CANNED SARDINES Raw Materials: 1. Sardine  several types of small, oily fish related to herrings, family Clupeidae.

Sardines are named after the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, around which they were once abundant.  Rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. They are also a good source of vitamin D, calcium, B12, and protein. 2. Liquid Solutions  Salt, olive oil, Soya bean oil, Fish oil, Tomato sauce, etc. 3. Other ingredients and additives  Pepper , Cardamom, Ginger, Onion, Spirit vinegar, Ground mustard seed, Curry powder, Starch (potato flour), Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) Types of Canned Sardines: 1. Sardines in Oil 2. Sardines in Tomato Sauce Packaging Materials: 1. Tinplate  The most frequently used form of packaging for canned fishery products  Fabricated into two and three piece cans of a wide variety of shapes and sizes.  Tinplate consists of a base plate of low-carbon mild steel, onto each surface of which is electrolytically deposited a layer of tin. 2. Aluminum  Can be easily fabricated, and has good corrosion resistance.  ease of opening tear-off ("easy-open") ends;  light weight and recyclable 3. Plastics and Laminates  Retortable pouch: which because of its flat profile and correspondingly high surface area to volume ratio (relative to that of cans), heats more rapidly than conventional cans. 4. Glass  Rarely used for fishery products which are preserved by heat alone  However, it is frequently chosen to package semi-preserved items such as salted fish, pickled herrings, and caviars. Flowchart of Operation 1. Traditional Mediterranean Method  Sardines are fed automatically or manually to the nobbing machines in which the heads, viscera and tails are removed, and then the sardines are pre-cooked. 2. Norwegian Method  The fish are not eviscerated and are usually hot smoked.  Evisceration is unnecessary because the catch is held alive for at least 48 hours in nets prior to landing, while the smoking process replaces flash pre-cooking.

 The fish are allowed to drain before being transported to the packing table. usually by a conveyor.5 cm.  The sardines are then transported. to a brining machine.  Brightens the appearance of the fish by removing remaining slime and also toughens the skin. and together with the guts.Production of Sardines in Oil The operations after the thawing of the frozen fish or after transporting the fresh fish from the chill store are as follows: 1. The belt feeds the fish to a cutting wheel which cuts the head. Washing  The sardines pass through a washing process to remove blood and surface slime.  The smallest size of sardines allowed for canning (in Norway) is 9. 3. Brining  Gives the sardines the desirable salt content (about 1-2% of the fish weight).  The packers examine the fish to ensure complete removal of guts. . On a typical nobbing machine. Grading  The sardines are size-graded by an automatic grading machine which selects sardines to suit the size of cans used in the plant. Nobbing  The sardines are discharged onto a conveyor for transportation to the nobbing machine where the head and guts of the fish are removed. If necessary the tails are cut in the same operation. 4. which is equipped with a filter to screen particles from the brine. 2.  Washing should be with potable water or sea water of similar quality. the fish are placed on continuous belts with one fish in each compartment. draws it away from the body with rollers.  The number of sardines per can permitted for various can types is comprised between 4 and 14 pieces/can .

7. 9. Packing    The sardines are packed (manually or automatically) into pre-washed cans. with or without water. A fan located on the top of the section circulates the heated air. Sterilization  All canned fish products are sterilized at temperatures above 100 ºC. batch retorts. This operation can be done automatically or manually. Grading.  The retorts are horizontal. 2. The filled cans and waste are removed by the conveyor after packing. 6. however under no conditions should the processed cans be manually handled while wet. operating under conditions of good manufacturing practice.  The heat in the cooking section is obtained from supply of direct steam while the heat in the drying section is indirectly supplied from a heat exchanger. . Brining  Similar to the operation described for caning sardines in oil.5. the speed of which can be altered in order to ensure a smooth supply of sardines and cans to the packers. Overpressure is between 2-3 kg/cm². Storage  If necessary the cans should be washed before temporary storage. 10. the cans are automatically transferred onto a conveyor which takes then to the oil dispenser and onto the seaming machine where they are sealed. one for cooking (in steam at about 95 °C) and one for drying (in hot air at about 130 °C). which automatically feeds the conveyor transferring them to the precooker. In common sardine lines the filled cans pass over a weight control unit to a can aligner and then to a can pusher. 1. Rodding  The fish are hung on rods through the eyes. Can washing  Before the retorting process the cans are washed to remove fish residues and oil from the outside of the containers. Sterilization takes place in retorts. Cooking  A typical flash cooker for sardines consists of 2 sections. 8. A manually operated packing line is equipped with conveyor belts. or vertical. Production of Pre-smoked Sardines in Tomato Sauce Most of the operations in this process are similar to those described for canning sardines in oil. Seaming  From the cooker. Processing conditions shown are suitable for those canneries .

Can Washing. The heads are then removed from the rods with an automatic rod stripping machine. Sterilization. The quality of fish and fish products depends on safe and hygienic practices. seaming  Similar to those described for canning sardines in oil. The rodded fish are placed into frames (accommodate for 30 rods. and can lead to the development of a potentially lethal toxin. Smoking  The fish are smoked for approximately 1 hour at temperatures up to 130°C.  Canned fish manufacturers must be sure that the thermal processes given their products are sufficient to eliminate all pathogenic spoilage micro-organisms. manufacturing. refrigerating and transporting fish and fish products. 5. and to package the product in hermetically sealed containers so that it will be protected from to reproduce inside the sealed container. etc. Ensuring standards of quality and safety are high also minimizes the post-harvest losses. (1 part oil and 2 parts tomato puree of 20% concentration). Nobbing  The bodies of the fish are separated from the heads with an automatic cutting machine. defines quality as "the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. The smoke is produced by a smoke generator using sawdust from hard woods (oak or similar).  Enhances the flavor and lowers the water content of the fish. each with 30 fish) which are fitted to the smoking racks.  The air passes through a heat exchanger while smoke added.    Quality Parameters for Canned Sardines 1. Packing.from harvesting of fish to reaching the consumer. Thermal Destruction of Bacteria  Makes use of heat (alone or in combination with other means of preservation)."(ISO 8402). 4. puree of good quality must be used and to this is added olive oil or fish oil. The fishing industry must ensure that their fish handling. to kill or inactivate all microbial contaminants. Outbreaks of fish-borne illnesses are reduced if appropriate practices are followed when handling. Quality Standards for Canned Sardines  The International Organization for Standardization (ISO).  When preparing tomato sauce.The automatic rodding being a complicated process is only practised in large plants.  Safety for the end-user and commercial success for the canner can only be relied upon when all aspects of thermal processing are thoroughly understood and adequately controlled. .  The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a sufficiently flexible system that should be successfully applied at all critical stages -. Clostridium botulinum . processing and transportation facilities meet requisite standards. Storage  All subsequent operations are similar to those described for canning sardines in oil. filling of sauce. 6. 3.

org/seafood/IndustrialWasteAbatement-Seafood. Raw Material Handling  The use of ice which is applied directly to the fish. the time (at pre-cooking temperature) required to bring about the desired effect is determined. References: http://foodquality.htm#Contents http://www.pdf http://en.  Headspace is necessary so that thermal expansion does not result in an excessive build-up of pressure and damage to the seal.  Immersion in chilled sea water (CSW) it is imperative that it be carried out under strict control. or alternatively. product codes. whereas inadequate pre-cooking means that the purpose of the treatment is not achieved.  It is important that sealed containers be indelibly coded with details of the production date and time.  Pre-cooking conditions are usually established through pilot trials in which center temperatures of the product at the completion of a "satisfactory" process are measured.fpeac. are monitored because both affect the rate of heat transfer to the SHP of the can during retorting. suitably trained personnel must confirm their satisfactory performance by examination of sealed containers.  Under normal circumstances seams withstand the strains generated by internal pressure.  Ensures that fish are received in a condition enabling manufacture of a commercial quality product. 5. 3. 4.aspx?PageContentID=472 http://www. or  Freezing of fish harvested long distances from the Default.  Since peaking is a consequence of excessive internal pressure in the can. or for fish which is received fresh or chilled but which is to be held in frozen storage until processing. and fill temperatures for hot fill products.aspx . it can be prevented by controlling the fill temperature and vacuum closing. Sealing  Manufacturers must be sure that their operations are strictly monitored at regular intervals throughout the entire production.  Because filling can be critical to product safety. otherwise this causes permanent deformation (known as peaking or buckling) of the can Pre-cooking  An excessive treatment tends to reduce yields.fao.wfp.  Immersion in refrigerated sea water (RSW) tanks. the manufacturing plant.2. and any other information that is necessary to identify the origin and nature of the product. Filling  Fill weights.wfp.  Once sealing machines have been adjusted.

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