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• • • •

M.H. Perrott © 2007

**Complex exponentials Complex version of Fourier Series Time Shifting, Magnitude, Phase Fourier Transform
**

Copyright © 2007 by M.H. Perrott All rights reserved.

Fourier Series and Fourier Transform, Slide 1

**The Complex Exponential as a Vector
**

Q

Note:

sin(ωt) ωt cos(ωt)

e jωt

I

**• Euler’s Identity: • Consider I and Q as the real and imaginary parts • As t increases, vector rotates counterclockwise
**

M.H. Perrott © 2007

– As explained later, in communication systems, I stands for in-phase and Q for quadrature – We consider ejwt to have positive frequency

Fourier Series and Fourier Transform, Slide 2

The Concept of Negative Frequency Q Note: cos(ωt) −ωt -sin(ωt) I e-jωt • As t increases. vector rotates clockwise • Note: A-jB is the complex conjugate of A+jB – So. Slide 3 – We consider e-jwt to have negative frequency . Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform. e-jwt is the complex conjugate of ejwt M.H.

H. Slide 4 .Add Positive and Negative Frequencies Q Note: ejωt 2cos(ωt) I e-jωt • As t increases. the addition of positive and negative frequency complex exponentials leads to a cosine wave – Note that the resulting cosine wave is purely real and considered to have a positive frequency M. Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.

H. Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform. Slide 5 . the subtraction of positive and negative frequency complex exponentials leads to a sine wave – Note that the resulting sine wave is purely imaginary and considered to have a positive frequency M.Subtract Positive and Negative Frequencies Q Note: 2sin(ωt) -e-jωt ejωt I • As t increases.

Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.Fourier Series x(t) t T • The Fourier Series is compactly defined using complex exponentials • Where: M. Slide 6 .H.

H. Slide 7 . Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.From The Previous Lecture x(t) t T • The Fourier Series can also be written in terms of cosines and sines: M.

H.Compare Fourier Definitions • Let us assume the following: • Then: • So: M. Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform. Slide 8 .

Square Wave Example A -A T x(t) T/2 t M.H. Slide 9 . Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.

Graphical View of Fourier Series • As in previous lecture.H. Slide 10 -2A π . Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform. we can plot Fourier Series coefficients – Note that we now have positive and negative values of n • Square wave example: An 2A π 2A 3π Bn 1 3 5 7 9 -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 n 1 3 5 7 9 -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 -2A 3π n M.

Indexing in Frequency • A given Fourier coefficient.represents the weight corresponding to frequency nwo • It is often convenient to index in frequency (Hz) Af 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 T T T T T 2A π 2A 3π f -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 T T T T T Bf 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T -2A 3π -2A π f M. Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform. Slide 11 . .H.

H. Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.The Impact of a Time (Phase) Shift A -A T x(t) T/2 t x(t) A -A T/4 T/4 T t • Consider shifting a signal x(t) in time by Td • Define: • Which leads to: M. Slide 12 .

Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform. note that except for odd n M. Slide 13 .Square Wave Example of Time Shift A -A T x(t) T/2 t x(t) A -A T/4 T/4 T t • To simplify.H.

Slide 14 . Perrott © 2007 Af 3 T 5 T 7 T 9 T f f Bf 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T -2A 3π -2A π Bf 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 T T T T T f f Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.Graphical View of Fourier Series A -A T x(t) T/2 t x(t) A -A T/4 T/4 2A π -7 T -9 T -5 T -3 T -1 1 T T T t Af 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 T T T T T 2A π 2A 3π -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 T T T T T M.H.

Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform. Slide 15 .H.Magnitude and Phase • We often want to ignore the issue of time (phase) shifts when using Fourier analysis – Unfortunately. we have seen that the An and Bn coefficients are very sensitive to time (phase) shifts • The Fourier coefficients can also be represented in term of magnitude and phase • where: M.

Slide 16 . Perrott © 2007 Φf f 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T π -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T T T T T T f -π/2 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.H.Graphical View of Magnitude and Phase A -A T x(t) T/2 t x(t) A -A T/4 T/4 T t Xf 2A 3π 2A π 2A π 2A 3π f 2A 3π 2A π Xf 2A π 2A 3π f -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T T T T T T -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 1 3 5 7 9 T T T T T T T T T T Φf π/2 -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 T T T T T M.

H.Does Time Shifting Impact Magnitude? • Consider a waveform x(t) along with its Fourier Series • We showed that the impact of time (phase) shifting x(t) on its Fourier Series is • We therefore see that time (phase) shifting does not impact the Fourier Series magnitude M. Slide 17 . Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.

Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.H. Slide 18 .Parseval’s Theorem • The squared magnitude of the Fourier Series coefficients indicates power at corresponding frequencies – Power is defined as: Note: * means complex conjugate M.

Slide 19 . Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.H.The Fourier Transform • The Fourier Series deals with periodic signals • The Fourier Transform deals with non-periodic signals M.

Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform. Slide 20 .H.Fourier Transform Example A x(t) -T T t • Note that x(t) is not periodic • Calculation of Fourier Transform: M.

Graphical View of Fourier Transform A x(t) -T T t This is called a sinc function 2TA X(f) f -1 2T 1 2T M.H. Slide 21 . Perrott © 2007 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.

Slide 22 M. Perrott © 2007 .Summary • The Fourier Series can be formulated in terms of complex exponentials – Allows convenient mathematical form – Introduces concept of positive and negative frequencies • The Fourier Series coefficients can be expressed in terms of magnitude and phase – Magnitude is independent of time (phase) shifts of x(t) – The magnitude squared of a given Fourier Series coefficient corresponds to the power present at the corresponding frequency • The Fourier Transform was briefly introduced – Will be used to explain modulation and filtering in the upcoming lectures – We will provide an intuitive comparison of Fourier Series and Fourier Transform in a few weeks … Fourier Series and Fourier Transform.H.

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