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This section will facilitate the practical design of rigging by Civil Engineers of all experience levels and assist other Company personnel involved in the development, planning, and execution of lifts. The section defines commonly used rigging terms; describes rigging components and equipment; establishes rigging procedure and safety guidelines; outlines methods for finding loads in slings and designing padeyes; makes recommendations for test lifts and rigging component inspection. The type of equipment that usually requires lifting in a refinery, chemical plant, or producing location includes vertical columns, vertical and horizontal vessels, pumps, heat exchangers, compressors, electrical equipment, air coolers, small shopwelded tanks, and other miscellaneous items. For requirements for lifting services, see the Model Specification CIV-MS-4782, Lifting Services, included in Section 2000 of this manual. This engineering guideline and accompanying Model Specification do not include requirements for offshore lifting. Contents 810 811 812 813 814 820 821 822 830 831 832 833 834 835 Organizing a Lift General Procedure for Evaluating and Performing a Lift Data Required Rigging Responsibilities Lift Classification Transportation and Lifting Methods Transportation Method Lifting Method Safety Considerations Good Rigging Practices Working Around Power Lines and Near Electrical Equipment Working in Confined Spaces Voids And Holes Crane Capacity Considerations 800-11 800-4 Page 800-3
800 Cranes, Rigging, and Lifting
Civil and Structural Manual
840 841 842 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 860 861 862 863 864 865 870 880 890
Inspection and Testing Inspection Testing Rigging Diagrams, and Rigging Analysis and Design Rigging Diagrams Loads Factors of Safety Sling Forces Wire Rope Stretch Lifting Lugs (Padeyes) General Rigging Information Types Of Lifting Equipment Miscellaneous Rigging Equipment Wire Rope Slings Hitches For Wire Rope Glossary Model Specification References
800-39 800-42 800-43
Civil and Structural Manual
800 Cranes, Rigging, and Lifting
810 Organizing a Lift
811 General Procedure for Evaluating and Performing a Lift
The following steps need to be completed when performing a major or critical lift: • • • • • • • • • • • Collect all the required data—Section 812 Determine safety considerations—Section 830 Choose lifting method—Section 822 Select transportation method—Section 821 Prepare rigging diagram—Section 851 Assemble lifting equipment Verify crane capacity certificate Inspect rigging equipment and components—Section 841 Proof test slings and shackles where required Designate qualified signal man Make trial run
812 Data Required
All rigging operations require a complete investigation in order to select the method best suited for the lift. The items to be investigated depend on the complexity of the lift. The following list outlines the basic information required before selecting a method: • • • Dimensions, weight, center of gravity, and configuration of the piece or pieces to be lifted Inventory of available lifting equipment Method of attachment for handling. If attachment points or lifting lugs are provided on the piece, verify that they are intended for handling the entire piece and not a component. Restrictions by the equipment fabricator to prevent damage to the equipment during handling Sequence of proper assembly, when a piece consists of components Type, size, and number of slings Type of hitch Requirements for shipping skids or other handling devices and their availability Path of movement from the time equipment to be lifted is received to point of final setting Lateral and overhead clearances in areas of restricted movement, particularly from power lines
• • • • • • •
800 Cranes, Rigging, and Lifting
Civil and Structural Manual
• • • • • • •
Crane operating radius Load restrictions on floors, structures, and access roads Proper orientation of piece in final position Change of load distribution that may occur during upending Holes, rocks, and soft ground in area of lift Need for mats, rollers, jacks, come-alongs, etc. Rating of spreader bars, shackles, slings, and load lines
813 Rigging Responsibilities
The ultimate responsibility for all rigging lies with the design/construction engineer or job engineer. Individual responsibility depends on whether rigging work is done by the Company or a contractor. Contractors are responsible for planning and executing the rigging operation, selecting the proper equipment and preparing rigging diagrams, all subject to review by the Company.
814 Lift Classification
Lifts can be classified as light, medium, heavy or critical. Suggested classification of lifts are: Light lifts Medium Lifts Heavy Lifts Critical Lifts Less than 10 tons Greater than 10 tons but less than 50 tons Greater than 50 tons Lifts over operating equipment, lifts in hazardous locations, lifts in confined spaces, and lifts involving nonrigid objects like tank shells.
820 Transportation and Lifting Methods
This section discusses choosing the type of transportation and lifting equipment.
821 Transportation Method
Equipment is generally moved on a truck. Selecting the proper hauling unit depends on verifying the following: • • That the size and weight of the piece is within the dimensional and design capabilities of the truck That axle loadings do not exceed access road limitations
and provide checklists of several items to be evaluated. or hoists. and the required boom height. Fig. bridge crane.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. derricks. Rigging. boom clearance when stationary and when swinging. and Lifting • • That clearances along access routes are adequate That the load will remain level and not tip 822 Lifting Method The lift can be made by mobile crane. Figures 800-1 and 800-2 show lifting a vessel with two and with one crane respectively. gin poles. Check soil capacity. • • Chevron Corporation 800-5 April 1989 . Check for underground obstructions which may be damaged. the following should be done: • Prepare a layout study to determine the crane position that provides the most favorable operating radius. boom length. 800-1 Typical Checks for Uprighting a Vessel with Two Cranes Mobile Crane To choose a mobile crane for a lift.
Note that this chart is only for one type of crane.500 lb Center of Gravity: at centerlines. Rigging. 1. Crane charts are different for each type of crane. Data. The following example demonstrates the process for verifying the capability of a crane for a lift. Equipment Size: 6 ft W x 14 ft L x 5 ft H Weight: We = 23. 800-2 Typical Checks for Uprighting a Small Vessel with One Crane • • Examine the erection site to ensure that outriggers and mats can be accommodated. Figure 800-3. a manufacturer’s safe load chart for a hydraulic crane. April 1989 800-6 Chevron Corporation . Example: Verify that the contractor-proposed hydraulic crane “Pettibone Model 100-SC” (Figure 800-3) has the capability to lift and rotate 360° the piece of equipment described below.800 Cranes. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Fig. Select a crane from the manufacturer’s chart which has the capability to handle the load. Location (elevation) height: He = 50 ft above ground. relates a crane’s safe working load capability to the work radius and boom length.
Boom (Courtesy Pettibone Corporation) (1 of 2) Chevron Corporation 800-7 April 1989 .Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. 800-3 Working Ranges and Safe Load Charts for Pettibone Multikrane Model 100-SC with 36-ft. Rigging. and Lifting Fig. to 84-ft.
800 Cranes. Boom (Courtesy Pettibone Corporation) (2 of 2) April 1989 800-8 Chevron Corporation . 800-3 Working Ranges and Safe Load Charts for Pettibone Multikrane Model 100-SC with 36-ft. Rigging. to 84-ft. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Fig.
Single point pick. Total weight Wt = We + Ws + Wb + Wl Chevron Corporation 800-9 April 1989 .5 . lp = 4 ft-7 in. l b = 5 ft-6 in. Wb = 1000 lb. h = He + lb .500 + 100 + 1000 + 200 = 24.5 ft At the intersection of H = 73.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. WS = 100 lb Crane hook height above ground at start of lift.583)2 + (64. hcr = 9 ft-3 in.5 ft and R = 35 ft read the boom angle. R= 35 ft 4. 3.800 lb Height of boom tip above center of rotation at end of lift.9. Load handling devices Weight.25 + 9. use crane working ranges chart with 36 ft . Wl = 200 lb = 23. and Lifting 2.84 ft boom height extended. Rigging. H = h + hcr = 64. which is approximately equal to 58° from the horizontal. Height of center of rotation of crane boom above ground. Work radius. hst = 18 ft. L = [(R + lp)2 + h2)]1/2 = [(35 + 4.46 ft Therefore. Crane Hook block weight.25 ft Boom length. Slings Weight.hcr+ hst = 50 + 5. Distance centerline turntable to centerline boom pivot pin.25 + 18 = 64. Vertical length of block & lines.25 = 73.25)2]1/2 = 75.
Crane on rubber and 360° rotation Capacity = 2800 lb < 24. A slight error in boom angle. Crane with outriggers and 360° rotation With R = 35 ft and boom length = 76 ft Capacity = 25. be sure that there is space for a traveling gantry before choosing a derrick as part of a lift. Rigging. lift radius or load calculation would put this lift in jeopardy. Of equal importance are pole foundations and guy lines. outriggers are needed.G. Therefore. In addition. When the angle at which the rope leaves or enters the drum produces a vertical or horizontal force on the hoist. Use load chart with 36 ft . Conclusion: Proposed crane is marginal for the intended lift. anchorage must be provided to resist these forces.800 Cranes. Gin Poles The primary gin pole features to consider when electing to use them as the lifting method are lift capacity and height of poles.800 lb OK. Bridge Cranes Bridge cranes should be considered when (a) the weight of the lift is within the crane capacity and (b) the lift will take place entirely within the crane’s area of coverage.84 ft boom 1.100 lb > 24. April 1989 800-10 Chevron Corporation . 2. ensure that vertical and horizontal clearances are sufficient. For a more detailed discussion of gin poles see Section 861.800 lb N. Derricks Select a derrick for a lift when large load capacity at long radius is needed. If some mobility is required. Hoists Hoists are part of most lifting equipment. Suggest look at bigger crane or reducing lift radius for this crane. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Crane Capacity. The most important factors to consider are: • • The hoist must have adequate capacity to spool the total length of rope required for the lift.
distribute the load evenly on all legs of a sling. rope falls. and in areas where holes and voids are present. 831 Good Rigging Practices The following safe design practices apply to all types of rigging and are intended for design engineers as well as field rigging personnel. and Lifting 830 Safety Considerations Introduction This section discusses general safe rigging practices. Design guy lines for gin poles with a minimum slope of one horizontal to one vertical unless the manufacturer specifies shallower slopes. Stay out of the bight of a line and do not step over or stand near a line under strain. etc. Wire rope should not be loaded to more than 50% of its breaking strength. These items can and significantly to the nominal weight. The Safety in Design Manual. because the approximate elastic limit of conventional rope is 55% of the breaking strength. In a four-sling arrangement. If possible. if necessary. Test lift requirements are also discussed. use mats to spread the load. two slings may carry the entire load. The importance of leveling the crane cannot be overemphasized. It lists inspection requirements for rigging components and crane capacity restrictions. When fastening chain hoists. Rigging. • • • • • • • • • • • Chevron Corporation 800-11 April 1989 . It outlines precautions to use when working around power lines. sludge. Do not touch a running wire rope. Consider whether vessels will contain fluid. Always specify the use of outriggers on truck and hydraulic cranes. Never walk or stand under suspended loads. Call for prooftesting of slings prior to their use.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. make certain that the structure is strong enough to support the load. in confined spaces. Do not let your hand or fingers get near blocks and sheaves. or snatch blocks to permanent structures. Wire rope slings should be proof-tested to 40% of the breaking strength of the rope. has more information on rigging safety. keep in mind that the load is not always divided equally. The crane capacities listed in manufacturers’ load charts are based on the machine being level. or whether equipment will contain oil or cooling water. When using multiple leg slings. Ascertain the load carrying capacity of the soil and. • Determine the weight of the load before designing the equipment to handle it. Section 6.
1. 832 Working Around Power Lines and Near Electrical Equipment The following practices shall be used when rigging near electrical equipment.000 Minimum Required Clearance (feet) 10 11 12 13 15 19 22 25 32 42 A safety watch monitoring these clearances should be located away from the lift. Do not rely on boom angle indicators. No rigging should be done over energized high voltage lines. only the proper fitted pin should be used.300 301 . Always refer to the manufacturer’s specification chart for the safe working loads of shackles.800 Cranes. No part of the rigging operation. and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kV. 800-4 Required Clearances from Overhead High-Voltage Lines Nominal Voltage. Fig.100 101 . Never replace the shackle pin with a bolt. For lifts with traveling cranes. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual • • • • • Always use the shortest boom possible. the lifting equipment clearance shall be a minimum of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kV. cables. However.500 501 . 10 feet for voltages over 50 kV. For large lifts air tuggers or other mechanical tag lines should be considered. High voltage lines are lines rated 220V or greater. even 110V is dangerous and caution should be used. shall come closer to high voltage lines than specified in Figure 800-4. kV (Phase to Phase) 0 . It is much easier to maintain control of the lift than to regain control when it is swinging or spinning.125 126 .700 701 . measure the actual radius.75 76 .200 201 .400 401 . • In transit with no load and the boom lowered. Rigging. including the boom. and the load.50 51 . Always use a tag line even on small lifts. but less than 346 kV. April 1989 800-12 Chevron Corporation .
Rigging. they lose their effectiveness. such as bleeder valves and brackets. rocks. Sudden subsidence of the ground can induce impact forces in excess of design impact loads. Outriggers must rest on level surfaces which will support the load placed on them. the required length of boom. and soft ground can affect the safe operation of the crane. the following issues must be considered: • Crane ratings are based on machine standing level on a firm uniformly supporting surface. Chevron Corporation 800-13 April 1989 . Establish limits of allowable motion for the boom in both the vertical and horizonal directions for each crane location in order not to damage existing facilities. an electrical charge can be induced in the equipment being handled. Mechanically protect small protrusions on operating equipment. and attach ground jumper cables to the equipment being handled. Prior to work. which could be damaged during the lift. such as the radius. take the following special precautions to assure a safe lift: • • • Conduct a detailed investigation to identify all possible interferences in the vicinity of the work including overhead. Determine the feasibility of making a crane lift by establishing the operating area requirements. holes. • • 833 Working in Confined Spaces When lifting in tight quarters. thus making continued lift operations unsafe. 835 Crane Capacity Considerations For a safe lift. Devise and provide means to protect existing operating facilities. provide an electrical ground to the upper rotating structure supporting the crane boom. and the load to be lifted. and Lifting • The only exception to the above minimum clearances is where the high-voltage lines have been de-energized and visibly grounded or where insulating barriers have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines. including location of outriggers.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. Consider shutting down and depressurizing operating equipment which could be jeopardized by the lift. Plot in detail the location of the crane and/or other equipment with respect to the work. If outrigger floats are allowed to settle into the ground. Place guy lines so as to be free of any possible contact with electrical wires. Near transmitter towers. at grade or underground. • • • 834 Voids And Holes Voids under pavements.
jibs. damaged chords. and general condition. spreader bars. Check with the crane manufacturer before traveling with a load. for wear in rope grooves. There is no standard procedure for determining the rating of cranes traveling with suspended loads.800 Cranes. like blocks. April 1989 800-14 Chevron Corporation . Their combined weight must be subtracted from the load chart capacity when determining the maximum allowable load to be lifted. Load block: visually check condition of bearings. Before every critical lift. particularly at pendant fittings. test for non-visible defects by magnetic particle or radiography. The crane rated loads do not account for the weight of rigging accessories. Crane hook: visually check for deformation. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual • • Crane rating charts apply up to a stated maximum wind speed. Inspect crane for overall good condition. all rigging components should be inspected by a qualified crane inspector to ensure that they do not constitute a hazard. • • 840 Inspection and Testing 841 Inspection Prior to use. test for non-visible defects by magnetic particle or radiography. Crane rating charts for operation without outriggers should not be used to determine traveling crane rating unless the capacity chart so states. material handling equipment. The maximum safe working load of cranes is determined from static loads. slings. hooks. damaged joint connections. Boom: check for bent lacing. The capacity charts do not take into account impact loads due to the dynamic motions of the load or crane. Cranes • • • • • Verify capacity certificate. Avoid operating when the wind speed exceeds the crane design wind velocity. Do not use: – – – • Hooks with cracks Hooks with throat openings more than 15% of normal Hooks with more than 10° twist from plane of unbent hook • Boom lines: check for broken wires. Load line: check for broken wires and general condition. and other elements of lifting tackle. and the operating condition of safety latch. boom joint sheave bearings and for wear in rope grooves. Before every critical lift. Rigging.
Check general condition visually and test by magnetic particle for nonvisible defects. worn. Visually inspect the rope for signs of deterioration to determine if further use of the rope would be unsafe. 842 Testing For light and medium. cracked. Lifting Lugs • • Check load capacity. both critical and non-critical lifts.) Test to a minimum of two times the lifted load or design load. or improperly applied end connections. The crane may have been overstressed since certification. the following tests should be performed before a lift: • Lifting gear assembly (slings. Review history of crane to find out if it has been used for major lifts since it was last certified. Chevron Corporation 800-15 April 1989 . shackles. and Lifting • • • Main clutches and brakes: check operation of air or hydraulic systems. They should be able to prevent load from swinging in normal operation. bent. load blocks. Swing lock and brakes: check operation and general condition. Check general condition visually and test by magnetic particle. cutting. Rigging.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. crushing. radiography. Look for the following: • • • • • • Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter A number of broken outside wires and the degree of concentration of such broken wires Worn outside wires Corroded or broken wires at end connections Corroded. lifting personnel will have to rely on a careful inspection of the rigging components outlined in Section 841. When it is impractical to test the rigging assembly to twice the lifted load (i. Severe kinking. Wire Rope Slings Safety of used wire rope slings depends on the remaining strength. or ultrasonic gage for nonvisible defects. heavy lifts).. or unstranding.e. etc. The decision to replace the sling should be made by experienced personnel only. They should be able to hold 110% of line pull with full drums. spreader bars. Shackles • • Check load rating.
gin poles. dimensions and center of gravity of piece to be lifted A plot of the path of travel including all vertical and horizontal clearances from such items as adjacent equipment. 851 Rigging Diagrams Preparation of Rigging Diagrams A rigging diagram is essential for the successful transportation. and other encumbrances or hazards April 1989 800-16 Chevron Corporation .) Crane boom length. and placing of equipment in final position. Small non-critical lifts up to 50 tons can be made without rigging diagrams provided the lift is below 70% of the crane’s capacity as determined from the manufacturer’s safe load chart. Where possible. Rotate the spreader bar to make sure that it clears the crane boom. power lines. etc. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual • • • • • • Used slings: Test to two times their normal rating. Before the rigging diagram is prepared.800 Cranes. radius. the rigging operation is first analyzed and the rigging method selected (see Section 820). and location of outriggers if required Weight. and the steps to be followed in their design are outlined. It gives the loads and the factors of safety that should be used in the design of rigging components. pick up the load and hold it low to test the crane’s ability to hold the load. 850 Rigging Diagrams. Load test to 110 percent of the rated load to confirm the adequacy of repairs or alterations. Methods are presented for finding forces in unequal length slings and in slings for off-center lifts. Repaired or altered cranes. Rigging. A complete rigging diagram must show the entire rigging process and should show the following minimum information when it applies: • • • • Type and capacity of lifting equipment (crane. and Rigging Analysis and Design Introduction This section discusses how to prepare and evaluate rigging diagrams and lists the information that a complete diagram should contain. Common types of lifting lugs are shown. Position the crane with all the rigging gear attached and make a trial run to verify clearances and operating radii. lifting. Hooks for which no manufacturer’s load recommendations are available: Test to twice the load.
during.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. The evaluation process should address the following: • Rigging Equipment Confirm that the type of rigging equipment selected has the capability to lift the load. Description. are correct. etc. For additional precautions and restrictions regarding the use of cranes. and that all clearance diagrams are accurate. power lines. especially for critical lifts or for lifts in operating plants. jacks. and after the lift Location of underground lines (utility. etc. electrical duct banks or cables. For critical lifts. rollers. verify that the selected crane has the overthe-side and over-the-rear capacity to lift the piece. hand winches. turning radius. see Section 811.. Maximum allowable wind velocity for the lift. trailer attachment mechanism. must be evaluated thoroughly to make certain that it incorporates all necessary information for a safe and successful lift. particularly one prepared by a Contractor. and location of miscellaneous equipment such as dollies. capacity. Excessive winds can cause the load to drift and strike the boom. The evaluation process must verify that calculations and sizing of critical items such as cranes. such as fire hydrants. and capacities of lifting lugs. capacity. other equipment. slings. etc. size. and Lifting • • Location. This information is particularly important in narrow. and the location of underground lines. Chevron Corporation 800-17 April 1989 .) and foundations Position of survey equipment. limited width plant access roads and for lifts in confined areas. For two-crane lifts both cranes should be as close in capacity and drum speed as possible. surveying is important to ensure that loads remain within vertical and horizontal limits and stable during the lifting operation. that the proper factors of safety have been used. drains. including pipelines. etc. and other rigging accessories as well as the method of attachment Type of tow tractor. shackles. size. • • • • • • Evaluation of Rigging Diagrams A rigging diagram. slings. signs. guy wires. all obstacles at grade. • Equipment and Roadway Clearance Check the rigging diagram to ensure that the path of travel shows all overhead obstructions. including size. etc. Location of mats under equipment if required Location and orientation of equipment before.. Rigging. or obstructions near by. except when one crane is used as a trailing crane. walkways. If a crane has been selected.
Quick take-up on a hoist or crane with slack or fouling in the connecting slings or ropes produces large impact forces that may be several April 1989 800-18 Chevron Corporation .800 Cranes. • Shackles. hooks. and spreader bars are adequate for the intended lift. the sling load may be larger than its portion of the lifted load. shackles. and Spreader Bars The rigging diagram should also be checked to assure that the size and capacities of shackles. If the sling is used in a choked position. 852 Loads Rigging components should be designed for the following loads and forces when they exist: • Dead Load Dead load includes the weight of the slings. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual • Soil Loads Recently excavated and backfilled areas or areas with weak soils have limited bearing capacity. The rigging diagram should show the type and location of lifting lugs. Rigging. hooks. dollies. jibs. The weight of the crane hooks. and trailers are adequately supported and that the diagram includes cribbing or mats under the crane and outriggers where required. blocks. the sling capacity must be derated. and other special rigging devices which may be used. See Section 856 for more details. Examine the rigging diagram to verify that cranes. spreader bars. clevises. • Impact Load Rapid acceleration or deceleration of the lifted load and the dead load induce impact forces which must be considered in the design of rigging components. The effect of impact forces on the piece of equipment being lifted must also be evaluated. Hooks. • Slings Depending on the angle of the sling. Lifting lug calculations accompanying the rigging diagram should be checked thoroughly. and other crane accessories are also included. • Lifting Lugs Lifting lugs are often necessary for lifts. Loads and ratings of slings are discussed in detail in Section 852. • Wind Loads The rigging diagram should also be checked for the maximum allowable wind velocity. • Live or Lifted Load Live load is the load of the piece being lifted. The rigging diagram should specify the minimum safe working load for the slings.
the minimum factor of safety should be 7. 100% 25% 853 Factors of Safety A factor of safety is applied to all rigging gear to insure against failure from loads whose magnitude cannot be calculated exactly or from indeterminate material properties. the following factors of safety should be used in the absence of larger values required by local regulations or equipment manufacturers. the live and dead load should be increased by the following percentages: Lifting lugs or other attachments Slings • Wind Load The maximum allowable wind velocity is based on the ability of the boom to resist lateral loads and on the stability of the lift. • Slings The minimum factor of safety for slings. however. should be 5. • Manila Rope The minimum factor of safety for new grade No. The factor of safety (F. the slack must be taken up completely before lifting the load. = ---------------------------------------------------------------Working Strength From experience and common engineering practice. Manila rope is recommended only for very small lifts. As an example. The amount of impact depends on the rate of lift from the at-rest position. • Wire Rope The minimum factor of safety of individual wire rope used for general hoisting purposes should be 5.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. a wire rope sling with an end connection efficiency of 80% would require a wire rope with 25% greater working Chevron Corporation 800-19 April 1989 .S.S. 1 rope should be 5. including end connection or bending efficiencies. no rigging should be done when the steady wind velocity exceeds 25 mph. and Lifting times the lifted load.) is defined as follows: Breaking or Yield Strength F. For used rope (in service more than 6 months) the minimum factor of safety should be 10. For the design of lifting lugs or other attachments and for slings. Where the rope is wound around drums or sheaves smaller than the recommended minimum D/d ratio. In the absence of definitive information. Rigging. Crane manufacturers can supply data regarding the lateral load capacity of crane booms. To avoid large impact forces.
Rigging.” When two equal length slings are used and the load is lifted without regard to the position of the center of gravity. a better solution would be to use a spreader beam which equalizes the load in each pair of slings and prevents diagonal tension.. The center of gravity of the lift is always located directly underneath the lifting hook. For rated capacity of slings refer to the Safety in Designs manual. two diagonally opposite slings may end up taking all the load. The load analysis of three or four unequal length slings should be carried out by experienced civil engineers only. such as a turbine rotor. Unequal Sling Lengths One of the most frequently encountered loading conditions is where unequal sling lengths are used to suspend a load in a level position. See Figure 800-6. Three and four unequal length slings are sometimes used in equipment rigging. has to be lifted “on an even keel. length and angle of sling.800 Cranes.8-100=25). Instead of oversizing the slings to carry one-half the lifted load. the use of a correct free body diagram is very important. April 1989 800-20 Chevron Corporation . • Shackles and Hooks The minimum factor of safety should be 5. In order to avoid tilted loads. otherwise the hook capacity should be derated. i.e. the hook must be centered over the load to allow for full lifting capacity. The sling load analysis is more difficult and in the case of four slings. unless the sling lengths are precisely calculated with respect to the center of gravity of the load and the pick point of the crane hook. In the case of hooks. the load will tilt until the center of gravity is directly below the crane hook. the size and length of slings should be designed so that the load is lifted level. Off-Center Lifts Many times a load. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual strength than a wire rope in a sling with an end connection 100% efficient (100/0. the following procedure should be followed: • • • • Determine the weight of the load Choose the desired hitch Calculate the force in the sling based on the geometrical arrangement of the slings Select a sling of suitable working strength For a sling load analysis. 854 Sling Forces The load in a sling depends not only on the total load but also on the geometry of the lift. To properly size a sling. The load analysis for two unequal length slings is simple and straightforward as Figure 800-5 shows. The amount of derating should be calculated by experienced personnel only. A load in a tilted position could be a hazard to personnel and or equipment.
800-5 Example 1—Two Unequal Length Slings Chevron Corporation 800-21 April 1989 . and Lifting Fig. Rigging.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes.
Rigging. 800-6 Example 2—Lifting with Two Equal Length Slings without Regard to Center of Gravity April 1989 800-22 Chevron Corporation . and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Fig.800 Cranes.
000 to 15. Rigging. psi (See Figure 800-7) A = metallic cross-sectional area of rope. Without a catalog the cross-sectional area of most six-strand wire rope can be estimated as follows: A = 0.000 12.000. This is often the case in critical lifts. elongates under load.000 psi.000 to 13. lb E = modulus of elasticity.000.000.000 14.000.000 to 14. in2 The cross-sectional area can be found in wire rope catalogs.000 12. The second factor is elastic elongation of the wire rope under load.000 10.000.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes.000 8.000.000.000 11.000.000 to 13.000. the rope returns to its normal length when the load is removed.000. The modulus of elasticity of prestretched wire rope is approximately 20.000.000 to 12. It is caused by the adjustment of the wires and compression of the core and it is permanent. and Lifting 855 Wire Rope Stretch Wire rope. the rope should be prestretched. in P = applied load. in.000. The first factor is the way the rope is constructed and starts to develop as soon as a load is applied.000 13.000.000 to 9. As seen in Figure 800-7. 800-7 Approximate Modulus of Elasticity of Nonprestretched Wire Rope Modulus of Elasticity (lb/in2) 12. The elastic stretch can be calculated by using the following formula: ∆L = PL/AE where: L = rope length. Where precise rope length is required and adjustment for length is limited.000. The modulus of elasticity will increase during the service life of the rope or with an increase of the applied load.000.000 to 11. Fig. Provided the load is kept below the elastic limit.000 Wire Rope Construction 6 x 7 with FC 6 x 7 with IWRC 6 x 19 Class with FC 6 x 19 Class with IWRC 6 x 37 Class with FC 6 x 37 Class with IWRC 8 x 19 Class with FC 6 x 25 Style BFS 6 x 30 Style GFS Chevron Corporation 800-23 April 1989 .000. in2 where d = nominal rope diameter.000.000 to 13. in ∆L = elastic elongation of rope. Total wire rope elongation (rope stretch) is caused by two factors.4d2.000 to 13. like all other elastic members. the modulus of elasticity varies with different rope construction.000.000.000 12.
heaters. however.125 2 × 20 . the tailing load may be decreased. This lug is usually installed at the tangent line or transition point of a column or vessel. Calculate the elastic stretch of 200 feet of prestretched 1 1/8 inch nominal diameter 6x19 IWRC wire rope loaded to 25. clips. ∆L = PL ⁄ AE 25 . production skid mounted units. April 1989 800-24 Chevron Corporation . For example. Lifts that usually need lifting lugs include columns. support clips. A trunnion lug is shown in Figure 800-8. 856 Lifting Lugs (Padeyes) General Lifting lugs.000 ) = 5. or with choker or basket hitches. air coolers. are welded to the piece being lifted to facilitate lifting and erection. All of these lifting lugs require a complete structural analysis to ensure a sound design. the location and number of lifting lugs may be dictated by the stresses imposed on the vessel shell during the lifting operation. ear lugs. An ear lug is shown in Figure 800-9. Some considerations when locating lifting lugs are: • • • By placing the lugs closer to the center of gravity of columns.000 × 200 × 12 = -------------------------------------------------------------------( 0.000 lb. Trunnion lugs and ear lugs are attached to the vessel by welding.4 × 1. and must therefore be installed by the vessel fabricator because welds on vessel shells frequently require stress relieving. Rigging. For thin wall vessels. This lug is used on heavier vessels. need lifting lugs. stacks. the path the slings make during upending must be clear of nozzles. Not all lifts. or other obstacles. The location and orientation of the lifting lugs depends on the rigging method and type of equipment. platforms. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Example. vessels.000 .93 in. ear lugs present fewer interference problems between slings and nozzles. and flange lugs. such as trunnions.800 Cranes. Trunnion lugs and earlugs are recommended over flange lugs for new vessels. Types of Lifting Lugs The types of lifting lugs most often used for lifting vessels are trunnion lugs. etc. In contrast to trunnion lugs. sometimes called padeyes. small pumps and electrical equipment on skids can be lifted with hooks. For lugs on the side of vertical vessels. and platforms.
Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. and Lifting Fig. Rigging. 800-8 Trunnion Lifting Lug Chevron Corporation 800-25 April 1989 .
800 Cranes. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Fig. 800-9 Ear Lifting Lug April 1989 800-26 Chevron Corporation . Rigging.
9 Fy Bending: Fb = 0. The centroid of the piece should be computed exactly so that the hook can be located directly over it. the number and geometry of the slings. Flange lugs should only be used 1) when a complete structural analysis shows that the nozzle is strong enough to take the lifting load. This means that each lug is designed to lift the static weight of the entire piece.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. if not given. If the actual weight of the piece is not known. Welding electrode type and nominal strength Sketch the padeye and show its location relative to the piece being lifted. 1. 6 Fy Chevron Corporation 800-27 April 1989 . Following is a suggested step-by-step procedure for the design of padeyes. If this is not done. The design of padeyes should follow a systematic ordered approach and should be based on the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). Rigging. and 2) when tailing loads do not present any special problem. two diagonally opposite slings may end up taking the entire load. List allowable stresses – – – – Tension: Ft = 0. List design data – – – – 3. In a lift with three or four unequal length slings in a single point pick. the weight and center of gravity of the piece must be known as well as the rigging arrangement.. Governing code AISC Sling load Padeye material properties (yield strength Fy and tensile strength Fu). Both the sling load and direction affect the stress distribution in the padeye. the lug should be designed to carry one-half the lift load with an impact factor.45 Fy Shear: Fv = 0.40 Fy Bearing: Fp = 0. In that case. as mentioned above. and Lifting For existing vessels or new vessels without trunnion or ear lugs. Figure 800-10 shows flange lugs with various weld attachments and lists several items to be evaluated.e. Calculate sling load and determine sling orientation. i. then the lifting lugs will not be oriented exactly towards the center of gravity and it will be subjected to out-of-plane bending stresses. 2. the lug can be designed for the working capacity of the attached sling. flange lugs can be used on vertical vessels with top nozzles. Lifting Lug Design Designing or checking lifting lugs should be by experienced civil engineers in conjunction with experienced vessel designers. I=100%. To properly design a lifting lug. 4. Manual of Steel Construction.
Rigging.800 Cranes. 800-10 Flange Lifting Lug (1 of 2) April 1989 800-28 Chevron Corporation . and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Fig.
800-10 Flange Lifting Lug (2 of 2) Chevron Corporation 800-29 April 1989 .Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. and Lifting Fig. Rigging.
The size of the hole should be as follows: Shackle pin diameter 1 inch and less greater than 2 inch Hole size pin diameter + 1/8 inch pin diameter + 1/4 inch greater than 1 inch but less than 2 inch pin diameter + 3/16 inch 7. 10.5. Select padeye hole size to accommodate shackle pin diameter.axis fv = shear stress in xy . Detail padeye April 1989 800-30 Chevron Corporation . Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings. Calculate the padeye plate thickness and cheek plate thickness if required or desired to minimize padeye plate size.3 of AISC “Specification for the Design. Check adequacy of equipment to which padeye is attached to verify that it is capable of supporting the load from the padeye within the allowable stresses.(fbx)(fby) + f 2by + 3fv]1/2 where fcr = critical stress ≤ Fy fbx = bending stress about X . Calculate weld size – – Cheek plate to main padeye plate Padeye to vessel or other piece 8. Select shackle size based on sling load. Summarize padeye design parameters 11. The vessel fabricator and/or the engineering design group should be consulted first.axis fby = bending stress about Y . – – – – Shackle size and capacity Pin diameter and outside of eye diameter Inside length Inside width at pin and at bow 6. 9. using factor of safety of 5 and list controlling dimensions and tolerances.” 1978 Combined stresses: fcr = [f 2bx .plane 5. based on allowable stresses in step 4 above. Rigging. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual – – Welds: allowable stresses in accordance with Table 1.800 Cranes.
Rigging. The poles are guyed from the top and pinned at the base. The improvements which have taken place in cranes in recent years have greatly increased their lifting capacity. Small truck cranes. capacity Chevron Corporation 800-31 April 1989 . thus resulting in lower bearing pressures than truck cranes of equal capacity. and the different kinds of hitches used in rigging. Unlike cranes. Mobile Cranes Cranes are the most useful equipment in heavy rigging. Crawler cranes are suitable for heavy lifts. As a result. can travel on public streets and highways with limited restrictions. Depending on size. setup. Gin poles are usually used in pairs. They are suitable for medium and heavy lifts. Crane mobility makes for a minimum amount of time for move-in. travel over public streets and highways is severely restricted and they are normally disassembled for transit. it takes longer to prepare them for rigging. They are suitable for light lifts and medium lifts at short radii.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. the crawler width can exceed 20 feet. however. heavy columns and vessels in remote locations where large capacity cranes are not available or confined spaces limit their use. gin poles have larger capacities (up to 1200 tons) and lower relative cost. • Hydraulic cranes are readily available. 861 Types Of Lifting Equipment Different types of lifting equipment are available to fill any rigging need. Large capacity truck cranes on the other hand are much wider than small ones (up to 16. The load is raised or lowered by ropes reeved through sheaves or blocks at the top of the poles. and Lifting 860 General Rigging Information Introduction This section lists types of lifting equipment and miscellaneous rigging equipment. like hydraulic cranes. A rigging operation analysis will indicate what equipment is best suited for a particular job. Crawler-mounted cranes can have capacities exceeding 600 tons. but because the boom requires assembly. slings.5 feet) and require travel permits before they can move over public streets and highways. The large crawler dimensions distribute the load over a larger area. Truck-mounted cranes have maximum working capacities to 300 tons and have longer booms. and can be made ready for rigging fast because the boom requires no assembly. though some models can exceed 125 tons. • • Gin Poles Gin poles are used primarily for lifting tall. and their long boom allows access to restricted areas. Compared to cranes. The majority of hydraulic cranes have maximum working capacities that range from 5 tons to 40 tons. It discusses construction and strength of wire rope. can usually travel on most public streets and highways with few restrictions. and move-out.
as they are often referred to. Chain hoists range in size from a few pounds to 10 tons. Derricks Derricks have relatively large capacities at long radii. Turnbuckles Turnbuckles are positive tension fittings with limited capability for adjustment. The guy lines can be ASTM A586 Zinc-Coated Steel Structural Strand or ASTM A603 Zinc-Coated Steel Structural Wire Rope. hook or jaw. They can be mounted either on fixed foundations only a few feet above the ground or on top of high specialized gantries. Some of the most common is listed below: Chain Hoists Chain hoists or come-alongs. Their working load capacity ranges from 500 pounds to 75. Some mobility can be provided by traveling gantries. provide a portable tool for applying tension. April 1989 800-32 Chevron Corporation .800 Cranes. 862 Miscellaneous Rigging Equipment A rigging operation often requires the use of miscellaneous rigging equipment. The load in the guy wires must be calculated from the geometry of the lift. Hoists Hoists are used in heavy lifting as part of the rigging system and are generally not subjected to severe use. They can be furnished with end connection combinations of eye. Bridge Cranes Bridge cranes are often used in lifting operations when the load is to be placed within a building or space already served by the crane.000 pounds. The line pull of a hoist decreases as the amount of load line on the drum increases. The bottoms of gin poles should rest on sound foundation and must be anchored securely to prevent kicking out under the load. The top of gin poles should be guided by at least four guy lines to maintain them in a stationary position and to prevent rotation. A complete analysis should consider wind and temperature loads too. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual charts for gin poles are given for the pole as a compression member only. Conventional link chain is preferred in general rigging because it is less susceptible to wear than roller chain. Rigging. Design of the tackle arrangement for specific lifts is generally done on a trial basis and it starts with selection of a hoist of adequate capacity. There are two types of chain hoists available: roller chain and conventional link chain. They are not as flexible as mobile cranes because they cannot be moved easily. A check should be made to insure adequate line pull and rope capacity for the entire lift.
it is very important that the base of the jack be on a solid surface. When raising a load with jacks. Each strand is made up by a number of small wires laid helically around a center wire in one or more layers. Rigging. The ground surface on which mats are placed must be graded to provide uniform level bearing. Therefore. pin size. Hooks are also used as sling fittings for moderate material lifts and where the loads are connected and disconnected often. both hydraulic and mechanical. Rollers Rollers are used to move loads horizontally. Only hooks with safety latches should be used. and an adequate number of rollers should be used to support the load without damaging the load or the rollers. Jack capacities range from a few pounds to 500 tons. The Chevron Corporation 800-33 April 1989 . Hydraulic jacks may be used to determine the weight of a piece. The safe working load for shackles of the same size varies and it depends on shackle type and manufacturer. The runway should be of sufficient area to distribute the load. Mats are usually made of 6-to-12 inch thick timber. Manufactured roller assemblies require a smooth concrete or steel surface on which to operate. shackles must be specified by safe working load. boom lines. They range in capacity from 2 tons to 200 tons. Shackles And Hooks Shackles are the most frequently used fitting for joining slings to rigging attachments or lifting lugs. They are sometimes made of steel members when greater rigidity is needed. The rotation of the wires and the rotation of the strands in a wire rope is referred to as rope lay. 863 Wire Rope General Wire rope is widely used in slings. etc. and Lifting Jacks Jacks. Wire rope is formed by laying strands of wire around a rope core. and manufactured flat top roller assemblies. and manufacturer’s model number. If the piece to be raised is of appreciable height. Mats Mats provide a means for increasing the bearing area under cranes and outriggers when soil bearing capacity is limited. hoists. consideration should be given to using hydraulic jacks designed for use with a power pump. There are three general types of rollers: wood rollers.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. The total weight being supported can be computed with the aid of a calibrated pressure gage if the effective ram area of each jack and the unit pressure on each jack are known. steel pipe rollers. size. are useful in raising and supporting loads. Moving a load on wood or pipe rollers requires a runway consisting of heavy timbers or beams capped with wood planks or steel plate. Rotation is either to the right (clockwise) or to the left (counterclockwise).
P. a 6x19 wire rope would normally have six strands and each strand would contain 19 wires. The ratio of sheave diameter D to rope diameter d influences rope efficiency.E. Wire rope with IWRC or WSC has slightly greater capacity (approximately 6%) than rope with FC.800 Cranes.e. Wire rope is usually designated by first the number of strands and then the number of wires in each strand. 3.S. 2. The minimum recommended sheave diameter is 18 times wire rope diameter. the smaller the ratio of sheave diameter to nominal rope diameter the smaller the efficiency.P. For example a 6x19 wire rope can have 16 to 26 wires per strand. Therefore. the number of wires per strand can vary.S.) Extra Improved Plow Steel (E. 4. The safe working strength is typically listed as 20 percent of the breaking strength: i. In ascending strength order they are: 1. depending on the wire rope classification. Figure 800-11 shows an empirically derived curve that relates the efficiency of wire rope to the diameter of the pin or sheave. April 1989 800-34 Chevron Corporation .P.S. Rigging. However.) Manufacturers of wire rope publish breaking strength and sometimes safe working strength values. Ropes running over sheaves or drums are subjected to bending stresses. wire.I.I. plastic. The nominal diameter of the wire rope is the greatest diameter that can be measured. Mild Plow Steel. factor of safety = 5.. and has greater resistance to crushing under heavy bearing pressure. 5. or other material. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual center of the wire rope is called the core and may be made of fiber (FC). Wire Rope Strength Ropes are classified into various grades according to strength and ability to withstand abrasion. Wire cores are of two general types: independent wire rope core (IWRC) or wire strand core (WSC). The manner in which wire rope is used affects its strength properties.) Double Extra Improved Plow Steel (X. Plow Steel (P.S. As can be seen.) Improved Plow Steel (I.
The appropriate end connection efficiency must be applied to the working rope strength to arrive at the working strength of the wire rope sling. 800-11 Efficiency of Wire Rope when Bent Over Sheaves or Pins of Various Sizes 864 Slings General Slings are made with wire rope. The various types of end connections and corresponding approximate efficiencies can be found in “Safety in Designs” manual. and will provide the required factor of safety. Sling capacity is affected not only by the strength of wire rope but also by the type of end connection. natural fiber rope. steel chain. Chevron Corporation 800-35 April 1989 . An end connection that distorts the wire rope least is the most efficient. Wire rope slings are made by attaching fittings to the ends of premeasured wire rope lengths. and Lifting Fig. will result in a stable lift.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. Selecting the proper size sling. If the sheave diameter D to rope diameter d (D/d) ratio results in bending rope efficiency which is less than the end connection efficiency. Wire Rope Slings Wire rope slings are the most frequently used slings in general rigging. and hitching arrangement will achieve the desired orientation of the suspended load. length. Rigging. and synthetic fiber rope. then bending efficiency should be applied instead of the end connection efficiency.
Steel Chain Slings Chain slings are used where flexibility. and unless circumstances dictate otherwise. grade. Vertical Hitch This hitch is also called a direct connection hitch. and resistance to abrasion or high temperatures are important. Check chain type. Choker Hitch A choker hitch is made by simply threading one eye of the sling through the other and choking the load. 865 Hitches For Wire Rope The most commonly used hitches for wire rope are vertical hitch. See Figure 800-12. and painted surfaces. Natural Fiber Rope Slings Number 1 manila rope is the only fiber rope approved for hoisting. Load capacity of manila rope slings is shown in ANSI B30. Obtain manufacturer’s data on safe working loads. and working load limit before using. the use of chain slings should be discouraged in general rigging. Double wrap choker hitches compress the load and prevent it from slipping out of the sling. April 1989 800-36 Chevron Corporation . When used singly. It is effective when used in multiples with spreader bars or when two or more attachment points are provided on the load. the center of gravity is directly under the point of choke. ruggedness. Rigging. The double choker hitch is made by doubling the sling and threading the double end through both eyes. polished. or to crush fragile objects. Figure 800-14 shows the various choker hitch angles and relates the angle of choke to wire rope efficiency. The observed angle in this position is approximately 135°. choker hitch. They are non-sparking and can be used safely in explosive atmospheres. A single choker hitch does not provide full contact with the load and should not be used to lift loose bundles or long loads. Because of their relative softness and width. chain failure is sudden. manila rope is used for lifting men. Bending of wire rope at a choker hitch decreases the working strength of the rope because of bending efficiency. factors of safety.” Manila rope is not recommended for general use as lifting slings. polyester. it does not afford the best load control nor protection against spin.800 Cranes. Normally. Use for very small lifts only. “Slings. synthetic slings have less tendency to mar or scratch machined. and polypropylene. However. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Synthetic Webbing Slings Synthetic webbing slings are made of nylon.9. Smaller angles occur when a choker hitch is used to turn a load or when the point of choke is not directly over the centerline of the piece. and allowable wear before using. and basket hitch. In a choker hitch. when the load is freely suspended. See Figure 800-13.
two parts of the cable support the load although only one cable is used.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. The sling is free to move over the hook so that the load in each leg of the sling is automatically equalized. and Lifting Fig. Reverse Basket Hitch and Single Length Double Basket Hitch In these hitches the bight of the sling bears on the crane hook. The load is held in a loop with the cable exerting equal pressure for 360°. It is the safest hitch to use. Rigging. the load is equalized on each leg and therefore each leg supports half the weight. See Figure 800-15. They can also be used to equalize loads in a pair of legs of a four-leg sling arrangement by using two equal slings and one long sling with its bight over the hook. These hitches can be used to lift loads with lifting lugs or trunnions located above the center of gravity of the load. 800-13 Single Vertical Hitch Basket Hitch With a single basket hitch. The double wrap hitch is one of the best hitches for smooth cylindrical loads such as pipes and tubes. As a load is lifted with a basket hitch. The basket hitch is easy to attach and is a good hitch when used under the right conditions. Chevron Corporation 800-37 April 1989 . 800-12 Choker Hitch Fig.
800-15 Basket Hitch April 1989 800-38 Chevron Corporation . Rigging. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Fig.800 Cranes. 800-14 Choker Hitch Efficiency Fig.
Doubler plates attached to the sides of and centered around the padeye hole. Chocking. Metallic. Boom Angle. Usually of timber construction. Bight. and Lifting 870 Glossary The following terms are commonly used in rigging. pivoted or hinged at its lower end and with its upper end supported by chains. etc. Rigging. usually measured at mid-span as the depth from the chord joining the tops of the two supports (b) Any deviation from a straight line. The vertical angle from a horizontal line through the center of rotation of the boom and centerline of the boom. manila ropes. used to support or guide a load to be lifted or swung. Sling hitched to form a slip noose around the object to be moved or lifted. Choker. Bright Rope. Drum (Rope). The straight line distance of a boom from the lower end hinge to the upper end load point or hoist sheave pin. Cable-Laid Wire Rope. cranes. Basket Hitch. A loop or slack part in a rope. Counterweight. Chevron Corporation 800-39 April 1989 . Boom Line. Area. Core. Also called ballast. A type of wire rope consisting of several wire ropes laid into a single wire rope. Weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads and usually attached to rear of revolving superstructure. wire strands. (a) Sag of rope in a span. It may be fiber. shovels. A rotating cylinder with side flanges on which rope used in machine operations is wrapped. Sling configuration that equalizes the load in both legs of a sling formed with a single wire rope. or an independent wire rope. Wedges used to keep round vessels from rolling. Boom. and electrical conductors. drag lines. Wire rope made of wires that are not coated with zinc or tin. A metal beam or strut. Boom Length. Deflection. a wire strand. Sum of the cross-sectional areas of individual wires in a wire rope or strand. or rods reeved through sheaves or a block. The center of a wire rope about which the strands are laid. A term loosely applied to wire ropes.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. ropes. Cable. A wire rope for supporting or operating the boom on derricks. Cheek Plates.
Lang Lay Rope. Classification of wire rope by its breaking strength. Fiber Core (FC). A fixed derrick consisting of a mast supported in a vertical position by guys capable of being rotated. Guy (Line). It can be stationary or adapted for truck travel by towing or by independent truck power. Extra Improved Plow Steel. A rope used to steady or secure the mast or other member in the desired position. The load is raised and lowered by ropes reeved through sheaves and blocks at the top of the pole. The manner of using the sling to support a load. Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC). It may have a single sheave for double or triple line. The jib may be in line with the boom or may be offset. to which the boom support ropes are reeved. Manner in which wires are helically laid into strands or strands into rope. Lay. Load Block. Gantry (A-Frame). formed in the end of a wire rope. In order of increasing breaking strength: Mild Plow Steel. Jib. Rigging. Double Extra Improved Plow Steel. Fitting. Block with hook attached used in lifting service. The secondary hoist is referred to as the whip line. Factor of Safety (FS). pins. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Eye or Eye Splice. with or without a thimble. An extension attached to the boom head to provide added boom length for handling specified loads. Lower. Wire rope used as the core of a larger rope. Rope. Compression member guyed from top and pinned or in a socket at its base. Hook Block. In lifting crane service. Factor of safety is defined as the ratio between breaking or yield strength and working strength. April 1989 800-40 Chevron Corporation . extending above the superstructure. A structure for mounting a crane or derrick. See load line. Plow Steel. or multiple sheaves for four or more parts of a line. Fiber center of a wire rope. hook or shackle and frame suspended from the hoisting ropes. The assembly of sheaves. A loop. Gin Pole. Hoist Line. Gantry.800 Cranes. Lifting Lug. Guy Derrick. Improved Plow Steel. Attachment on equipment to be lifted. Any accessory used as an attachment for wire rope. refers to the main hoist. Usually used in pairs. Grades. and a boom whose bottom end is hinged or pivoted to move in a vertical plane with a reeved rope between the head of the mast and boom point for raising and lowering the load. Wire rope in which the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid in the same direction. Hitch. A structural frame.
Pressed Fitting. may carry as determined by manufacturer’s data. Radius of Load. tests. shackle. Interweaving of two ends of ropes so as to make a continuous or endless length without appreciably increasing the diameter. spreader bars. and Lifting Load Block. which rest on supports at the outer ends to increase stability. Upper. A grooved pulley for use with rope. Mats.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. A load applied at an angle to the vertical plane of the boom. and other attachments that are used to support. See Factor of Safety (FS). lift. Rigging. Also making a loop or eye in the end of a rope by tucking the ends of the strands. hooks. The rope assembly which connects the load to be lifted to the crane or other lifting device. Safe Working Load (SWL). etc. A combination of slings. A U-shaped fitting with a pin. A very flexible sling composed of several individual wire ropes braided into a single sling. See swaged fittings. Usually of timber construction. Prestressing or Prestretching. Safety Factor. Rated Load (or Crane). Rated loads at specified radii are the lesser of a specified percentage of tipping loads or the machine’s structural competence as established by the manufacturer. shackles. Proper load which the rope. and place equipment or other loads in their final position. Reeving. Sling. Another term for hoist line. and applicable codes. The horizontal distance from the axis of rotation to the centerline of boom point sheave. Chevron Corporation 800-41 April 1989 . manipulate. shackle. The assembly of sheaves. load blocks. and frame suspended from the boom by solid links or direct connection. Load Line. and are the maximum loads at those radii covered by the manufacturer’s warranty. A rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves. Stressing a wire rope or strand before use under such a tension and for such a time that the constructional stretch is largely removed. A hook with a latch to prevent slings or load from accidentally slipping off the hook.. Braided. Shackle. Safety Hook. pins. Rigging. Extendable arms attached to the mounting base. Side Loading. Fittings in which wire rope is attached by pressing the shank enclosing the rope. Slings. Supports or floats used for supporting machine on soft ground. swivel. See also whip line. Sheave. Splicing. Outriggers.
Spreader Beam. Tail Swing. It consists of a barrel and right-and-left hand threaded bolts. lowering. Tipping Load. A plurality of strands laid helically around an axis or a core. or pulling. Wire Rope. An arrangement of wires helically laid about an axis. The rotating upper frame structure of the machine and the operating machinery mounted thereon. A bending member. Secondary rope system. Assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for lifting. slings. Superstructure. 880 Model Specification CIV-MS-4782. This model specification establishes the basic requirements for performing a lift. etc. Also see load line. Swaged Fittings. Thimble. Device attached to wire rope for making limited adjustments in length. A rope used to prevent rotation of a load. plus weight on hook. It also discusses design requirements. A machine is considered to be at the point of tipping when a balance is reached between the overturning moment of the load and the stabilizing moment of the machine on a firm level supporting surface. It includes the weights of hook. Lifting Services. cold drawn from a rod. Tipping load is the load producing a tipping condition at a specified radius. Whip Line. or another wire or fiber center to produce a symmetrical section. Same function as spreader bar. Single continuous length of metal.800 Cranes. Wire Strand Core (WSC). Theoretically a compression member. Tipping Condition. Turnbuckle. Wire strand used as a core for a wire rope. Rigging.. and safety. including all lift equipment and items required in rigging operations. inspection and testing. and Lifting Civil and Structural Manual Spreader Bar. Uses less headroom. April 1989 800-42 Chevron Corporation . Tackle (Hoist). A member used to make slings vertical from object lifted. Fittings in which wire rope is inserted and attached by swaging. hook blocks. Tag Line. Distance from center of rotation to maximum rear extension of revolving superstructure. round or shaped. is included in the Specification section of this manual. Strand. Wire. Grooved metal fitting to protect the eye of a wire rope.
Rigging.2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes B30. 2. 3.7 Base Mounted Drum Hoists B30. 7. 6. 5. Safety in Designs Manual.10 Hooks U.184 Standard Slings Chevron Corporation 800-43 April 1989 . and Lifting 890 References Company Standards 1. Section 6 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 1.181 Derricks 29CFR1910. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 1. Department of Labor.9 Slings B30.180 Crawler Locomotive and Truck Cranes 29CFR1910.1 Jacks B30.Civil and Structural Manual 800 Cranes. 2. 4.S. 3. B30.6 Derricks B30.5 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes B30. 29CFR1910.
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