McDonnell Douglas Corp.

.Figure: The internal structure of a modern transport wing. (Lockheed California Co). Stops the yaw.

Slats 7. Three slotted outer flaps 9. Spoilers 10. Spoilers-Air brakes .Control surfaces 1. Winglet 2. Kruger flaps 6. Low-Speed Aileron 3. Three slotted inner flaps 8. High-Speed Aileron 4. Flap track fairing 5.

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