of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration

us. Deportment

Advisory Circular

Subject: Guidance for Certification of Military and

Date: Initiated by: AIR·100

AC No: 20·CDA

Special Mission Modifications and Equipment Commercial Derivative Aircraft (CDA)

1. PURPOSE. This Advisory Circular (AC) to show compliance to the provisions of Title 1 parts 23, 25, 27, and 29 regarding type certification"il~ ... -i!i'f,~~;gnh' (CDA). CDA are aircraft that have been modified wi and other non-civil missions. CDA are operated-by or governmental entities. With certain limited exceptions,

means, but not the only means, ederal Regulations (14 CFR) for Civil Derivative Aircraft . equipment to perform military ional control of as public aircraft.

The extensive variety cations and equipment often present challenges for civil type certification because.i a comparable civil function or purpose. Methods for showing compli may not have accepted precedence or appropriate guidance mat . AC is to answer frequently asked questions regarding acceptable certifi .ects .. This information should assist applicants in developing certi . means of compliance for unique CDA modifications. This A n material to procedures outlined in FAA Order 8110.1 01, "Type ocedures for Military Commercial Derivative Aircraft," but may also be applicable to .. -mission CDA. The information contained herein is for guidance purposes only and mandatory or regulatory in nature. Acronyms used throughout this AC are defined in Appendix A. Whenever specific airworthiness standards are cited in this AC we have made reference to the rule as implemented in part 25. Contact the FAA Military Certification Office for applicability to parts 23, 27, or 29. 2. APPLICABILITY. The audience for this AC may include applicants, type certificate/production approval holders, aircraft modifiers, military contractors, parts manufacturers, maintenance and repair organizations, or operators of military or other government CDA.

4. CANCELLATION. This AC does not supersede other existing FAA guidance and policy material related to approvals for specific civil aircraft mission operations.

DRAFT

AC 20-CDA

5. RELATED GUIDANCE. The material contained herein applies to military and non-military CDA proposed to be FAA certified as normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft, type-certificated under Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR) 3, 4b, 6, 7; and 14 CFR parts 23,25,27,29; and is produced under 14 CFR part 21, § 21.125 or § 21.143, as may be appropriate. Specific FAA type certification procedures are contained in FAA Order 811 OA, and supplemented by FAA Order 8110.101. Other references and guidance material for certification of systems and equipment include (but are not limited to): a. AC 25-1 0, Guidance for Installation of Miscellaneous, Equipment b..RTCAJDO-178, Software Considerations in Certification c. AC 20-115B, Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautic, RTCAlDO-178B d. RTCAJDO-160, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment e. AC 21-16F RTCA Conditions and Test Procedures for
f. RTCA/DO-254

D, E and F, "Environmental Electronic Hardware 54, Design Assurance Guidance for

Design As

g. AC 20-152 RTCA, Inc" Airborne Electronic Hardware

b. RTCAIDO-313 Certification Guid Installation of Non-Essential, Cabin Systems & Equipment ification Guidance for Installation of Non-Essential, NvH·-..... . ".... pment.

2

cannot be certified to civil regulations? ......... .... Can the applicant submit..... To what depth does the FAA participate in finding compliance with 14 CFR § XX... 6. What performance SME? lU l. How are applications for sponsored military pro' CDA at other ACOs? .... and will the FAA accept........ etc.. Can the FAA certify all CDA? 5." for SME? 10.......) to be used in support of compliance findings? 7.....H YY-""l1U"' Vll standards should be applied to new 12 . What about approvals for software embedded in GFE/SME? 9..... 11 4.... 5 6 6 7 8 2... Why does the FAA accept military commercial derivative aircraft (MCDA) certification projects? 3....DRAFT CONTENTS AC 20-CDA CHAPTER 1.. COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) 5 2. What is the FAA MCO? 4.......... 6.... What is different about a military project involve multiple approvals? Can applications be made for ...... What is a CDA? 1. 10 ... What special by definition. What happens if the COTSI MOTS equipment fails to meet minimum qualification requirements for the environment or function for the intended use? 8....... "Functions properly when installed....130 I (d)... What reliability must GFE/SME have? 14 14 14 15 16 3 ... previously accomplished equipment qualification data (test analysis..... reports....

..'8....DRAFT (Continued) AC 20-CDA 11....~ .. CONFORMITY INSPECTIONS AND PRODUCTION APPROVALS I6 17 1.. Does the FAA accept used parts from the mili 5....... Discussion of required/essential equipment Appendix C.. What about parts and components that are installed the type design)? C .e...... Can the FAA approve provisions for unapproved SME as part of the type certification process? " 12.. what areas may need to be covered by the military airworthiness authority (MAA)? CHAPTER 3.....~!". Example (14 CFR part 25) " versus non-required/non~essentialelectrical 21 22 23 24 4 .. conformed. Why is it required type design) even thou deviations and may never b for an aircraft configuration (as defined in configuration may be superseded by military ? 20 3..."'deviations (i. not included in .. 19 2.... but will not be used in the delivered aircraft need to be manufactured... but is not required by FAA regulations. Do iterns identified in the FAA ved type design.... Acronyms Appendix B.... How is FAA conformity inspection achieved for SME during the type certification process? 2. What about SME supplied as government 4....• 18 not been produced under an FAA......... 3... Can SME be provided as an FAA-approved part if' production approval? .. and tested to receive certification? APPENDICES Appendix A............ For SME that will be FAA certified...... equipment? 18 19 ~.

A special FAA Aircraft Certification Office (ACO) designated as the FAA Military Certification Office (MCO) was created for this purpose. Aircraft. 5 . These MAA could s for MCDA using their own processes. . In order to conduct special mission operations. CDA may be equipped with modifications and special mission equipment (SME) .S. some governmental agencies have . operated by U. goverrunent agencies do not have the necessary aeronautical evaluate aircraft modifications. target towing. Some examples for that have shared applications for the civil and military sectors include medevac.. Armed Services or other U. CDA are ations for which the baseline commercial aircraft was originally designed such as ortation. However.S. government agencies. and or mapping. The MAA have issued policies req certification be obtained for their MCDA when it is efficient or practical to do so.S. These operations are referred to as contracted air services. surveillance. They may rely upon the FAA or a ity (MAA) to approve their aircraft. Why does the FAA accept aircraft (MCDA) certification projects? Aircraft operated by the mili c-use aircraft and are not subject to the civil regulatory requirements for main and operation. Special missions are defined as aircraft operations conducting enforcement. search and rescue. COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) 1. aerial photography. The MAA then uses the FAAcertification to support their airworthiness approval for MCDA. These limitations will of the FAA airworthiness certification.DRAFT AC 20-CDA CHAPTER 1. ly used in the civil sector. it is reco the FAA that approving modifications to CDA should consider the original d airworthiness criteria for the baseline aircraft. and to some extent. operational regulations. aerial spraying. Typically a CDA is owned/leased and operated by a government agency. aerial refueling. Armed Service has a for ensuring their aircraft are airworthy. Some special missions cannot be conducted under civil but are permissible as public-use aircraft . In the FAA certification process. the modifications and SME installed on CDA are found to comply with applicable civil airworthiness regulations. and carriage of passengers or cargo. CDA are also used to missions. However a CDA may also be owned by a private commercial entity and operated under contract to a government agency as a pub e aircraft. Each U.s. Though not required b AA regulations. i collection. military training. The FAA the u.S. Armed Services have signed a Memorandum of Agreement to support that need. flight inspection. government agencies (i FAA) are also public use aircraft and may also be exempt from compliance with civil regulations. with associated mission modifications or equipment approved to civil airworthiness standards through the FAA type certification process. the airworthiness of the baseline aircraft by requiring FAA approval for U. a CDA is defined as a commercial type-certificated aircraft converted for operational use by the U. or other government operations not typically conducted as civil ilitary special mission include patrol.S. What is a CDA? For purposes of this AC. and military support missions. 2. operations . ns.

operating weights. and the FAA must be allowed the time b. 6 . If the changes regulatory airworthine airworthiness and execute the proj u~. the aircraft is a new aircraft and no longer defined as a derivative ai cations for a new TC for an aircraft that has no civil utility or purpose must be reviewed by the Aircraft Certification Service. safety of the aircraft is assured. If anyone of the following conditions applies. airspeeds. load factors. The compliance with applicable its duties. and technical assistance services for MCDA acquired by U.~l~·~ • on plan. Military sponsored projects are accomplished by the MCG. upon request by a sponsoring U. The MCO also assists the FAA Aircraft Engineering Division. does not have the conduct of the type s. cations submitted for this purpose will likely require a Program Specific Service Agreement with the sponsoring U. AIR-IOO.S.101). altitudes. for the proposed aircraft be certified to existing with limited exceptions) to the extent that the basic . and continued operational safety cannot be supported by the FAA. The MCO provides certification. or private entities operating under contract to the U. the FAA may decline to osed aircraft are so extensive that a substantially complete investi . If the intent or purpose for the end use of the proposed aircraft requires the commercial aircraft to be routinely or intentionally operated outside the envelope defined in the airworthiness limitations section of the approved airplane flight manual (e. Under the MoA. or sufficient schedule is certification project in accordance with prescri project is not executable as proposed and may applicant must have the ability and technical compet regulations. the FAA may determine the and close the project. including the possibility that a full military qualification will be required. This is contradictory to the rationale and principles for obtaining the civil airworthiness certification for a CDA.S. in developing unique policy and guidance for military and special mission projects.). d.DRAFT AC 20-CDA 3. or other environmental limitations. The existing instructions for continued airworthiness are not viable. Foreign Military/Government under a U. thus requiring application for a new type certificate (TC) in 21. was established in October 2004. Armed Force (see Chapter 2 of FAA Order 8110. 4.S. Armed Force the MCO may also execute certification programs for the following entities: other U. security assistance program. Armed Forces. Government agencies.S. through the responsible directorates. continued airworthiness. or may find the project is not executable as proposed: a.S. the civil certification is not valid assurance for continued airworthiness. etc.19. Aircraft Engineering Division. What is the FAA MeO? The MCO. These aircraft will require airworthiness approval from the MAA. Can the FAA certify all CDA? There are situations where the FAA may find that an application for derivative aircraft is inappropriate for civil certification. AIR-100.S. If the modifier cannot produce an technical resources. and other ACOs may be utilized. Kansas. military.g. the FAA may determine that civil type certification is impractical for a derivative aircraft and may not accept the app . located in Wichita.

The MAA is obligated under their system to issue an ) airworthiness approval. The applicant must demonstrate that the design of the .""bvl..g. the mt must be used to collect data and identify it as work done that is eligible for e U. E may be shown to meet civil safety standards and may cations may not meet civil certification requirements. and the applicant submits accordance with Order 811004. provide expertise for SME. cations or equipment may require first investigating whether certification is and then considering what suitable means of compliance the applicant must show to icable regulations. If the project involves an amended TC.DRAFT 5. government agency. In some cases.S. b.S. other aircraft..S.The MCO will work with the applicant and the ACO to determine the best possible use of FAA and designee resources to support the project. It must be shown that the type design changes meet all applicable regulatory requirements for the modified aircraft to be eligible for a civil standard airworthiness certificate. If the project is c-omplex or has .. itary unique issues. government agencies operate under civil registration and maintain standard airworthiness certificates . personnel. the FAA may make agreements with the responsible MAA to accept technical data. clearance. Armed Services. or property that exclude approval (e.1 01. foreign military. The MCO determines if the project will be retained and worked by the MeO or ifit will be worked by another ACO. but are conducted in ~:"'r. if required. " ifications to an existing approved design (Amended TC. Armed Forces ial mission aircraft) are to their geographic ACO in project versus a typical civil project? Military CDA civil certification projects. How are applications for sponsored military projects handled? made for CDA at other ACOs? AC 20-CDA Can applications be a. the MCO will conduct or may retain partial involvement in the project has limited military issues and is best served by the applicant's local ACO may be delegated and conducted at the applicant's local ACO. self-defense systems such as flare and chaff dispensers). Applications for sponsored military certification projects must be made directly to the MCO in accordance with Order 8110.S. safety standards by showing compliance The differences between an FAA military ifications and SME installed on the CDA platform. . The MCO will evaluate the applications and certification plans to determine the scope and feasibility of the project and to determine whether it can be conducted using standard certification procedures and practices. (Some military aircraft and other U. The MCO will issue a unique FAA military certification project number and Certification Program Notification to coordinate with the Directorate and other ACOs that may be involved. by the U. However. or flight release that is similar in purpose and effect (if not certification proj accordance . or otherwise assist the FAA in obtaining the information needed to find compliance with civil regulations. or considered to be civil projects. the MCO will coordinate for the project to be administered and conducted through the Certificate Management ACO for that TC . Applications for other CDA which are (other U. aircraft (new or supplemental to the proj 7 . and ish that structural or system provisions meet applicable civil e hazards to the aircraft.

The FAA has a regulatory and oversight role. There may be several applicants in various locations seeking approval for complex amended TC and/or STC for the same aircraft. the FAA that certification must be accomplished under a single FAA approval. then military airworthiness qualification and approval are required. the FAA limitations that link approvals to interdependent or pre-requisite installations. ities of the military contractors as both system integrators and type certific 0 ensure that these issues are addressed for complex projects. certification compliance in order for the project to be viable. Integration of on the CDA platform often results in several specialized subcontractors work on the aircraft. J the military must have a prime contractor integrator. but not dupJica volve multiple approvals? Military CDA platforms may require ex . 7. the FAA may find it necessary to hold one applicant . MCDA platforms can become "hybrid" aircraft because some type design changes have been FAA certified. The FAA held the person installing the aircraft modifications responsible for d difications to an aircraft are compatible with each other and with the existing .DRAFT AC20-CDA format) to our airworthiness certificates. FAA approval of modifications on CDA projects may be used to satisfy all or part oftheir airworthiness requirements and is used by the MAA to support their airworthiness approval. and some modifications have been approved by the military. Competition and risk sharing for government the creation of work share partnerships between contractors and subcorr uirement to obtain FAA approval for the platform to the maximum extent possible may several companies applying for FAA approval for their portion of the modification to CDA. ft. Management of that "seam" between the civil and military approvals is required to ensure that all aspects affecting airworthiness of the CDA platform are addressed. Or. and cannot direct des independent approvals to make sure integration and certification requi for all changes approved for a single model or aircraft serial number.. How does FAA certification manage complex integr 8 . and complex integrations of multiple mission systems. When full FAA certification can not be completed on a MCDA because applicable civil standards do not exist or civil certification is not possible for certain systems.

g. Unless the special mission is associated with carrying passengers or dignitaries. evacuation. Passengers on civilian airplanes may be any person. (2) A passenger is not a crew member. members will be familiar with the aircraft.787). professionally engaged on board the . placards. or infinned.855. (3) A supernumerary is a crewmember or employee of the agency operating the aircraft who may be carried on the aircraft as a passenger for transportation or repositioning. passenger information. and be trained in emergency procedures and use of emergency equipment. lighting. COMPLIANCE AND CERTIFICATION AC 20-CDA FOR CDA PROJECTS 1. flight attendant. emergency procedures.. or emergency equipment. cargo different requirements and are accessible only by a crew member for sp not be occupied (14 CFR § 25. It is important to note that the civil requirements are generally distinct for passenger compartments. this can create compliance problems in civil certification. such as operator stations in the passenger compartment or troop carriage? a.) c. The proposed means of compliance for areas designated as occupied areas and cargo ts should be included. their function on board. etc. but may not necessarily have duties associated with execution of the current mission of the aircraft. and occupied areas must be analyzed to determine which civil regulations may apply. other than what may be provided as a pre-flight safety briefing provided by a crew member. military and special mission aircraft may have a need to mix elements of these areas for aircraft utility. as well as applicant requests for equivalent level of safety (E ings by the FAA. and may be untrained or unfamiliar with the hazards on or that could aircraft or other occupants. e. and others. mission system operator. mechanic. mission technician. floor plans. Can the FAA certify a CDA that requires special utility arrangements necessary for the mission. and cargo compartments.DRAFT CHAPTER 2. A crew member may sit in a crew seat or a passenger seat. These incl associated with seating. The requirements associ and passengers in occupied compartments are extensive. b. Aircraft layout. While occupied areas of may be equipped with stowage compartments (14 CFR § 25. The passenger may not be familiar with the aircraft. but may be anyone else that can be an occupant on the aircraft. crew compartments. it is best to start with basic lations: (1) A crew m to be a trained aircraft crew member. Civil airworthiness regulations · igned for personnel and cargo accommodations. seated in an area approved for occupancy by a passenger. A passenger may only sit in an approved passenger seat. to perform some duty relating to the performance of the aircraft mission (pilot. If not properly evaluated and executed. berths. 9 . Aircraft layout and interior arrangement drawings should always be submitted with the certification plan for a CDA. and aisle widths). fire protection. emergency provisi exits. For definitions with guidance for a CDA. and what must be done to avoid non-compliances. ventilation and heating. cop engineer.

missiles. Approvals for these types of SME will be limited to provisions-only (see Chapter 8 of FAA Order 8110. (5) A passenger seat is located in a passenger compartment. and troop seats will not be approved for carriage of crew or passengers. stores. flares. This cannot exceed the maximum number of occupants limited on the baseline aircraft 'TC. However. station.101 and this AC.g. an unoccupied crew seat if familiar with the aircraft type and trained in emergency procedures and the use of emergency equipment that may be required to occupy that crew seat. supernumerary seats. or other defensive combat systems and self protection systems if they that could be considered hazardous. signal. and head injury criteria. and passenger seats. bombs. and cannot be made.e. cannot be certified to civil bat system. Active countermeasures other energy sources that could be hazardous to other personnel or ed for jamming radio frequencies are ineligible for civil certification. d.. e. i. or civil communication. which may be occupied for takeoff and landing. Cabin safety regulations must be exits. by defmition. it may be necessary to restrict the se passengers. or emergency procedures. emergency e.DRAFT AC 20-CDA A supernumerary can occupy a passenger seat. a pilot compartment or passenger compartment. to comply with civil airworthiness regulations for cabin safety. cargo compartment s ting areas on a floor area designated for carriage of troops are not defined in civil and cannot be certified by the FAA. or position information. bench seats. or other pyrotechnics. (4) A crew seat is located in the occupied compartment. navigation. and the crew seat must meet all the criteria for the occupied compartment in which it is located. sion equipment (SME). rockets. if FAA approval for provisions is pursued. See discussion on 'Provisions-Only' in Order 8110. While it may be possible to obtain approval for installation of these articles in a CDA to the extent that compliance can be found with applicable regulations. or store that may be hazardous to the aircraft. its other personnel or property on the ground is ineligible for FAA . or tactical). the impact to fundamental airworthiness requirements for the end configuration and aircraft envelope should be addressed. of SME that may be ineligible for certification include active emitters (communications. component.. It is possible to certify a crew stati workstation in the passenger compartment. crashworthiness. such as guns. such as ammunition. cargo compartments will not be approved for occupancy. 10 . aisle widths.101). (6) The maximum number of occupants approved for the CDA mission configuration consists of the provided crew seats. an operator's console or mission ards associated with the work s to the equipment from rthiness. They are not designed. Sling seats. include weapon systems. or under some circumstances. which interfere with the host aircraft or other civil aircraft systems.

and functionality has on the the aircraft and interface with the civil environment. or other safety impacts are eliminated for the host aircraft.~~mlW)Qnents (when compared to consumer grade commercial equipment). the may not necessarily conflict with civil airworthiness standards. some military specifications are still used for civil certification. Can other SME be certified to civil regulations? AC 20-CDA a. installations can be designed such that EMIIEMC. It must be determined ifSME will be examined non-essential equipment or required aircraft equipment.DRAFT 3. which has long been used by the military for submarine detection. and intelligence gathering equipment and sensors. type design. Therefore. Although this installed S 'al for the military user. electronic intelligence (ELINT). there are real and necessary differences in military approval criteria and civil airworthiness regulations based upon operational need. Some technologies used for military purposes are similar to those used for legitimate civil purposes. The operational importance of essential SME often results in robust design <~t. Civil certification compliance for non-essential systems and focuses on the impact of the SME. Therefore. The proposed operation and applicability of specific regulations must be considered to determine the feasibility of certification. such as (COMINn. The SME may have been intentionally designed as a benign and passive system to escape detection. encryption systems. interferences.. its failure modes. These two differen certification approval depend upon the equipment function and integration wi systems: (1) Non-Essential Eq·ficated commercial aircraft: are generally equipped with all required and meet airworthiness standards. The basic tenets of military and civil airworthiness are the same. or Image Intelligence to civil regulations (even though access to the technology. Most SME adds functionality to the airplane but civil airworthiness standards to safely operate the airplane. it cannot receive a complete FAA airborne equipment has typically been shown to meet mili military organic aircraft (military aircraft whose airworthines was qualification process). or be restricted for security reasons). SME installed as non-essential equipment. military tactical communications. Military encryption technology or other signal processing mayor may not conflict with civil airworthiness certification rules. For the FAA to certify to civil airworthiness standards. the SME is still defined as non-essential equipm cation purposes. Safety or exceed the civil criteria for certification of the SME as non-essential the SME may have no purpose or use in the civil environment. FAA requirements and standards were developed for civil operations and not for military or special mission operations. however. Operation of this SME may also be illegal for the gen public. and has civil uses for geological survey and oil exploration. The acceptability of any proposed qualification or compliance data are to be considered to determine the feasibility of certification. the type design presented to the FAA must comply regulations and be free from hazards or potential unsafe meet these criteria. although. such as magnetic anomaly detection (MAD). it is 11 .

meets civil certification requirements. B. Qualification requirements can be incorporated in the design to ensure it provides satisfactory service. This is an indirect application of 14 CFR § 25. A limited discussion ofrequiredlessential equipment as it pertains to government furnished (GFE/SME) is provided' . ronmental qualification standards should be applied to includes prototype mission equipment or equipment of new d cation is to ensure the equipment win survive and function in the airbo a safe manner. It has become an essential part of the civil aviation safety system. The objective would be to develop one series of qualification tests including the most severe requirements." as a standard for environmental testing. it is often necessary to replace required and previously approved civil radios or equipment with military versions that provide expanded capabilities. However. b. Most military communication and navigation equipment is compatible with the civil environment as the military must operate in the civil environment during peacetime.1353(a) showing the nonrequired equipment does not effect required or essential equipment. such as the ability to communicate or transmit data on both civil and military frequencies. An example of itary technology that has been widely adopted for civil use includes the Global Po . which would satisfy both the civil certification requirements and the military requirements without repeating similar tests. Certain FAAlindustry quali or environmental conditions may be imposed. 14 CFR § 25. 1309(a) and a direct application ofl4 CFR §§ 25. . . SME or modification to civil equipment for these purposes requires the compliance methods to ensure safe integration.DRAFT AC 20-CDA important that the functionality and effects of the SME be understood. Special may also be added to essential or critical civil systems. It defines standard environmental test conditions (categories) and 12 . FAA AC 21-16F recognizes RTCA Document DO-160 versions D. . E and F. RTCA DO-168 and RTCA DO-160D are applied to nonrequired electrical equipment (see AC 25-10). When militaryunique reliability andlor performance requirements are also a factor. This is permissible as long as the military equipment meets the same criteria as the required civil equipment it replaced.1435(a) mentions specifically that critical environmental conditions must be considered. (GPS). In general. 'When military technology is introduced into the civil environment.. Advances in military or civil technologies are often shared when the benefits can be realized in both environments. it requires civil certification approval for civil use and operation. even on the non-required equipment. (2) Required or Essential Equipment. "Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment. the equipment must be tested to the most stringent requirements. and the additional military functions do not interfere with the required civil functions. b.1431(a) and 25. It may be necessary to impose civil operational restrictions for use of certain functions or capabilities ofthe 5MB. . such as the addition patterns to a flight director or flight management system.

What if the proposed SME package includes existing off-the-shelf hardware? a. For SME that already exists as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) or military-off-theshelf (MOTS) hardware. . FAA Order 8110.0.DRAFT AC 20-CDA applicable test procedures for airborne equipment. For non-required/nonshould be reviewed and .0. If the performance or quali by regulation andlor guidance. and 23. If the GFE/SME was qualified to a different standard. FAA-accepted performance andlor qualification standards associated with the applicable regulations should be first examined. The category and should be agreed on proposed are different than that required applicant's proposal for equivalence. at our discretion. at a minimum the included in the matrix: sections 4. If the equipment was qualified to different standards. By FAA-accepted performance andlor qualification standards. then performance andl ification standards may be defined and accepted by the military customer. "Type Derivative Aircraft.. such as 14 CFR §§ 2S. such as a military standard. refers This matrix should include. then comparisons should be andlor testing applied as necessary. thus specific associated standards apply.:> an example for consideration of necessary compliance findings item. as necessary. may leave acceptance Military Commercial a comparison analysis matrix. The to be defined by the military." chapter 7.y ._u_u. section 4. certain rules.1431 and apply whether the GFE/SME is required or not. a mechanical military clock installed in a cabin mission console. b.e conditions. of each section is dependent on where between the applicant and the MeO. we mean related advisory material and related FAA-accepted industry standards. [WJti. or there are no applicable regulations. 13 .1585(b). Operating li may be appropriate under 14 CFR § 25. If there are no performance andlor qualification standards associated with the applicable regulations. the FAA FAA. comparison of civil sources. 5. The tests in RTCAlDO-160 provide a laboratory means of demonstrating the performance characteristics of airborne equipment in environmental conditions that may be encountered in operation.101. for the envrronmenta environmental standards to the essential SME. then comparisons should be made and additional qualification and testing may be needed. .0.1309(b) and 25.1301(b). Note also 14 CFR § 25. c.

. A system level functional hazard assessment needs to be e criticality of the mission software. If the equipment was qualified to a different performance or qualification standard than that required or associated with FAA guidance. other than aircraft power. as necess ary.DRAFT AC 20-CDA 6. If the data is accepted.There may be other av kaging. the FAA may choose to accept the data. What happens if the COTSIMOTS equipment requirements for the environment or function for the testing shows that COTS/MOTS equipment cannot meet minimum should consider ifthere is other equipment available that may be more application. and will the FAA accept. or designing an enclosure to contain or mitigate . valid. The' no longer be considered off-the-shelf if required modifications are extensive.) to be used in support of compliance :fmdings? As previously discussed. reports. n design may be an option. What about approvals for software a. hardening. equipment for a special or uniq . but secure FAA software approvals. ay be necessary to incorporate modifications to the off-the-shelf configuration to render it suitable for the airborne application. Keep in mind that RTCAlDO-178B is a means. then a comparison analysis matrix should be prepared and additional anal ysis and!or testing applied. etc. 7. the install ation of the SME will be evaluated like any other equipment that must be installed under amended TC or STC certification procedures. may limit options for hardware available to do the job.e." recognizes RTCAIDO-178B as an acceptable means of iance for securing the FAA's approval of softw' systems and equipment. if there is reasonable confidence the qualification data is applicable. "RTCA. Can the applicant submit. 8. FAA AC 20-115B. mission equipment instaUation factors to consider are: (1) Is the mission equipment completely isolated and self contained. i. Depending on the criticality of correlation matrix may need to be developed comparing the to the alternate means. It is recognized that SME. c. there is no room for compromise .. Depending on the circumstances. previously accomplished equipment qualification data (test analysis. H intent and purpose of the certification is to ensure a minimum level of safety its occupants. RTCAlDO-178B. Further analysis or testing may be' equipment performance may be affected by the installation andlor where may affect the aircraft's required or essential systems. and from a trusted source. Inc. means of compliance is assessed in terms of how well it satisfies the . with no dependencies or interfaces with other aircraft systems or equipment? (2) Is the mission equipment only a receiver? (3) Is the mission equipment a transmitter? 14 .

. AC 20-148. "Software Approval Guidelines. "Functions properly when installed.. to demonstrating of installed equipment.RAFT AC 20-CDA (4) Does the mission equipment interface with other aircraft systems and/or equipment? d.. We may esta no ce. e. Assessment will typically be. 4 CFR § 25 . Interference: 14 CPR § 25. "Reusable Software Components. certain other regulations and § 25." for SME? a.e. d. i.1301(d). In the later case. "Functions properly when installed. but not limited to. it must be shown that this equipment equipment on other airplanes. can be selected at the discretion of the applicant or may be dictated to the applicant by the aircraft purchaser as part of the purchaser's contract. entiat. software libraries... there has been wide v applied for certification of SME on a CDA. ifnot specified by some regulation or associate guidance al. or non-critical equipmen as well." addresses acceptance of reusable software components.. to demonstrating equipment. The purchaser would have to specify in the purchase agreement ifhe or she wants the modifier to certificate the performance of the equipment to a specific performance envelope under 14 CFR § 25. if the GFE/SME is required." the assessment of compliance may be accomplished as follows: (1) With respect to the regulations. thus it c. the FAA will assess compliance using normal FAA procedures.1301(d) with respect to non-required. i.e. So.1353. a requirement in 14 CFR . demonstrating that the system does not interfere the airplane's equipment does not interfere with the that the equipment performs within its design envelope. verifying the equipment is functional and is not being interfered with) and assessing compliance 15 . A primary finding is that the equipment is functioning within its design However.l301(d) applies to e applies to non-required. Further. 9.D.1301(d) as associated such as 14 CFR § 25. is essential for safe operation. b.1301(d) has been doing nothing." is used as a guide by certification official s and their designees on how to apply RTCAlDO-1 78B for approving software used in airborne equipment. part of the compliance with 14 led) is showing the equipment doesn't interfere with its own function or other interfere with its function. to es equipment. but that does not mean we have established that the equipment is erly. or affects the aircraft's performance. In demonstrating that the SME complies with 14 CPR § XX.e. FAA Order 8110. non-essential.1301 (d).1301(d). or non-critical eq .49. the design envelope. To what depth does the FAA participate in finding compliance with 14 CFR § XX. The following is a discussion of the application of 14 CFR § 25. exercising the equipment (i. Previously. and communication protocols. operating normally. not the failure case.. operating systems.

In cases where this is not has defined and may consider alternate levels of approval (see 8).25. government agency. 10.901. FAA findings may be supported by assessments from the receiving U. b. as approve provisions for unapproved SME as part of the type certification approve installed SME ifit can be included as part of the type design with applicable airworthiness standards.ght.1355. Other information may also be required by the MAA to assess and approve installation of SME. are then approved by the MAA.672. FAA findings may be supported by assessments from the receiving military authority Of other U. and power requirements to support the follow-on installation.S. may assess compliance or appropriate. center of gravity). (2) With respect to the regulations.25. There are other specific rules that require redundancy. or validation of reliability at its discretion. le airworthiness standards must be shown to keep the end aircraft configuration airworthiness limitations for the derivative aircraft.S.25. As this practice requires the establishment of interface criteria for subsequent installation approval. power. the FAA may not be able to establish appropriate criteria to make this finding. Establishing who is taking responsibility to verify that the equipment functions properly should be documented in the program specific certification plan and made known to the FAA andMAA. The FAA can 16 . f. The reliability specified: than that necessary to show compli show compliance for the applicable certification. is not essential for safe operation. and 25. Any subsequent modifications. In general regulations that establish or govern the reliability of design include 14 CFR §§ 25. it is the responsibility of the applicant to establish appropriate interface information and limitations as part of the FAA-approved type design. er or other end user may be different reliability which is necessary to t wishes to demonstrate a finding. the FAA. The actual installation of the mission equipment is not part of the FAA-approved type design. the FAA may not be able to establish appropriate criteria to make this finding. if the GFE/SME is not required. including installation of the equipment for which the provisions were designed. and other requirements must he defined. The FAA-approved type design could include only provisions this option. assessment of compliance to the military. military or other Ll. government agency. This coordination is conducted between the applicant and the end user. that are related to reliability.671. that required by the regulations. the applicant must show that provisions are designed .1309 . but whose function is essential to the mission of the aircraft. such as 14 CFR §§ 2 3. The applicable regulation and means of compliance may affect the design's reliability. For embedded military or special mission functions.DRAFT AC 20-CDA (functions properly) for the full operational/environmental envelope.1431(a). What reliability must GFE/SME have? a. or does not affect the aircraft's performance.S.

It is not in the best interest of the government or the contractor! icate efforts or address conflicting requirements. uired equipments performance. Particular areas where military or special mission requirements may overlap certification standards include. When mission and certi compliance can be shown to appropriate regulations wh or tests are pet/armed. 12. The FAA does also not wish to change policy and guidance material for established means of compliance to these regulations deemed appropriate for civil aircraft operation. but not be limited to: a. what areas may need to be covered by the military airworthiness authority (MAA)? As a regulatory agency. Environmental quali standards or to mission requirements. 17 . These minimum safety standards or the iance criteria may not meet the military's requirements for the CDA to perform a soeci Any higher (or different) performance standards or reliability requirements sed by contract. content of instructions for continued airworthiness. Effects failures may have on the e.DRAFT AC 20-CDA provide technical assistance to the MAA in their understanding of the criteria and limits of the FAA provisions-only approval. c. Reliability. that shows the type design meets the regulation. the FAA can only mandate compliance to the minimum safety standards defined in the civil airworthiness regulations. For SME that will be FAA certified. very made by the applicant to write test plans and generate data that will demonstrate co certification requirements and satisfy overlapping customer requirements. but is not required by FAA regulations. and velope. Demonstration of function d.

and the inspecti necessary to comply with 14 CFR §§ 21. In these cases. 2L97(b).35(b).UJ.I.31(a). and deliver articles that continue to conform to the type design. questions tions "necessary" word "necessary" . FAA conformity inspection is required during the type certification process for two principle reasons: (1) Inspection to engineering requirements ensures that the prototype artic1e(s) used for certification evaluation and test match the type design presented for approval. it must be established that newly 18 . CONFORMITY INSPECTIONS AND PRODUCTION AC 20-CDA APPROVALS 1.303(c)(3)(ii) and (e)" or GFE. accept a military statement of conformity or military airworthiness approval tag in lieu of the FAA conformity inspection process.U'UH~ of conformity or compliance may become impractical for complex design. production. AIR-200. 21. Can SME be provided as an FAA-approved FAA production approval? part ifit has Dot been produced under an a.33(b). include 14 CFR §§ 21. In terms of the level of detail in the type 'n'''·~·<=. and the potential that the ons) may create a hazard to flight.125(b)(l) and (2). If FAA conformity inspection becomes an issue for certification of SME. may be necessary. 21. procure. AIR-l 00. and Manufacturing. 21.123(b).143(a). the FAA consult with the military.~ applicant (modifier) to submit the type design. b. Without existing oversight ofF may be raised about how complete conformity c. or qualification data is unavailable.21 (b). test rep show compliance with the applicable regulations. How is FAA conformity inspection achieved for SME during the type certification process? a. 2 21. As part ofthe FAA-approved type design. 'J". . 21. and through special agreement. consultation with the FAA Aircraft Engineering Division. to necessary to equipment's equipment (for specifically required by the regulations. 2. and (2) Manufacturing review to ensure the design data is sufficient to produce.83(g). SME may include COTS hardware.DRAFT CHAPTER 3. M specifically produced for use on civil aviation be available. 21. Production requirements for new SME provided as part of the modification for installation in MCDA are established in the same way as established for civil aircraft applications. . It is usually not only limited type design data may control procedures.<. 21. The detail for GFE/SME will generally depend on the that are applicable. 1.

19 . b. However. modification.DRAFT AC 20-CDA manufactured or procured components have been produced using reasonable manufacturing and quality control procedures. and that these findings are maintained from part to part. 5. The FAA may certify provisions for such equipment (mounting or connecting hardware) to the extent that the provisions can be shown to comply with the applicable regulations. ed parts from the military or other U.. the parts procured must be specified in the type design and must be properly identified if their physical or chemical properties be readily and accurately determined (reference 14 CFR §§ 21. approval. or a parts manufacturer approval (PMA) (reference 14 CFR § 21. the modifier must set up the necessary inspections and tests to meets the regulations. and . the applicant may not be able to obtain FAA production However. However.303). TC holder operating under a production certificate. This becomes the method of last resort if the criteria described above can not be met. he or s part under a production certificate or obtain a PMA (unless part is another FAA-approved production approval system. It remains the applicant's responsibili .303. 3. then that finding may alleviate the part for the type design relative to complying with 14 CFR other words. GFE is considered to be an owner/operator produced part and does not FAA production approval. ifthe SME is provided as part of the rna ided for sale to the military or operator as a spare or replacement part. Where parts included in the type design are not produced as specified under 14 CFR § 21.S. tained for replacement parts. or an STC hol under a production certificate or PMA. or replacement parts produced for sale must be approved under the TC. and configuration control is maintained. the design must have been accurately identified and the e been maintained from the initial tested part to the parts being installed. New production. if it can be shown with ernment furnished SME has been maintained and/or stored such . What about parts and components that are installed as military deviations (not included in the type design)? Installation ofSME or components not included in the type design (military deviations) is the responsibility ofthe modifier and the receiving MAA. However. The military or any agency that supplies the part as GFE is responsible for configuration s of the part. e parts become approved parts under the TC or STC type design and TC or STC production systems.s in accordance with agreements with their suppliers. the mission equipment to be by the military to the applicant out of existing government be a new part."'Hlf-'r~'"by the previous question. such as a TSOA).125(b)(1) & (2») manufacturer. government entities? r. e configuration control and maintain access to all necessary type design data. a Technical Standard Order Authorization (TSOA) or FAA Letter ofT80 Design Approval. What about SME supplied as ished equipment? In some cases. The type design must be available for the FAA to approve the design approval. a production certificate. may procure SME included on the F e design as unapproved parts.

If the military choos s . develop special conditions.. that cannot be certified. it should not be j' aircraft.. If the equipment or installati must be established. Can the FAA establish that uncertified SME (appearing on FAA Form 8130-31 as a military deviation) does not interfere with the airplane and/or flight crew performance for normal operation or a failure case? The FAA and/or FAA designees cannot establish this by making actual compliance findings. In accordance with the FAAIAnned Services Memorandum of the FAA evaluate military deviations from FAA-approved compatibility with the aircraft systems or flight crew request to the FAA under technical assistance services for such evaluations. MILITARY DEVIATIONS TO FAA-APPROVED AC 20-CDA TYPE DESIGN 1. as documented on Form 8130-31. Deviations from the FAAapproved type design.. identify these components for the MAA.' .DRAFT CHAPTER 4.. To approve design chan defined that will establish that the a design data package can only be app approval. a technical evaluation or assessment may be provided. If the civil airworthiness regulations are not appropriate. 2.' led as "safe carriage" is shown on the type design as disconnected and eretore. chapter 8). . and cabin safety requirements. it is the responsibility of the MAA to determine appropriate airworthiness criteria to meet their need. reasons why a fully compliant type design must be defined to support (1) There is no requirement. that equipment will be identified as non-required.. basis. "safe carriage" or "provisions only" insta11atio an be approved (see Order 8110.. Equipment could later be installed by FAA but the provisions are usually for installation of SME that will approved by the MAA. 20 .. any evaluation or assessment would apply to the specific serial number examined. control and applicability of the evaluation for subsequent aircraft would be of the MAA. or need for the FAA to identify and address exemptions. Unless it can be established under an FAA-approved process that the system or equipment installed on follow-on aircraft are the same as that evaluated.101. Why is it required that the FAA find compliance for an aircraft defined in type design) even though that FAA-approved configuration by military deviations and may never be produced? a. or make equivalent levels of safety findings for MCDA. "Provisions Only" installations identified at all. non-essential equipment that c e shown to comply with civil regulations. the compliance findings to substantiate operation of the equipment compliance findings may be required to establish that the ~uu. . however.

if compliance cannot be determined without a necessary inspection. and tested to receive certification? In accordance with 14 CFR § 21. the aircraft could conceivably operate as a civil aircraft with a standard airworthiness certificate. test. but will not be used in the delivered aircraft need to be manufactured. The applicant's certification plan should identify any ." This must be handled on a case-by-case basis. andlor similarity to an existing F . Hempe Manager. it may be necessary to manufacture a prototype installation that is in the aircraft. Aircraft Aircraft 21 .33. Do items identified in the FAA-approved type design. and rationale for suitable means of should be identified. David W. Ifmilitary deviations are addressed (removal of unapproved equipment and restoration of FAA-approved configuration). If compliance for the type design can be establis by inspection of drawings. components that they do not plan to manufacture. (3) Complete definition of FAA-approved type design. help establish and maintain configuration control for the specific aircraft. the applicant must "allow the Administrator to make any inspection and any flight and ground test necessary to determine compliance with the applicable requirements of the Federal Aviation Regulations. it may not be necessary to actually build this hardware for the prototype However. and military deviations thereto.DRAFT AC 20-CDA (2) The definition of an FAA-approved type design allows a derivative aircraft to be returned to an FAA-approved configuration at any time. supporting analyses. 3. conformed.

Title 14 Advisory Circular Aircraft: Certification Office Civil Aviation Regulations Commercial Derivative Aircraft Commercial Off-The-Shelf Equivalent Level of Safety Government Furnished Equipment Military Airworthiness Authority Military Commercial Military Off-TheSpecial Mission Supplemental Type Certifi Type Certificate Standard Order Authorization MAA MCDA MCO MOTS PMA SME STC TC 22 .DRAFT Appendix A Acronyms 14CFR AC ACO CAR CDA COTS ELOS GFE Code of Federal Regulations.

25..DRAFT Appendix B Discussion of required/essential versus non-requiredlnon-essential AC 20-CDA electrical equipment There are numerous regulations that have general applicability to equipment on the aircraft and there are regulations that apply to specific equipment or equipment whose function is required by "this subchapter" or "essential for safe operation. 1309(b) applies a..?tJi)~~YSl·~or qualification envelopes may be ~ FAA-approved.. Note. The scope of this assessment will generally be limited and/or delegated. However. Affect on required/essential [indirect] 25.. b.lQpc~. unless another regulation Ve. apply. and 25.Failure Case: a..1431(a) & (c)].r. . see AC 25-10.1301(b). ~Ji'. b.l431(a) apply. for electrical equ 25.J353(a) apply to normal operation and. Required/Essential Equipment (Non-GFE/SME) . therefore. 27.1 requires a specific design or quali that selected by the modifier and may operating limitations may be "". "must be normal operation . _"" . 1 to the failure case..... The discussions above are limited to 14 CFR part 25.1585(b)...l301(b).·nl11 (1) 14 CFR § 25. .. Required or Non Required/Essential or Non Essential Equipment GFE/SME .. 3. "r..1309(a)..l"'. The observations above should be the same for other parts (23.1431(a) & (c) showing the non-required equipment doesn't affect required equipment. 1431(a) and (c).. and 29) if the regulations are the same.. RTCA 00-168 and RTCA DO-160B are applied to non-required electrical equipment. 23 ._.. certain FAAlindustry qualification standards may be imposed on the non-required equipment.1431. 2. also note 14 CFR § ce 14 CFR §§ [indirect] 25. Sections in 14 CFR such as 25.1309(b) and 25.1 (1) For the showing that non-required equipment does not adversely effect required equipment or other electrical equipment essential to safe operation. Affect on § 25.. including equipment "not required" or "not es shown not to adversely affect equipment that is required and in the case of failure.Normal Operation: Affect on nonrequired/non-essential GFE/SME [no specific regulation other than 14 CFR § 25.1309(a) and 25. Examples of regulation that apply to electrical equipment "whose ioning is required by this subchapter" or "essential for safe operation" include 14 CFR § (a) and 25. and [direct] 25. " Examples of regulations that apply generally to all electrical equipment are 14 CFR §§ 25.. For example... 25 . Equipment. This is an indirect application of 14 CFR §§ 25. and 25.\/ 25. operation. For example.1431(a) critical environmental conditions must be considered when evaluating the failure case of non-required/non-essential equipment on required/essential equipment.130 1(d)].1309(b).1309(a). under 14 CFR § 25.1301..J353(a)..

1309. color. including acceptance inspections and tests that would likely be required to comply with 14 CFR §§ 21.1301(b): The accuracy and the that the clock is to operate can be specified modifier or by an agreement between the modifier and aircraft purchaser (i.789. For instance. (c). compliance effort for an item for certification.672.1 or . 14 CFR §§ 25. 25. The compliance assessment may be delegated or left to statements from the modifier or the clocks manufacturer. 5. 14 CFR § 25. 0.e. 14 CFR § 25. size.1309 are still valid from part to part.125(b)(1)&(2). 24 . but are not limited to the following: 1.1431(a): The clock's failure does not affect the flight crew or other required or essential equipment. The military or manufacturer the clock may provide adequate information.25. 25.1301 (d) at the time of certification review.853: of mass in the cabin.561(b).25. accurate to 1.13 installation relative to is at the discretion of the FAA.53: Conformity would be 3.25.671.125(b)(1)&(2) should be developed to tent necessary to establish that the compliance findings with respect to 14 CFR §§ 25 . Note: The above list of regulations is not all-inclusive. Requirements: As the clock is fully mechanical and not required.789 and 25. Therefore. and the certification assessment effort may be a spot check for functioning by the 6. 4. and the clock is purchased from an unapproved distributor. there is no FAA reliability requirement other than "functioning properly" under 14 CFR § 25. and qualification standards for this to the modifier.0 I seconds etc.853.1301 and 25.25.. The military or manufacturer's specifications for the clock may provide adequate information. the applicable regulations include. hand. 14 CFR §§ 21. or needs to meet a military operating conditions. the effect that the weight of a given installation would have to be assessed under the performance and structural regulations. 14 CFR § 21. etc).125(b)(1) and (2): The GFE/SME design will have to be defined in the type design. 14 CFR §§ 25. 25. Defining the qualification standards for reliability for this installation is up to the modifier and the certification assessment is at the discretion of the FAA. if necessary.903(b) 25.DRAFT Appendix C Example (14 CFR part 25) AC 20-CDA The installation of a manually wound 24 hour military clock in the passenger cabin.. Structural tests and bum tests See paragraph above. The inspections and tests for the type design to comply with 14 CFR §§ 21. 2.

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