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Austria

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This article is about the country. For other uses, see Austria (disambiguation).
"Österreich" and "Oesterreich" redirect here. For the surname rendered in either of these two
ways, see Österreich (surname). For the Austrian national anthem, whose melody is often given
the short-form name "Österreich" or "Oesterreich", see Land der Berge, Land am Strome.

Republic of Austria
Republik Österreich

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome

(German)

Land of Mountains, Land by the River

Location of Austria (dark green)
– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green) — [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Official language(s)
Recognised
regional languages
Ethnic groups (2001)

Vienna
48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.2°N 16.35°E

German
Croatian, Hungarian and Slovene[1]
91.1% Germans,

Demonym
Government
- President
- Chancellor
President of the
National Council

-

Austrian State
Treaty in force

- Total
- Water (%)
- 2011 estimate
- 2001 census
- Density
GDP (PPP)
- Total
- Per capita
GDP (nominal)
- Total
- Per capita
Gini (2007)
HDI (2011)
Currency
Time zone
- Summer (DST)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD
Calling code

8.9% foreigners 4% former Yugoslavs,
1.6% Turks,
2.4% others and unspecified[2]
Austrian
Federal Parliamentary republic
Heinz Fischer
Werner Faymann (SPÖ)
Barbara Prammer (SPÖ)
Independence
27 July 1955 (Duchy: 1156, Austrian
Empire: 1804, First Austrian
Republic: 1918–1938, Second
Republic since 1945)
Area
83,855 km2 (115th)
32,377 sq mi
1.7
Population
8,414,638[3] (92nd)
8,032,926
99/km2 (99th)
257/sq mi
2011 estimate
$351.873 billion[4]
$41,805[4]
2011 estimate
$425.091 billion[4]
$50,504[4]
26[5] (low)
0.885[6] (very high) (19th)
Euro (€) ² (EUR)
CET (UTC+01)
CEST (UTC+02)
right
AT
.at ³
43

Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian are officially recognised regional
languages and Austrian Sign Language is a protected minority language
throughout the country.
2 Euro since 1 Jan 1999 virtual, since 1 Jan 2002 real currency; before:
Austrian Schilling.
3 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union
member states.
1

Austria ( i/ˈɒstriə/ or /ˈɔːstriə/; German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐˌʁaɪç] ( listen)), officially the
Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich), is a landlocked country of roughly
8.47 million people[3] in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to

the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and
Liechtenstein to the west. The territory of Austria covers 83,855 square kilometres (32,377
sq mi) and has a temperate and alpine climate. Austria's terrain is highly mountainous due to the
presence of the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft), and its highest
point is 3,798 metres (12,461 ft).[7] The majority of the population speak local Austro-Bavarian
dialects of German as their native language,[8] and German in its standard form is the country's
official language.[9] Other local official languages are Burgenland Croatian, Hungarian and
Slovene.[7]
The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty when the vast
majority of the country was a part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. During the
17th and 18th centuries, Austria became one of the great powers of Europe and, in response to
the coronation of Napoleon I as the Emperor of the French, the Austrian Empire was officially
proclaimed in 1804. In 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary.
After the collapse of the Habsburg (Austro-Hungarian) Empire in 1918 at the end of World War
I, Austria adopted and used the name the Republic of German Austria („Deutschösterreich”, later
„Österreich”) in an attempt for union with Germany, but was forbidden due to the Treaty of Saint
Germain. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919. In the 1938 Anschluss, Austria
was occupied and annexed by Nazi Germany.[10] This lasted until the end of World War II in
1945, after which Nazi Germany was occupied by the Allies and Austria's former democratic
constitution was restored. In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign
state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of
Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral.
Today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states.[7][11]
The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna.[7][12] Austria is
one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $48,350 (2011 est.).
The country has developed a high standard of living and in 2011 was ranked 19th in the world
for its Human Development Index. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955,
[13]
joined the European Union in 1995,[7] and is a founder of the OECD.[14] Austria also signed the
Schengen Agreement in 1995,[15] and adopted the European currency, the Euro, in 1999.

Contents
[hide]

1 Etymology

2 History
o 2.1 20th century

1 Language o 7.2 Foreign relations o 3.3 Military  4 Administrative divisions  5 Geography o 5.1 Recent developments o 3.1 Currency o 6.2 Art and architecture o 8.3 Religion o 7.4 Education  8 Culture o 8.3 Cinema and theatre o 8.2 Ethnic groups o 7.1 Music o 8.1 Climate  6 Economy o 6.4 Science and philosophy o 8.2 Energy  7 Demographics o 7. 3 Politics o 3.5 Literature .

The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.[17] that the Germanic form Ostarrîchi was not a translation of the Latin word. thus Austria. but both resulted from a much older term originating in the Celtic languages of ancient Austria: more than 2. dated 996. no.500 years ago. stated in his book Der Kampf um die österreichische Identität (The Struggle Over Austrian Identity). The Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern day Austria. Österreich. Accordingly. according to Heer.or nor. as the founding of the nation. which first appears in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. The word is circled in red.7 Sports  9 See also  10 References  11 External links [edit] Etymology Main article: Name of Austria First appearance of the word "ostarrichi". means "Eastern borderlands".meant "east" or "eastern". whereas -rig is related to the modern German Reich. Modern Austria honours this document.6 Food and drink o 8.[16] This word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local (Bavarian) dialect.[18] . it derives from the word Ostarrîchi. The German name for Austria. meaning "realm". Norig would essentially mean Ostarrîchi and Österreich. one of the most important Austrian historians in the 20th century. It was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976. in approximately 15 BC. Friedrich Heer.o 8. Noricum later became a Roman province in the mid 1st century AD. the major part of the actual country was called Norig by the Celtic population (Hallstatt culture).

[21] In 1156 the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. the Habsburgs. which covered much of eastern and central Austrian territory. In 1192.[edit] History Main article: History of Austria Settled in ancient times.[20] The Slavic tribe of the Carantanians migrated into the Alps and established the realm of Carantania. Emperor Sigismund. encouraged colonisation and introduced Christianity.[22] His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Austria's history was largely that of its ruling dynasty. referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province.[23] Thereafter.[19] Coats of arms of the Habsburg Emperor in 1605 After the fall of the Roman Empire the area was invaded by Bavarians. the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438 Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976. the line of the Babenbergs went extinct. with only one exception. the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria. In the 14th and 15th centuries.[11] the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in preRoman times by various Celtic tribes. Fifty thousand people called Carnuntum home for nearly 400 years. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year. the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. Present day Petronell-Carnuntum in Eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province. henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg. Charlemagne conquered the area in 788 AD. Styria and Carinthia.[22] As a result Ottokar II of Bohemia effectively assumed control of the duchies of Austria.[20] As part of Eastern Francia.[21] The first record showing the name Austria is from 996 where it is written as Ostarrîchi. . With the death of Frederick II in 1246. until World War I. Slavs and Avars.

Emperor Charles VI relinquished many of the fairly impressive gains the empire made in the previous years. particularly evident in the socalled Long War of 1593 to 1606. only son of Emperor Frederick III.[29] a series of campaigns resulted in bringing all of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699.[27] burning. In 1477 Archduke Maximilian. married the heiress Maria of Burgundy.Battle of Vienna in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe. 1819 During the long reign of Leopold I (1657–1705) and following the successful defense of Vienna in 1683 (under the command of the King of Poland. thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. at the beginning highly unsuccessful. pillaging.[24][25] His son Philip the Fair married the heiress of Castile and Aragon.[28] The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey. African and New World appendages for the Habsburgs.[26] Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires. The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly twenty times. John III Sobieski). together with Prussia and Russia. Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. With the rise of Prussia the Austrian–Prussian dualism began in Germany. and taking thousands of slaves. largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg. Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France. and thus acquired Spain and its Italian. Austria participated. The Habsburgs began also to accumulate lands far from the hereditary lands. Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for other powers' worthless recognitions of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir. with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon meaning the end of the old Holy .[24][25] In 1526 following the Battle of Mohács. in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland (in 1772 and 1795).

all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices.[32][33] The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. as well as large Italian and Romanian communities. political and national conflicts the German lands were shaken by the 1848 revolution aiming to create a unified Germany. In 1814 Austria was part of the Allied forces that invaded France and brought to an end the Napoleonic Wars. Thus the wishes of ethnic groups dwelling in both parts of the dual monarchy hardly could be solved. ruling Austria–Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements. In 1864. the German Confederation. the crown of the newly formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Slovenes and Ukrainians. Yet the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: The Reichsgesetzblatt. The same year. Serbs. causing a high reliance on the use of an expanded secret police. Because of unsolved social. the Ausgleich.[34] The Austrian-Hungarian rule of this diverse empire included various Slavic groups including Croats. the Empire of Austria was founded. for example. Poles.[31] Austria had to leave the German Confederation and subsequently no longer took part in German politics. Nevertheless as they could not agree on a solution to the administration of the two duchies. (Deutscher Bund) was founded under the presidency of Austria. The government of Hungary to the contrary tried to magyarise few ethnic entities[which?]. Defeated by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz. Austria and Prussia fought together against Denmark and successfully freed the independent duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. . was issued in eight languages. Rusyns. under Franz Joseph I. As a result.[30] in 1804. Slovaks. Archduke Franz Ferdinand (right) with his family It thus emerged from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as one of four of the continent's dominant powers and a recognised great power. provided for a dual sovereignty. Two years earlier.Roman Empire in 1806. they fought in 1866 the Austro-Prussian War. Czechs. As Austria was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire of 1848. the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania.[31] A unified Germany would have been possible either as a Greater Germany. or a Greater Austria or just the German Confederation without Austria at all.

The constitution. The South Tyrol question would become a lingering problem between Austria and Italy until it was officially settled by the 1980s with a large degree of autonomy being granted by the Italian national government. Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria to unite with Germany. but refrained from this business. thereby risking and prompting the outbreak of World War I which led to the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. On 11 November the emperor. renaming Staatsrat to Bundesregierung (federal government) and Nationalversammlung to Nationalrat (national council) was passed on 10 November 1920. Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I.[edit] 20th century The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914 by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip[35] was used by leading Austrian politicians and generals to persuade the emperor to declare war on Serbia. this left the responsibility for the end of the war on 3 November 1918. solely to the emperor and his government. the elected German members of the Reichsrat (parliament of Imperial Austria) met in Vienna as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria (Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich).[36] Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary. the latter of which would play a role in sparking WWII. declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic.[38] . on 12 November German Austria. The Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1919 (for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of 1920) confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great part had been established in November 1918.[37] This included the provinces of South Tyrol and German Bohemia. Between 1918 and 1919 Austria was known as the State of German Austria (Staat Deutschösterreich). Yugoslavia. counseled by ministers of the old and the new government. by law. it was therefore changed to Republic of Austria in late 1919. they also rejected the name German Austria in the peace treaty to be signed. This new government was invited by the emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy. Over 3-million German speaking Austrians found themselves living outside of the newborn Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged respective states of Czechoslovakia. declared he would not take part in state business any more. creating new states and resizing others. On 30 October the assembly founded the State of German Austria by appointing a government. 1910 On 21 October 1918. called Staatsrat. Hungary and Italy.

Austrian Nazis took over government. struggled to keep Austria independent as "the better German state". In February 1934 several members of the Schutzbund were executed. Later it was called the Alpine dollar due to its stability. In 1925 the Schilling. Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations. In the autumn of 1922 Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations. replacing the Krone by 10. while German troops occupied the country. Two days later Hitler (an Austrian by birth). Kurt Schuschnigg. was introduced. still Austria's currency. stabilise the currency and improve its general economic condition.[43] On 1 May 1934.[40][41][43] Hitler speaking at Heldenplatz. The First Austrian Republic lasted until 1933 when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss. From 1925 to 1929 the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing after Black Friday.[47] On 13 March 1938. did what he called the "re-unification" of his home . Vienna. the Anschluss of Austria was officially declared.[42] the Social Democrats' Schutzbund was now declared illegal but still operative[42] as civil war broke out. established an autocratic regime tending toward Italian fascism.Map of Austria–Hungary After the war inflation began to devaluate the Krone. but on 12 March 1938.[39] The purpose of the loan was to avert bankruptcy. had paramilitary armies. the Austrofascists imposed a new constitution ("Maiverfassung") which cemented Dollfuss's power but on 25 July he was assassinated in a Nazi coup attempt. With the granting of the loan.[45][46] His successor.[40][41] The two big parties at this time.[44] the Social Democratic party was outlawed and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated. using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament" (Selbstausschaltung des Parlaments).000:1. the Social Democrats and the Conservatives.

The Nazis called Austria "Ostmark"[47] until 1942 when it was again renamed and called "Alpen-Donau-Reichsgaue". Franz Stangl.[48] as were 40% of the staff at Nazi extermination camps. was declared valid again. On 1 May 1945.) At the end of April. He established a plebiscite confirming the union with Germany in April 1938. Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi crimes (hundreds of thousands died in MauthausenGusen concentration camp only). including Adolf Hitler. and Odilo Globocnik.country with the rest of Germany on Vienna's Heldenplatz. Innsbruck hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics and will host the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics.000 Jewish Austrians had fled the country in 1938–39. in particular the Americans. Some of the most prominent Nazis were native Austrians. most of Western and Southern Austria still was under Nazi rule. Austria was incorporated into the Third Reich and ceased to exist as an independent country. Ernst Kaltenbrunner. However it never materialized because of the rapid collapse of the Reich.e. a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky in 1992.[51] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 65. Leopold Kunschak (Austria's People's Party [former Christian Social People's Party]) and Johann Koplenig (Communist Party of Austria) declared Austria's secession from the Third Reich by the Declaration of Independence on 27 April 1945 and set up a provisional government in Vienna under state Chancellor Renner the same day. Arthur Seyss-Inquart. planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of national redoubt that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the eastern Alps. during the Soviet Vienna Offensive just before the total collapse of the Third Reich.000. the federal constitution of 1929. . the first in history Total military deaths from 1939–1945 are estimated at 260. Karl Renner and Adolf Schärf (Socialist Party of Austria [Social Democrats and Revolutionary Socialists]).000. The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately mid-March with a so called "wild" (i. The invading Allied powers. which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on 1 May 1934.[49] Vienna fell on 13 April 1945. extra-legal) phase but soon was structured legally and bureaucratically to strip Jewish citizens of any asset they may have possessed.[52] About 140. with the approval of the victorious Red Army and backed by Joseph Stalin. Adolf Eichmann.[50] (The date is officially named the birthday of the second republic.

[55] Austria joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007. which was surrounded by the Soviet zone. Austria. which remains to this day but has been implicitly overlapped by constitutional amendments concerning Austria as member of the European Union from 1995 onwards.g. even a future NATO membership is not ruled out by some ÖVP politicians[who?]. The political system of the Second Republic is based on the constitution of 1920 and 1929. Conservatives and Communists (until 1947) and residing in Vienna. Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy. so that hardly any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus. was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany and liberated by the Allies.Much like Germany. meaning that most posts of political importance were split evenly between members of the Social Democrats and the People's Party.[50] The Austrian Government. Austria regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty with the Four Occupying Powers. participates in the so-called[by whom?] Petersburg Agenda (including . consisting of Social Democrats. which was reintroduced in 1945. was recognised by the Western Allies in October 1945 after some doubts that Renner could be Stalin's puppet.[54] On 15 May 1955.[57] Since 1945 a single-party government took place only 1966–1970 (Conservatives) and 1970–1983 (Social Democrats). Soviet and American zones and governed by the Allied Commission for Austria. for workers. there was a subtle difference in the treatment of Austria by the Allies. Thereby the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country could be avoided. after all occupation troops had left. in general. In reality. the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January 1995. business people. either a grand coalition of Conservatives and Social Democrats or a "small coalition" (one of these two and a smaller party) ruled the country. During all other legislative periods. Austria was divided into British. the ÖVP argues for stronger integration into the EU's security policy. Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament. On 26 October 1955.[58] The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions about the future status of Austria's military non-alignment:[citation needed] While the SPÖ in public supports a neutral role. farmers) grew to considerable importance and were usually consulted in the legislative process. at which consent reached a majority of two thirds.[56] Interest group "chambers" with mandatory membership (e. French. after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War. Following a referendum in 1994. The system came to be characterised by Proporz.[53] As forecast in the Moscow Declaration in 1943.

[59] The head of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident). the only neighbouring country performing border controls towards Austria is Liechtenstein. Voting for the federal president and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Austria. [edit] Politics Main article: Politics of Austria Austrian Parliament in Vienna The Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna. However. or Direktmandat. in one of the 43 regional election districts. which was reenacted on 1 May 1945. The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament. The chairman of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor. the upper house of parliament. the Bundesrat. lit. or by Nationalrat itself) by a general election in which every citizen over 16 years (since 2007) has voting rights. The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the formation of legislation in Austria. the Nationalrat. the country's largest city and capital. Since 2008. The political system of the Second Republic with its nine states is based on the constitution of 1920 and 1929. called the Österreich -Konvent[61] was convened on 30 June 2003 to decide upon suggestions to reform the constitution.[60] The Parliament of Austria consists of two chambers. Austria became a federal. but failed to produce a proposal that would receive the two-thirds of votes in the Nationalrat necessary for constitutional amendments and/or reform. A convention. due to the Schengen Agreement. who is appointed by the president. parliamentary. who is directly elected by popular vote. While there is a general threshold of 4 percent for all parties at federal elections (Nationalratswahlen). . "vote of persistence"). The composition of the Nationalrat (183 seats) is determined every five years (or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor.peace keeping and peace creating tasks) and has become member of NATO's "Partnership for Peace". This is referred to as 'Beharrungsbeschluss. there remains the possibility to gain a direct seat. democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of 1920. but this was abolished in steps from 1982 to 2004. the constitution has been amended accordingly. has a limited right of veto (the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time.

Since then. since 1995. Austria also implements the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality. On 26 October 1955. the Social Democrats emerged as the largest party. and. the European Court of Justice may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union.[62][63] Political realities prohibited any of the two major parties from forming a coalition with smaller parties. the courts are the third column of Austrian state powers. but rather different from the neutrality of Switzerland. granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991. the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality". Elections in September 2008 further weakened both major parties (Social Democrats and People's Party) but together they still held more than 50% of the votes with the Social Democrats holding the majority. since the European Convention on Human Rights is part of the Austrian constitution. were strengthened during the election. The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory". Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union. The positions of the Freedom Party and the deceased Jörg Haider's new party Alliance for the Future of Austria.With legislative and executive. whereas the People's Party lost about 8% in votes. [edit] Recent developments After general elections held in October 2006. Notably the Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) may exert considerable influence on the political system by ruling out laws and ordinances not in compliance with the constitution. Since 1995. They formed a coalition with Werner Faymann from the Social Democrats as Chancellor. In January 2007 the People's Party and Social Democrats formed a grand coalition with the social democrat Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor. it . both parties on the political right. [edit] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Austria Foreign ministry The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the occupation of Austria following World War II and recognised Austria as an independent and sovereign state. This coalition broke up in June 2008.

The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando. KdoEU) and Command Support (Kommando Führungsunterstützung. As head of state. command of the Austrian Armed Forces is almost exclusively exercised by the Minister of Defense. the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of 1955 still valid fully is not to allow foreign military bases in Austria. Also in 1995.[citation needed] Austria attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organisations. however. Austria’s international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.[7] Conscientious objection is legally acceptable and those who claim this right are obliged to serve an institutionalised nine months civilian service instead. of whom about half are conscripts. . All males who have reached the age of eighteen and are found fit have to serve a six months military service. Austrian President (currently Heinz Fischer) is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Bundesheer. currently Norbert Darabos. Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte).000 soldiers. [edit] Military Main article: Austrian Armed Forces Austrian Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon fighter aircraft. Since 1998. SKFüKdo) which consist of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte). KdoFüU). Austria's defence expenditures corresponded to approximately 0. Austria is a landlocked country and has no navy. Meanwhile. women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers. Helsinki Commission. International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte). In 2004. followed by an eight year reserve obligation. it joined the Partnership for Peace and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. next to Mission Support (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung. As an OSCE participating State.has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). In practical reality. The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces (German: Bundesheer) mainly relies on conscription. Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service. The Army currently has about 45.9% of its GDP.S.

In accordance with the Austrian constitution. social care. Kosovo and. Austria is divided into nine states (German: Bundesländer). They may generally not be used as auxiliary police forces. Austria has a long and proud tradition of engaging in UN-led peacekeeping and other humanitarian missions.[7] These states are then divided into districts (Bezirke) and statutory cities (Statutarstädte). since 1974. such as in the wake of natural disasters. an all-volunteer unit with close ties to civilian specialists (e. Within its self-declared status of permanent neutrality.Austrian Army Leopard 2 main battle tank Since the end of the Cold War. Districts are subdivided into municipalities (Gemeinden). hunting. armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases. e. The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit (AFDRU). [edit] Administrative divisions Main article: States of Austria As a federal republic. in particular.g. building. and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded "Iron Curtain" separating Austria and Hungary. but the legality of this is heavily disputed. for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states. In recent years. larger contingents of Austrian forces are deployed in Bosnia. Currently. the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants. in the Golan Heights. rescue dog handlers) enjoys a reputation as a quick (standard deployment time is 10 hours) and efficient SAR unit. The states are not mere administrative divisions but have some legislative authority distinct from the federal government. State (Bundesland) Capital Area Populati Ran on [64] k . This assistance came to an end when Hungary joined the EU Schengen Area in 2008. it has been discussed whether today it is appropriate for a small country to maintain ten parliaments. youth and nature protection. Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission. in matters of culture. mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency. and zoning ordinances.g. Statutory Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities.

472 5 8 Vorarlberg Bregenz 2.3 92 km² 1.6 48 km² 698.1 Burgenland Eisensta dt 3.350 9 Carinthia (Kärnten) Klagenf urt 9.085 7 Graz 16.98 3 6 5 Salzburg Salzburg 7.60 1 km² 364.98 4 6 7 Tyrol (Tirol) Innsbruc k 12.96 6 km² 280.9 80 km² 1.54 2 5 Upper Austria 4 (Oberösterreic h) Linz 11.203.660.53 6 km² 560.405. 90 km² 1.588. Pölten 19.753 6 Lower Austria 3 (Niederösterre ich) St.611 8 9 Vienna (Wien) Vienna (Wien) 414.53 1 4 2 6 [edit] Geography Main article: Geography of Austria Styria (Steiermark) .15 4 km² 529.1 74 km² 1.

Austria lies between latitudes 46° and 49° N. Of the total area of Austria (84. it is located . and longitudes 9° and 18° E. The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country. The Austrian foothills at the base of the Alps and the Carpathians account for around 12% and the foothills in the east and areas surrounding the periphery of the Pannoni low country amount to about 12% of the total landmass. which constitute 62% of nation's total area. Known as the Austrian granite plateau. only about a quarter can be considered low lying. and only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1. It can be divided into five areas. the biggest being the Eastern Alps.Topography of Austria View of Hallstatt Sankt Anton am Arlberg Austria is a largely mountainous country due to its location in the Alps.640 ft). Northern Limestone Alps and Southern Limestone Alps are all partly in Austria.433 sq mi). The second greater mountain area (much lower than the Alps) is situated in the north.[65] The Central Eastern Alps.000 km2 or 32.

[edit] Climate The greater part of Austria lies in the cool/temperate climate zone in which humid westerly winds predominate. With over half of the country dominated by the Alps. summer temperatures can be relatively warm.054 11.768 3.267 12. the alpine climate is the predominant one.715 Range Hohe Tauern Ötztal Alps Ötztal Alps Hohe Tauern Ötztal Alps Hohe Tauern Phytogeographically.797 3. In the east—in the Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley—the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas. According to the WWF.571 Height (ft) 12.5 °F). [edit] Economy Main article: Economy of Austria See also: List of Austrian companies . The six highest mountains in Austria are: Name Großglockner Wildspitze Weißkugel Großvenediger Similaun Großes Wiesbachhorn Height (m) 3.739 3. Pannonian mixed forests.606 3.in the central area of the Bohemian Mass and accounts for 10% of Austria. Austria belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. The Austrian portion of the Vienna basin comprises the remaining 4%.457 12.362 12.[66] with average temperatures in the mid-20s and a highest temperature of 39.7 °C (103. Alps conifer and mixed forests and Western European broadleaf forests.831 11. Although Austria is cold in the winter (−10 – 0 °C).674 3. the territory of Austria can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests.[67] Austrian rural area of Schoppernau in summer.

Labour movements are particularly strong in Austria and have large influence on labour politics. Growth in GDP accelerated in recent years and reached 3. many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised.Modern Vienna. and a high standard of living. However. EUR with the involvement of Austrian firms have been announced. Mariahilf shopping avenue Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria. Next to a highly developed industry. Between 1995 and 2010. [70] The largest transactions with involvement of Austrian companies[71] have been: the acquisition .[69] Since the fall of communism. in recent years. reducing its economic dependence on Germany.3% in 2006.[68] Austria indicated on 16 Nov 2010 that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece citing material worsening of the Greek debt situation and apparent inability of Greece to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised. Vienna International Centre with the United Nations Office at Vienna Austria is the 12th richest country in the world in terms of GDP (Gross domestic product) per capita. international tourism is the most important part of the national economy. making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. since Austria became a member state of the European Union it has gained closer ties to other European Union economies. Austrian companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe. however. privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies. In addition. 4'868 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of 163 bil. Until the 1980s.[4] has a well-developed social market economy. membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union.

a €5 Austrian commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country. The Schilling was abolished in the wake of the Anschluss in 1938 and was reintroduced after the end of the World War II in November 1945. were selected for the Austrian coins. to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries. the acquisition of Porsche Holding Salzburg by Volkswagen Group for 3. For instance.000 euro coin was exceptionally minted in 2004). Unlike normal issues. [edit] Energy See also: Wind power in Austria and Renewable energy in the European Union In 1972. However. EUR in 2009. the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999. These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of the minting of silver and gold coins.5% against nuclear power. and euro coins and banknotes entered circulation on 1 January 2002. EUR in 2000. In 2007. with face value ranging from 10 to 100 euro (although a 100. a referendum voted approximately 50. EUR in 2005. one per face value. however all Austrian euro coins introduced in 2002 have this year on it. In Austria. 49. As a preparation for this date. Austria changed the common side of its coins. unlike other countries of the Eurozone where mint year is minted in the coin. following a unanimous vote in parliament. in 1978. the euro.[72] and the acquisition of Banca Comercială Română by Erste Group for 3.8 bil.5% for.und Vereinsbank for 7. Austria introduced the single European currency.6 bil. the country began construction of a nuclear-powered electricity-generation station at Zwentendorf on the River Danube. Austria has one of the richest collection of collectors' coins in the Eurozone.[73] [edit] Currency Main article: Austrian euro coins See also: Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Austria) In 1999. the euro was introduced as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999. these coins are not legal tender in all the eurozone. Before adopting the Euro in 2002 Austria had maintained use of the Austrian schilling which was first established in December 1924. With 17 other EU member states it forms the Eurozone.of Bank Austria by Bayerische Hypo.[74] and parliament . Eight different designs.7 bil.

[75] Together with other renewable energy sources such as wind.346). solar and biomass powerplants. Vienna.414. Vienna is by far the country's largest city.1%) were born outside the EU and 512 000 (6.638. [edit] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Austria A painting by Canaletto of Vienna during the first half of the 18th century City of Salzburg. in 2010 there were 1. Salzburg (150. with the rest being produced by gas and oil powerplants.1%) were born in another EU Member State. Of these.000). corresponding to 15.27 million foreign-born residents in the Austria. Graz is second in size. Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower.000 inhabitants. followed by Linz (188.[3] The population of the capital. 764 000 (9. with 250.099 inhabitants. exceeds 1. representing about a quarter of the country's population.968). According to Eurostat.[77] [edit] Language . the electricity supply from renewable energy amounts to 62.2 million including the suburbs).2% of the total population. All other cities have fewer than 100. and Innsbruck (117. It is known for its vast cultural offerings and high standard of living.subsequently unanimously passed a law forbidding the use of nuclear power to generate electricity.7 million[12] (2. a UNESCO World Heritage Site Austria's population estimate in April 2011 was 8.89%[76] of total use in Austria.

264 Spanish. publications.and Croatian-speaking minorities.891 Slovak.213 French.503 Bulgarian.216 Romanian. some from Switzerland and South Tyrol.6% of the population— followed by Turkish (2. Italy). Serbian (2. The dialects more or less qualify for classification as separate languages but are not treated as such. Of the remaining number of Austria's people that are of non-Austrian descent.707 Czech. as well as refugees from the Yugoslav wars and other conflicts.392 who speak German as their mother tongue even though they hail from outside of Austria (mainly immigrants from Germany. 14.5%).551 Bosnian – i. to assure their language ability.018 Macedonian speakers). In terms of native language.6%).899 Polish.[79] As of 2006.902 Slovenian and 4. 105.000. Hungarian (0. 4.982 Arabic. 24.334 foreign nationals from the former Yugoslavia (of whom 135.466 Russian. and Standard German is more or less a second language to Austrians. Since 1994 the Roma–Sinti (gypsies) have been an officially recognised ethnic minority in Austria.155 English. 25.000 ethnic Turks (including minority of Turkish Kurds) currently live in Austria.938 Chinese. various local Austro-Bavarian (Alemannic in Vorarlberg) are spoken instead.677 Italian. 10. Bosnian (0.487 Croatian. Of these. there are significant Hungarian.German is Austria's official language and is spoken natively by 88.e.699 Hungarian.926 foreign nationals living in Austria. 5.4%) and Slovenian (0. 6. Burgenland (formerly part of the Hungarian portion of Austria–Hungary). According to census information published by Statistik Austria for 2001[8] there were a total of 710. which is mostly identical to the German used in Germany but with some vocabulary differences. Between 200.417 who speak Turkish.3%). and is still considered as a single language by linguists the world over – plus 6.3%). also form an important minority group in Austria.916 Persian.2%). [edit] Ethnic groups . see Austrian nationality law – Naturalisation. 5. 31. The Austrian federal states of Carinthia and Styria are home to a significant indigenous Slovenespeaking minority while in the easternmost state. cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into the Austrian society.[80] For the national rules.000 Malayali. even though Austro-Bavarian is sometimes used in media and more so in TV comedy shows. announcements and websites is Austrian German. 5.000 and 300.414 Austrian resident native speakers of what was officially called Serbo-Croatian until the disintegration of Yugoslavia. some of the Austrian states introduced standardised tests for new citizens. The next largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the 124. many come from surrounding countries. 12. especially from the former East Bloc nations. the largest by far are 283. Croatian (1.446 Albanian. however. 7.376 speak Serbian. 17. 3. So-called guest workers (Gastarbeiter) and their descendants. They are the largest single immigrant group in Austria.[78] closely followed by the Serbs. The populations of the rest fall off sharply below 3. basically there are altogether 272. 4.[8] The official German used in education. 6. 123. 5.

000)[81] and Hungarians in Burgenland were recognised as a minority and have enjoyed special rights following the Austrian State Treaty (Staatsvertrag) of 1955.and Croat-Austrians live alongside the German speaking population (as required by the 1955 State Treaty) is still to be fully implemented.[citation needed] pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars and considering that some official Slovenian atlases show parts of Carinthia as Slovene cultural territory.000) are not recognised as a minority and do not enjoy special rights.000 Slovenes in the Austrian state of Carinthia (the Carinthian Slovenes) as well as Croats (around 30. The term Windische was applied to the latter group as a means of distinction. based on differences in language between Austrian Slovenes.[citation needed] The right for bilingual topographic signs for the regions where Slovene. dividing Slovene Austrians into the "loyal Windische" and the "national Slovenes". Jörg Haider. Another interesting phenomenon is the so called "Windischen-Theorie"[82] stating that the Slovenes can be split in two groups: actual Slovenes and Windische (a traditional German name for Slavs). The recently deceased governor.[55] The Slovenes in the Austrian state of Styria (estimated at a number between 1. although the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 states otherwise. An estimated 13. has made this fact a matter of public argument in autumn 2005 by refusing to increase the number of bilingual topographic signs in Carinthia. Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian territorial claims. [edit] Religion Main article: Religion in Austria Main Denominations in Austria[83] .000 to 40.Bilingual sign of Oberwart (in Hungarian Felsőőr) in Burgenland. was never generally accepted and fell out of use some decades ago.600 and 5. This politically influenced theory. since the original requirements set by the State Treaty of 1955 have already been fulfilled according to their point of view. A poll by the Kärntner Humaninstitut conducted in January 2006 states that 65% of Carinthians are not in favour of an increase of bilingual topographic signs. who were taught Slovene standard language in school and those Slovenes who spoke their local Slovene dialect but went to German schools.

[84] y Cat perc Luthe perc e popul holi enta rans[85 enta a ation ] cs ge ge r 1 6.905 % 4 1 429.6 5.807 % 5 1 438.338 % 5 1 423.795 78.786 % 4 1 338.08 5 .64 8 .2% 93 1 6.032 73.0 1.4 8.1 4.45 9 .0 5.7% 50 .91 0 8.555 84.0 6.1 5.0% 09 2 5.2% 63 1 6.29 9 7.17 9 6.3 2.6 6.08 9 7.0 0.6% 62 1 6.31 7 .7 5.933 89.37 9 7.4 6.42 0 .073 89.54 9 7.07 6 .491 87.0% 70 1 6.526 % 6 1 447.926 % 1 1 376.

404 5.9% 46 2 8.5 2.350 66.53 0 66.376 5.57 0 8.8% 63[88] The Basilica of Mariazell is Austria's most popular pilgrimage site View of Salzburg Cathedral .0 .8 9.66 0 8.73 1 6] 4 0 323.3 3.761[8 3.78 0 .000 % 2 5 - – 2 5.49 0 .250 68.000 % 3 8 328.9% 14[87] 2 8.8 3.51 0 % 6] 7 9 325.252[8 2.3 3.45 0 .2 5.

As of January 2010 the percentage of catholics in Austria declined to 65. In 1781. with approximately 65.[89] while about 5% considered themselves Protestants.000 people are active Jehovah's Witnesses[92] and about 8. While northern and central Germany was the origin of the Reformation. Austria and Bavaria were the heart of the Counter-Reformation in the 16th and 17th centuries.000 are registered as members of various Muslim communities.[96]  54% of Austrian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".527 or 8% of the total Austrian population.579. Data for the end of 2005 from the Austrian Roman Catholic church lists 5. Serbian.000 emigrating. this payment is called "Kirchenbeitrag" ("Ecclesiastical/Church contribution"). Since the second half of the 20th century.493 members or 66.100 are Jewish. in the era of Austrian enlightenment. around 340.  8% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit.500 during the Second World War.1%. the number of adherents and churchgoers has declined.000—was reduced to around 4.[90] Data for the end of 2008 published by the Austrian Roman Catholic church shows a further reduction to 5.[citation needed] About 12% of the population declared that they have no religion.[94] Buddhism was legally recognised as a religion in Austria in 1983.[89] Austrian Christians are obliged to pay a mandatory membership fee (calculated by income—about 1%) to their church. and a Sunday church attendance of 698.[89] in 2001. when the absolute monarchy of Habsburg imposed a strict regime to restore Catholicism's power and influence among Austrians.  34% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force". Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo.5% of the total Austrian population.[97][98] The Habsburgs for a long time viewed themselves as the vanguard of Catholicism and all other confessions and religions were repressed. Romanian. about 21.[89] The Austrian Jewish Community of 1938—Vienna alone counted more than 200. particularly from eastern Europe and central Asia (including Bukharan Jews).8% of the total Austrian population.000 are members of Orthodox Churches (mostly Serbs). Of the remaining people. or life force". God. or 68. mainly due to the influx from Turkey. and Bulgarian Orthodox Christians . and a Sunday church attendance of 753.662.000 Jewish Austrians killed in the Holocaust and 130. Emperor Joseph II issued a Patent of Tolerance for Austria that allowed other confessions a limited freedom of worship. Russian. Religious freedom was declared a constitutional right in Cisleithania after the Austro-Hungarian Ausgleich in 1867 thus paying tribute to the fact that the monarchy was home of numerous religions beside Roman Catholicism such as Greek.[91] The Lutheran church also recorded a loss of 47904 adherents between 2001 and 2008. about 74% of Austria's population were registered as Roman Catholic.782 members.At the end of the 20th century.701 or 9% of the total Austrian population.[93] The large majority of the current Jewish population are post-war immigrants.[89] About 180. [95] According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005.

a stricter secularism was imposed in Austria. with less time allotted to project work than in the UK. First Republic Catholic leaders such as Theodor Innitzer and Ignaz Seipel took leading positions within or close to Austria's government and increased their influence during the time of the Austrofascism. It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire four years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being. Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work. Lutheran Protestants and Jews. free in most states. The so called "3Rs"(Reading. starting at age six. is considered a normal part of a child's education due to its high takeup rate. Maximum class size is around 30.(Austria neighboured the Ottoman Empire for centuries). There is no streaming. Islam was officially recognised in Austria. Austrian Catholicism stopped its support[citation needed]of Nazism later on and many[citation needed] former religious public figures became involved with the resistance during the Third Reich. . usually to the age of fifteen. lasts for four years. or Volksschule.e. Primary education. After the end of World War II in 1945. Pre-school education (called Kindergarten in German). but may be as low as 15. Calvinist. Catholicism was treated much like a state religion by Engelbert Dollfuss and Kurt Schuschnigg. In 1912. and religious influence on politics declined. Austria remained largely influenced by Catholicism. After 1918.[citation needed] Although Catholic (and Protestant) leaders initially welcomed the Germans in 1938 during the Anschluss of Austria into Germany. wRiting and aRithmetic) dominate lesson time. after the annexation of Bosnia Hercegovina in 1908. i. The maximum class size is 30.[citation needed] [edit] Education Main article: Education in Austria Stiftsgymnasium Melk is the oldest Austrian school Education in Austria is entrusted partly to the Austrian states (Bundesländer) and partly to the federal government. School attendance is compulsory for nine years. is provided for all children between the ages of three and six years and. each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant. whilst optional.

The Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education but also for various types of further education (Höhere Technische Lehranstalt HTL = institution of higher technical education. some children move schools for a second time at age 12. known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on science). with children returning home to eat. pupils choose between one of two strands. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class. which is a requirement for access to university. in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum. those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year ("sitzenbleiben"). The Gymnasium caters for the more able children. It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. generally eaten at school. with children returning home to a late lunch. At age 14. After completing the first two years. . As in Germany. Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Matura. Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing.). Children are given homework daily from the first year.Standard attendance times are 8 am to 12 pm or 1 pm. some do not. all pupils follow the same plan of work. due to a rise in the number of mothers in work. etc. The University of Vienna As at primary school. Historically there has been no lunch hour. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch. HBLA = institution of higher education for economic business.or ten-minute breaks. Whilst many schools offer both strands. Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule. and are known as Gesamtschulen. lessons at Gymnasium begin at 8 am and continue with short intervals until lunchtime or early afternoon. and as a result. In addition. in the final year of which the Matura examination is taken. primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care. As at primary level. or to change to a vocational course. pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands. secondary education consists of two main types of schools. attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. with hourly five. HAK = commercial academy. possibly with a further change of school. Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays. a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream. a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English. However.

an obligatory fee of €17 for the student union and insurance is charged.36 per term was introduced for all public universities. and much of Mozart's career was spent in Vienna. Michael Haydn. as well as members of the Second Viennese School such as Arnold Schoenberg. as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded (the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance). Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg. and Johann Strauss. Anton Bruckner. for students with a year's salary of more than about €5000. Austria has been the birthplace of many famous composers such as Joseph Haydn. Since 2008. most notably among them music. Franz Liszt. for all EU students the studies have been free of charge. Anton Webern and Alban Berg. In 2001.. In all cases. Johann Strauss. [edit] Culture Main article: Culture of Austria [edit] Music Main article: Music of Austria Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791) Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment have generated a broad contribution to various forms of art. A 2006 bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. Jr. Sr.36 per term is charged. an obligatory tuition fee ("Studienbeitrag") of €363.g.[99] When the time-limit is exceeded. e. . though one that was culturally closely connected to Austria. Franz Schubert. Some further exceptions to the fee apply.The Austrian university system had been open to any student who passed the Matura examination until recently. the fee of around €363. then an independent Church Principality of the Holy Roman Empire.

18th and 19th century composers were drawn to the city due to the patronage of the Habsburgs. Austria has also produced one notable jazz musician. Ludwig van Beethoven spent the better part of his life in Vienna. keyboardist Josef Zawinul. Austria's current national anthem. Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural center in the early 16th century. The Belvedere Palace.World famous Vienna State Opera Vienna has long been especially an important centre of musical innovation. During the Baroque period. and was focused around instruments including the lute. Slavic and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music. an example of Baroque architecture [edit] Art and architecture Further information: List of Austrian artists and architects . The pop and rock musician Falco was internationally acclaimed during the 1980s. who helped pioneer electronic influences in jazz as well as being a notable composer in his own right. especially for his song "Rock Me Amadeus" dedicated to Mozart. having played with artists such as Geri Halliwell and Robbie Williams. was chosen after World War II to replace the traditional Austrian anthem by Joseph Haydn. attributed to Mozart. and made Vienna the European capital of classical music.[100] The drummer Thomas Lang was born in Vienna in 1967 and is now world renowned for his technical ability.

Sascha Kolowrat was an Austrian pioneer of filmmaking. but also as an opera director. Fritz Lang. and architects like Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. The first Austrian film director receiving an Academy Award was Stefan Ruzowitzky. Carl Moll. and Hans Hollein. and List of Austrian scientists Austria was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation. Christoph Waltz rose to international fame with his performance in Inglourious Basterds. Rudolf von Alt. Hans Makart. Senta Berger. Victor Franz Hess and Christian Doppler. Egon Schiele. Willi Forst. Vienna circle. Hedy Lamarr and Arnold Schwarzenegger became American as well as international movie stars. Adolf Loos. and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 2010.Among Austrian Artists and architects one can find the painters Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller. [edit] Science and philosophy Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis Further information: Austrian School. Among them are Ludwig Boltzmann. Among them were Peter Lorre. and Klaus Maria Brandauer. before receiving a Golden Globe for his critically acclaimed film The White Ribbon in 2010. Michael Haneke became internationally known for his disturbing cinematic studies. Ernst Mach. Josef von Sternberg. Billy Wilder. and Fred Zinnemann originally came from Austria before establishing themselves as internationally relevant movie makers. Max Reinhardt was a master of spectacular and astute theater productions. prominent scientists . the impact of which was sensed beyond national borders. Helmut Berger. the photographers Inge Morath and Ernst Haas. Curd Jürgens. Oskar Kokoschka. earning the Best Actor Award at Cannes in 2009. Ernst Marischka. Many Austrian actors were able to pursue a career. and Friedensreich Hundertwasser. [edit] Cinema and theatre Austrian contributions to the worlds of film and theatre have traditionally been strong. Otto Wagner. Oskar Werner. or Franz Antel enriched the popular cinema in German language speaking countries. Gustav Klimt. Otto Schenk not only excelled as a stage actor.

biologists Gregor Mendel and Konrad Lorenz as well as mathematician Kurt Gödel and engineers such as Ferdinand Porsche and Siegfried Marcus were Austrians. In the 20th century. Ludwig von Mises. Other noteworthy Austrian-born émigrés include the management thinker Peter Drucker. A present-day quantum physicist is Anton Zeilinger. Erwin Schrödinger and Wolfgang Pauli to nuclear research and quantum mechanics were key to these areas' development during the 1920s and 1930s. Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl. Clemens von Pirquet.in the 19th century. In addition to physicists. and Anton von Eiselsberg have built upon the achievements of the 19th century Vienna School of Medicine. is related to Austrian economists Joseph Schumpeter. Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper. Arnold Schwarzenegger. These are articles of the List of Austrians series Artists and architects Monarchs Mountaineers Music Politicians Scientists Sports Writers A focus of Austrian science has always been medicine and psychology. In addition to them. Alfred Adler. . noted as the first scientist to demonstrate quantum teleportation. Austria was the birthplace of two of the most noteworthy philosophers of the 20th century. sociologist Paul Felix Lazarsfeld scientist Sir Gustav Nossal and the 38th Governor of California. contributions by Lise Meitner. Austria was home to psychologists Sigmund Freud. which is prominent as one of the main competitive directions for economic theory. The Austrian School of Economics. Eminent physicians like Theodore Billroth. starting in medieval times with Paracelsus. and Friedrich Hayek. Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk.

Thomas Bernhard. and novelists.[edit] Literature See also: List of Austrian writers and Austrian literature Complementing its status as a land of artists and scientists. Franz Grillparzer. . [edit] Food and drink Main article: Austrian cuisine The Viennoise Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Balkan and French cuisine. Rainer Maria Rilke. "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot jam or custard. It is famous for its wellbalanced variations of beef and pork and countless variations of vegetables. There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery. which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte. Famous contemporary playwrights and novelists are Nobel prize winner Elfriede Jelinek. Stefan Zweig. The Austrian cuisine is therefore one of the most multicultural and transcultural in Europe. from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed. writers. Italian. of poets Georg Trakl. In addition to native regional traditions. It was the home of novelists Arthur Schnitzler. and "Strudel" such as "Apfelstrudel" filled with apple. "Topfenstrudel" filled with a type of cheese curd called "topfen". Austria has always been a country of poets. Peter Handke and Daniel Kehlmann. Jewish. Austrian cuisine is mainly the tradition of Royal-Cuisine ("Hofküche") delivered over centuries. the cuisine has been influenced by Hungarian. Bohemia Czech. Franz Kafka. and "Millirahmstrudel" (milk-cream strudel). Adalbert Stifter. and Robert Musil. Franz Werfel. Karl Kraus and children's author Eva Ibbotson.

Kaiserschmarren. Sachertorte and Tafelspitz. a type of cider or perry is widely produced. as well as Mannerschnitten. Burgenland. Beer is sold in 0.3 litre (a Seidel. 0. Knödel. Styria and Carinthia. Eierschwammerl dishes are also popular. which are pockets of dough filled with Topfen. At holidays like Christmas and Easter bock beer is also available. also known as "Pfifferling". are native yellow. tan mushrooms. Styria and Vienna. naturally cloudy Zwicklbier and wheat beer.5 litre (a Krügerl or großes Bier or Halbe) measures.000 in Austria. Schweinsbraten. Lower Austria. A very high percentage schnaps is called "Umblachter" and has up to 85% Alcohol. The most popular types of beer are lager (known as Märzen in Austria).2 litre (a Pfiff). At festivals one litre Maß and two litre Doppelmaß in the Bavarian style are also dispensed. Kasnudeln are traditionally served with a salad. kleines Bier or Glas Bier) and 0. Schnapps of typically up to 60 % alcohol or fruit brandy is drunk. for example apricots and rowanberries. of which there are around 20. Most. The most important wine-producing areas are in Lower Austria. The "Eierschwammerl". potatoes. is known as Selberbrennter or Hausbrand. The Grüner Veltliner grape provides some of Austria's most notable white wines and Zweigelt is the most widely planted red wine grape. which in Austria is made from a variety of fruits. The candy Pez was invented in Austria. The produce of small private schnapps distilleries. There are also Kärntner Kasnudeln. Austria is also famous for its Mozartkugeln and its coffee tradition. In Upper Austria. [edit] Sports Main article: Sport in Austria . herbs and peppermint which are boiled and served with a butter sauce.Wiener Schnitzel Typical Austrian dishes include Wiener Schnitzel.

which includes teams such as record-champions SK Rapid Wien. Horseback riding is popular also. The national Austrian football league is the Austrian Bundesliga. A popular team sport in Austria is football. luge. which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions for the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics held in Innsbruck. Red Bull Salzburg and Sturm Graz. which is governed by the Austrian Football Association. The first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012 were held in Innsbruck as well. Toni Sailer Benjamin Raich and Marlies Schild are widely regarded as some of the greatest alpine skiers of all time. FK Austria Wien.[101] Austria was among the most successful football playing nations on the European continent placing 4th at the 1934 FIFA World Cup. recently Austrian football has been much less internationally successful in this discipline.Salzburg Stadium. However. alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Austria. The famed Spanish Riding School of Vienna is located in Vienna. and skeleton are also popular events with a permanent track located in Igls. and the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga for basketball. [102] . 3rd at the 1954 FIFA World Cup and 7th at the 1978 FIFA World Cup. It also co-hosted the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship with Switzerland. Besides football. Austria also has professional national leagues for most major team sports including the Austrian Hockey League for ice hockey. Hermann Maier. Bobsleigh. Home of the FC RB Salzburg Due to the mountainous terrain. Similar sports such as snowboarding or ski-jumping are also widely popular and Austrian athletes such as Annemarie Moser-Pröll.

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