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By

GORDON

M.

FAIR

AND LORANUS

P.

HATCH

(Associate Professor of Sanitary Engineering; Research FelloW in Sanitary Engineering, Graduate School ojEngineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) .It has long been recognized, in the light of the work ofPoiseuille (184~) and Darcy (1856), that the stream-line flow of water through sand is governed by essentially the same factors as the stream-line flow of water through pipes, and there appe~~~ Fomello reason why W'e. hould not be able to draw upon our well ic\eveloped knowledge s of the hydraulics of pipes to obtain a better cqnc¢pt of thepermeability of sands. It is the purpose of this paper tP,s,or that this path of thought which has been entered by most wo*kei;s in the past can be followed a good deal farther, and it is hoped ~ha~our wanderings will ~rrJ,\psto a point of vantage whence a widef arid clearer.view of the prob1¢m can be obtained. C()~gour discussion to stream-line flow,wil;ichpredominates in water filtration, dimensional analysis of the;'flow .of water through pipes leads to the following well-knowll 'eqUation:

,\"\ . .li.;

-=

h l

----p

g r d2

k m v'

~,

(1)

HEJte:h=loss of head in terms of water column: l =i:d.lengthof pipe k = a constant of pipe flow whose magnitude is 32 .: I: g = acceleration due to 'gravity m = absolute viscositYot water . ,.;,: , .,·:_I't r = density of 'Yate,r (m~ss,p~r unit volume; r(J =weig}it p~r unit volume) .'... ' .' " < ,v = mean velocity~ifiow or rate of discharge perunitc~6sST , sectional a,rea ' , '" J, = diameter of pipe

., , .,' -';d.Ji, ll"I,i':I/ ;'.' :_.,

1551

'the length of path followed by the water arid the ""t>ln"'.1. c saD:d. If we regard the pore space of sand as constituting a series of more or less tubular passages.neeessary to convert this formulation of the flow of water in pipes into one of the flow of water through sand. p~ysicalconstants and . FAIR AND LORANUS P. m alldrare.of How can identified as the rate of discharge per .that the FIG. there remain three factors whose traaeletion into terms ofsand.alarea. W. 1. A. the length ofp:tthfoU6wed bythe water can ·d~te:hnined by direct nieaSlii'~m~nt. HATCH [J. length and diameter.R. the.1552 GORDON M.head i1l. The units of these symbols need not be included ill their definition as the formula holds for any consistent system of length. A. same for sand Mitis for pipes. Velocityandlengtk In circular pipes. W.ESERVOIRS SAND TO FLOW IN PIPE pipe-flow constant can be replaced by a sand-flow constant.-a. These are the factors of velocity. weight (mass) and time.l1lit r(jss-~ectioD.t the concept of Ioss of . ANALOGX OF FLOW IN PORES OF FILTER I:GTWEEN .'hr flow vary not only for different sands and rufferentdegrees of but also within a given bed of sand. If we consider a bed of . let us see what trensformations in the various factors ofthe/dimensionalequation ate . that g. Recognizingtp.a:nd the ·velobity'.flow requires some discussion..

j 1 ~~ . i. If we consider the open area in any horizontal layer of sand as passing water. side pockets and dead ends. m. To allow for the irregularity of sand particles. This fact.YOLo 25. Recognizing tpata sand of given ~izecan be packed in different ways. we may think of discharge per unit area in terms of gross area. In words: the product lv is constant. a porosity factor was added by certain workers. .fa. it follows from equation (1) and figure 1. While this is' not strictly the case.1 Averaging influencesare depended upon to make this statement~ccept~ .. is not important s9 long as the free area of flow bears a constant ratio to. the diameter of a sand grain has no more relation itothe flow of water through a sand bed than does the thickness·(. For our convenience. finally.g. . there is some evidence to show that departures from constancy are not excessive. the diameter term ofthepl~e-flow equation seems to have been converted directly into . Since. the total open area. or area of free pore space in which water is in motion. . ho. per unit volumeof. that h == g ~r -.. IIJ FLOW OF WATER THROUGH SAND 1553 analogous to a system of pipes of unequal length connecting two. reservoirs and assume that the pores are reasonably alike! in cross. There are stagnant space~ within channels of flow.a sand-diameter or sand-sise ter~ on the assumption that sandsize governs tile dimensions of the more or less tubular passages in which water flows through a bed of sand.e. furthermore. of itself. or area 'of sand bed as a whole..' sectional area. r. Z ~ md (k 1) 1v = kolovo = kol\Vl = kolzvz .e~er. the rate of discharge per unit area.E. .sandi.A. the mean v~1b6ityof flow through the interstices iS where v is the velocity of ap~r~ach over the gross area of sand and! is the porosity ratio. NO. Actually all the open area doesnot eontribute to flow. and d are constant. . other workers replaced the diameter term by a term representing the surface area of 'the sand. siricek. rather than in terms of net area. Diameter In the past. the ratio of volume of voids to total volume of sand bed. and it becomes possible to employ in place of actual length of path the measurable depth of sand bed and in place of actual pore velocity.

W. .. pipe to the flow of water through it.\ cal measurement. all of the variables can be subjected to direetphysi . The factors of sand surface and VOlumeihOWlf ever. to express the volume of water the sand pores.ulUS = volume of sand surface area of sand .f X . it seems to the authors that a better concept of the pipe diameter factor is obtained if we replace the pipe diameter term by that of the hydraulic radius.r =.indirect means ani.by .X A --. in terms of the volume of sand and the porosity ratio as follows: in volume of voids " " =f~ totalvolume = 1'-'- '1. W.' can be determined conveniently only . long. as follows: (2) In this equation. HATCH [J. f volume of sand Substitution results in the following expression for the hydraulic radiUs ()fasand bed: 'H" y dr'" au '1' IC ra . suit our convenience. or the volume of voids.. wetted perimeter of pipe cross-sectional area X length X length volume of water surface area of conduit wetted perimeter volume of water in sand pores surface area of sand It will.wittinglY':i unwittingly. a term generally employed in hydraulics to evaluate what corresponds to the diameter effect of non-circular conduits.f V. A. ' .J554 GORDON M. A. . cover the flow of water 'through sand. pipes (equation 1). the following transformations may be made: · di cross-sectional area of pipe H y d rau 1IC ra IUS = . we have now arrived at a basic transf(jl'lnatioIi ofthis equation to. furthermore. been the crux of the problem of the hydraulics{' ' sand filtration and sand expansion. 1- f Summarized transformation Proceeding from the formulation of the flow or water through. FAIR AND LORANUSP. their evaluation by ordinary engineering procedures has.-1. Bearing in mind the definition of the hydraulic radius..

. If the particles originate from the same source. . See figure 2.. . . Rounded .'i~1'~i. ... it becomes necessary to evaluateth~~) characteristics. . . ..~'~ willgive the area-volumeratio of thesa.. . . ' On the basis of workbYM:artina. . .. 11] FLOW OF WATER THROUGH SAND 1555 THE AREA-VOLUME RATIO OF SAND If we examine sand grains under the microscope. we will observe that they may differ in two essentials: size and shape. ..07 1.~ and volume of a sand grain may be exemplified as follows :{. 25. . . but it does possess a dl3~~~t'~Csurfacearea and definite volume and hence a definite area-vQ~~meratio. .1 >:. Sharp . 00 1. .. SHAPE OF SAND SHAPE FACTOR RATIO TO SPHERICAL FACTOR Spherical. ..17 1. the authors suggesttlie following tentative shape factors for sands of varying degrees of sharpness whose size is • designated by means of the manufacturer's rating of sieves. Since surface area and vol~~ are functions of size and shape. ... such as a sphere. . . ..!6 A=1rd2 V= A Y:=.. .rifigsome one diameter..... . .. .4 7. t there must be some one shape factor which. . .. . namely size. .}. .. . 6. . An irregular sanq. . . . . there . fore.. NO.fticle.Sand size and shape .. .02 1. .' . . . " Worn '. we chose eonieconsistent means of meast.l~ Taking a simple geometric structure.i. the concept~ of size and shape that enter into the determination of the surface are. .1 6. however.VOL.tX ' multiplied bYdl ...~4"p:a. there appears to beb1l\t one collective difference. .. •. . .0 7.. .0 6. ..9d()es possess.29 . .A~thesize factor. . Angular ' . .~ not definite diameter. .~'.Z=d" 1/6 1rda 6 S Here S is the area-volume shape factor and'. . If.when .. I~ the case of irregular sand grains neither the}~~a~e factor nor the st~e factor is found so readily.~q'~~~~~'in England andas<~ result of their own studies. .7 1..

Shape.4. Rounded sand-vehape factor 6. FAIR AND LORANUS P. 2.. if the size factor is not determined in accordance with the manufacturer's rating. however. SHAP~ OF FILTER SANDS 1. the shape factor may be taken FIG.1556 GORDON M. . Angular sand-shape factor 7. The question arises as to how we may proceed from the evalual.4. as substantially constant irrespective of size as determined byl hf)i~ manufacturer's rating. 3.7. HA'l'CH [J. A. W. this step must be different if the bed is stratified 11M I a rapid sand filter or unstratified as in a slow sand filter. Worn sand-shape factor 6. A. 2. factor of spherical sand 6. Sharp: sand-shape factor 7. the shape factor will take a different value. For sand of the same origin.0.is a bed of snlld .io' of the area-volume ratio of a single particle to that . ~t . W. Obviously. 4. ' As we shall see.1.

er. A = V.1': As in the past.l.!ieyes.n.sizea:qd dl. .lFoi" !:tn. . grains of.:constituted with respect to . a unit volume sand in any part of the bed is similarly . RU!j<i~~)'j~.e !~stAflgeometri.inaccordance with the previous notation.p.o. betw. be determined on the basis of any portion of the bed or of the bed as a:wboIe. geometric mean.e are upofN.a:vel1~ge<liamete.v9L e.· g~sess~.:s~e~Fti!ind since it can be sp. lJ¥B.e.lyiIJ.= V it S If. si~es.c ¢: JiI1ei:J. therefore.d '¢.~werage (geoto l aR metl]icmean) diameterd.of aunitvol..tI:).V.llIJ.ye.4is ~9111etric.g between the tWiors~e.:ar sand diameters..9~i!'l.! portion of sand ~= Or y s Sum of the d2 for each sand grain . N d2' 3 =. the area of the sand grains is equal to (the sum of the areas of the various sieve separations or: .sa:p.tthevol- ume.~t\~hesqP~l'E(:rootoft:b. .!.grains are :fo.l~~d for engineering purposes by sifting tht saiidthtough a set of r~t~d'sieires and obtaining a record of the weights of sand held between adjacent sieves.lf lOp.o~.gtallls 'o~. The area-volume ratio of the sand can.be: .d siitEl4.si?Jedistribution of#:W fi~IJ. c gr~ll}.d.P grams qfs~J:l.. tpis problem can be sirp.d. Hence the area of P grams of sand is: A=-d Rg SP For a IOO-gram bed as a whole.and. Each portion of sand held between adjacent siMes can be assumed to have an .. tPe best· average touse is the.i.:~enadjacent sieves . the totalsur~aq~ i.S N d . the weight .n.1(.t..l}djacen. ii.d}.lil:rEla.ie.q.Su~ of the d3 foreaq4. 25. Tbk entails finding the sumof the squares ~nd\'ciiBe$'dftheindi'vldll. n..~!ire the rated sizes o:~ tt4e..' size and pore space..san~lwiU. Ii"'':' ..~itI. and the loss of head through any portion of the vertical depth is the same as through any other portion of like depth. of P granis of sand he comes V = ~.\1~ra~Il. umeof sand is called Rg.wnthat the.fl. 11] FLOW OF WATER TfIROUGH SAND" Unstratified filter beds If the filter bed is unstratified.these N.e produet QfthetW.or d = -Vdl~. where R is the density of the saad.. NO.V.

1558 GORDON M." :.. P]2 -Sum of100 d (3) Stratified. m (1 hll = ----. without resorting to hydraulic stratification. passing the sand through a series of sieves and packing the separate sievings Into the column. A = [sum of d « .. According to equation (2) the loss of head in th. approximate the desired bed structure by.f)2 v l gr f3 (~)2 V But.· .. . FAIR AND LORANUS P. 'P h = ~ ~ (1 .gr f3 k t» v [S. in such a manner that the sand was graded from the coarsest particles at the bottom to the finest at the top. . ~=SNd2=f}_ V . A. [sum 100 of ~] d This is merely the weighted average area-volume ratio of the sand. was almost constant and that the depth of layer created by each sieve-separated portion was... [sum of ~] Rg = Rg d The volume of the 100-gram bed as a whole. W.I. if the P grams of sand are made up of N grains. then as . composed of substantially uniform sand grains.~ proportional to its weight. is: V = 100 Rg Hence the area-volume ratio of a 100-gram bed becomes: ~= V s. W.] s. we could. however. filter beds If we wished to place 100 grams of sand in a column of given crosssectional area. furthermore..the frictional resistance would be greatest at the top and small~il est at the .The grading of the bed. HATCH [J. . Nd3 d . Hence.bottom.!:_ . ' " . r layer of bed containing P grams of substantially uniform sand woul be: '. A. would' produce area-volume ratios varying from large values at the top of the bed (fine grains) to small values at the bottom (coarse grains). Substitution in equation (2) leads to the following formulation of the flow of water through an unstratified filter bed. thereforei. It would be found that the porosity ratio of the various layers of sand.

does not change the fundamental nature of flow which is that of filtration through a stratified bedM sand.FLOW OF WATER THROUGH SAND 1559 furthermore.e. and if the velocity is sufficiently great. i. Writing the' equation thus implied. we have on the basis of a unit cross-sectional a~ea of sand column: . = [Sum of hJ m -. their frictional resistance must be equal to the supported weight.= -k . the wash water filters upward through the bed. but is smallest for th~ large grains a~dvice versa. With this exception in mind. .(1f3 f)2 gr v [ Sum of l (A)2 ] -.:' Fundamental to this procedure is the reasoning. it should be possible. .f)2 H= -----vL-·g k r f3 82 100 [ Sumof- d2 PJ A comparison of equations (3) and (4) will show that there is good reason why the loss of head through a stratified filter bed should be distinctly different from that through the same bed in the unstratified condition even when the porosity ratio happens to be the same.. ' . H. This movement of the sand. the grains are lifted and the bed is said to expand. by what is called high-velocity wash. to formulate the expansion of a'1ilterbed' in terms of filtration. V (4) or m (1 . supported by observation. that when sand grains become suspended in upwardflowing water. therefore. then on the basis of uniform porosity: or l=LP 100 Hence the total loss of head. for the bed is: H . . except that in the expanded bed the v()idsp'ace is'ri()t constll-~~as in the case ofthe consolidated bed. the weight in water. Expanded filter bed When a filter bed is washed. if L is the length of the whole column or depth of bed. of the grains. however.

/ . depths of the indiVidual. ".~~t. To find the.-/ f.:.fe .exp~hded layers. HATCH [.:r. h i.) or the loss of head ' hll.d bed pears thefono~1J of~ Le.= 1~:::J :' j or' ./. also the evaluation of the expanded depth l.) (5) Substituting this value of hfl. f. FAIR AND LORANUS P. the weight to Qf~and.:f~~mqfl.l.1.~. l. as measuring expansion. W.. - R-r r (1 - f. of I 1-:.of is.. W. . : • S~ce the <iep~l. =. GORDO~M.t9Eld. totaldepth of the expandedbed. in equation (4).1: fee J. and the porosity ratio of the unexpanded sand.j. 1f 1[:s· :'.15:60.= l..' P. to one side: 1~3j. Specifically: l• . >~ l~of~efind t . = --'.QnlJ. written for a single layer of expanded . k: (~y rv (6) This equationipennits the determhiation of the porosity ratio of the expanded sand and.t.12or ::k~i!a!otht~!{t:. f····· P ] -=-umo-L 100' 1 .lElXpa:r.s.sand and bringing the factors containing the porosity ratio f.:!::J [sum c on the basis 'br 100·grams of ~!~~t:e.JR ~r) g (1 -.layers . " or: it is necessary to sum the " ~'[smn ... A. = l 1_ 1:. by assuming substantially uniform voids in the individual sand layers. in terms of the unexpanded depth. l..prQPor~i.L e .t the U. [Swri'of'i~J ." . A.

will be found useful and is easily pre- pared."Y0L •. versus 1 ~ f.. between . bed in terms of wa...8 t TF &. the portion of the bed under study has not moved and l.COb.'.= the~Xp411sionconstant . .. for' filtr~'W.and. full yoiwneof v?idsare effe~tive. . in the following schedule..J • .K "" 5/g . '. Eiltraliot: Unstratified sand bed..~etcol~n.st~nt .sqr~l1-ce Il-re. Filtration and expansion equation8 summarized The four equations defining the hydraulics of sand filtration and sand expansion may be simplified in statement and summarized as shown.. ."'. '. . '... = the vertica:I'dep~hOf the expanded filter bed.K. H== K $2 [. weight (mass) and time is as follows: H = the loss of head of water passing throughthe filter. L. 25.~" . K LT F v' 'l~OSum . . or better 1 ~ f.the full..a .• . . or 'viscosity-density. from 1 '!_ f.for any consistent systiiriiof"units of measurement. ..of Units of measurement: The reason' for the: difference. (III I (IV) E =K.. .. PJ2 Stratified sand bed. In determining f.. . . = f. '. 'i" • .i.•.'.= 1 or f.thes. 'AccordiIig to'testsby the authors K... K = thefiltration. T m=the r teriiperature. H = . fa6tor. NO.» Expansion' of li~/.L. 11] FLOW OF WATER THROUGH SAND 1561 Equations (6) and (7) permit finding the degree of expansion of a sand.(unexpended) . L = the vertical deptliJf the 1nter'bed. grains and the of .d2 ofd.K. a plot of 1 f! f. forany consistent system' of length..'Shir!Ofl':-].4/g for any' consistentsystem.ed . ~OQ.''. So long as the computed porosity ratio is less than that of the unexpanded sand..= L (J)2 11~/sum [ r. Accordiitg to tests by the authors. ." .ailld){ lies in the fa. The notation of these four equations whiohate dimensionally correct and which h()ld.' therefore. in~quation (6).ct that in ane:lJ:panded ~allqb.• '[.

A. R lies betwelln. or specificgravity. we must know: (1) the depth of bed. HATCH [J. Computations are straightforward and may be aided by diagrams or tables of some of the recurring factors such as the temperature factor. (5) the shape of the sand.inst) porosity ratio. (2) the temperature of the water. A. In order to find by equations (I) or (II) the loss of head through a clean filter bed.ci~ic}(~sti()r. In order to find by equations (XII) and (IV) the degree of expansion of a filter bed. (4) the rate 'of wash per unit filter area. tions within the common limits of sand size. FAIR AND LORANUS P.nd density. = (~!)2 = the porosity factor. W. and insurfaceof sand exposed toflow.most approach to the problem.as aga. F E m'r"'" or viscosity-density. of the sand.the authors.60and 2. of the water both vary with the temperature of the water. (6) the shape of the sand and (7) the size-weight distribution of the sand as determined by a sieve analysis. since the viscosity. r. and (6) the size-weight distribution of the sand as determined by a sieve analysis. (3) the porosity ratio of the bed.. show close agreement between theory and experiment both in regard to individual variablesand collective effects. W. we must know: (1) the depth of the unexpanded bed. DISCUSSION Series of tests madeby. rn. the percent of sand by weight held between adjacent sieves. is the porosity ratio of the v S d P expanded sand. f. The chief factors which have not beenevaluatedarethe variation in free area of flow. the greater Based upon the geometrically normal 'distribution of sand . but not recorded in this paper.1562 GORDON M. The greater the llllIIlberof si~y:e . (2) the temperature of the water. the velocity of approach over the gross area of the bed. factor for expansion.v.as against total surface area.2. = R-r = the temperature.65 for quartz sands. f is the porosity ratio of the filter bed. (4) the rate of filtration per unit filter area. necessarily the. (3) the porosity ratio of the unexpanded bed. (5) the density. = = = = = i~. = the expansion characteristic. though not. the sand shape factor. Arithmetic summatdonsibased'<upon the weight analysis of sand are adhered ·to "in' this paper as giving most direct. the porosity factor and theexpansioncharacteristie. the geometric mean of the rated sizes of adjacent sieves. T.

. however. .. . however. . .1 1:2 1:3 As the title of the paper indicates. Eight of the sands used have uniformity coefficients less than 1.JR. a. The..6) Size variation (as given by Hazen's effective sizer: Slow sand filters (0. Chicago data show the following facts: " . the equations presented apply only to the stream-line flow of water throughisand.4 1: 1.. DISCUSSION HERBERT E. .. ... . (Junior Sanitary Engineer. L08~-:fi... 45 percent to 35 percent voids . .... Porosity variation. NO. 11] FLOWOF WATERTHROUGH SAND 1563 lhonly observed.) . 'According to limited observation by the authors.. Briefly. large number of observations on each of 22 small glass tube filters. Division of Water Purification. .•. '.' . There appears to be no reason .. from.. HUDSON.why the equations should not hold in many cases of ground-water movement as well 'as of the passage of gases and of liquids other than water through materials other than sand. Chicago.. the authors have been able to derive equations of ·fi(i)w:that resent a more complete mathematical solution.4..4 to 1... Chicago's experimental results include data.I1L): Chicago experiments on the flow through sand confirm generally the results. .. Temperature variation 68°F.ofthe probp lem in hand. ." "sand. The relative numerical importance of the factors included in the formulations are shown by the following schedule of ratios of head losses produced under normal conditions of filtration of cold water through clean sand beds. materials cover the entire range of filter. Shape variation rounded to angular.' the analogy that exists between pipes and sand beds in stream-Iineflow-sppears'to be capable of extension into the turbulent range of flowl"Theteliils' "water.. 1:2 1: 3 1: 1.) ". The other 14.30. " These data have been verified by further tests on plant size filters.1: Loss of head is proportional to depth.35 to 0. to 32°F . Rapid sand filters (0.' " .25. '.}"ep. has been purposely avoided in the present paper.25 mm. 6 1:1. Use of integral calculus. materials.35 mm.60 to 0.." "filtration" and "expansion" have-been used to simplify discussion and must not be considered true lim:itations:oftheequations proposed. of Fait and Hatch. Uniformity variation (as given by Hazen's coefficient): ' Slow sand filters (2 to 3) .:. . .. . Rapid sand filters (1. .

with the exception of Hulbert and Feben. Thesieve. we must remain content with measurementby.Acertain. However.eonoemed. It seems very likely that the data of Hulbert and Feben will support Fair's evaluation when they are converted to the same form. not new.screening. Chicago data show that it gives rlH1FA..1564 DISCUSSION [J. Fair's evaluation of porosity effect..Some reflnements on Hazen's method. as nearly spherical as it is possible to obtain should used. A. ~n"'I"tI. Loss of head is proportional to rate of flow.. 3.maymost nearly approximate the correct size usinglIazen~s method of calibrating the diameters of the last grains passing the sieve as perfect spheres. Loss of head is inversely proportional to the diameter of the sand grains.manufacturer'seating . Hazen's method of calibrating sieves is in most general use..These are: 1. This is' still one of the factors involved which remains to' be worked out accurately. Past workers on the effect of porosity on the flow of fluids through porous material have. Hulbert and Feben is simpler and quicker than ueterrmns bed. 2.!ibi'ation sand' shouldbe-preserved for future: brations. W. It has given more consistent results at Chicago than: the . At each laboratory a set time of screening ~hould be It will not be possible to fix this for all laboratories due to variation sieving equipment.as its-sieve analysis is now fixed by accurate DETERMINATION OF PORQSITY Without doubt the method of determining porosity . Chicago results closely check Prof... . For the present. But this time should be constant for each tory.standardisedweight of a "sieve. DETERMINATION OF SAND SIZE There has never been agreement on the determination of sand size. ' 4. A. On these factors there is general agreement among past workers.and the }sample taken for calibration of sieve should be taken the endof that stated sieving time. 3. . Thus we . but worthy of restatemep. of how to deterfuinesize by screening. however. There is a question. calibration sand" composed of sand. But whereporositjois.'ca.ican besllggested. Loss of head is directly related to the coefficient of viscosity. 2. W.fhere is either sharp disagreement or silence.t. failed to produce any consistent data.

Perhaps' filrlhe'r' researchwHF j show' biher' factors to havethe same influence upon clogging rate . diameter.22 glass tube filters have been made to find the effect of sand size on the filter runs. Of head.nectibnbetween initi'alldss: of head and 'C'lOggitlg. In tnaking this study several Sizesfrom the"'()ue percent to the 30 percent size. ttinaybe coihcid~ntal that the rate of ihdr~aseofioss' bfheaa depends 'on the sand size' iIi' the sallie inannerthat'theUrl'6ial%ss of head is dependent on sitlid siie.which"thiS result is based are avk'rages of. 11] FLOW OF WATER THROUGH SAND 1565 those obtained when the sand is placed in the bed. NO. say 20 degrees Centigrade. The Jackson tube tl3St can be used if a definite relation between its result and actual porosity can be shown.hat. The writer regards it 'as.a.ther~'is .Ii definitecon.not less than siXmonths of actual op~ration. the '10 percent size isa 'good!index of the rate of Increase of1oss. as temperature has a slight 'effect upon porosity.rate'. They show that for Chicago conditions.'good indication 1.~s.ve'uponinitial JosS of head:' " :' .' . FILTRATION EXPERIMENTS Further tests onthe . Forapproximatioils. The data upon. theclogging' tate (orrateofinorease of loss of head) varies inversely with the squate of the sand grain. . . The data obtained are convin:Ciflgly consistent.25. It is further suggested that the Jackson tube test be made at a fixed temperature. and SOllie of them inelude daily averag~s of two years 6f(jper~tion.thefha. were tried.

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