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**Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline
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Background information and user manual for use of the relating spreadsheets at Cheresources.com Auteur: Enrico Lammers Date: February 20th, 2011 Revision: 0

Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline

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Theoretical background info Introduction This document gives some background information and user reference for the calculation of heat loss from a vertical storage tank. Note: It's very important to be consistent in using the proper units. This is basically due to an error in the calculation of the radiation heat loss with ˚C instead of K. by manual iteration to obtain more accurate values for the heat transfer coefficients. By doing this. The document is partly based on a topic on the forum of Cheresources.1].Rev.. Heat loss in a vertical storage tank An extensive description of the heat loss in a vertical storage tank can be found in the spreadsheet. a date and a revision number.2010. 3) ˚C replaced by K for correct calculation in SI units. toolbox for difference between the two).com forum: Storage Tank Heat Loss Calculation Using Article By Kumana And Kothari. which has been prepared by KR on the Cheresources. 4) Recalculation of temperatures introduced.com: Storage Tank Heat Loss Calculation Using Article By Kumana And Kothari. The spreadsheets are prepared with the utmost care and can freely be used by anyone. however it’s the users own responsibility to use the spreadsheets and assess the results and applicability of the spreadsheets.12.xls: 1) Correction of calculation of Grashof number of vapour phase to point to the correct cell 2) Note added that to suggest to use the effective length or hydraulic diameter to the roof rather than the equivalent diameter (see: engg. The author has checked this spreadsheet and modified it accordingly as follows: Revision notes at Storage Tank Heat Loss Calcs .1 31. K is the correct temperature unit for SI units and not ˚C. Didn't change this. for a horizontal storage tank/drum and a pipeline under flowing or nonflowing conditions. [ref. Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 2 . See example below. Users are free to update or modify the spreadsheets to there own needs and are requested to upload newer revisions to the forum with a revision note. and the spreadsheet which has been prepared by KR. It has been modified and extended for the use of a partly filled horizontal drum as the author didn’t find any useable alternative. a slight different outcome of the heat transfer and heat loss was obtained as compared to the original spreadsheet.

TA) qw.!"# 1 ℎ!". The second part describes the heat conduction through the wall and insulation (if any).1].head = Ud.head = Uw.cyl + qw.!"# !! 1 1 + + ! !! !! × ℎ !"#. Heat loss in a horizontal storage tank The heat loss of a partly filled horizontal drum/tank with elliptical heads is more cumbersome to calculate as compared to a square or cylindrical vertical tank and has been developed separately. cylindrical vapour side the following is applicable [ref. has been built up of the following components.head x Ad.head x (TL . hvw. consisting of radiation and convection: Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 3 .5) Formula for cooling of the tank changed. The third part describes the heat transfer on the outside of the drum.cyl + qd.TA) Qtot = qd.TA) qd. This has been changed to one tank.!"# + ℎ!" ℎ!" = + Ud. In this example the total mass of six separate tanks was used to estimate the time of cooling from 40 ˚C to 35 ˚C. For example for the dry. Fig.cyl = Ud.cyl is the heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) on the inside.cyl x Ad.cyl is the total heat transfer coefficient for the dry cylindrical side (W/m2K).head The heat transfer coefficient.1 Heat balance over a partly filled horizontal cylinder The heat loss in the horizontal drum is the sum of the heat loss on four sides of the drum: The dry cylinder side !The dry head side !The wet cylinder side The wet head side The total heat loss is qd. U. In the original revision a linear calculation was used however the heat loss is a logarithmic relation.cyl x (TL . 1 !!.TA) qw. as the cooling of the tank is not influenced by the number of tanks.cyl x (Tv .head x (Tv . tm is the wallthickness (m) and km the conduction coefficient (W/mK) off the wall.head x Aw.cyl = Uw.head + qw.cyl x Aw. The original cooling time was too conservative for these reasons.

10] To calculate the total heat loss over de drum the following has been done: Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 4 . The effective length Leff. In this problem however the cylinder is not completely filled. for the free convection heat transfer coefficient of the cylindrical sides the following formula has been used [ref.387 × !!!/! 0. h is heat transfer coefficient.h’AWV. equal to the diameter of the cylinder shall be replaced by the hydraulic diameter (Dh) instead [ref.1]. In order to calculate the heat loss of the horizontal drum. The last part is the heat transfer (W/m2K) through fouling inside the drum. at different ambient temperatures and at different wind velocities. These terms have to be calculated for the wet cylindrical side and the dry and wetted sides of the heads.60 + 0.4]: !" = ℎ × !!"" ! ℎ = !" × ! !!"" Nu is the Nusselt number. Radiation (W/m2K) is determined by the temperature of the surface and a factor dependent on the material (emissivity factor).. please refer to [ref. skirts.559 !/!" 1+( ) Pr !/!" valid for !" ≲ 10!" This formula is applicable for a completely filled cylinder or solid cylinder. The heat transfer coefficients can be calculated by means of Nusselt’s relation [ref.cyl is de heat transfer coefficient at quiescent air conditions and Wf is a correction factor for the wind [ref. like the diameter for a circle.1] D=L (a) (b) Lw Fig.3 and 8] !"#$ !" !!! !"##"$ !"#$ (!) !"#$%"&"# !" !!! !"##"$ !"#$(!) !! = !! = 4 × !! For the heads the formula for a vertical plate can be used with the liquid height in the drum as Leff [ref. at different liquid heights in the drum.2] ! !" = 0. Prandtle (Pr). k the conduction coefficient of the liquid. supports etc have been neglected. 2 Hydraulic diameter (cylindrical side) and liquid height (head sides) Note that the heat loss of the manholes. the vapour or the air and Leff is the effective length. If you want to compensate for those factors. Rayleigh (=Nu x Pr) and Grashof (Gr) can be calculated as in the fore mentioned article.

which is comparable with the formula used for the horizontal drum.3 Temperature gradient between bulk vapour.! !! × !!!". 5. the diameter of the pipe can be used in the formulas for the heat transfer coefficient. Fill-out the values for Tws and Tw at the location where they had been assumed in the first place and repeat these steps until the difference between the two approaches within an acceptable tolerance. Normally the heat loss of a pipeline is calculated per unit of measure i. To calculate the heat transfer coefficient.and dry head. repeat this process for different levels in the storage tank. 4.e. For non-flowing conditions.or liquid phase and the ambient air over the vessel wall and insulation (if applicable) 2. the individual heat transfer coefficients have been calculated and after that the total U. With the assumed wall temperatures Tw and Tws.7]. The second and third part describe the heat conduction through the wall (related to the mean pipe diameter Dm) and insulation (if Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 5 . per meter [ref. Note that contradictory to the article even on the outside of the drum different wall temperatures have been assumed for the part at the liquid height and for the “dry” part (i.and cylindrical sides.! ) ℎ!" × !!! Utot is the total heat transfer coefficient for the pipe per unit of measure (W/mK).inside (Tw) Heat loss in a pipeline The heatloss in a pipeline is more or less similar to the calculation of the horizontal drum with the difference that the pipeline is full of fluid. 3.1. different wind speed and different ambient temperatures. All coefficients have been determined with estimated temperatures for the inside (Tw) and outside walls (Tws). Tw. drum diameter minus liquid height). to have a slightly better accuracy. for the wet. On demand. 1 1 !! !! 1 1 = + + + + !!"# ℎ!" × !!! !! × !!!. hwi is the heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) on the inside (related to the inside pipe diameter Di). on the inside of the pipe free or natural convection occurs. however the fluid can flow or not.! ( !! × ℎ! !" + ℎ!" × !!!.outside (Tws) Fig. Furthermore Tws = (UTOT/(hr+hAw))(TBulk-TA) + TA en Tw = (UTOT/hw))(TBulk-TA). TBULK(L/V) TAmbient Tw.e.

Radiation (W/m2K) is determined by the temperature of the surface and a factor dependent on the material (emissivity factor). forced convection on the inside of the pipe occurs which increases the heattransfer coefficient.7 !!" ! − ! ! !! ] ! − 2! + ! ! = −2 log [ ! = [! − Where: f is the friction factor. but for the purpose of this study. consisting of radiation and convection: h’wo is the heat transfer coefficient at quiescent air conditions (related to the outside insulation diameter Do.5] 2) Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 6 .5 ≲ !" ≲ 2000 and 3000 ≲ !" ≲ 5!6 The friction factor f can be calculated as follows [ref. tm/i is the wall/insulation thickness (m) and km/i the conduction coefficient (W/mK) off the wall and insulation. steam tracing can be added (please refer to the excellent spreadsheet and explanation on the Cheresources. NRe the Reynolds number and Di equals the inside pipe diameter. a steamcoil with known dimensions was taken and the maximum heat input was simply calculated as the steam flow times the heat of vaporisation.1].7 !!" ! 2. The fourth part describes the heat transfer on the outside of the pipe. the same formulas can be used as for the drum with Leff = pipe diameter instead of the hydraulic diameter.any. or a standard electrical tracing can be selected [ref. the following formula has been used [ref.7 ( )!/! × (!" ! − 1) 8 valid for 0. The last part is the heat transfer (W/m2K) through fouling inside the pipe (related to the inside pipe diameter Di). heat input was considered as follows: 1) For the horizontal drum. Maximum theoretical heat input Detailed calculations can be done to calculate the heat input of a coil or similar type of device.51 × ! + ] !! × 3.i ) and Wf is a correction factor for the wind [ref. For the outside coefficient. related to the logarithmic mean insulation diameter (see spreadsheet) Dlm. 9] ! 12 + ] !! × 3.2] ! × !" − 1000 × !" 8 !" = ! ! 1 + 12. Winner of the 2005 spreadsheet competition.6] For the heat input in the pipeline. When the fluid is flowing.7 !!" ! = −2 log [ ! = −2 log [ ! 2.i).51 × ! + ] !! × 3. To calculate the heat transfer coefficient under flowing conditions.com by Andre de Lange. A very practical guideline on the sizing of steamcoils can be found at [ref.

Fill out the yellow input cells 2.Example (Note for the vertical storage tank. The stainless steel tank is uninsulated. Assess the heat loss and the effect of the ambient temperatures and wind at 45% level in the tank. in combination with [ref.03.378 meters. reference is made to the spreadsheet of the vertical storage tank.1]) Problem description: Horizontal storage drum A horizontal storage drum is containing EDA (Ethylenediamine).01. In this case it 1. wetted perimeter and surface can be copied to the blue cells or will refer to the blue cells automatically (check. Note that contradictory to a vertical cylinder.xls 1. the level is not linear with the height! The calculated values for the liquid height. The maximum theoretical heat input through the steam coil is 35 kW. Use the indicated spreadsheet in the Engineering toolbox to determine the liquid height in the drum by varying the height to obtain a level of 45%. Please refer to the spreadsheet Horizontal Storage Tank Heat Loss Calcs .2011. because these are used in the calcs) Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 7 .

4. Replace the yellow cells with these calculated values and repeat this until the values don’t change within an acceptable tolerance. In the right cells these temperatures are recalculated.3. Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 8 . Now we are ready to calculate the actual heat transfer coefficients. The green part is just a summary of the calculations below to prevent jumping up and down the spreadsheet to check the calculated values. Use the spreadsheet: fonds bombes -surface mouillee. As a first guess.xls (also to be found on the forum) to calculate the surface area of the cylinder and elliptical heads at the level of 45% and fill these out in the orange and pink cells. fill out the estimated temperatures of Tw and Tws as an average of the bulk temperatures in the yellow cells.

different ambient temperatures.5. the vessel temperature will drop beyond 5 Beaufort. It could be seen in the graph that the wind has a dramatic effect on the heat loss of the drum. while at -3 ˚C the temperature will drop already beyond 3 Beaufort. Fill out the yellow input cells like with the horizontal vessel 2. Fill out the estimated temperatures for Tw and Tws in the first place and replace the cells with the calculated ones. When the curves (heat loss) get above the red line (heat input) the heat loss is larger than the heat gain and the temperature of the vessel will drop. Heat balance V1308 Level = 45% 90 80 Heatloss/input [kW] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 Ambient temperature [˚C] Maximum heat input Heat loss @ 6 Beaufort Heat loss @ quiescent air (no wind) Heat loss @ 3 Beaufort Heat loss @ 5 Beaufort Pipeline The EDA is flowing from the storage drum to a reactor vessel. Please refer to the spreadsheet: Pipe Heat Loss Calcs . For example at an ambient temperature of 0 ˚C. similar to the horizontal drum. different wind speed if required and produce a graph if you like. Repeat this process for different levels.01. Calculate the heat loss.2011 1.03. Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 9 .

different ambient temperatures. It could be seen in the graph that in this example there is a difference in heat loss depending on the wind conditions.3. Heatbalance EDA feedline Flow conditions 12 10 heatloss/input [kW] 8 6 4 2 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 Ambient temperature [˚C] Heat loss @ quiescent air Heat loss @ Beaufort 3 Heat loss @ Beaufort 5 Heat loss @ Beaufort 6 Maximum heat input Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 10 . Repeat this process for different flows. Obviously this is due to the much lower contact area as compared to the drum. In this example there is not much difference between typical fluid velocities of 1-3 m/s. however the effect is much smaller as compared to the horizontal drum. different wind speed if required and produce a graph if you like.

Coulson & Richardson 8. Crane.Kumana and S. Estimate friction factor accurately.K. Chemical Engineers handbook.com/ Pages 19-28 Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline 11 .tycothermal. http://www. http://www. Predict Storage Tank Heat Transfer Precisely. http://www.Kothari.Serghides.515-587 3. Convective heat transfer.. Chemical Engineering. fittings. 22-03-1982 2. p. 5.uk/ranges_trace.139 9.co.spiraxsarco. 5-13.1-4 4. J. T. L.References 1. and pipe.com/resources/ 7. De Wit et al. Chemical Engineering. Perry. Volume I.asp 6. Incropera. Flow of fluids through valves. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer.first-traceheating. Chemical Engineering. 05-03-1984 10. p.Burmeister.

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