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PROBLEM 5.
1
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, in A , in. x , in. y
3
, in xA
3
, in yA
1 8 6 48 × = 4 − 9 192 − 432
2 16 12 192 × = 8 6 1536 1152
Σ 240 1344 1584
Then
3
2
1344 in
240 in
xA
X
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 5.60 in. X = W
and
3
2
1584 in
240 in
yA
Y
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 6.60 in. Y = W
PROBLEM 5.2
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, mm A , mm x , mm y
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
1
1
60 75 2250
2
× × =
40
25
90 000
56 250
2 105 75 7875 × = 112.5 37.5 885 900 295 300
Σ 10 125 975 900 351 600
Then
3
2
975 900 mm
10 125 mm
xA
X
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 96.4 mm X = W
and
3
2
351 600 mm
10 125 mm
yA
Y
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 34.7 mm Y = W
PROBLEM 5.3
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
For the area as a whole, it can be concluded by observation that
( )
2
24 in.
3
Y = or 16.00 in. Y = W
2
, in A , in. x
3
, in xA
1
1
24 10 120
2
× × =
( )
2
10 6.667
3
=
800
2
1
24 16 192
2
× × =
( )
1
10 16 15.333
3
+ =
2944
Σ 312 3744
Then
3
2
3744 in
312 in
xA
X
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 12.00 in. X = W
PROBLEM 5.4
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, mm A , mm x , mm y
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
1
21 22 462 × =
1.5
11
693
5082
2
( )( )
1
6 9 27
2
− = −
6 −
2
162
54 −
3
( )( )
1
6 12 36
2
− = −
8
2
288 −
72 −
Σ
399
567
4956
Then
3
2
567 mm
399 mm
xA
X
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 1.421 mm X = W
and
3
2
4956 mm
399 mm
yA
Y
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 12.42 mm Y = W
PROBLEM 5.5
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, mm A , mm x , mm y
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
1 120 200 24 000 × = 60 120 1 440 000 2 880 000
2
( )
2
60
5654.9
2
π
− = −
94.5
120
534 600 −
678 600 −
Σ
18 345
905 400
2 201 400
Then
3
2
905 400 mm
18 345 mm
xA
X
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 49.4 mm X = W
and
3
2
2 201 400 mm
18 345 mm
yA
Y
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 93.8 mm Y = W
PROBLEM 5.6
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, in A , in. x , in. y
3
, in xA
3
, in yA
1
( )
2
9
63.617
4
π
=
( )
( )
4 9
3.8917
3π
−
= −
3.8917
243 −
243
2
( )( )
1
15 9 67.5
2
=
5
3
337.5
202.5
Σ 131.1 94.5 445.5
Then
3
2
94.5 in
131.1 in
xA
X
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 0.721 in. X = W
and
3
2
445.5 in
131.1 in
yA
Y
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 3.40 in. Y = W
PROBLEM 5.7
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies X Y =
2
, mm A , mm x
3
, mm xA
1 40 40 1600 × = 20 32 000
2
2
(40)
1257
4
π
− = −
16.98
21 330 −
Σ 343 10 667
Then
3
2
10 667 mm
343 mm
xA
X
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 31.1 mm X = W
and 31.1 mm Y X = = W
PROBLEM 5.8
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 X = W
2
, in A , in. y
3
, in yA
1
( )
2
4
25.13
2
π
− = −
1.6977
42.67 −
2
( )
2
6
56.55
2
π
=
2.546
144
Σ 31.42 101.33
Then
3
2
101.33 in
31.42 in
yA
Y
A
Σ
= =
Σ
or 3.23 in. Y = W
PROBLEM 5.9
For the area of Problem 5.8, determine the ratio
2 1
/ r r so that
1
3 /4. y r =
SOLUTION
A y yA
1
2
1
2
r
π
−
1
4
3
r
π
3
1
2
3
r −
2
2
2
2
r
π
2
4
3
r
π
3
2
2
3
r
Σ
( )
2 2
2 1
2
r r
π
−
( )
3 3
2 1
2
3
r r −
Then Y A y A Σ = Σ
or
( ) ( )
2 2 3 3
1 2 1 2 1
3 2
4 2 3
r r r r r
π
× − = −
2 3
2 2
1 1
9
1 1
16
r r
r r
π
(
   
(
− = −
 
\ . \ . (
¸ ¸
Let
2
1
r
p
r
=
 
2
9
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)
16
p p p p p
π
+ − = − + +
or
2
16 (16 9 ) (16 9 ) 0 p p π π + − + − =
PROBLEM 5.9 CONTINUED
Then
2
(16 9 ) (16 9 ) 4(16)(16 9 )
2(16)
p
π π π − − ± − − −
=
or 0.5726 1.3397 p p = − =
Taking the positive root
2
1
1.340
r
r
= W
PROBLEM 5.10
Show that as
1
r approaches
2
, r the location of the centroid approaches that
of a circular arc of radius ( )
1 2
/ 2. r r +
SOLUTION
First, determine the location of the centroid.
From Fig. 5.8A:
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
sin
2
3
y r A r
π
π
π
α
α
α
−
= = −
−
( )
2
2
2 cos
3
r
π
α
α
=
−
Similarly
( )
( )
2
1 1 1 1
2
2
2 cos
3
y r A r
π
π
α
α
α
= = −
−
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 1 1
2 2
2 2
3 3
2 1
2 cos 2 cos
Then
3 3
2
cos
3
yA r r r r
r r
π π
π π
α α
α α
α α
α
( (
Σ = − − −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
− −
= −
( )
2 2
2 1
2 2
2 1
and
2 2
2
A r r
r r
π π
α α
π
α
   
Σ = − − −
 
\ . \ .
 
= − −

\ .
( ) ( )
2 2 3 3
2 1 2 1
3 3
2 1
2 2
2 1 2
Now
2
cos
2 3
2 cos
3
Y A yA
Y r r r r
r r
Y
r r
π
π
α α
α
α
Σ = Σ
(
 
− − = −
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
−
=
− −
PROBLEM 5.10 CONTINUED
Using Figure 5.8B, Y of an arc of radius ( )
1 2
1
is
2
r r +
( )
( )
( )
2
1 2
2
sin
1
2
Y r r
π
π
α
α
−
= +
−
( )
1 2
2
1 cos
( )
2
r r
π
α
α
= +
−
(1)
( )
( )
( )( )
2 2
3 3
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 2
2 1 2 1
2 1
Now
r r r r r r
r r
r r r r r r
r r r r
r r
− + +
−
=
− + −
+ +
=
+
2
1
Let r r
r r
= + ∆
= − ∆
Then ( )
1 2
1
2
r r r = +
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
3 3
2 1
2 2
2 1
2 2
and
3
2
r r r r r r
r r r r
r
r
+ ∆ + + ∆ − ∆ + − ∆ −
=
+ ∆ + − ∆ −
+ ∆
=
1 2
In the limit as 0 (i.e., ), then r r ∆ → =
3 3
2 1
2 2
2 1
1 2
3
2
3 1
( )
2 2
r r
r
r r
r r
−
=
−
= × +
so that ( )
1 2
2
2 3 cos
3 4
Y r r
π
α
α
= × +
−
or ( )
1 2
2
1 cos
2
Y r r
π
α
α
= +
−
W
Which agrees with Eq. (1).
PROBLEM 5.11
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 X = W
2
2 2 in., 45 r α = = °
( ) ( )
( )
4
2
4
2 2 2 sin
2 sin
1.6977 in.
3 3
r
y
π
π
α
α
= = = ′
2
, in A , in. y
3
, in yA
1 ( ) ( )
1
4 3 6
2
=
1
6
2 ( )
2
2 2 6.283
4
π
=
2 0.3024 y − = ′
1.8997
3 ( ) ( )
1
4 2 4
2
− = −
0.6667
2.667 −
Σ
8.283
5.2330
Then Y A yA Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
8.283 in 5.2330 in Y = or 0.632 in. Y = W
PROBLEM 5.12
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, mm A , mm x , mm y
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
1 (40)(90) 3600 = 15 − 20 54 000 − 72 000
2
( ) ( ) 40 60
2121
4
π
=
10
15 −
6750
10 125 −
3
( ) ( )
1
30 45 675
2
=
25.47 − 19.099 − 54 000 − 40 500 −
Σ 6396 101 250 − 21 375
Then XA xA = Σ
( )
2 3
6396 mm 101 250 mm X = − or 15.83 mm X = − W
and YA yA = Σ
( )
2 3
6396 mm 21 375 mm Y = or 3.34 mm Y = W
PROBLEM 5.13
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, mm A , mm x , mm y
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
1
( ) ( )
2
40 80 2133
3
=
48 15 102 400 32 000
2
( ) ( )
1
40 80 1600
2
− = −
53.33
13.333
85 330 −
21 330 −
Σ 533.3 17 067 10 667
Then X A XA Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
533.3 mm 17 067 mm X = or 32.0 mm X = W
and Y A yA Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
533.3 mm 10 667 mm Y = or 20.0 mm Y = W
PROBLEM 5.14
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, mm A , mm x , mm y
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
1
( )( )
2
150 240 24 000
3
=
56.25
96
1 350 000
2 304 000
2
( ) ( )
1
150 120 9000
2
− = −
50
40
450 000 −
360 000 −
Σ 15 000 900 000 1 944 000
Then X A xA Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
15 000 mm 900 000 mm X = or 60.0 mm X = W
and Y A yA Σ = Σ
( )
2
15 000 mm 1 944 000 Y = or 129.6 mm Y = W
PROBLEM 5.15
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, in A , in. x , in. y
3
, in xA
3
, in yA
1
( ) ( )
1
10 15 50
3
=
4.5
7.5
225
375
2
( )
2
15 176.71
4
π
=
6.366
16.366
1125
2892
Σ 226.71 1350 3267
Then X A x A Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
226.71 in 1350 in X = or 5.95 in. X = W
and Y A y A Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
226.71 in 3267 in Y = or 14.41 in. Y = W
PROBLEM 5.16
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, in A , in. x , in. y
3
, in xA
3
, in yA
1
( ) ( )
2
8 8 42.67
3
=
3
2.8
128
119.47
2
( ) ( )
2
4 2 5.333
3
− = −
1.5
0.8 −
8 −
4.267
Σ 37.33 120 123.73
Then X A x A Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
37.33 in 120 in X = or 3.21 in. X = W
and Y A y A Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
37.33 in 123.73 in Y = or 3.31 in. Y = W
PROBLEM 5.17
The horizontal x axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown
and divides the area into two component areas A
1
and A
2
. Determine
the first moment of each component area with respect to the x axis, and
explain the results obtained.
SOLUTION
Note that
x
Q yA = Σ
Then ( )
2
1
5 1
m 6 5 m
3 2
x
Q
   
= × ×
 
\ . \ .
or ( )
3 3
1
25.0 10 mm
x
Q = × W
and ( )
2 2
2
2 1 1 1
2.5 m 9 2.5 m 2.5 m 6 2.5 m
3 2 3 2
x
Q
     
= − × × × + − × × ×
   
\ .\ . \ .\ .
or ( )
3 3
2
25.0 10 mm
x
Q = − × W
Now ( ) ( )
1 2
0
x x x
Q Q Q = + =
This result is expected since x is a centroidal axis ( ) thus 0 y =
and ( ) 0 0
x x
Q y A Y A y Q = Σ = Σ = ⇒ =
PROBLEM 5.18
The horizontal x axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown
and divides the area into two component areas A
1
and A
2
. Determine
the first moment of each component area with respect to the x axis, and
explain the results obtained.
SOLUTION
First, locate the position y of the figure.
2
, mm A , mm y
3
, mm yA
1 160 300 48 000 × = 150 7 200 000
2 150 80 16 000 − × = − 160 2 560 000 −
Σ 32 000 4 640 000
Then Y A y A Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
32 000 mm 4 640 000 mm Y =
or 145.0 mm Y =
PROBLEM 5.18 CONTINUED
( )
I I
6 3
:
155 115
(160 155) 80 115
2 2
1.393 10 mm
A Q yA = Σ
( = × + − ×
¸ ¸
= × W
( ) ( )
II II
6 3
:
145 85
160 145 80 85
2 2
1.393 10 mm
A Q yA = Σ
(
= − × − − ×
(
¸ ¸
= − × W
( )
area I II
Q 0
x
Q Q ∴ = + =
Which is expected since
x
Q yA yA = Σ = and 0 y = ,
since x is a centroidal axis.
PROBLEM 5.19
The first moment of the shaded area with respect to the x axis is denoted
by .
x
Q (a) Express
x
Q in terms of r and . θ (b) For what value of θ is
x
Q maximum, and what is the maximum value?
SOLUTION
( ) With and using Fig. 5.8 A,
x
a Q yA = Σ
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
3 2 2 2
2 3
2
3 2
sin
1
sin 2 cos sin
2
2
cos cos sin
3
x
r
Q r r r r
r
π
π
π
θ
θ θ θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
(
−
 
( (
= − − × ×

¸ ¸
− ( \ .
¸ ¸
= −
or
3 3
2
cos
3
x
Q r θ = W
( ) b By observation, is maximum when
x
Q 0 θ = W
and then
3
2
3
x
Q r = W
PROBLEM 5.20
A composite beam is constructed by bolting four plates to four
2 2 3/8in. × × angles as shown. The bolts are equally spaced along the
beam, and the beam supports a vertical load. As proved in mechanics of
materials, the shearing forces exerted on the bolts at A and B are
proportional to the first moments with respect to the centroidal x axis of
the red shaded areas shown, respectively, in parts a and b of the figure.
Knowing that the force exerted on the bolt at A is 70 lb, determine the
force exerted on the bolt at B.
SOLUTION
From the problem statement:
x
F Q ∝
so that
( ) ( )
A B
x x
A B
F F
Q Q
=
and
( )
( )
x
B
B A
x
A
Q
F F
Q
=
Now
x
Q yA = ∑
So ( ) ( )
3
0.375
7.5 in. in. 10 in. 0.375 in. 28.82 in
2
x
A
Q
 
( = + × =
 ¸ ¸
\ .
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )( )
0.375
and 2 7.5 in. in. 1.625 in. 0.375 in.
2
2 7.5 in. 1 in. 2 in. 0.375 in.
x x
B A
Q Q
 
( = + −
 ¸ ¸
\ .
( + −
¸ ¸
3 3 3
28.82 in 8.921 in 9.75 in = + +
3
47.49 in =
Then ( )
3
3
47.49 in
70 lb 115.3 lb
28.82 in
B
F = = W
PROBLEM 5.21
A thin, homogeneous wire is bent to form the perimeter of the figure
indicated. Locate the center of gravity of the wire figure thus formed.
SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity will
coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line.
, in. L , in. x , in. y
2
, in xL
2
, in yL
1 16 8 0 128 0
2 12 16 6 102 72
3 24 4 12 96 288
4 6 8 − 9 48 − 54
5 8 4 − 6 32 − 48
6 6 0 3 0 18
Σ 72 336 480
Then X L x L Σ = Σ
( )
2
72 in. 336 in X = or 4.67 in. X =
and Y L y L Σ = Σ
2
(72 in.) 480 in Y = or 6.67 in. Y =
PROBLEM 5.22
A thin, homogeneous wire is bent to form the perimeter of the figure
indicated. Locate the center of gravity of the wire figure thus formed.
SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the
corresponding line.
, mm L , mm x , mm y
2
, mm xL
2
, mm yL
1 165 82.5 0 13 612 0
2 75 165 37.5 12 375 2812
3 105 112.5 75 11 812 7875
4
2 2
60 75 96.05 + = 30 37.5 2881 3602
Σ 441.05 40 680 14 289
Then X L x L Σ = Σ
2
(441.05 mm) 40 680 mm X = or 92.2 mm X =
and Y L y L Σ = Σ
2
(441.05 mm) 14 289 mm Y = 32.4 mm Y =
PROBLEM 5.23
A thin, homogeneous wire is bent to form the perimeter of the figure
indicated. Locate the center of gravity of the wire figure thus formed.
SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the
corresponding line.
, mm L , mm x , mm y
2
, mm xL
2
, mm yL
1
2 2
12 6 13.416 + = 6 3 80.50 40.25
2 16 12 14 192 224
3 21 1.5 22 31.50 462
4 16 9 − 14 144 − 224
5
2 2
6 9 10.817 + = 4.5 − 3 48.67 − 32.45
Σ 77.233 111.32 982.7
Then X L x L Σ = Σ
2
(77.233 mm) 111.32 mm X = or 1.441 mm X =
and Y L y L Σ = Σ
2
(77.233 mm) 982.7 mm Y = or 12.72 mm Y =
PROBLEM 5.24
A thin, homogeneous wire is bent to form the perimeter of the figure
indicated. Locate the center of gravity of the wire figure thus formed.
SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity will
coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line.
By symmetry 0 X =
, in. L , in. y
2
, in yL
1 2 0 0
2
( ) 6 π
( ) 2 6
3.820
π
=
72
3 2 0 0
4
( ) 4 π
( ) 2 4
2.546
π
=
32
Σ 35.416 104
Then Y L y L Σ = Σ
2
(35.416 in.) 104 in Y = or 2.94 in. Y =
PROBLEM 5.25
A 750 g = uniform steel rod is bent into a circular arc of radius 500 mm
as shown. The rod is supported by a pin at A and the cord BC. Determine
(a) the tension in the cord, (b) the reaction at A.
SOLUTION
( ) 0.5 m sin30
First note, from Figure 5.8B:
/6
X
°
=
π
1.5
m
π
=
( )
( )
2
Then mg
0.75 kg 9.81 m/s
7.358 N
W =
=
=
Also note that ∆ ABD is an equilateral triangle.
Equilibrium then requires
( ) ( )
( ) 0:
1.5
0.5 m m cos30 7.358 N 0.5 m sin 60 0
A
BC
a M
T
π
Σ =
(
 
( − ° − ° =
 (
¸ ¸
\ . ¸ ¸
or 1.4698 N
BC
T = or 1.470 N
BC
T =
( ) ( ) 0: 1.4698 N cos 60 0
x x
b F A Σ = + ° =
or 0.7349 N
x
A = −
( ) 0: 7.358 N 1.4698 N sin 60 0
y y
F A Σ = − + ° =
or 6.085 N
y
A = thus 6.13 N = A 83.1°
PROBLEM 5.26
The homogeneous wire ABCD is bent as shown and is supported by a pin
at B. Knowing that 8 in., l = determine the angle θ for which portion
BC of the wire is horizontal.
SOLUTION
First note that for equilibrium, the center of gravity of the wire must lie
on a vertical line through B. Further, because the wire is homogeneous,
its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding
line.
Thus 0, which implies that 0
B
M x Σ = = or 0 xL Σ =
Hence
( ) ( )
2(6 in.) 8 in.
6 in. 8 in.
2
π
π
 
− × +

\ .
( )
6 in.
8 in. cos 6 in. 0
2
θ
 
+ − =

\ .
Then
4
cos
9
θ = or 63.6 θ = °
PROBLEM 5.27
The homogeneous wire ABCD is bent as shown and is supported by a pin
at B. Knowing that 30 , θ = ° determine the length l for which portion CD
of the wire is horizontal.
SOLUTION
First note that for equilibrium, the center of gravity of the wire must lie on
a vertical line through B. Further, because the wire is homogeneous, its
center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line.
Thus 0, which implies that 0
B
M x Σ = = or 0
i i
x L Σ =
Hence
( )
( ) ( )
2 6 in.
cos30 6 in. sin30 6 in. π
π
(
− ° + ° ×
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )
in.
cos30 in.
2
l
l
(
+ °
(
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
6 in.
in. cos30 6 in. 0
2
l
(
+ ° − =
(
¸ ¸
or
2
12.0 316.16 0 l l + − =
1
with roots 12.77 and 24.77. l = −
Taking the positive root
12.77 in. l =
PROBLEM 5.28
The homogeneous wire ABCD is bent as shown and is attached to a hinge
at C. Determine the length L for which the portion BCD of the wire is
horizontal.
SOLUTION
First note that for equilibrium, the center of gravity of the wire must lie on
a vertical line through C. Further, because the wire is homogeneous, its
center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line.
Thus 0, which implies that 0
C
M x Σ = =
or 0
i i
x L Σ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Hence 4 in. 8 in. 4 in. 10 in. 0
2
L
L + − + − =
or
2 2
144 in L = or 12.00 in. L =
PROBLEM 5.29
Determine the distance h so that the centroid of the shaded area is as close
to line BB′ as possible when (a) 0.2, k = (b) 0.6. k =
SOLUTION
Then
yA
y
A
Σ
=
Σ
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
or
a h a
ab kb a h
y
ba kb a h
( +
( − −
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
=
− −
( )
2 2
1 1
2 (1 )
a k kh
a k kh
− +
=
− +
Let 1 and
h
c k
a
ζ = − =
Then
2
2
a c k
y
c k
ζ
ζ
+
=
+
(1)
Now find a value of ζ (or h) for which y is minimum:
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
0
2
k c k k c k
dy a
d
c k
ζ ζ ζ
ζ
ζ
+ − +
= =
+
or ( )
( )
2
2 0 c k c k ζ ζ ζ + − + = (2)
PROBLEM 5.29 CONTINUED
Expanding (2)
2 2
2 2 0 c c k ζ ζ ζ + − − = or
2
2 0 k c c ζ ζ + − =
Then
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 4
2
c c k c
k
ζ
− ± −
=
Taking the positive root, since 0 h > (hence 0 ζ > )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 1 4 1 4 1
2
k k k k
h a
k
− − + − + −
=
(a) 0.2: k =
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
2
2 1 0.2 4 1 0.2 4 0.2 1 0.2
2 0.2
h a
− − + − + −
= or 0.472 h a =
(b) 0.6: k =
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
2
2 1 0.6 4 1 0.6 4 0.6 1 0.6
2 0.6
h a
− − + − + −
= or 0.387 h a =
PROBLEM 5.30
Show when the distance h is selected to minimize the distance y from
line BB′ to the centroid of the shaded area that . y h =
SOLUTION
From Problem 5.29, note that Eq. (2) yields the value of ζ that minimizes h.
Then from Eq. (2)
We see
2
2
c k
c k
ζ
ζ
ζ
+
=
+
(3)
Then, replacing the righthand side of (1) by 2ζ , from Eq. (3)
We obtain ( ) 2
2
a
y ζ =
But
h
a
ζ =
So y h = Q.E.D.
PROBLEM 5.31
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express
your answer in terms of a and h.
SOLUTION
For the element of area (EL) shown
h
y x
a
=
( ) and
1
dA h y dx
x
h dx
a
= −
 
= −

\ .
( )
Then
1
2
1
2
EL
EL
x x
y h y
h x
a
=
= +
 
= +

\ .
2
0
0
1
Then area 1
2 2
a
a x x
A dA h dx h x ah
a a
 
 
= = − = − =
 
\ .
\ .
∫ ∫
2 3
2
0
0
2 2
2 0 0
2 3
2
2
0
1
and 1
2 3 6
1 1 1
2 2
1
2 3 3
a
a
EL
a a
EL
a
x x x
x dA x h dx h a h
a a
h x x h x
y dA h dx dx
a a a
h x
x ah
a
 
(
 
= − = − =

 (

\ . ¸ ¸
\ .
 
(
   
= + − = −

  (

\ . \ . ¸ ¸
\ .
 
= − =


\ .
∫ ∫
∫ ∫ ∫
2
Hence
1 1
2 6
EL
xA x dA
x ah a h
=
 
=

\ .
∫
1
3
x a =
2
1 1
2 3
EL
yA y dA
y ah ah
=
 
=

\ .
∫
2
3
y h =
PROBLEM 5.32
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express
your answer in terms of a and h.
SOLUTION
For the element (EL) shown
At
3
, : x a y h h ka = = = or
3
h
k
a
=
Then
1/3
1/3
a
x y
h
=
1/3
1/3
Now dA xdy
a
y dy
h
=
=
1/3
1/ 3
1 1
,
2 2
EL EL
a
x x y y y
h
= = =
Then
( )
1/3 4/3
1/3 1/3 0
0
3 3
4 4
h
h a a
A dA y dy y ah
h h
= = = =
∫ ∫
1/3 1/3 5/3 2
1/3 1/3 2/3 0
0
1 1 3 3
and
2 2 5 10
h
h
EL
a a a
x dA y y dy y a h
h h h
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
∫ ∫
1/3 7/3 2
1/3 1/3 0
0
3 3
7 7
h
h
EL
a a
y dA y y dy y ah
h h
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
∫ ∫
Hence
2
3 3
:
4 10
EL
xA x dA x ah a h
 
= =

\ .
∫
2
5
x a =
2
3 3
:
4 7
EL
yA y dA y ah ah
 
= =

\ .
∫
4
7
y h =
PROBLEM 5.33
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express
your answer in terms of a and h.
SOLUTION
For the element (EL) shown
At
3
1
, : x a y h h k a = = = or
1
3
h
k
a
=
3
2
a k h = or
2
3
a
k
h
=
Hence, on line 1
3
3
h
y x
a
=
and on line 2
1/3
1/3
h
y x
a
=
Then
1/3 3 1/3 3
1/3 3 1/3 3
1
and
2
EL
h h h h
dA x x dx y x x
a a a a
   
= − = +
 
\ . \ .
1/3 3 4/3 4
1/3 3 1/3 3 0
0
3 1 1
2 4 4
a
a h h
A dA x x dx h x x ah
a a a a
   
∴ = = − = − =
 
\ . \ .
∫ ∫
1/3 3 7/3 5 2
1/3 3 1/3 3 0
0
3 1 8
35 7 5
a
a
EL
h h
x dA x x x dx h x x a h
a a a a
   
= − = − =
 
\ . \ .
∫ ∫
1/3 3 1/3 3
1/3 3 1/3 3 0
1
2
a
EL
h h h h
y dA x x x x dx
a a a a
  
= + −
 
\ .\ .
∫ ∫
2 2/3 6 2 5/3 6
2
2/3 6 5/3 6 0
0
3 1 8
2 2 5 7 35
a
a h x x h x x
dx ah
a a a a
   
= − = − =
 
 
\ . \ .
∫
From
2
8
:
2 35
EL
ah
xA x dA x a h
 
= =

\ .
∫
or
16
35
x a =
and
2
8
:
2 35
EL
ah
yA y dA y ah
 
= =

\ .
∫
or
16
35
y h =
PROBLEM 5.34
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 x =
For the element (EL) shown
2
(Figure 5.8B)
EL
r
y
dA rdr
π
π
=
=
Then
( )
2
2
1
1
2
2 2
2 1
2 2
r
r
r
r
r
A dA rdr r r
π
π π
 
= = = = −


\ .
∫ ∫
and ( )
( )
2
2
1
1
3 3 3
2 1
2 1 2
2
3 3
r
r
EL
r
r
r
y dA rdr r r r π
π
 
= = = −

\ .
∫ ∫
So
( ) ( )
2 2 3 3
2 1 2 1
2
:
2 3
EL
yA y dA y r r r r
π (
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
∫
or
3 3
2 1
2 2
2 1
4
3
r r
y
r r π
−
=
−
PROBLEM 5.35
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 x =
For the element (EL) shown
cos , sin y R x R θ θ = =
cos dx R d θ θ =
2 2
cos dA ydx R d θ θ = =
Hence
( )
2 2 2 2
0
0
sin 2 1
2 cos 2 2 sin 2
2 4 2
A dA R d R R
α
α θ θ
θ θ α α
 
= = = + =

\ .
∫ ∫
( )
( )
2 2 3 2
0
0
3
2
1 2
2 cos cos cos sin sin
2 3 3
cos sin 2sin
3
EL
R
y dA R d R
R
α
α
θ θ θ θ θ θ
α α α
 
= = +

\ .
= +
∫ ∫
But so
EL
yA y dA =
∫
( )
( )
3
2
2
cos sin 2sin
3
2 sin 2
2
R
y
R
α α α
α α
+
=
+
or
( )
( )
2
cos 2
2
sin
3 2 sin 2
y R
α
α
α α
+
=
+
Alternatively,
2
2 3 sin
sin
3 2 sin 2
y R
α
α
α α
−
=
+
PROBLEM 5.36
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.
SOLUTION
For the element (EL) shown
2 2
b
y a x
a
= −
( )
( )
2 2
and dA b y dx
b
a a x dx
a
= −
= − −
( )
( )
2 2
1
;
2 2
EL EL
b
x x y y b a a x
a
= = + = + −
Then
( )
2 2
0
a b
A dA a a x dx
a
= = − −
∫ ∫
To integrate, let
2 2
sin : a cos , cos x a x a dx a d θ θ θ θ = − = =
( )( )
/2
0
/2
2 2
0
Then cos cos
2
sin sin 1
2 4 4
b
A a a a d
a
b
a a ab
a
π
π
θ θ θ
θ θ π
θ
= −
(
   
= − + = −
  (
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
∫
( )
( )
/2
3/2
2 2 2 2 2
0
0
3
1
and
2 3
1
6
a
EL
b b a
x dA x a a x dx x a x
a a
a b
π
(
(  
= − − = + −
 ( (
¸ ¸ \ .
¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2 2
0
2 2 3
2 2
2 2 0
0
2
1
3 6 2 2
a
EL
a
a
b b
y dA a a x a a x dx
a a
b b x
x dx ab
a a
(
= + − − −
(
¸ ¸
 
= = =


\ .
∫ ∫
∫
2
1
: 1
4 6
EL
xA x dA x ab a b
π (  
= − =
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
∫
or
( )
2
3 4
a
x
π
=
−
2
1
: 1
4 6
EL
yA y dA y ab ab
π (  
= − =
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
∫
or
( )
2
3 4
b
y
π
=
−
PROBLEM 5.37
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express
your answer in terms of a and b.
SOLUTION
For the element (EL) shown on line 1 at
2
2
, x a b k a = = or
2
2
b
k
a
=
2
2
b
y x
a
∴ =
On line 2 at
3
1
, 2 x a b k a = − = or
2
3
2b
k
a
−
=
3
3
2
b
y x
a
−
∴ =
2 3
2 3
2 b b
dA x x dx
a a
 
= +

\ .
3 3 4
2
2 2 0
0
2 2
Then
3 4
1 1 5
3 2 6
a
a b x b x x
A dA x dx
x a a a
ab ab
   
= = + = +
 
\ . \ .
 
= + =

\ .
∫ ∫
4 5
2 3 2
2 3 2 0
0
2
2 2 1 2
and
4 5 4 5
13
20
a
a
EL
b b b x x
x dA x x x dx a b
a a a a
a b
 
   
= + = + = +

 

\ . \ .
\ .
=
∫ ∫
2 3 2 3
2 3 2 3 0
2 2
2 5
2 3 7
2 3 4 2 0
0
2 5 2
1 2 2
2
1 2 2
2 5 2 7
1 2 13
10 7 70
a
EL
a
a
b b b b
y dA x x x x dx
a a a a
b b b x
x x dx x
a a a a
b a ab
(
   
= − +
  (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
(
 
   
= − = − (

 

\ . \ . (
\ .
¸ ¸
 
= − = −

\ .
∫ ∫
∫
Then
2
5 13
:
6 20
EL
xA x dA x ab a b
 
= =

\ .
∫
or
39
50
x a =
2
5 13
:
6 70
EL
yA y dA y ab ab
 
= −

\ .
∫
or
39
175
y b = −
PROBLEM 5.38
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express
your answer in terms of a and b.
SOLUTION
At 0, x y b = =
( )
2
0 b k a = − or
2
b
k
a
=
Then ( )
2
2
b
y x a
a
= −
Now ( )
2
2
,
2 2
EL EL
y b
x x y x a
a
= = = −
and ( )
2
2
b
dA ydx x a dx
a
= = −
( ) ( )
2 3
2 2 0
0
1
Then
3 3
a
a b b
A dA x a dx x a ab
a a
(
= = − = − =
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
3 2 2
2 2 0 0
4 2
3 2 2
2
2
2 2 5
2 2 4 0
0
2
and 2
2 1
4 3 2 12
1
5 2 2
1
10
a a
EL
a
a
EL
b b
x dA x x a dx x ax a x dx
a a
b x a
ax x a b
a
b b b
y dA x a x a dx x a
a a a
ab
(
= − = − +
(
¸ ¸
 
= − + =


\ .
( (
= − − = −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
Hence
2
1 1
:
3 12
EL
xA x dA x ab a b
 
= =

\ .
∫
1
4
x a =
2
1 1
:
3 10
EL
yA y dA y ab ab
 
= =

\ .
∫
3
10
y b =
PROBLEM 5.39
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.
SOLUTION
2
2
2
2
Have
1
1
2 2
1
EL
EL
x x
a x x
y y
L L
x x
dA ydx a dx
L L
=
 
= = − +


\ .
 
= = − +


\ .
Then
2
2 2 3
2
2 2 0
0
8
1
2 3 3
L
L x x x x
A dA a dx a x aL
L L L L
  (
= = − + = − + =
(

\ .
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
2
2 2 3 4
2
2 2 0
0
2
2 2
2
2 2 0
2 2 3 4
2 3 4 0
2 2 3 4
2 3
and 1
2 3 4
10
3
1 1
2
1 2 3 2
2
2 2
L
L
EL
L
EL
EL
x x x x x
x dA x a dx a
L L L L
aL
a x x x x
y dA a dx
L L L L
a x x x x
dx
L L L L
a x x x
x
L L L
(
  (
= − + = − + (  (

( \ . ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
=
(    
= − + − + (  
 
( \ . \ .
¸ ¸
 
= − + − +


\ .
= − + − +
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
∫
2
5
2
4
0
11
5 5
L
x
a L
L
(
=
(
¸ ¸
Hence
2
8 10
:
3 3
EL
xA x dA x aL aL
 
= =

\ .
∫
5
4
x L =
2
1 11
:
8 5
EL
yA y dA y a a
 
= =

\ .
∫
33
40
y a =
PROBLEM 5.40
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express
your answer in terms of a and b.
SOLUTION
For
1
at , 2 y x a y b = =
2
2b ka = or
2
2b
k
a
=
Then
2
1
2
2b
y x
a
=
By observation ( )
2
2 2
b x
y x b b
a a
 
= − + = −

\ .
Now
and for 0 :
EL
x x
x a
=
≤ ≤
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 2
and
2
EL
b b
y y x dA y dx x dx
a a
= = = =
For 2 : a x a ≤ ≤
2 2
1
2 and 2
2 2
EL
b x x
y y dA y dx b dx
a a
   
= = − = = −
 
\ . \ .
2
2
2 0
2
2
3
2
0
0
2
Then 2
2 7
2
3 2 6
a a
a
a
a
b x
A dA x dx b dx
a a
b x a x
b ab
a a
 
= = + −

\ .
(
(
 
= + − − = (
(

\ . (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
∫ ∫ ∫
( ) ( )
{
( )
( )
2
2
2 0
2
4 3
2
2
0 0
2 2 3
2 2
2
2
and 2
2
4 3
1 1
2 2
2 3
7
6
a a
EL
a
a a
b x
x dA x x dx x b dx
a a
b x x
b x
a a
a b b a a a a
a
a b
(
   
= + −
  (
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
( (
= + −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¹
( (
= + − + −
`
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
)
=
∫ ∫ ∫
PROBLEM 5.40 CONTINUED
2
2 2
2 2 0 0
2
3
2 5 2
4
0
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
5 2 3
17
30
a a
EL
a
a
a
b b b x x
y dA x x dx b dx
a a a a
b x b a x
a a
ab
(
(    
= + − −
  ( (
¸ ¸ \ . \ .
¸ ¸
(
(
 
= + − − (
(

\ . (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫ ∫
Hence
2
7 7
:
6 6
EL
xA x dA x ab a b
 
= =

\ .
∫
x a =
2
7 17
:
6 30
EL
yA y dA y ab ab
 
= =

\ .
∫
17
35
y b =
PROBLEM 5.41
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express
your answer in terms of a and b.
SOLUTION
2
For y at , : x a y b = =
2
a kb = or
2
a
k
b
=
Then
1/2
2
b
y x
a
=
1/2 1/2
2
2
Now
and for 0 : ,
2 2 2
EL
EL
x x
a y b x x
x y dA y dx b dx
a a
=
≤ ≤ = = = =
For ( )
1/2
1 2
1 1
:
2 2 2 2
EL
a b x x
x a y y y
a a
 
≤ ≤ = + = − +


\ .
( )
1/2
2 1
1
2
x x
dA y y dx b dx
a a
 
= − = − +

\ .
( )
( )
( )
1/2 1/2
/2
0 /2
/2
3/2 2
3/2
0
/2
3/2 3/2
3/2
2
2
1
Then
2
2 2 1
3 3 2 2
2
3 2 2
1 1
2 2 2 2
a a
a
a
a
a
x x x
A dA b dx b dx
a a a
b x x
x b x
a a a
b a a
a
a
a a
b a a
a
 
= = + − +


\ .
(
(
= + − +
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
   
= + − (
 
\ . \ . (
¸ ¸
(
(    
+ − − + − (
 
\ . \ . ( ¸
¸ ¸
∫ ∫ ∫
13
24
ab
¹ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
(
¸
¦ ¦
¹
)
=
PROBLEM 5.41 CONTINUED
( )
( ) ( )
1/2 1/2
/2
0 /2
/2
5/2 3 4
5/2
0
/2
5/2 5/2
5/2
3
3 2
1
and
2
2 2
5 5 3 4
2
5 2 2
1 1
3 2 4
a a
EL
a
a
a
a
x x x
x dA x b dx x b dx
a a a
b x x x
x b
a a a
b a a
a
a
a
b a a
a
(    
= + − + (  
 
( \ . \ .
¸ ¸
(
(
= + − +
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
   
= + − (
 
\ . \ . (
¸ ¸
(
 
+ − − + − (

\ . (
¸ ¸
∫ ∫ ∫
2
2
1/2 1/2
/2
0
1/2 1/2
/2
/2 3
2 2 2
2
0
/2
2
71
240
2
1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2 2 3 2
4
a
EL
a
a
a
a
a
a
a b
b x x
y dA b dx
a a
b x x x x
b dx
a a a a
b b x x
x
a a a a
b
¹
¦
(
¦ ¦  
(
´ `

\ . (
¦ ¦
¸ ¸
¹
)
=
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(    
+ − + − + (  
 
( \ . \ .
¸ ¸
(  
(  
(  = + − −

(

( ¸ ¸ \ .
\ .
¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫
∫
( )
2 2 3
2
2
2
1
2 2 6 2 2
11
48
a a b a
a
a a
ab
(
     
+ − − − (
  
\ . \ . \ . (
¸ ¸
=
Hence
2
13 71
:
24 240
EL
xA x dA x ab a b
 
= =

\ .
∫
17
0.546
130
x a a = =
2
13 11
:
24 48
EL
yA y dA y ab ab
 
= =

\ .
∫
11
0.423
26
y b b = =
PROBLEM 5.42
A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown. Determine by direct
integration the x coordinate of its centroid. Express your answer in terms
of a.
SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity
coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line
Have at
2
, : x a y a a ka = = = or
1
k
a
=
Thus
2
1 2
and y x dy xdx
a a
= =
( )
2 2
2 2
2
2 2 2 0
0
2
2
2
Then 1 1
4 4 2 4
1 1 ln 1
2 4
5 ln 2 5 1.4789
2 4
4
1
a
a
EL
dy
dL dx x dx
dx a
x x a x
L dL x dx x
a a a a
a a
a
x
x dL x dx
a
   
= + = +
 
\ . \ .
(
 
(  ∴ = = + = + + + +

(
\ . ¸ ¸
= + + =
 
 = +

\ .
∫ ∫
∫
( )
3/2
2
2
2 0
0
2
3/2 2
2 4
1
3 8
5 1 0.8484
12
a
a a
x
a
a
a
(
 
 
= + (



\ . (
\ .
¸ ¸
= − =
∫
Then ( )
2
: 1.4789 0.8484
EL
xL x dL x a a = =
∫
0.574 x a =
PROBLEM 5.43
A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown. Determine by direct
integration the x coordinate of its centroid.
SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity
coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line
Now cos
EL
x r θ = and dL rdθ =
Then  
7 /4 7 /4
/4 /4
3
2
L dL rd r r
π π
π π
θ θ π = = = =
∫ ∫
and ( )
7 /4
/4
cos
EL
x dL r rd
π
π
θ θ =
∫ ∫
 
7 /4
2 2 2
/4
1 1
sin 2
2 2
r r r
π
π
θ
 
= = − − = −

\ .
2
3
Thus : 2
2
xL xdL x r r π
 
= = −

\ .
∫
2 2
3
x r
π
= −
PROBLEM 5.44
A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown. Determine by direct
integration the x coordinate of its centroid.
SOLUTION
First note that because the wire is homogeneous, its center of gravity
coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line
Now
3
cos
EL
x a θ = and
2 2
dL dx dy = +
Where
3 2
cos : 3 cos sin x a dx a d θ θ θ θ = = −
3 2
sin : 3 sin cos y a dy a d θ θ θ θ = =
( ) ( )
( )
1/2
2 2
2 2
1/2
2 2
/
2
0
Then 3 cos sin 3 sin cos
3 cos sin cos sin
3 cos sin
1
3 cos sin 3 sin
2
dL a d a d
a d
a d
L dL a d a
π
θ θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
(
= − +
(
¸ ¸
= +
=
(
∴ = = =
(
¸ ¸
∫
/ 2
2
0
3
2
a
π
=
∫
( )
/ 2
3
0
/ 2
2 5 2
0
and cos 3 cos sin
1 3
3 cos
5 5
EL
x dL a a d
a a
π
π
θ θ θ θ
θ
=
(
= − =
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
Hence
2
3 3
:
2 5
EL
xL x dL x a a
 
= =

\ .
∫
2
5
x a =
PROBLEM 5.44 CONTINUED
Alternative solution
2/3
3 2
2/3
3 2
cos cos
sin sin
x
x a
a
y
y a
a
θ θ
θ θ
 
= ⇒ =

\ .
 
= ⇒ =

\ .
( )
( ) ( )
2/3 2/3
3/2
2/3 2/3
1/2
2/3 2/3 1/3
1 or
Then
x y
y a x
a a
dy
a x x
dx
−
   
∴ + = = −
 
\ . \ .
= − −
( ) ( )
1/2
2 2
1/2
2/3 2/3 1/3
Now
and 1 1
EL
x x
dy
dL dx a x x dx
dx
−
=
¦ ¹
¦ ¦   (
= + = + − −
´ `

(
¸ ¸ \ .
¦ ¦
¹ )
1/3
1/3 2/3
1/ 3 0
0
3 3
Then
2 2
a
a a
L dL dx a x a
x
(
= = = =
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
and
1/3
1/3 5/3 2
1/3 0
0
3 3
5 5
a
a
EL
a
x dL x dx a x a
x
 
(
= = =
 (
\ . ¸ ¸
∫ ∫
Hence
2
3 3
:
2 5
EL
xL x dL x a a
 
= =

\ .
∫
2
5
x a =
PROBLEM 5.45
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.
SOLUTION
2 2
Have cos cos
3 3
2 2
sin sin
3 3
EL
EL
x r ae
y r ae
θ
θ
θ θ
θ θ
= =
= =
( )( )
2 2
1 1
and
2 2
dA r rd a e d
θ
θ θ = =
Then
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0
1 1 1 1
1 133.623
2 2 2 4
A dA a e d a e a e a
π
π
θ θ π
θ
(
= = = = − =
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
and
2 2 3 3
0 0
2 1 1
cos cos
3 2 3
EL
x dA ae a e d a e d
π π
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
 
= =

\ .
∫ ∫ ∫
To proceed, use integration by parts, with
3 3
and 3
cos and sin
u e du e d
dv d v
θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
= =
= =
Then
( )
3 3 3
cos sin sin 3 e d e e d
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ = −
∫ ∫
Now let
3 3
then 3 u e du e d
θ θ
θ = =
sin , then cos dv d v θ θ θ = = −
Then ( )
( )
3 3 3 3
sin sin 3 cos cos 3 e d e e e d
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ θ
−
(
= − − − −
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
So that ( )
3
3
cos sin 3cos
10
e
e d
θ
θ
θ θ θ θ = +
∫
( )
( )
3 3
3 3 3
0
1
sin 3cos 3 3 1239.26
3 10 30
EL
e a
x dA a e a
π
θ
π
θ θ
(
∴ = + = − − = −
(
¸ ¸
∫
Also
2 2 3 3
0 0
2 1 1
sin sin
3 2 3
EL
y dA ae a e d a e d
π π
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
 
= =

\ .
∫ ∫ ∫
PROBLEM 5.45 CONTINUED
Using integration by parts, as above, with
3 3
and 3 u e du e d
θ θ
θ = =
sin and cos dv d v θ θ θ = = −
∫
Then ( )
( )
3 3 3
sin cos cos 3 e d e e d
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ = − − −
∫ ∫
So that ( )
3
3
sin cos 3sin
10
e
e d
θ
θ
θ θ θ θ = − +
∫
( )
( )
3 3
3 3 3
0
1
cos 3sin 1 413.09
3 10 30
EL
e a
y dA a e a
π
θ
π
θ θ
(
∴ = − + = + =
(
¸ ¸
∫
Hence
( )
2 3
: 133.623 1239.26
EL
xA x dA x a a = = −
∫
or 9.27 x a = −
( )
2 3
: 133.623 413.09
EL
yA y dA y a a = =
∫
or 3.09 y a =
PROBLEM 5.46
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.
SOLUTION
Have
1
, sin
2
EL EL
x
x x y x
L
π
= =
and
dA ydx =
/2
2 2
/2
2 2 0
0
sin sin cos
L
L x L x L x L
A dA x dx x
L L L
π π π
π π π
(
= = = − =
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
and
/2
0
sin
L
EL
x
x x dA x x dx
L
π  
= =

\ .
∫ ∫
/2
2 3 3 3
2
2 3 2 3
0
2 2
sin cos sin 2
L
L x L x L x L L
x x
L L L
π π π
π π π π π
(
     
= + − = −
(
  
\ . \ . \ .
¸ ¸
Also
/2
0
1
sin sin
2
L
EL
x x
y y dA x x dx
L L
π π  
= =

\ .
∫ ∫
/2
2 3
2 3
0
1 2 2
sin cos
2
L
L x L L x
x x
L L
π π
π π π
(  
= − − ( 

( \ .
¸ ¸
( )
( )
3 2 3
2
2 2
1 1
1 6
2 6 8 2 4 96
L L L L
π
π π
(
 
 
= − − = + ( 


\ .
( \ . ¸ ¸
PROBLEM 5.46 CONTINUED
Hence
2
3
2 2 3
1
:
EL
L z
xA x dA x L
π π π
 
 
= = −



\ .
\ .
∫
or 0.363 x L =
2 3
2 2 2 3
1 2
:
96
EL
L L
yA y dA y
π π π π
 
 
= = −



\ .
\ .
∫
or 0.1653 y L =
PROBLEM 5.47
Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by
rotating the area of Problem. 5.2 about (a) the x axis, (b) the line
165 x = mm.
SOLUTION
From the solution to Problem 5.2:
( )
2
area area
10 125 mm , 96.4 mm, 34.7 mm Area A X Y = = =
From the solution to Problem 5.22:
( )
line line
441.05 mm 92.2 mm, 32.4 mm Line L X Y = = =
Applying the theorems of PappusGuldinus, we have
(a) Rotation about the x axis:
( )( )
3 2
line
Area 2 2 32.4 mm 441.05 mm 89.786 10 mm Y L π π = = = ×
3 2
89.8 10 mm A = ×
( )( )
6 3
area
Volume 2 2 34.7 mm 10125 mm 2.2075 10 mm Y A π π = = = ×
6 3
2.21 10 mm V = ×
(b) Rotation about 165 mm: x =
( ) ( ) ( )
5 2
line
Area 2 165 2 165 92.2 mm 441.05 mm 2.01774 10 mm X L π π ( = − = − = ×
¸ ¸
6 2
0.202 10 mm A = ×
( ) ( ) ( )
6 3
area
Volume 2 165 2 165 96.4 mm 10 125 mm 4.3641 10 mm X A π π ( = − = − = ×
¸ ¸
6 3
4.36 10 mm V = ×
PROBLEM 5.48
Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by
rotating the area of Problem 5.4 about (a) the line 22 y = mm, (b) the
line 12 x = mm.
SOLUTION
From the solution to Problem 5.4:
2
area area
399 mm , 1.421mm, 12.42 mm (Area) A X Y = = =
From the solution to Problem 5.23:
line line
77.233 mm, 1.441mm, 12.72 mm (Line) L X Y = = =
Applying the theorems of PappusGuldinus, we have
(a) Rotation about the line 22 mm: y =
( ) ( ) ( )
2
line
Area 2 22 2 22 12.72 mm 77.233 mm 4503 mm Y L π π ( = − = − =
¸ ¸
3 2
4.50 10 mm A = ×
( ) ( )
( )
2 3
area
Volume 2 22 2 22 12.42 mm 399 mm 24 016.97 mm Y A π π ( = − = − =
¸ ¸
3 3
24.0 10 mm V = ×
(b) Rotation about line 12 mm: x =
( ) ( ) ( )
2
line
Area 2 12 2 12 1.441 mm 77.233 mm 5124.45 mm X L π π ( = − = − =
¸ ¸
3 2
5.12 10 mm A = ×
( ) ( )
( )
2 3
Volume 2 12 1.421 2 12 1.421 mm 399 mm 26 521.46 mm A π π ( = − = − =
¸ ¸
3 3
26.5 10 mm V = ×
PROBLEM 5.49
Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by
rotating the area of Problem 5.1 about (a) the x axis, (b) the line
16 in. x =
SOLUTION
From the solution to Problem 5.1:
2
area area
240 in , 5.60 in., 6.60 in. (Area) A X Y = = =
From the solution to Problem 5.21:
line line
72 in., 4.67 in., 6.67 in. L X Y = = =
Applying the theorems of PappusGuldinus, we have
( ) Rotation about the axis: a x
( )( )
2
line
2 2 6.67 in. 72 in. 3017.4 in
x
A Y L π π = = =
2
3020 in A =
( )
( )
2 3
area
2 2 6.60 in. 240 in 9952.6 in
x
V Y A π π = = =
3
9950 in V =
( ) Rotation about 16 in.: b x =
( ) ( ) ( )
2
16 line
2 16 2 16 4.67 in. 72 in. 5125.6 in
x
A X L π π
=
( = − = − =
¸ ¸
2
16
5130 in
x
A
=
=
( ) ( )
( )
2 3
16 area
2 16 2 16 5.60 in. 240 in 15 682.8 in
x
V X A π π
=
( = − = − =
¸ ¸
3 3
16
15.68 10 in
x
V
=
= ×
PROBLEM 5.50
Determine the volume of the solid generated by rotating the semielliptical
area shown about (a) the axis , AA′ (b) the axis , BB′ (c) the y axis.
SOLUTION
Applying the second theorem of PappusGuldinus, we have
(a) Rotation about axis : AA′
( )
2 2
Volume 2 2
2
ab
yA a a b
π
π π π
 
= = =

\ .
2 2
V a b π =
(b) Rotation about axis : BB′
( )
2 2
Volume 2 2 2 2
2
ab
yA a a b
π
π π π
 
= = =

\ .
2 2
2 V a b π =
(c) Rotation about yaxis:
2
4 2
Volume 2 2
3 2 3
a ab
yA a b
π
π π π
π
  
= = =
 
\ .\ .
2
2
3
V a b π =
PROBLEM 5.51
Determine the volume and the surface area of the chain link shown,
which is made from a 2in.diameter bar, if 3 R = in. and 10 L = in.
SOLUTION
First note that the area A and the circumference C of the cross section of the bar are
2
and
4
A d C d
π
π = =
Observe that the semicircular ends of the link can be obtained by rotating the cross section through a horizontal
semicircular arc of radius R. Then, applying the theorems of PappusGuldinus, we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
side end
Volume 2 2 2 2 2 V V AL RA L R A π π = + = + = +
( ) ( )
2
3
2 10 in. 3 in. 2 in.
4
122.049 in
π
π
(
( = +
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
=
3
122.0 in V =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
side end
Area 2 2 2 2 2 A A CL RC L R C π π = + = + = +
( ) ( ) 2 10 in. 3 in. 4 in. π π ( ( = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
2
488.198 in =
2
488 in A =
PROBLEM 5.52
Verify that the expressions for the volumes of the first four shapes in
Figure 5.21 on page 261 are correct.
SOLUTION
Following the second theorem of PappusGuldinus, in each case a
specific generating area A will be rotated about the x axis to produce the
given shape. Values of y are from Fig. 5.8A.
(1) Hemisphere: the generating area is a quarter circle
Have
2
4
2 2
3 4
a
V yA a
π
π π
π
  
= =
 
\ .\ .
3
2
or
3
V a π =
(2) Semiellipsoid of revolution: the generating area is a quarter ellipse
Have
4
2 2
3 4
a
V yA ha
π
π π
π
  
= =
 
\ .\ .
2
2
or
3
V a h π =
(3) Paraboloid of revolution: the generating area is a quarter parabola
Have
3 2
2 2
8 3
V yA a ah π π
  
= =
 
\ .\ .
2
1
or
2
V a h π =
(4) Cone: the generating area is a triangle
Have
1
2 2
3 2
a
V yA ha π π
  
= =
 
\ .\ .
2
1
or
3
V a h π =
PROBLEM 5.53
A 15mmdiameter hole is drilled in a piece of 20mmthick steel; the
hole is then countersunk as shown. Determine the volume of steel
removed during the countersinking process.
SOLUTION
The required volume can be generated by rotating the area shown about the y axis. Applying the second
theorem of PappusGuldinus, we have
5 1
2 2 7.5 mm 5 mm 5 mm
3 2
V xA π π
(   (
= = + × × ×
 ( (
\ . ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
3
or 720 mm V =
PROBLEM 5.54
Three different drive belt profiles are to be studied. If at any given time
each belt makes contact with onehalf of the circumference of its pulley,
determine the contact area between the belt and the pulley for each
design.
SOLUTION
Applying the first theorem of PappusGuldinus, the contact area
C
A of a
belt is given by
C
A yL yL π π = = Σ
Where the individual lengths are the “Lengths” of the belt cross section
that are in contact with the pulley
( )
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
Have 2
2.5 2.5 mm
2 60 mm
2 cos 20
60 2.5 mm 12.5 mm
C
A y L y L π
π
( = +
¸ ¸
¦ ( ¦   (
= −
´
 ( (
°
\ . ¸ ¸ ¦ ¸ ¸ ¹
¹
( + −
`
¸ ¸
)
3 2
or 3.24 10 mm
C
A = ×
Have
( )
1 1
2
C
A y L π ( =
¸ ¸
7.5 7.5 mm
2 60 1.6 mm
2 cos 20
π
(    
= − − ×
  (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
D
3 2
or 2.74 10 mm
C
A = ×
Have
( ) ( )
1 1
2 5
60 mm 5 mm
C
A y L π π π
π
( ×  
= = − ×
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
3 2
or 2.80 10 mm
C
A = ×
PROBLEM 5.55
Determine the capacity, in gallons, of the punch bowl shown if 12 in. R =
SOLUTION
The volume can be generated by rotating the triangle and circular sector shown about the y axis. Applying the
second theorem of PappusGuldinus and using Fig. 5.8A, we have
( )
( )
1 1 2 2
2
3 3
3
3
3
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 3 2 sin30
2 cos30
3 2 2 2 2 6
3
6
3 3
2
8 16 3 2 3
3 3
12 in. 3526.03 in
8
V xA xA x A x A
R
R R R R
R R
R
π π π
π
π
π
π π
π
= = Σ = +
(  
(   
   
= × × × +
(  
 

\ . \ .
(  \ .
×

( \ . ¸ ¸
 
= + =


\ .
= =
D
D
3
Since 1gal 231in =
3
3
3526.03 in
15.26 gal
231in /gal
V = =
15.26 gal V =
PROBLEM 5.56
The aluminum shade for a small highintensity lamp has a uniform
thickness of 3/32 in. Knowing that the specific weight of aluminum is
3
0.101lb/in , determine the weight of the shade.
SOLUTION
The weight of the lamp shade is given by
W V At γ γ = =
where A is the surface area of the shade. This area can be generated by rotating the line shown about the
x axis. Applying the first theorem of PappusGuldinus, we have
( )
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
2 2 2 A yL yL y L y L y L y L π π π = = Σ = + + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 0.6 mm 0.60 0.75
2 0.6 mm mm 0.15 mm 1.5 mm
2 2
π
+  
= + × +

\ .
¸
( ) ( )
2 2 0.75 1.25
mm 0.50 mm 0.40 mm
2
+  
+ × +

\ .
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1.25 1.5
mm 0.25 mm 1.25 mm
2
22.5607 in
( +  
+ × +
 (
\ .
¸
=
Then
3 2
3
lb/in 0.101 22.5607 in in. 0.21362 lb
32
W × = × =
0.214 lb W = W
PROBLEM 5.57
The top of a round wooden table has the edge profile shown. Knowing
that the diameter of the top is 1100 mm before shaping and that the
density of the wood is
3
690 kg/m , determine the weight of the waste
wood resulting from the production of 5000 tops.
SOLUTION
All dimensions are in mm
( ) ( )
waste blank top
2
6 3
blank
top 1 2 3 4
Have
550 mm 30 mm 9.075 10 mm
V V V
V
V V V V V
π π
= −
= × = ×
= + + +
Applying the second theorem of PappusGuldinus to parts 3 and 4
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
top
2
2
6 3
6 3
529 mm 18 mm 535 mm 12 mm
4 12
2 535 mm 12 mm
3 4
4 18
2 529 mm 18 mm
3 4
5.0371 3.347 0.1222 0.2731 10 mm
8.8671 10 mm
V π π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
( (
= × + ×
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¦ ¹
( × ¦ ¦  
+ + ×
´ `
 (
\ . ¦ ¦ ¸ ¸
¹ )
¦ ¹
( × ¦ ¦  
+ + ×
´ `
 (
\ . ¦ ¦ ¸ ¸ ¹ )
= + + + ×
= ×
( )
6 3
waste
3 3
9.0750 8.8671 10 mm
0.2079 10 m
V π
π
−
∴ = − ×
= ×
( )
( )
waste wood waste tops
3 3 3 2
Finally
690 kg/m 0.2079 10 m 9.81m/s 5000 tops
W V g N ρ
π
−
=
= × × × ×
waste
or 2.21kN W = W
PROBLEM 5.58
The top of a round wooden table has the shape shown. Determine how
many liters of lacquer are required to finish 5000 tops knowing that each
top is given three coats of lacquer and that 1 liter of lacquer covers 12 m
2
.
SOLUTION
Referring to the figure in solution of Problem 5.57 and using the first theorem of PappusGuldinus, we have
( ) ( )
( )
( )
surface top circle bottom circle edge
2 2
3 2
535 mm 529 mm
2 12
2 535 mm 12 mm
2
2 18
2 529 mm 18 mm
2
617.115 10 mm
A A A A
π π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
= + +
( (
= +
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¦ ¹ ( × ¦ ¦  
+ + ×
´ `
 (
\ . ¦ ¦ ¸ ¸
¹ )
¦ ¹
( × ¦ ¦  
+ + ×
´ `
 (
\ . ¦ ¦ ¸ ¸
¹ )
= ×
surface tops coats
3 2
2
Then # liters Coverage
1liter
617.115 10 m 5000 3
12 m
A N N
π
−
= × × ×
= × × × ×
or # liters 2424 L = W
PROBLEM 5.59
The escutcheon (a decorative plate placed on a pipe where the pipe exits
from a wall) shown is cast from yellow brass. Knowing that the specific
weight of yellow brass is
3
0.306 lb/in . determine the weight of the
escutcheon.
SOLUTION
The weight of the escutcheon is given by (specific weight) W V =
where V is the volume of the plate. V can be generated by rotating the area A about the x axis.
Have
3.0755 in. 2.958 in. 0.1175 in. a = − =
and
0.5
sin 0.16745 R 9.5941
3
φ φ = ⇒ = = °
Then
2 26 9.5941 16.4059 or 8.20295 0.143169 rad α α = − = = =
D D D D
The area A can be obtained by combining the following four areas, as indicated.
Applying the second theorem of PappusGuldinus and then using Figure 5.8A, we have
2 2 V yA yA π π = = Σ
PROBLEM 5.59 CONTINUED
2
, in A
, in. y
3
, in yA
1 ( )( )
1
3.0755 1.5 2.3066
2
=
( )
1
1.5 0.5
3
=
1.1533
2
( )
2
3 1.28851 α − = −
( )
( )
2 3 sin
sin 0.60921
3
α
α φ
α
× + =
–0.78497
3 ( )( )
1
2.958 0.5 0.7395
2
− = −
( )
1
0.5 0.16667
3
=
–0.12325
4 ( )( ) 0.1755 0.5 0.05875 − = −
( )
1
0.5 0.25
2
=
–0.14688
3
0.44296 in yA Σ =
Then
( )
3 3
2 0.44296 in 1.4476 in V π = =
so that
( )
3 3
1.4476 in 0.306 lb/in 0.44296 lb W = =
0.443 lb W = W
PROBLEM 5.60
The reflector of a small flashlight has the parabolic shape shown.
Determine the surface area of the inside of the reflector.
SOLUTION
First note that the required surface area A can be generated by rotating
the parabolic cross section through 2π radians about the x axis. Applying
the first theorem of PappusGuldinus, we have
2 A yL π =
( )
2
2
Now, since , at : 7.5 x ky x a a k = = =
or
56.25 a k =
(1)
At
( ) ( )
2
15 mm: 15 12.5 x a a k = + + =
or
15 156.25 a k + =
(2)
Then
Eq. (2) 15 156.25
: or 8.4375 mm
Eq. (1) 56.25
a k
a
a k
+
= =
1
Eq. (1) 0.15
mm
k ⇒ =
2
0.15 and 0.3
dx
x y y
dy
∴ = =
2
2
Now 1 1 0.09
dx
dL dy y dy
dy
 
= + = +

\ .
So 2 and A yL yL ydL π = =
∫
( )
12.5
2
7.5
12.5
3/2
2
7.5
2 1 0.09
2 1
2 1 0.09
3 0.18
A y y dy
y
π
π
∴ = +
(  
= +
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
∫
2
1013 mm =
2
or 1013 mm A = W
PROBLEM 5.61
For the beam and loading shown, determine (a) the magnitude and
location of the resultant of the distributed load, (b) the reactions at the
beam supports.
SOLUTION
( )( )
( )( )
1 2
1
2
Resultant
( ) Have 40 lb/ft 18 ft 720 lb
1
120 lb/ft 18 ft 1080 lb
2
R R R
a R
R
= +
= =
= =
or
1800 lb R =
The resultant is located at the centroid C of the distributed load x
Have
( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( )( )
1
: 1800 lb 40 lb/ft 18 ft 9 ft 120 lb/ft 18 ft 12 ft
2
A
M x Σ = +
or
10.80 ft x =
1800 lb
10.80 ft
R
x
=
=
W
( ) b
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
0: 1800 lb 0, 1800 lb
y y y
F A A Σ = − = =
1800 lb ∴ = A
W
( )( ) 0: 1800 lb 10.8 ft 0
A A
M M Σ = − =
19.444 lb ft
A
M = ⋅
or 19.44 kip ft
A
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 5.62
For the beam and loading shown, determine (a) the magnitude and
location of the resultant of the distributed load, (b) the reactions at the
beam supports.
SOLUTION
( )( )
( )( )
I
II
( ) Have 300 N/m 6 m 1800 N
1
6 m 900 N/m 1800 N
3
a R
R
= =
= =
Then
I II
:
y
F R R R Σ − = − −
or
1800 N 1800 N 3600 N R = + =
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) : 3600 N 3 m 1800 N 4.5 m 1800 N
A
M x Σ − = − −
or
3.75 m x =
3600 N R =
W
3.75 m x =
(b) Reactions
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
( ) ( )( ) 0: 6 m 3600 N 3.75 m 0
A y
M B Σ = − =
or
2250 N
y
B =
2250 N = B
W
0: 2250 N 3600 N
y y
F A Σ = + =
or
1350 N
y
A =
1350 N = A
W
PROBLEM 5.63
Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.
SOLUTION
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
I
II
III
Have 100 lb/ft 4 ft 400 lb
1
200 lb/ft 6 ft 600 lb
2
200 lb/ft 4 ft 800 lb
R
R
R
= =
= =
= =
Then
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 2 ft 400 lb 4 ft 600 lb 12 ft 800 lb 10 ft 0
A y
M B Σ = − − + =
or
800 lb
y
B =
800 lb = B
W
0: 800 lb 400 lb 600 lb 800 0
y y
F A Σ = + − − − =
or
1000 lb
y
A =
1000 lb = A
W
PROBLEM 5.64
Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.
SOLUTION
( )( )
( )( )
I
II
Have 9 ft 200 lb/ft 1800 lb
1
3 ft 200 lb/ft 300 lb
2
R
R
= =
= =
Then
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 4.5 ft 1800 lb 10 ft 300 lb 9 ft 0
A y
M B Σ = − − + =
or
1233.3 lb
y
B =
1233 lb = B
W
0: 1800 lb 300 lb 1233.3 lb 0
y y
F A Σ = − − + =
or
866.7 lb
y
A =
867 lb = A
W
PROBLEM 5.65
Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.
SOLUTION
( )( )
I
1
Have 200 N/m 0.12 m 12 N
2
R = =
( )( )
II
200 N/m 0.2 m 40 N R = =
Then
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
0: 18 N 12 N 40 N 0
y y
F A Σ = + − − =
or
34 N
y
A =
34.0 N = A
W
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.8 m 12 N 0.22 m 40 N 0.38 m 18 N
A A
M M Σ = − − +
or
2.92 N m
A
M = ⋅
2.92 N m
A
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 5.66
Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.
SOLUTION
First, replace the given loading with the loading shown below. The two loadings are equivalent because both
are defined by a linear relation between load and distance, and the values at the end points are the same.
( )( )
I
Have 1.8 m 2000 3600 N N/m R = =
( )( )
II
1
1.8 m 4500 N/m 4050 N
2
R = =
Then
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 3 m 2.1m 3600 N 2.4 m 4050 N
B y
M A Σ = − − +
or
270 N
y
A =
270 N = A
W
0: 270 N 3600 N 4050 N 0
y y
F B Σ = − + − =
or
720 N
y
B =
720 N = B
W
PROBLEM 5.67
Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.
SOLUTION
( )( )
I
1
Have 4 m 2000 kN/m 2667 N
3
R = =
( )( )
II
1
2 m 1000 kN/m 666.7 N
3
R = =
Then
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
0: 2667 N 666.7 N 0
y y
F A Σ = − − =
or
3334 N
y
A =
3.33 kN = A
W
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 1m 2667 N 5.5 m 666.7 N
A A
M M Σ = − −
or
6334 N m
A
M = ⋅
6.33 kN m
A
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 5.68
Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.
SOLUTION
First, replace the given loading with the loading shown below. The two loadings are equivalent because both
are defined by a parabolic relation between load and distance, and the values at end points are the same.
( )( )
I
Have 8 ft 100 lb/ft 800 lb R = =
( )( )
II
2
8 ft 600 lb/ft 3200 lb
3
R = =
Then
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 11 5 ft 800 lb 4 ft 3200 lb 0
A
M B Σ = + − =
or 800 lb = B
W
0: 3200 lb 800 lb 800 lb 0
y y
F A Σ = − + + =
or 1600 lb = A
W
PROBLEM 5.69
Determine (a) the distance a so that the vertical reactions at supports A
and B are equal, (b) the corresponding reactions at the supports.
SOLUTION
( )( ) ( )
I
1
( ) Have ft 120 lb/ft 60 lb
2
a R a a = =
( )( ) ( )
II
1
12 40 lb/ft 240 20 lb
2
R a a = − = −
Then
( ) 0: 60 240 2 0
y y y
F A a a B Σ = − − − + =
or
240 40
y y
A B a + = +
Now
120 20
y y y y
A B A B a = ⇒ = = +
(1)
Also
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
0: 12 m 60 lb 12 ft 12 ft 240 20 lb 0
3 3
B y
a
M A a a a
( (    
( ( Σ = − + − + − − =
  ( ( ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
\ . \ .
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
or
2
140 10
80
3 9
y
A a a = − −
(2)
Equating Eqs. (1) and (2)
2
140 10
120 20 80
3 9
a a a + = − −
or
2
40
320 480 0
3
a a − + =
Then
1.6077 ft, 22.392 a a = =
Now
12 ft a ≤
1.608 ft a = W
( ) Have b
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
Eq. (1)
( ) 120 20 1.61 152.2 lb
y y
A B = = + =
152.2 lb = = A B
W
PROBLEM 5.70
Determine (a) the distance a so that the vertical reaction at support B is
minimum, (b) the corresponding reactions at the supports.
SOLUTION
( )( )
I
1
( ) Have ft 120 lb/ft 60 lb
2
a R a a = =
( ) ( ) ( )
II
1
12 ft 40 lb/ft 240 20 lb
2
R a a ( = − = −
¸ ¸
Then
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: ft 60 lb 240 20 lb 8 ft 12 ft 0
3 3
A y
a a
M a a B
(    
( Σ = − − − + + =
  ( ¸ ¸
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
or
2
10 20
160
9 3
y
B a a = − +
(1)
Then
20 20
0
9 3
y
dB
a
da
= − =
or 3.00 ft a = W
( ) Eq. (1) b
( ) ( )
2 10 20
3.00 3.00 160
9 3
y
B = − +
150 lb =
150.0 lb = B
W
and
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
( ) ( ) 0: 60 3.00 lb 240 20 3.00 lb 150 lb 0
y y
F A ( ( Σ = − − − + =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
or
210 lb
y
A =
210 lb = A
W
PROBLEM 5.71
Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading when
0
1.5 kN/m. w =
SOLUTION
( )( )
I
1
Have 9 m 2 kN/m 9 kN
2
R = =
( )( )
II
9 m 1.5 kN/m 13.5 kN R = =
Then
0: 0
x x
F C Σ = =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 50 kN m 1m 9 kN 2.5 m 13.5 kN 6 m 0
B y
M C Σ = − ⋅ − − + =
or
15.4583 kN
y
C =
15.46 kN = C
W
0: 9 kN 13.5 kN 15.4583 0
y y
F B Σ = − − + =
or
7.0417 kN
y
B =
7.04 kN = B
W
PROBLEM 5.72
Determine (a) the distributed load
0
w at the end D of the beam ABCD
for which the reaction at B is zero, (b) the corresponding reactions at C.
SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( )
I 0 0
1
Have 9 m 3.5 kN/m 4.5 3.5 kN
2
R w w ( = − = −
¸ ¸
( )( )
II 0 0
9 m kN/m 9 kN R w w = =
( ) Then a
( ) ( ) ( )( )
0 0
0: 50 kN m 5 m 4.5 3.5 kN 3.5 m 9 kN 0
C
M w w ( Σ = − ⋅ + − + =
¸ ¸
or
0
9 28.75 0 w + =
so
0
3.1944 kN/m w = −
0
3.19 kN/m w =
W
Note: the negative sign means that the distributed force
0
w is upward.
( ) b
0: 0
x x
F C Σ = =
( ) ( ) 0: 4.5 3.5 3.19 kN 9 3.19 kN 0
y y
F C Σ = − + + + =
or
1.375 kN
y
C =
1.375 kN = C
W
PROBLEM 5.73
A grade beam AB supports three concentrated loads and rests on soil and
the top of a large rock. The soil exerts an upward distributed load, and
the rock exerts a concentrated load R
R
as shown. Knowing that P = 4 kN
and
1
2
,
B A
w w = determine the values of w
A
and R
R
corresponding to
equilibrium.
SOLUTION
( )( )
I
Have 1.2 m kN/m 1.2 kN
A A
R w w = =
( )
II
1 1
1.8 m kN/m 0.45 kN
2 2
A A
R w w
 
= =

\ .
( )
III
1
1.8 m kN/m 0.9 kN
2
A A
R w w
 
= =

\ .
Then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 0.6 m 1.2 kN 0.6 m 0.45 kN/m
C A A
M w w ( ( Σ = − +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0.9 m 0.9 kN/m 1.2 m 4 kN/m
A
w ( + −
¸ ¸
( )( ) ( )( ) 0.8 m 18 kN/m 0.7 m 24 kN/m 0 − + =
or
6.667 kN/m
A
w =
6.67 kN/m
A
w = W
and
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.2 m 6.67 kN/m 0.45 m 6.67 kN/m
y R
F R Σ = + +
( )( ) 0.9 m 6.67 kN/m 24 kN 18 kN 4 kN + − − −
or
29.0 kN
R
R =
29.0 kN
R
R = W
PROBLEM 5.74
A grade beam AB supports three concentrated loads and rests on soil and
the top of a large rock. The soil exerts an upward distributed load, and
the rock exerts a concentrated load R
R
as shown. Knowing that w
B
=
0.4w
A
, determine (a) the largest value of P for which the beam is in
equilibrium, (b) the corresponding value of w
A
.
In the following problems, use γ = 62.4 lb/ft
3
for the specific weight of
fresh water and γ
c
= 150 lb/ft
3
for the specific weight of concrete if U.S.
customary units are used. With SI units, use ρ = 10
3
kg/m
3
for the
density of fresh water and ρ
c
= 2.40 × 10
3
kg/m
3
for the density of
concrete. (See the footnote on page 222 for how to determine the specific
weight of a material given its density.)
j
SOLUTION
( )( )
I
Have 1.2 m kN/m 1.2 kN
A A
R w w = =
( )( )
II
1
1.8 m 0.6 kN/m 0.54 kN
2
A A
R w w = =
( )( )
III
1.8 m 0.4 kN/m 0.72 kN
A A
R w w = =
( ) Then a
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 0.6 m 1.2 kN 1.2 m 1.8 m 0.54 kN
A A R A
M w R w ( ( Σ = + +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 2.1m 0.72 kN 0.5 m 24 kN
A
w ( + −
¸ ¸
( )( ) ( ) 2.0 m 18 kN 2.4 m 0 P − + =
or
3.204 1.2 2.4 48
A R
w R P + − =
(1)
and
0: 1.2 0.54 0.72 24 18 0
y R A A A
F R W W W P Σ = + + + − − − =
or
2.46 42
R A
R W P + − =
(2)
Now combine Eqs. (1) and (2) to eliminate :
A
w
( ) ( ) 3.204 Eq. 2 2.46 Eq. 1 0.252 16.488 2.7
R
R P − ⇒ = −
Since
R
R must be 0, ≥ the maximum acceptable value of P is that for which 0, R =
or
6.1067 kN P =
6.11kN P = W
( ) Then, from Eq. (2): b
2.46 6.1067 42
A
W − =
or 19.56 kN/m
A
W = W
PROBLEM 5.75
The cross section of a concrete dam is as shown. For a dam section of
unit width, determine (a) the reaction forces exerted by the ground on the
base AB of the dam, (b) the point of application of the resultant of the
reaction forces of part a, (c) the resultant of the pressure forces exerted
by the water on the face BC of the dam.
In the following problems, use γ = 62.4 lb/ft
3
for the specific weight of
fresh water and γ
c
= 150 lb/ft
3
for the specific weight of concrete if U.S.
customary units are used. With SI units, use ρ = 10
3
kg/m
3
for the
density of fresh water and ρ
c
= 2.40 × 10
3
kg/m
3
for the density of
concrete. (See the footnote on page 222 for how to determine the specific
weight of a material given its density.)
SOLUTION
The free body shown consists of a 1m thick section of the dam and the
triangular section BCD of the water behind the dam.
Note:
1
6 m X =
( )
2
9 3 m 12 m X = + =
( )
3
15 2 m 17 m X = + =
( )
4
15 4 m 19 m X = + =
( ) Now so that a W gV ρ =
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
1
1
2400 kg/m 9.81m/s 9 m 15 m 1m 1589 kN
2
W
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
2
2400 kg/m 9.81m/s 6 m 18 m 1m 2543 kN W ( = =
¸ ¸
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
3
1
2400 kg/m 9.81m/s 6 m 18 m 1m 1271kN
2
W
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
4
1
2400 kg/m 9.81m/s 6 m 18 m 1m 529.7 kN
2
W
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
1 1
Also 18 m 1m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 18 m
2 2
P Ap
(
( = =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
1589 kN =
Then
0: 1589 kN 0
x
F H Σ = − =
or
1589 kN H =
1589 kN = H
W
0: 1589 kN 2543 kN 1271kN 529.7 kN
y
F V Σ = − − − −
or
5933 kN V =
5.93 MN = V
W
PROBLEM 5.75 CONTINUED
( ) Have b
( ) ( )( ) 0: 5933 kN 6 m 1589 kN
A
M X Σ = +
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
6 m 1589 kN 12 m 2543 kN
17 m 1271kN 19 m 529.7 0
− −
− − =
or
10.48 m X =
10.48 m X = W
to the right of A
(c) Consider water section BCD as the free body.
Have 0 Σ = F
Then 1675 kN − = R
18.43°
or 1675 kN = R
18.43° W
Alternative solution to part (c)
Consider the face BC of the dam.
2 2
Have 6 18 18.9737 m BC = + =
6
tan 18.43
18
θ θ = = °
( )
( )( )
( )
3 2
2
and 1000 kg/m 9.81m/s 18 m
176.6 kN/m
p g h ρ = =
=
( )( )
( )
2
1 1
Then 18.97 m 1m 176.6 kN/m
2 2
1675 kN
R Ap ( = =
¸ ¸
=
1675 kN ∴ = R
18.43°
PROBLEM 5.76
The cross section of a concrete dam is as shown. For a dam section of
unit width, determine (a) the reaction forces exerted by the ground on the
base AB of the dam, (b) the point of application of the resultant of the
reaction forces of part a, (c) the resultant of the pressure forces exerted
by the water on the face BC of the dam.
SOLUTION
The free body shown consists of a 1ft thick section of the dam and the parabolic section of water above (and
behind) the dam.
Note
( )
1
5
16 ft 10 ft
8
x = =
( )
2
1
16 6 ft 19 ft
2
x
(
= + =
(
¸ ¸
( )
3
1
22 12 ft 25 ft
4
x
(
= + =
(
¸ ¸
( )
4
5
22 12 ft 29.5 ft
8
x
(
= + =
(
¸ ¸
PROBLEM 5.76 CONTINUED
Now
W V γ =
( )
( )( ) ( )
3
1
2
150 lb/ft 16 ft 24 ft 1ft 38, 400 lb
3
W
(
= × =
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )( ) ( )
3
2
150 lb/ft 6 ft 24 ft 1ft 21, 600 lb W ( = × =
¸ ¸
( )
( )( ) ( )
3
3
1
150 lb/ft 12 ft 18 ft 1ft 10,800 lb
3
W
(
= × =
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )( ) ( )
3
4
2
62.4 lb/ft 12 ft 18 ft 1ft 8985.6 lb
3
W
(
= × =
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )
2 3
1 1
Also 18 1 ft 62.4 lb/ft 18 ft 10,108.8 lb
2 2
P Ap
(
= = × × × =
¸ ¸
( ) Then a
0: 10,108.8 lb 0
x
F H Σ = − =
or 10.11kips = H
W
0: 38, 400 lb 21, 600 lb 10,800 lb 8995.6 lb 0
y
F V Σ = − − − − =
or
79, 785.6 V =
79.8 kips = V
W
( ) b
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 79, 785.6 lb 6 ft 38, 400 lb 19 ft 21, 600 lb 25 ft 10,800 lb
A
M X Σ = − − −
( )( ) ( )( ) 29.5 ft 8985.6 lb 6 ft 10,108.8 lb 0 − + =
or
15.90 ft X =
The point of application of the resultant is 15.90 ft to the right of A W
(c) Consider the water section BCD as the free body.
Have 0 Σ = F
13.53 kips
41.6
R
θ
∴ =
= °
On the face BD of the dam
13.53 kips = R
41.6° W
PROBLEM 5.77
The 9 12ft × side AB of a tank is hinged at its bottom A and is held in
place by a thin rod BC. The maximum tensile force the rod can withstand
without breaking is 40 kips, and the design specifications require the
force in the rod not exceed 20 percent of this value. If the tank is slowly
filled with water, determine the maximum allowable depth of water d in
the tank.
SOLUTION
Consider the freebody diagram of the side.
( )
1 1
Have
2 2
P Ap A d γ = =
Now
( ) 0: 9 ft 0
3
A
d
M T P Σ = − =
max
Then, for : d
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 max
max max
1
9 ft 0.2 40 10 lb 12 ft 62.4 lb/ft 0
3 2
d
d d
¦ ¹
(
( × − =
´ `
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¹ )
or
3 3 3
max
216 10 ft 374.4 d × =
or
3 3
max
576.92 ft d =
max
8.32 ft d = W
PROBLEM 5.78
The 9 12ft × side of an open tank is hinged at its bottom A and is held
in place by a thin rod. The tank is filled with glycerine, whose specific
weight is
3
80 lb/ft . Determine the force T in the rod and the reactions at
the hinge after the tank is filled to a depth of 8 ft.
SOLUTION
Consider the freebody diagram of the side.
( )
1 1
Have
2 2
P Ap A d γ = =
( )( )
( )
( )
3
1
8 ft 12 ft 80 lb/ft 8 ft 30, 720 lb
2
( = =
¸ ¸
Then
0: 0
y y
F A Σ = =
( ) ( )
8
0: 9 ft ft 30, 720 lb 0
3
A
M T
 
Σ = − =

\ .
or
9102.22 lb T =
9.10 kips = T
W
0: 30, 720 lb 9102.22 lb 0
x x
F A Σ = + − =
or
21, 618 lb A = −
21.6 kips = A
W
PROBLEM 5.79
The friction force between a 2 2m × square sluice gate AB and its
guides is equal to 10 percent of the resultant of the pressure forces
exerted by the water on the face of the gate. Determine the initial force
needed to lift the gate that its mass is 500 kg.
SOLUTION
Consider the freebody diagram of the gate.
( )
( )( )
( )
2 3 3 2
I I
1 1
Now 2 2 m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 3 m
2 2
P Ap
(
(
= = ×
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
58.86 kN =
( )
( )( )
( )
2 3 3 2
II II
1 1
2 2 m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 5 m
2 2
P Ap
(
(
= = ×
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
98.10 kN =
( )
I II
Then 0.1 0.1 F P P P = = +
( ) 0.1 58.86 98.10 kN = +
15.696 kN =
Finally
( )
( )
2
0: 15.696 kN 500 kg 9.81m/s 0
y
F T Σ = − − =
or 20.6 kN = T
W
PROBLEM 5.80
The dam for a lake is designed to withstand the additional force caused
by silt which has settled on the lake bottom. Assuming that silt is
equivalent to a liquid of density
3 3
1.76 10 kg/m
s
ρ = × and considering
a 1mwide section of dam, determine the percentage increase in the
force acting on the dam face for a silt accumulation of depth 1.5 m.
SOLUTION
First, determine the force on the dam face without the silt.
Have
( )
1 1
2 2
w w
P Ap A gh ρ = =
( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
1
6 m 1 m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 6 m
2
(
( =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
176.58 kN =
Next, determine the force on the dam face with silt.
( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
1
Have 4.5 m 1m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 4.5 m
2
w
P
(
′ ( =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
99.326 kN =
( ) ( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
I
1.5 m 1m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 4.5 m
s
P
(
( =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
66.218 kN =
( ) ( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
II
1
1.5 m 1m 1.76 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 1.5 m
2
s
P
(
( = ×
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
19.424 kN =
Then
( ) ( )
I II
184.97 kN
w s s
P P P P ′ ′ = + + =
The percentage increase, % inc., is then given by
( ) 184.97 176.58
% inc. 100% 100% 4.7503%
176.58
w
w
P P
P
− ′ −
= × = × =
%inc. 4.75% = W
PROBLEM 5.81
The base of a dam for a lake is designed to resist up to 150 percent of the
horizontal force of the water. After construction, it is found that silt
(which is equivalent to a liquid of density
3 3
1.76 10 kg/m
s
ρ = × ) is
settling on the lake bottom at a rate of 20 mm/y. Considering a 1mwide
section of dam, determine the number of years until the dam becomes
unsafe.
SOLUTION
From Problem 5.80, the force on the dam face before the silt is deposited, is 176.58 kN.
w
P = The maximum
allowable force
allow
P on the dam is then:
( )( )
allow
1.5 1.5 176.58 kN 264.87 kN
w
P P = = =
Next determine the force P′ on the dam face after a depth d of silt has settled.
Have
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
1
6 m 1m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 6 m
2
w
P d d
(
′ ( = − × −
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
( )
2
4.905 6 kN d = −
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
I
1m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 6 m
s
P d d
(
( = −
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
( )
2
9.81 6 kN d d = −
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
II
1
1m 1.76 10 kg/m 9.81m/s m
2
s
P d d
(
( = ×
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
2
8.6328 kN d =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2
I II
2
4.905 36 12 9.81 6 8.6328 kN
3.7278 176.58 kN
w s s
P P P P d d d d d
d
(
′ ′ = + + = − + + − +
¸ ¸
(
= +
¸ ¸
PROBLEM 5.81 CONTINUED
Now required that
allow
P P ′ = to determine the maximum value of d.
( )
2
3.7278 176.58 kN 264.87 kN d ∴ + =
or
4.8667 m d =
Finally
3
m
4.8667 m 20 10
year
N
−
= × ×
or 243 years N = W
PROBLEM 5.82
The square gate AB is held in the position shown by hinges along its top
edge A and by a shear pin at B. For a depth of water 3.5 d = m,
determine the force exerted on the gate by the shear pin.
SOLUTION
First consider the force of the water on the gate.
Have
( )
1 1
2 2
P Ap A gh ρ = =
Then
( )
( )( )
( )
2
3 3 2
I
1
18 m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 1.7 m
2
P =
26.99 kN =
( )
( )( )
( )
2
3 3 2
II
1
18 m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 1.7 1.8cos30 m
2
P = × °
51.74 kN =
Now
( ) ( )
I II
1 2
0: 0
3 3
A AB AB AB B
M L P L P L F Σ = + − =
( ) ( )
1 2
or 26.99 kN 51.74 kN 0
3 3
B
F + − =
or
43.49 kN
B
F =
4.35 kN
B
= F
30.0° W
PROBLEMS 5.83 AND 5.84
Problem 5.83: A temporary dam is constructed in a 5ftwide fresh
water channel by nailing two boards to pilings located at the sides of the
channel and propping a third board AB against the pilings and the floor of
the channel. Neglecting friction, determine the reactions at A and B when
rope BC is slack.
Problem 5.84: A temporary dam is constructed in a 5ftwide fresh
water channel by nailing two boards to pilings located at the sides of the
channel and propping a third board AB against the pilings and the floor of
the channel. Neglecting friction, determine the magnitude and direction
of the minimum tension required in rope BC to move board AB.
SOLUTION
First, consider the force of the water on the gate.
Have
( )
1 1
2 2
P Ap A h γ = =
( )( )
( )
( )
3
I
1
So that 1.5 ft 5 ft 62.4 lb/ft 1.8 ft
2
P
(
( =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
421.2 lb =
( )( )
( )
( )
3
II
1
1.5 ft 5 ft 62.4 lb/ft 3 ft
2
P
(
( =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
702 lb =
5.83 Find the reactions at A and B when rope is slack.
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.9 ft 0.5 ft 421.2 lb 1.0 ft 702 lb 0
A
M B Σ = − + + =
or
1014 lb B =
1014 lb = B
W
( ) ( )
4 4
0: 2 421.2 lb 702 lb 0
5 5
x x
F A Σ = + + =
or
449.28 lb
x
A = −
Note that the factor 2 (2 )
x
A is included since
x
A is the horizontal force
exerted by the board on each piling.
( ) ( )
3 3
0: 1014 lb 421.2 lb 702 lb 0
5 5
y y
F A Σ = − − + =
or
340.08 lb
y
A = −
563 lb ∴ = A
37.1° W
PROBLEMS 5.83 AND 5.84 CONTINUED
5.84 Note that there are two ways to move the board:
1. Pull upward on the rope fastened at B so that the board
rotates about A. For this case 0 → B and
BC
T is
perpendicular to AB for minimum tension.
2. Pull horizontally at B so that the edge B of the board moves
to the left. For this case 0
y
A → and the board remains
against the pilings because of the force of the water.
Case (1)
( )( ) 0: 1.5 0.5 ft 421.2 lb
A BC
M T Σ = − +
( )( ) 1.0 ft 702 lb 0 + =
or
608.4 lb
BC
T =
Case (2)
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.2 ft 2 0.5 ft 702 lb
B x
M A Σ = − −
( )( ) 1.0 ft 421.2 lb 0 − =
or
2 643.5 lb
x
A = −
( )
4
0: 643.5 lb 421.2 lb
5
x BC
F T Σ = − − +
( )
4
702 lb 0
5
+ =
or
255.06 lb
BC
T =
( )
min
255 lb
BC
∴ = T
W
PROBLEMS 5.85 AND 5.86
Problem 5.85: A 2 3m × gate is hinged at A and is held in position by
rod CD. End D rests against a spring whose constant is 12 kN/m. The
spring is undeformed when the gate is vertical. Assuming that the force
exerted by rod CD on the gate remains horizontal, determine the
minimum depth of water d for which the bottom B of the gate will move
to the end of the cylindrical portion of the floor.
Problem 5.86: Solve Problem 5.85 if the mass of the gate is 500 kg.
SOLUTION
First, determine the forces exerted on the gate by the spring and the
water when B is at the end of the cylindrical portion of the floor.
Have
1
sin 30
2
θ θ = ∴ = °
Then
( ) 1.5 m tan30
sp
x = °
and
sp sp
F kx =
( )( ) 12 kN/m 1.5 m tan30 = °
10.39 kN =
Assume 2 m d ≥
Have
( )
1 1
2 2
P Ap A g h ρ = =
Then
( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
I
1
2 m 3 m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 2 m
2
P d
(
( = −
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
( ) 29.43 2 kN d = −
( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
II
1
2 m 3 m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 2 2cos30 m
2
P d
(
( = − + °
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
( ) 29.43 0.2679 kN d = −
PROBLEMS 5.85 AND 5.86 CONTINUED
5.85 Find
min
d so that gate opens, 0. W =
Using the above freebody diagrams of the gate, we have
( )
2
0: m 29.43 2 kN
3
A
M d
 
( Σ = −
 ¸ ¸
\ .
( )
4
m 29.43 0.2679 kN
3
d
 
( + −
 ¸ ¸
\ .
( )( ) 1.5 m 10.39 kN 0 − =
or
( ) ( ) 19.62 2 39.24 0.2679 15.585 d d − + − =
58.86 65.3374 d =
or 1.1105 m d = 1.110 m d = W
5.86 Find
min
d so that the gate opens.
( )
( )
2
9.81m/s 500 kg 4.905 kN W = =
Using the above freebody diagrams of the gate, we have
( )
2
0: m 29.43 2 kN
3
A
M d
 
( Σ = −
 ¸ ¸
\ .
( )
4
m 29.43 0.2679 kN
3
d
 
( + −
 ¸ ¸
\ .
( )( ) 1.5 m 10.39 kN − +
( )( ) 0.5 m 4.905 kN 0 − =
or
( ) ( ) 19.62 2 39.24 0.2679 18.0375 d d − + − =
or
1.15171m d =
1.152 m d = W
PROBLEMS 5.87 AND 5.88
Problem 5.87: The gate at the end of a 3ftwide fresh water channel is
fabricated from three 240lb, rectangular steel plates. The gate is hinged
at A and rests against a frictionless support at D. Knowing that d = 2.5 ft,
determine the reactions at A and D.
Problem 5.88: The gate at the end of a 3ftwide fresh water channel is
fabricated from three 240lb, rectangular steel plates. The gate is hinged
at A and rests against a frictionless support at D. Determine the depth of
water d for which the gate will open.
SOLUTION
5.87 Note that in addition to the weights of the gate segments, the water exerts pressure on all submerged
surfaces ( ). p h γ =
( )
( )
3 2
0.5
Thus, at 0.5 ft, 62.4 lb/ft 0.5 ft 31.2 lb/ft h p = = =
( )
( )
3 2
2.5
2.5 ft, 6.24 lb/ft 2.5 ft 156.0 lb/ft h p = = =
( )( )
( )
2
1
1
Then 0.5 ft 3 ft 31.2 lb/ft 23.4 lb
2
P ( = =
¸ ¸
( )( )
( )
2
2
2 ft 3 ft 31.2 lb/ft 187.2 lb P ( = =
¸ ¸
( )( )
( )
2
3
1
2 ft 3 ft 31.2 lb/ft 93.6 lb
2
P ( = =
¸ ¸
( )( )
( )
2
4
1
2 ft 3 ft 156 lb/ft 468 lb
2
P ( = =
¸ ¸
and
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
1
0: 4 2 ft 240 lb 1ft 240 lb 2 0.5 ft 23.4 lb 1ft 187.2 lb
3
A
M D
(  
Σ = − + + − + × −
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
( )( ) ( )( )
2 1
2 ft 93.6 lb 2 ft 468 lb 0
3 3
− − =
or
11.325 lb D =
11.33 lb ∴ = D
W
PROBLEMS 5.87 AND 5.88 CONTINUED
0: 11.32 23.4 93.6 468 0
x x
F A Σ = + + + + =
or
596.32 lb
x
A = −
0: 240 240 240 187.2 0
y y
F A Σ = − − − + =
or
532.8 lb
y
A =
800 lb ∴ = A
41.8° W
5.88
At
( ) ( )
2 3
2
2 ft, 2 lb/ft where 62.4 lb/ft
d
h d p d γ γ
−
= − = − =
( )
2
ft, lb/ft
d
h d p d γ = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
3
1 1 2
1 1 3
Then 2 ft 3 ft lb/ft 2 ft 2 lb
2 2 2
d
P A p d d d γ γ
−
(
( = = − × − = −
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(Note: For simplicity, the numerical value of the densityγ will be substituted into the equilibrium equations
below, rather than at this level of the calculations.)
( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 ft 3 ft 2 ft 6 2 lb
d
P A p d d γ γ
−
( ( = = − = −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( )( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 2
1 1
2 ft 3 ft 2 ft 3 2 lb
2 2
d
P A p d d γ γ
−
( ( = = − = −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 4
1 1
2 ft 3 ft ft 3 lb 3 2 6 lb
2 2
d
P A p d d d γ γ γ γ ( ( = = = = − +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
As the gate begins to open, 0 → D
∴
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 3
0: 2 ft 240 lb 1ft 240 lb 2 ft 2 ft 2 lb
3 2
A
M d d γ
( (
Σ = + − + − − +
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1ft 6 2 lb 2 ft 3 2 lb
3
d d γ γ
(
( ( − − − −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
1
2 ft 3 2 lb 6 lb 0
3
d γ γ
(
( − − + =
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 1 720
or 2 3 2 12 2 4
2
d d d
γ
− + − + − = −
720
4
62.4
= −
7.53846 =
Solving numerically yields
2.55 ft d = W
PROBLEM 5.89
A rain gutter is supported from the roof of a house by hangers that are
spaced 0.6 m apart. After leaves clog the gutter’s drain, the gutter slowly
fills with rainwater. When the gutter is completely filled with water,
determine (a) the resultant of the pressure force exerted by the water on
the 0.6m section of the curved surface of the gutter, (b) the forcecouple
system exerted on a hanger where it is attached to the gutter.
SOLUTION
(a) Consider a 0.6 m long parabolic section of water.
Then
( )
1 1
2 2
P Ap A gh ρ = =
( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 3 2
1
0.08 m 0.6 m 10 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.08 m
2
(
=
¸ ¸
18.84 N =
w
W gV ρ =
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 3 2
2
10 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.12 m 0.08 m 0.6 m
3
(
=
(
¸ ¸
37.67 N =
Now
( ) 0: 0
w
Σ = − + + = F R P W
2 2
So that , tan
w
w
W
R P W
P
θ = + =
42.12 N, 63.4 θ = = °
42.1 N = R
63.4° W
(b) Consider the freebody diagram of a 0.6 m long section of water and
gutter.
Then
0: 0
x x
F B Σ = =
0: 37.67 N 0
y y
F B Σ = − =
or
37.67 N
y
B =
( ) ( ) 0: 0.06 0.048 m 37.67 N 0
B B
M M ( Σ = + − =
¸ ¸
or
0.4520 N m
B
M = − ⋅
The forcecouple system exerted on the hanger is then
37.7 N , 0.452 N m ⋅
W
PROBLEM 5.90
The composite body shown is formed by removing a hemisphere of
radius r from a cylinder of radius R and height 2R. Determine (a) the
y coordinate of the centroid when r = 3R/4, (b) the ratio r/R for which
1.2 . y R = −
SOLUTION
Note, for the axes shown
V y yV
1
( )( )
2 3
2 2 R R R π π = R −
4
2 R π −
2
3
2
3
r π −
3
8
r −
4
1
4
r π
Σ
3
3
2
3
r
R π
 
−


\ .
4
4
2
8
r
R π
 
− −


\ .
Then
4 4
3 3
1
8
1
3
R r
yV
Y
V
R r
−
Σ
= = −
Σ
−
4
3
1
1
8
1
1
3
r
R
r
R
 
−

\ .
=
 
−

\ .
( ) a
4
3
1 3
1
3 4 3
:
4
1 3
1
3 4
r R y R
 
−

\ .
= = −
 
−

\ .
or 1.118 y R = − W
( ) b
4
3
1
1
8
1.2 : 1.2
1
1
3
r
R
y R R R
r
R
 
−

\ .
= − − = −
 
−

\ .
or
4 3
3.2 1.6 0
r r
R R
   
− + =
 
\ . \ .
Solving numerically
0.884
r
R
= W
PROBLEM 5.91
Determine the y coordinate of the centroid of the body shown.
SOLUTION
First note that the values of Y will be the same for the given body and the body shown below. Then
V
y
yV
Cone
2
1
3
a h π
1
4
h −
2 2
1
12
a h π −
Cylinder
2
2
1
2 4
a
b a b π π
 
− = −

\ .
1
2
b −
2 2
1
8
a b π
Σ
( )
2
4 3
12
a h b
π
−
( )
2 2 2
2 3
24
a h b
π
− −
Have Y V yV Σ = Σ
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
Then 4 3 2 3
12 24
Y a h b a h b
π π (
− = − −
(
¸ ¸
( )
2 2
2 3
or
2 4 3
h b
Y
h b
−
= −
−
W
PROBLEM 5.92
Determine the z coordinate of the centroid of the body shown. (Hint:
Use the result of Sample Problem 5.13.)
SOLUTION
First note that the body can be formed by removing a “halfcylinder” from a “halfcone,” as shown.
V
z
zV
HalfCone
2
1
6
a h π
*
a
π
−
3
1
6
a h −
HalfCylinder
2
2
2 2 8
a
b a b
π π  
− = −

\ .
4 2
3 2 3
a a
π π
 
− = −

\ .
3
1
12
a b
Σ
( )
2
4 3
24
a h b
π
−
( )
3
1
2
12
a h b − −
From Sample Problem 5.13
Have Z V zV Σ = Σ
( ) ( )
2 3
1
Then 4 3 2
24 12
Z a h b a h b
π (
− = − −
(
¸ ¸
2 2
or
4 3
a h b
Z
h b π
−
= −
−
W
PROBLEM 5.93
Consider the composite body shown. Determine (a) the value of x when
/2 h L = , (b) the ratio / h L for which x L = .
SOLUTION
V
x
xV
Rectangular prism Lab
1
2
L
2
1
2
L ab
Pyramid
1
3 2
b
a h
 

\ .
1
4
L h +
1 1
6 4
abh L h
 
+

\ .
2
1 1 1
Then 3
6 6 4
V ab L h xV ab L h L h
(    
Σ = + Σ = + +
  (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
Now so that X V xV Σ = Σ
2 2
1 1 1
3
6 6 4
X ab L h ab L hL h
(    
+ = + +
  (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
or
2
2
1 1 1
1 3
6 6 4
h h h
X L
L L L
 
 
+ = + +



\ .
\ .
(1)
1
( ) ? when
2
a X h L = =
1
Substituting into Eq. (1)
2
h
L
=
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 3
6 2 6 2 4 2
X L
(
(      
+ = + + (
   (
\ . \ . \ . ( ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
or
57
104
X L =
0.548 X L = W
( ) ? when
h
b X L
L
= =
Substituting into Eq. (1)
2
2
1 1 1
1 3
6 6 4
h h h
L L
L L L
 
 
+ = + +



\ .
\ .
or
2
2
1 1 1 1
1
6 2 6 24
h h h
L L L
+ = + +
or
2
2
12
h
L
=
2 3
h
L
∴ = W
PROBLEMS 5.94 AND 5.95
Problem 5.94: For the machine element shown, determine the
x coordinate of the center of gravity.
Problem 5.95: For the machine element shown, determine the
y coordinate of the center of gravity.
SOLUTIONS
First, assume that the machine element is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding volume.
3
, in V
, in. x
, in. y
4
, in xV
4
, in yV
I
(4)(3.6)(0.75) 10.8 =
2.0 0.375 21.6 4.05
II
(2.4)(2.0)(0.6) 2.88 =
3.7 1.95 10.656 5.616
III
2
(0.45) (0.4) 0.2545 π =
4.2 2.15 1.0688 0.54711
IV
2
(0.5) (0.75) 0.5890 π − = −
1.2 0.375 0.7068 −
0.22089 −
Σ
13.3454 32.618
9.9922
5.94
Have
X V xV Σ = Σ
( )
3 4
13.3454 in 32.618 in X =
or 2.44 in. X = W
5.95
Have
Y V yV Σ = Σ
( )
3 4
13.3454 in 9.9922 in Y =
or 0.749 in. Y = W
PROBLEMS 5.96 AND 5.97
Problem 5.96: For the machine element shown, locate the x coordinate
of the center of gravity.
Problem 5.97: For the machine element shown, locate the y coordinate
of the center of gravity.
SOLUTIONS
First, assume that the machine element is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding volume.
3
, mm V
, mm x
, mm y
4
, mm xV
4
, mm yV
1 ( )( )( ) 160 54 18 155 520 =
80
9 12 441 600
1 399 680
2 ( )( )( )
1
120 42 54 136 080
2
=
40
32
5 443 200
4 354 560
3
2
(27) (18) 6561
2
π
π =
36
160
π
+
9 3 534 114
185 508
4
2
(16) (18) 4608 π π − = −
160 9 2 316 233 −
130 288 −
Σ
297 736
19 102 681
5 809 460
5.96
( )
3 4
Have
297 736 mm 19 102 681mm
X V xV
X
Σ = Σ
=
or 64.2 mm X = W
5.97
( )
3 4
Have
297 736 mm 5 809 460 mm
Y V yV
Y
Σ = Σ
=
or 19.51mm Y = W
PROBLEMS 5.98 AND 5.99
Problem 5.98: For the stop bracket shown, locate the x coordinate of the
center of gravity.
Problem 5.99: For the stop bracket shown, locate the z coordinate of the
center of gravity.
SOLUTIONS
First, assume that the bracket is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the
corresponding volume.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
II
III
III
IV
IV
1
Have.. 24 mm 90 86 mm 112 mm
2
1
24 mm 102 mm 58 mm
3
1
68 mm 20 mm 78 mm
2
2
110 mm 90 mm 170 mm
3
2
60 mm 132 mm 156 mm
3
Z
Z
X
Z
X
= + + =
= + =
= + =
= + =
= + =
3
, mm V
, mm x
, mm z
4
, mm xV
4
, mm zV
I ( )( )( ) 200 176 24 844 800 =
100 12 84 480 000 1 013 760
II ( )( )( ) 200 24 176 844 800 =
100 112 84 480 000 94 617 600
III ( )( )( )
1
20 124 102 126 480
2
=
78 58 9 865 440 733 840
IV ( )( )( )
1
90 132 24 142 560
2
− = −
156 170 22 239 360 −
24 235 200 −
Σ
1 673 520 156 586 080 8 785 584
5.98
Have X V xV Σ = Σ
( )
3 4
1 673 520 mm 156 586 080 mm X =
or 93.6 mm X = W
5.99
Have Z V zV Σ = Σ
( )
3 4
1 673 520 mm 8 785 584 mm Z =
or 52.5 mm Z = W
PROBLEM 5.100
Locate the center of gravity of the sheetmetal form shown.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity coincides with the centroid of
the corresponding area.
2
, mm A
, mm x
, mm y
, mm z
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
3
, mm zA
1
( )( )
1
90 60
2
2700 =
30
120 20
140
+
=
0 81 000 378 000 0
2
( )( ) 90 200
18 000 =
45 60 80 810 000 1 080 000 1 440 000
3
( )( ) 45 100
4500
−
= −
22.5 30 120 101 250 −
135 000 −
540 000 −
4
( )
2
45
2
1012.5
π
π =
45 0
( )( ) 4 45
160
3
179.1
π
+
=
143 139 0 569 688
Σ
19 380.9 932 889 1 323 000 1 469 688
( )
2 3
Have :
19 380.9 mm 932 889 mm
or 48.1mm
X A xA
X
Σ = Σ
=
=
48.1mm X = W
( )
2 3
19 380.9 mm 1 323 000 mm
or 68.3 mm
Y A yA
Y
Y
Σ = Σ
=
=
68.3 mm Y = W
( )
2 3
19 380.9 mm 1 469 688 mm
or 75.8 mm
Z A zA
Z
Z
Σ = Σ
=
=
75.8 mm Z = W
PROBLEM 5.101
A mounting bracket for electronic components is formed from sheet
metal of uniform thickness. Locate the center of gravity of the bracket.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the bracket coincides with
the centroid of the corresponding area. Then (see diagram)
( )
( )
V
2
V
2
4 6.25
22.5
3
19.85 mm
6.25
2
61.36 mm
z
A
π
π
= −
=
= −
= −
2
, mm A
, mm x
, mm y
, mm z
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
3
, mm zA
I
( ) ( ) 25 60 1500 =
12.5 0 30 18 750 0 45 000
II
( )( ) 12.5 60 750 =
25 6.25 −
30 18 750 4687.5 −
22 500
III
( )( ) 7.5 60 450 =
28.75 12.5 −
30 12 937.5 5625 −
13 500
IV ( )( ) 12.5 30 375 − = −
10 0 37.5 3750 −
0 14 062.5 −
V 61.36 −
10 0 19.85 613.6 −
0 1218.0 −
Σ
2263.64 46 074 10 313 −
65 720
Have X A xA Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
2263.64 mm 46 074 mm X =
or 20.4 mm X = W
( )
2 3
2263.64 mm 10 313 mm
Y A yA
Y
Σ = Σ
= −
or 4.55 mm Y = − W
Z A zA Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
2263.64 mm 65 720 mm Z =
or 29.0 mm Z = W
PROBLEM 5.102
Locate the center of gravity of the sheetmetal form shown.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the form coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding area.
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
I
I
II II
IV
4
6 7.333 in.
3
1
6 2 in.
3
1
2 6 3.8197 in.
1
11 4 1.5 10.363 in.
3
y
z
x y
x
π
π
= + =
= =
= = =
= − =
2
, in A
, in. x
, in. y
, in. z
3
, in x A
3
, in y A
3
, in z A
I 12 0 7.333 2 0 88 24
II 56.55 3.8197 3.8197 3 216 216 169.65
III 30 8.5 0 3 255 0 90
IV 3.534 −
10.363 0 3 36.62 −
0 10.603 −
Σ
95.01
434.4 304 273.0
( )
2 3
Have
95.01in 434 in
X A xA
X
Σ = Σ
=
or 4.57 in. X = W
Y A yA Σ = Σ
( )
2 3
95.01in 304.0 in Y =
or 3.20 in. Y = W
( )
2 3
95.01in 273.0 in
Z A z A
Z
Σ = Σ
=
or 2.87 in. Z = W
PROBLEM 5.103
An enclosure for an electronic device is formed from sheet metal of
uniform thickness. Locate the center of gravity of the enclosure.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the form coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding area.
Consider the division of the back, sides, and top into eight segments according to the sketch.
Note that symmetry implies 6.00 in. Z = W
and
8 2
7 3
6 5
A A
A A
A A
=
=
=
Thus
2
, in A
, in. x
, in. y
3
, in xA
3
, in yA
1 ( )( ) 12 9 108 =
0 4.5 0 486
2 ( )( ) 11.3 9 101.7 =
5.6 4.5 569.5 457.6
3 ( )( )
1
11.3 2.4 13.56
2
=
7.467 9.8 101.25 132.89
4 ( )( ) 12 11.454 137.45 =
5.6 10.2 769.72 1402.0
5 ( )( )
1
1.5 11.454 8.591
2
=
7.467 10.6 64.15 91.06
6 8.591 7.467 10.6 64.15 91.06
7 13.56 7.467 9.8 101.25 132.89
8 101.7 5.6 4.5 569.5 457.6
Σ
493.2 2239.5 3251.1
( )
2 3
Have : 493.2 in 2239.5 in X A xA X Σ = Σ =
or 4.54 in. X = W
( )
2 3
: 493.2 in 3251.1in Y A yA Y Σ = Σ =
or 6.59 in. Y = W
PROBLEM 5.104
A 200mmdiameter cylindrical duct and a 100 200mm × rectangular
duct are to be joined as indicated. Knowing that the ducts are fabricated
from the same sheet metal, which is of uniform thickness, locate the center
of gravity of the assembly.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the duct coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding area. Also note that symmetry implies 0 Z = W
2
, m A
, m x
, m y
3
, m xA
3
, m yA
1 ( )( ) 0.2 0.3 0.1885 π =
0 0.15 0 0.028274
2
( )( ) 0.2 0.1 0.0314
2
π
− = −
( ) 2 0.1
0.06366
π
=
0.25 0.02000 − 0.007854 −
3 ( )
2
0.1 0.01571
2
π
=
( ) 4 0.1
0.04244
3π
−
= −
0.30 0.000667 − 0.004712
4 ( )( ) 0.3 0.2 0.060 =
0.15 0.30 0.00900 0.001800
5 ( )( ) 0.3 0.2 0.060 =
0.15 0.20 0.00900 0.001200
6 ( )
2
0.1 0.1571
2
π
− = −
( ) 4 0.1
3π
0.20 0.000667 −
0.003142 −
7 ( )( ) 0.3 0.1 0.030 =
0.15 0.25 0.004500 0.007500
8 ( )( ) 0.3 0.1 0.030 =
0.15 0.25 0.004500 0.007500
Σ
0.337080 0.023667 0.066991
Have
2 3
: (0.337080 mm ) 0.023667 mm X A xA X Σ = Σ =
or
0.0702 m X =
70.2 mm X = W
( )
2 3
: 0.337080 mm 0.066991mm Y A yA Y Σ = Σ =
or
0.19874 m Y =
198.7 mm Y = W
PROBLEM 5.105
An elbow for the duct of a ventilating system is made of sheet metal of
uniform thickness. Locate the center of gravity of the elbow.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the duct coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding area. Also, note that the shape of the duct implies 1.5 in. Y = W
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
I I
II
II
IV IV
V
V
2
Note that 16 in. 16 in. 5.81408 in.
2
16 in. 8 in. 10.9070 in.
2
12 in. 8 in. 6.9070 in.
4
16 in. 16 in. 9.2094 in.
3
4
16 in. 8 in. 12.6047 in.
3
4
12 in. 8 in. 8.6047 in.
3
x z
x
z
x z
x
z
π
π
π
π
π
π
= = − =
= − =
= − =
= = − =
= − =
= − =
Also note that the corresponding top and bottom areas will contribute equally when determining and . x z
Thus
2
, in A
, in. x
, in. z
3
, in xA
3
, in zA
I ( )( ) 16 3 75.3982
2
π
=
5.81408 5.81408 438.37 438.37
II ( )( ) 8 3 37.6991
2
π
=
10.9070 6.9070 411.18 260.39
III ( ) 4 3 12 =
8 14 96.0 168.0
IV ( )
2
2 16 402.1239
4
π
=
9.2094 9.2094
3703.32
3703.32
V ( )
2
2 8 100.5309
4
π
− = −
12.6047 8.6047 1267.16 −
865.04 −
VI ( )( ) 2 4 8 64 − = −
12 14 768.0 −
896.0 −
Σ
362.69 2613.71 2809.04
Have
( )
2 3
: 362.69 in 2613.71in X A xA X Σ = Σ =
or 7.21in. X = W
( )
2 3
: 362.69 in 2809.04 in Z A zA Z Σ = Σ =
or 7.74 in. Z = W
PROBLEM 5.106
A window awning is fabricated from sheet metal of uniform thickness.
Locate the center of gravity of the awning.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the awning coincides with
the centroid of the corresponding area.
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
II VI
II VI
IV
IV
2
2
II VI
2
IV
4 500
80 292.2 mm
3
4 500
212.2 mm
3
2 500
80 398.3 mm
2 500
318.3 mm
500 196 350 mm
4
500 680 534 071mm
2
y y
z z
y
z
A A
A
π
π
π
π
π
π
= = + =
= = =
= + =
= =
= = =
= =
2
, mm A
, mm y
, mm z
3
, mm yA
3
, mm zA
I
(80)(500) 40 000 =
40 250
6
1.6 10 ×
6
10 10 ×
II 196 350 292.2 212.2
6
57.4 10 ×
6
41.67 10 ×
III
(80)(680) 54 400 =
40 500
6
0.2176 10 ×
6
27.2 10 ×
IV 534 071 398.3 318.3
6
212.7 10 ×
6
170 10 ×
V
(80)(500) 40 000 =
40 250
6
1.6 10 ×
6
10 10 ×
VI 196 350 292.2 212.2
6
57.4 10 ×
6
41.67 10 ×
Σ
6
1.061 10 ×
6
332.9 10 ×
6
300.5 10 ×
Now, symmetry implies 340 mm X = W
and
( )
6 2 6 3
: 1.061 10 mm 332.9 10 mm Y A yA Y Σ = Σ × = ×
or 314 mm Y = W
( )
6 2 6 3
: 1.061 10 mm 300.5 10 mm Z A zA Z Σ = Σ × = ×
or 283 mm Z = W
PROBLEM 5.107
The thin, plastic front cover of a wall clock is of uniform thickness.
Locate the center of gravity of the cover.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the plastic is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the cover coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding area.
Next, note that symmetry implies 150.0 mm X =
2
, mm A
, mm y
, mm z
3
, mm y A
3
, mm z
1
( )( ) 300 280
84 000 =
0 140 0 11 760 000
2
( )( ) 280 50
14 000 =
25 140 350 000 1 960 000
3
( )( ) 300 50
15 000 =
25 0 375 000 0
4
( )( ) 280 50
14 000 =
25 140 350 000 1 960 000
5
( )
2
100
31 416
π −
= −
0 130 0 4 084 070 −
6
( )
2
30
4
706.86
π −
= −
0
( )( ) 4 30
260 247.29
3π
− =
0
174 783 −
7
( )
2
30
4
706.86
π −
= −
0
( )( ) 4 30
260 247.29
3π
− =
0 174 783 −
Σ 94 170 1 075 000 11 246 363
Have
( )
2 3
: 94 170 mm 1 075 000 mm Y A yA Y Σ = Σ =
or 11.42 mm Y = W
( )
2 3
: 94 170 mm 11 246 363 mm Z A zA Z Σ = Σ =
or 119.4 mm Z = W
PROBLEM 5.108
A thin steel wire of uniform cross section is bent into the shape shown,
where arc BC is a quarter circle of radius R. Locate its center of gravity.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the wire is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the
corresponding line.
2
, in L
, in. x
, in. y
, in. z
2
, in x L
2
, in y L
2
, in z L
1 15 0 7.5 0 0 112.5 0
2 14 7 0 0 98 0 0
3 13
5
9
12
11.5
=
0 6 149.5 0 78
4
( ) 15
2
23.56
π
=
3 2 15
5
5.73
π
×
=
30
9.549
π
=
24
7.639
π
=
135.0 225.0 180.0
Σ
65.56 382.5 337.5 258.0
( )
2
Have : 65.56 in. 382.5 in X L x L X Σ = Σ =
or 5.83 in. X = W
( )
2
: 65.56 in. 337.5 in Y L y L Y Σ = Σ =
or 5.15 in. Y = W
( )
2
: 65.56 in. 258.0 in Z L z L Z Σ = Σ =
or 3.94 in. Z = W
PROBLEM 5.109
A thin steel wire of uniform cross section is bent into the shape shown,
where arc BC is a quarter circle of radius R. Locate its center of gravity.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the wire is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the
corresponding line
4
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1
2
2 8 16
Have ft
8 3 8.5440 ft
8
4 ft
2
x z
L
L
π π
π
π
= = =
= + =
= =
, ft L
, ft x
, ft y
, ft z
2
, ft x L
2
, ft y L
2
, ft z L
1 8.5440 4 1.5 0 34.176 12.816 0
2 4π
16π
0
16
π
64.0 0 64.0
3 8 0 0 4 0 0 32
4 3 0 1.5 0 0 4.5 0
32.110 98.176 17.316 96.0
Have ( )
2
: 32.110 ft 98.176 ft X L x L X Σ = Σ = or 3.06 ft X = W
( )
2
: 32.110 ft 17.316 ft Y L y L Y Σ = Σ =
or 0.539 ft Y = W
( )
2
: 32.110 ft 96.0 ft Z L z L Z Σ = Σ =
or 2.99 ft Z = W
PROBLEM 5.110
The frame of a greenhouse is constructed from uniform aluminum
channels. Locate the center of gravity of the portion of the frame shown.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the channels are homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the frame coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding line.
( )( )
( )( )
( )
8 9
8 9
7 8
2 0.9
Note 0.57296 m
2 0.9
1.5 2.073 m
0.9 1.4137 m
2
x x
y y
L L
π
π
π
= = =
= = + =
= = =
, m L
, m x
, m y
, m z
2
, m xL
2
, m yL
2
, m zL
1 0.6 0.9 0 0.3 0.540 0 0.18
2 0.9 0.45 0 0.6 0.4050 0 0.54
3 1.5 0.9 0.75 0 1.350 1.125 0
4 1.5 0.9 0.75 0.6 1.350 1.125 0.9
5 2.4 0 1.2 0.6 0 2.880 1.44
6 0.6 0.9 1.5 0.3 0.540 0.9 0.18
7 0.9 0.45 1.5 0.6 0.4050 1.350 0.54
8 1.4137 0.573 2.073 0 0.8100 2.9306 0
9 1.4137 0.573 2.073 0.6 0.8100 2.9306 0.8482
10 0.6 0 2.4 0.3 0 1.440 0.18
Σ
11.827 6.210 14.681 4.8082
( )
2
Have : 11.827 m 6.210 m X L xL X Σ = Σ =
or 0.525 m X = W
( )
2
: 11.827 m 14.681m Y L yL Y Σ = Σ =
or 1.241m Y = W
( )
2
: 11.827 m 4.8082 m Z L zL Z Σ = Σ =
or 0.406 m Z = W
*
PROBLEM 5.111
The decorative metalwork at the entrance of a store is fabricated from
uniform steel structural tubing. Knowing that R = 1.2 m, locate the center
of gravity of the metalwork.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the tubes are homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the metalwork coincides with the
centroid of the corresponding line.
Note that symmetry implies 0 Z = W
, m L
, m x
, m y
2
, m xL
2
, m yL
1 3 ( ) 1.2 cos 45 0.8485 ° =
1.5 2.5456 4.5
2 3 ( ) 1.2 cos 45 0.8485 ° =
1.5 2.5456 4.5
3 1.2π
0 3.7639 0 14.1897
4 1.2π
( )( ) 2 1.2
0.7639
π
=
3 2.88 11.3097
5 0.6π
( )( ) 2 1.2
0.7639
π
=
3.7639 1.44 7.0949
Σ
15.425 9.4112 41.594
( )
2
Have : 15.425 m 9.4112 m X L xL X Σ = Σ = or 0.610 m X = W
( )
2
: 15.425 m 41.594 m Y L yL Y Σ = Σ =
or 2.70 m Y = W
PROBLEM 5.112
A scratch awl has a plastic handle and a steel blade and shank. Knowing
that the specific weight of plastic is
3
0.0374 lb/in and of steel is
3
0.284 lb/in , locate the center of gravity of the awl.
SOLUTION
First, note that symmetry implies 0 Y Z = = W
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
3
I I
2
3
II II
2
3
III III
5 2
0.5 in. 0.3125 in., 0.0374 lb/in 0.5 in. 0.009791lb
8 3
1.6 in. 0.5 in. 2.1in. 0.0374 lb/in 0.5 in. 3.2 in. 0.093996 lb
3.7 in. 1in. 2.7 in., 0.0374 lb/in 0.12 in. 2 in. 0.00
4
x W
x W
x W
π
π
π
 
= = = =

\ .
= + = = =
 
= − = = − = −

\ .
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
3
IV IV
2
3
V V
0846 lb
7.3 in. 2.8 in. 4.5 in., 0.284 lb/in 0.12 in. 5.6 in. 0.017987 lb
4
1
7.3 in. 0.4 in. 7.4 in., 0.284 lb/in 0.06 in. 0.4 in. 0.000428 lb
4 3
x W
x W
π
π
 
= − = = =

\ .
 
= + = = =

\ .
, lb W
, in. x
, in lb xW ⋅
I 0.009791 0.3125 0.003060
II 0.093996 2.1 0.197393
III 0.000846 −
2.7 0.002284 −
IV 0.017987 4.5 0.080942
V 0.000428 7.4 0.003169
Σ
0.12136 0.28228
( ) Have : 0.12136 lb 0.28228 in. lb X W xW X Σ = Σ = ⋅ or 2.33 in. X = W
PROBLEM 5.113
A bronze bushing is mounted inside a steel sleeve. Knowing that the
density of bronze is
3
8800 kg/m and of steel is
3
7860 kg/m , determine
the center of gravity of the assembly.
SOLUTION
First, note that symmetry implies 0 X Z = = W
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 2 2 2 2
I I
3 2 2 2 2
II II
Now
4 mm, 7860 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.036 0.015 m 0.008 m
4
0.51887 N
18 mm, 7860 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.0225 0.05 m 0.02 m
4
W g V
y W
y W
ρ
π
π
=
¦ ¹
 
(
= = −
´ `

¸ ¸
\ . ¹ )
=
¦ ¹
 
(
= = −
´ `

¸ ¸
\ . ¹ )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 2 2 2 2
III III
0.34065 N
14 mm, 8800 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.15 0.10 m 0.028 m
4
0.23731 N
y W
π
=
¦ ¹
 
(
= = −
´ `

¸ ¸
\ . ¹ )
=
Have Y W yW Σ = Σ
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 mm 0.5189 N 18 mm 0.3406 N 14 mm 0.2373 N
0.5189 N 0.3406 N 0.2373 N
Y
+ +
=
+ +
( )
or 10.51mm
above base
Y = W
PROBLEM 5.114
A marker for a garden path consists of a truncated regular pyramid carved
from stone of specific weight 160 lb/ft
3
. The pyramid is mounted on a
steel base of thickness h. Knowing that the specific weight of steel is
490 lb/ft
3
and that steel plate is available in
1
4
in. increments, specify the
minimum thickness h for which the center of gravity of the marker is
approximately 12 in. above the top of the base.
SOLUTION
First, locate the center of gravity of the stone. Assume that the stone is
homogeneous so that the center of gravity coincides with the centroid of
the corresponding volume.
( ) ( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )( )
1 1
3
2 2
3
3 1
Have 56 in. 42 in., 12 in. 12 in. 56 in.
4 3
2688 in
3 1
28 in. 21in., 6 in. 6 in. 28 in.
4 3
366 in
y V
y V
= = =
=
= = = −
= −
3 3
stone
3
Then 2688 in 366 in
2352 in
V = −
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
3 3
3
and
42 in. 2688 in 21in. 366 in
2352 in
45 in.
yV
Y
V
Σ
=
Σ
+ −
=
=
Therefore, the center of gravity of the stone is ( ) 45 28 in. − = 17 in.
above the base.
( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
3
3 3
stone stone stone
steel steel steel
3
3
1ft
Now 160 lb/ft 2352 in
12 in.
217.78 lb
1ft
490 lb/ft 12 in. 12 in.
12 in.
1b 40.833
W V
W V
h
h
γ
γ
 
= =

\ .
=
=
 
( =

¸ ¸
\ .
=
PROBLEM 5.114 CONTINUED
Then
marker
12 in.
yW
Y
W
Σ
= =
Σ
( )( ) ( )
( )
17 in. 217.78 lb in. 40.833 h lb
2
217.78 40.833 lb
h
h
 
+ −

\ .
=
+
or
2
24 53.334 0 h h + − =
With positive solution 2.0476 in. h =
specify 2 in. h ∴ = W
PROBLEM 5.115
The ends of the park bench shown are made of concrete, while the seat
and back are wooden boards. Each piece of wood is 36 120 × ×
1180 mm. Knowing that the density of concrete is
3
2320 kg/m and of
wood is
3
470 kg/m , determine the x and y coordinates of the center of
gravity of the bench.
SOLUTION
First, note that we will account for the two concrete ends by counting twice the weights of components 1, 2,
and 3.
( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
1 1
3 2
2 2
3 2
3 3
2320 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.480 m 0.408 m 0.072 m
320.9 N
2320 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.096 m 0.048 m 0.072 m
7.551 N
2320 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.096 m 0.384 m 0.072 m
c
c
c
W g V
W g V
W g V
ρ
ρ
ρ
( = =
¸ ¸
=
( = − = −
¸ ¸
= −
( = =
¸ ¸
( )( )
( )( )( )
4 5 6 7 board
3 2
60.41 N
470 kg/m 9.81m/s 0.120 m 0.036 m 1.180 m
23.504 N
w
W W W W V ρ
=
= = = =
( =
¸ ¸
=
PROBLEM 5.115 CONTINUED
( ) Have : 865.06 N 236 590 mm N X W xW X Σ = Σ = ⋅
or 274 mm X = W
( ) : 865.06 N 89 671mm N Y W yW Y Σ = Σ = − ⋅
or 103.6 mm Y = − W
, N W
, mm x
, mm y
, mm N x W ⋅
, mm N y W ⋅
1 ( ) 2 320.4 641.83 =
312 204 −
200 251.4 130 933.6 −
2 ( ) 2 7.551 15.10 − = −
312 384 −
4711.8 −
5799.1
3 ( ) 2 60.41 120.82 =
84 192 10 148.5 23 196.5
4 23.504 228 18 5358.8 423.1
5 23.504 360 18 8461.3 423.1
6 23.504 442 18 10 388.5 423.1
7 23.504 124.7 328.3 2930.9 7716.2
8 23.504 160.1 139.6 3762.9 3281.1
Σ 865.06 236 590 89 671 −
PROBLEM 5.116
Determine by direct integration the values of x for the two volumes
obtained by passing a vertical cutting plane through the given shape of
Fig. 5.21. The cutting plane is parallel to the base of the given shape and
divides the shape into two volumes of equal height.
A hemisphere.
SOLUTION
Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
Then
2
,
EL
dV r dx x x π = =
The equation of the generating curve is
2 2 2
x y a + = so that
2 2 2
r a x = −
and then
( )
2 2
dV a x dx π = −
Component 1
( )
/2
3
/2
2 2 2
1
0
0
3
3
11
24
a
a x
V a x dx a x
a
π π
π
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
=
∫
( )
/2
2 2
1 0
/2
2 4
2
0
4
and
2 4
7
64
a
EL
a
x dV x a x dx
x x
a
a
π
π
π
(
= −
¸ ¸
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫
Now
3 4
1 1 1
1
11 7
:
24 64
EL
xV x dV x a a π π
 
= =

\ .
∫
1
21
or
88
x a = W
Component 2
( )
( )
( )
3
2 2 2
2
/2
/2
3
3
2 2 2
3
3
3 2 3
5
24
a
a
a
a
a
x
V a x dx a x
a a
a a a
a
π π
π
π
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
¦ ¹
(
(
¦ ¦  
(
= − − −
´ ` (

(
\ .
¸ ¸ ¦ ¦
(
¸ ¸
¹ )
=
∫
PROBLEM 5.116 CONTINUED
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 4
2 2 2
EL
2 /2
/2
2 4
2 4
2 2 2 2
4
and
2 4
2 4 2 4
9
64
a
a
a
a
a a
x x
x dV x a x dx a
a a
a a
a
π π
π
π
(
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¦ ¹
(
(
¦ ¦
(
( = − − −
´ `
(
(
¦ ¦
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
¹ )
=
∫ ∫
Now
3 4
2 2 EL 2
2
5 9
:
24 64
x V x dV x a a π π
 
= =

\ .
∫
2
27
or
40
x a = W
PROBLEM 5.117
Determine by direct integration the values of x for the two volumes
obtained by passing a vertical cutting plane through the given shape of
Fig. 5.21. The cutting plane is parallel to the base of the given shape and
divides the shape into two volumes of equal height.
A semiellipsoid of revolution.
SOLUTION
Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
Then
2
EL
, dV r dx x x π = =
The equation of the generating curve is
2 2
2 2
1
x y
h a
+ = so that
( )
2
2 2 2
2
a
r h x
h
= − and then
( )
2
2 2
2
a
dV h x dx
h
π = −
Component 1
( )
/2
2 2 3
/2
2 2 2
1
2 2 0
0
2
3
11
24
h
h a a x
V h x dx h x
h h
a h
π π
π
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
=
∫
( )
2
/2
2 2
2 1 0
/2
2 2 4
2
2
0
2 2
and
2 4
7
64
h
EL
h
a
x dV x h x dx
h
a x x
h
h
a h
π
π
π
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫
Now
2 2 2
1 1 1
1
11 7
:
24 64
EL
x V x dV x a h a h π π
 
= =

\ .
∫
1
21
or
88
x h = W
PROBLEM 5.117 CONTINUED
Component 2
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 3
2 2 2
2
2 2 /2
/2
3
3
2
2 2 2
2
2
3
3 2 3
5
24
h
h
h
h
h
a a x
V h x dx h x
h h
h a h
h h h
h
a h
π π
π
π
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
¦ ¹
(
(
¦ ¦  
(
( = − − −
´ `

( \ .
(
¦ ¦
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
¹ )
=
∫
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 2 /2
2 2 4
2
2
/2
2 4
2 4
2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
and
2 4
2 4 2 4
9
64
h
EL
h
h
h
h h
a
x dV x h x dx
h
a x x
h
h
h h a
h h
h
a h
π
π
π
π
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
¦ ¹
(
(
¦ ¦
(
( = − − −
´ `
(
(
¦ ¦
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸ ¹ )
=
∫ ∫
Now
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
5 9
:
24 64
EL
x V x dV x a h a h π π
 
= =

\ .
∫
2
27
or
40
x h = W
PROBLEM 5.118
Determine by direct integration the values of x for the two volumes
obtained by passing a vertical cutting plane through the given shape of
Fig. 5.21. The cutting plane is parallel to the base of the given shape and
divides the shape into two volumes of equal height.
A paraboloid of revolution.
SOLUTION
Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
Then
2
EL
, dV r dx x x π = =
The equation of the generating curve is
2
2
h
x h y
a
= − so that
( )
2
2
a
r h x
h
= − and then
( )
2
a
dV h x dx
h
π = −
Component 1
( )
2
/2
1
0
/2
2 2
0
2
2
3
8
h
h
a
V h x dx
h
a x
hx
h
a h
π
π
π
= −
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
=
∫
( )
2
/2
1 0
/2
2 2 3
0
2 2
and
2 3
1
12
h
EL
h
a
x dV x h x dx
h
a x x
h
h
a h
π
π
π
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫
Now
2 2 2
1 1 1
1
3 1
:
8 12
EL
x V x dV x a h a h π π
 
= =

\ .
∫
1
2
or
9
x h = W
PROBLEM 5.118 CONTINUED
Component 2
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
/2
/2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
1
8
h
h
h
h
h
a a x
V h x dx hx
h h
h a h
h h h
h
a h
π π
π
π
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
¦ ¹
(
(
¦ ¦  
(
( = − − −
´ `

(
( \ .
¦ ¦
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
¹ )
=
∫
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 3
2 /2
/2
2 3
2 3
2
2 2
2 2
and
2 3
2 3 2 3
1
12
h
h
EL
h
h
h h
a a x x
x dV x h x dx h
h h
h h a
h h
h
a h
π π
π
π
( (
= − = −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¦ ¹
(
(
¦ ¦
(
( = − − −
´ `
(
(
¦ ¦
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
¹ )
=
∫ ∫
Now
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
1 1
:
8 12
EL
x V x dV x a h a h π π
 
= =

\ .
∫
2
2
or
3
x h = W
PROBLEM 5.119
Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area
about the x axis.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 y = W
0 z = W
Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
Then
2
,
EL
dV r dx x x π = =
Now
2
2
1
x
r b
a
 
= −


\ .
so that
2
2
2
2
1
x
dV b dx
a
π
 
= −


\ .
2
2 2 4
2 2
2 2 4 0 0
3 5
2
2 4
0
2
2
2
Then 1 1
2
3 5
2 1
1
3 5
8
15
a a
a
x x x
V b dx b dx
a a a
x x
b x
a a
ab
ab
π π
π
π
π
   
= − = − +
 
 
\ . \ .
 
= − +


\ .
 
= − +

\ .
=
∫ ∫
and
2 4
2
2 4 0
2
1
a
EL
x x
x dV b x dx
a a
π
 
= − +


\ .
∫ ∫
2 4 6
2
2 4
0
2
2 4 6
a
x x x
b
a a
π
 
= − +


\ .
2 2
1 1 1
2 2 6
a b π
 
= − +

\ .
2 2
1
6
a b π =
PROBLEM 5.119 CONTINUED
Then
2 2 2
8 1
:
15 16
EL
xV x dV x ab a b π π
 
= =

\ .
∫
15
or
6
x a = W
PROBLEM 5.120
Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area
about the x axis.
SOLUTION
First, note that symmetry implies 0 y = W
0 z = W
Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
Then
2
,
EL
dV r dx x x π = =
Now
1
1 r
x
= − so that
2
2
1
1
2 1
1
dV dx
x
dx
x
x
π
π
 
= −

\ .
 
= − +

\ .
( )
3
3
2 1
1
3
2 1 1
Then 1 2 ln
1 1
3 2 ln3 1 2 ln 1
3 1
0.46944 m
V dx x x
x x x
π π
π
π
  (
= − + = − −

(
\ . ¸ ¸
(
   
= − − − − −
  (
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
=
∫
( ) ( )
( )
3
2
3
2 1
1
2 3
2 1
and 1 2 ln
2
3 1
2 3 ln3 2 1 ln1
2 2
1.09861 m
EL
x
x dV x dx x x
x x
π π
π
π
(
(
 
= − + = − +
(
 (
\ . ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¦ ¹ ( (
¦ ¦
= − + − − +
´ ` ( (
¦ ¦ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¹ )
=
∫ ∫
( )
3 4
Now : 0.46944 m 1.09861 m
EL
xV x dV X π π = =
∫
or 2.34 m x = W
PROBLEM 5.121
Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area
about the line . x h =
SOLUTION
First, note that symmetry implies x h = W
0 z = W
Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
Then
2
,
EL
dV r dy y y π = =
Now
( )
2
2 2 2
2
h
x a y
a
= − so that
2 2
h
r h a y
a
= − −
Then
( )
2 2
2 2
2
h
dV a a y dy
a
π = − −
and
( )
2 2
2 2
2 0
a h
V a a y dy
a
π = − −
∫
Let sin cos y a dy a d θ θ θ = ⇒ =
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
/2
2 2 2
2 0
2
/2
2 2 2 2
2 0
/2
2 2 2
0
/2
2 3
0
2 2
Then sin cos
2 cos sin cos
2cos 2cos sin cos
sin 2 1
2sin 2 sin
2 4 3
1
2 2
2 3
0.095870
h
V a a a a d
a
h
a a a a a a d
a
ah d
ah
ah
ah
π
π
π
π
π
π θ θ θ
π θ θ θ θ
π θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ
π θ θ
π
π
= − −
(
= − + −
¸ ¸
= − −
(
 
= − + −
 (
\ . ¸ ¸
(
 
= − − ( 

(
\ . ¸ ¸
=
∫
∫
∫
2
PROBLEM 5.121 CONTINUED
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 0
2
2 2 2 3
2 0
2
3/2
2 2 2 2 4
2
0
2
3/2
2
2 4 2
2
2 2
and
2 2
2 1
3 4
1 2
4 3
1
12
a
EL
a
a
h
y dV y a a y dy
a
h
a y ay a y y dy
a
h
a y a a y y
a
h
a a a a a
a
a h
π
π
π
π
π
(
= − −
(
¸ ¸
= − − −
(
= + − −
(
¸ ¸
¦ ¹
( (
= − −
´ `
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ )
=
∫ ∫
∫
( )
2 2 2
1
Now : 0.095870
12
EL
yV y dV y ah a h π π = =
∫
or 0.869 y a = W
PROBLEM 5.122
Locate the centroid of the volume generated by revolving the portion of
the sine curve shown about the x axis.
SOLUTION
First, note that symmetry implies 0 y = W
0 z = W
Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
Then
2
EL
, dV r dx x x π = =
Now sin
2
x
r b
a
π
=
so that
2 2
sin
2
x
dV b dx
a
π
π =
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
Then sin
2
sin
2 2
1
2
a
a
a
x
a
a
a
a a
x
V b dx
a
x
b
b
ab
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
=
(
= −
(
(
¸ ¸
(
= −
¸ ¸
=
∫
and
2
2 2
sin
2
a
EL a
x
x dV x b dx
a
π
π
 
=

\ .
∫ ∫
Use integration by parts with
2
2
sin
2
sin
2
x
a
a
x
u x dV
a
x
du dx V
π
π
π
= =
= = −
PROBLEM 5.122 CONTINUED
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
sin sin
Then
2 2
2 1
2 cos
2 2 4 2
3 1 1
2
2 4 4 2 2
a
x x
a
a a
EL a
a a
a
a
a
x x
x dV b x dx
a a a x
b a a x
a
a a
b a a a
π π
π π
π
π
π
π
π
π π
¦ ¹
(
   
¦ ¦
= − − − (  
´ `
 
(
¦ ¦ \ . \ . ¸ ¸
¹ )
¦ ¹
(
( ¦ ¦    
= − − +
´ ` (
  (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¦ ¦
¹ )
¦
(
¦ 
= − + − +
´ (

\ .
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
2 2
2
2 2
3 1
4
0.64868
a b
a b
π
π
π
¹
¦
`
¦ ¦
¹ )
 
= −

\ .
=
2 2 2
1
Now : 0.64868
2
EL
xV x dV x ab a b π π
 
= =

\ .
∫
or 1.297 x a = W
PROBLEM 5.123
Locate the centroid of the volume generated by revolving the portion of
the sine curve shown about the y axis. (Hint: Use a thin cylindrical shell
of radius r and thickness dr as the element of volume.)
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 x = W
0 z = W
Choose as the element of volume a cylindrical shell of radius r and
thickness dr.
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 ,
2
EL
dV r y dr y y π = =
Now sin
2
r
y b
a
π
=
so that 2 sin
2
r
dV br dr
a
π
π =
Then
2
2 sin
2
a
a
r
V br dr
a
π
π =
∫
Use integration by parts with
sin
2
2
cos
2
r
u r dv dr
a
a r
du dr v
a
π
π
π
= =
= = −
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
Then 2 cos cos
2 2
2 4
2 2 1 sin
2
a
a
a
a
a
a
a r a r
V b r dr
a a
a a r
b a
a
π π
π
π π
π
π
π π
¦ ¹
( ¦ ¦    
= − −
´ `
  (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
¦ ¦
¹ )
¦ ¹
(
¦ ¦
( = − − +
´ ` (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¦ ¦
¹ )
∫
2 2
2
2
2
4 4
2
1
8 1
5.4535
a a
V b
a b
a b
π
π π
π
 
= −

\ .
 
= −

\ .
=
2
1
2
2
2 2
Also sin 2 sin
2 2
sin
2
a
EL a
a
a
r r
y dV b br dr
a a
r
b r dr
a
π π
π
π
π
   
=
 
\ . \ .
=
∫ ∫
∫
PROBLEM 5.123 CONTINUED
Use integration by parts with
2
2
sin
2
sin
2
r
a
a
r
u r dv dr
a
r
du dr v
π
π
π
= =
= = −
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
sin sin
Then
2 2
2
2 cos
2 2 4 2
2 3
2 4 4 2 2
a
r r
a
a a
EL a
a a
a
a
a
r r
y dV b r dr
a a r a r
b a a
a
a a a a
b a
a
π π
π π
π
π
π
π
π
π π
π
¦ ¹
(    
¦ ¦
= − − − (  
´ `
 
(
¦ ¦ \ . \ .
¸ ¸
¹ )
¦ ¹
(
( ¦ ¦    
= − − +
´ ` (
  (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¦ ¦
¹ )
¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦
( = − + − +
´ `
(
¦ ¦
¸ ¸
¹ )
=
∫ ∫
2
2
2 2
3 1
4
2.0379
b
a b
π
 
−

\ .
=
Now
( )
2 2 2
: 5.4535 2.0379
EL
yV y dV y a b a b = =
∫
or 0.374 y b = W
PROBLEM 5.124
Show that for a regular pyramid of height h and n sides ( 3, 4, n = …) the
centroid of the volume of the pyramid is located at a distance / 4 h above
the base.
SOLUTION
Choose as the element of a horizontal slice of thickness dy. For any
number N of sides, the area of the base of the pyramid is given by
2
base
A kb =
where ( ) ; k k N = see note below. Using similar triangles, have
s h y
b h
−
=
or
( )
b
s h y
h
= −
( )
2
2
2
slice
2
Then
b
dV A dy ks dy k h y dy
h
= = = −
( ) ( )
2 2
2 3
2 2 0
0
2
1
and
3
1
3
h
h b b
V k h y dy k h y
h h
kb h
(
= − = − −
(
¸ ¸
=
∫
Also
EL
y y =
( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2 3
2 2 0 0
2
2 2 3 4 2 2
2
0
so then 2
1 2 1 1
2 3 4 12
h h
EL
h
b b
y dV y k h y dy k h y hy y dy
h h
b
k h y hy y kb h
h
(
= − = − +
(
¸ ¸
(
= − + =
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫ ∫
Now
2 2 2
1 1
:
3 12
EL
yV y dV y kb h kb h
 
= =

\ .
∫
1
or Q.E.D.
4
y h = W
Note
( )
2
base
tan
2
2
1
2
4 tan
N
b
N
A N b
N
b
k N b
π
π
 
= × ×

\ .
=
=
PROBLEM 5.125
Determine by direct integration the location of the centroid of onehalf of a
thin, uniform hemispherical shell of radius R.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 x = W
The element of area dA of the shell shown is obtained by cutting the shell
with two planes parallel to the xy plane. Now
( )( )
2
EL
dA r Rd
r
y
π θ
π
=
= −
where sin r R θ =
2
EL
so that sin
2
sin
dA R d
R
y
π θ θ
θ
π
=
= −
 
2 2
2 2
0 0
2
Then sin cos A R d R
R
π π
π θ θ π θ
π
= = −
=
∫
( )
2
2
2
0
3
0
3
2
and sin sin
sin 2
2
2 4
2
EL
R
y dA R d
R
R
π
π
θ π θ θ
π
θ θ
π
 
= −

\ .
(
= − −
(
¸ ¸
= −
∫ ∫
( )
2 3
Now :
2
EL
yA y dA y R R
π
π = = −
∫
1
or
2
y R = − W
Symmetry implies
1
2
z y z R = ∴ = − W
PROBLEM 5.126
The sides and the base of a punch bowl are of uniform thickness t. If
t R << and 350 R = mm, determine the location of the center of gravity
of (a) the bowl, (b) the punch.
SOLUTION
(a) Bowl
First note that symmetry implies 0 x = W
0 z = W
for the coordinate axes shown below. Now assume that the bowl may be
treated as a shell; the center of gravity of the bowl will coincide with the
centroid of the shell. For the walls of the bowl, an element of area is
obtained by rotating the arc ds about the y axis. Then
( )( )
wall
2 sin dA R Rd π θ θ =
and ( )
wall
cos
EL
y R θ = −
 
/2 /2
2 2
wall
/6 /6
2
Then 2 sin 2 cos
3
A R d R
R
π π
π π
π θ θ π θ
π
= = −
=
∫
( )
( )
( )
wall wall
wall
/2
2
/6
/2
3 2
/6
3
and
cos 2 sin
cos
3
4
EL
y A y dA
R R d
R
R
π
π
π
π
θ π θ θ
π θ
π
=
= −
(
=
¸ ¸
= −
∫
∫
2
base base
3
By observation ,
4 2
A R y R
π
= = −
Now y A yA Σ = Σ
2 2 3 2
3 3
or 3
4 4 4 2
y R R R R R
π π
π π
 
 
+ = − + −



\ .
\ .
or 0.48763 350 mm y R R = − =
170.7 mm y ∴ = − W
(b) Punch
First note that symmetry implies 0 x = W
0 z = W
and that because the punch is homogeneous, its center of gravity will
coincide with the centroid of the corresponding volume. Choose as the
element of volume a disk of radius x and thickness dy. Then
2
,
EL
dV x dy y y π = =
PROBLEM 5.126 CONTINUED
Now
2 2 2
x y R + = so that
( )
2 2
dV R y dy π = −
( )
0
0
2 2 2 3
3/2
3/2
3
2 3
1
Then
3
3 1 3 3
3
2 3 2 8
R
R
V R y dy R y y
R R R R
π π
π π
−
−
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
(
   
(
= − − − − =
 
(
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
∫
( )
( )
0
0
2 2 2 2 4
3/2
3/2
2 4
2 4
1 1
and
2 4
1 3 1 3 15
2 2 4 2 64
EL
R
R
y dV y R y dy R y y
R R R R
π π
π π
−
−
(
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
   
(
= − − − − = −
 
 
(
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
3 4
3 15
Now : 3
8 64
EL
yV y dV y R R π π
 
= = −

\ .
∫
5
or 350 mm
8 3
y R R = − =
126.3 mm y ∴ = − W
PROBLEM 5.127
After grading a lot, a builder places four stakes to designate the corners of
the slab for a house. To provide a firm, level base for the slab, the builder
places a minimum of 60 mm of gravel beneath the slab. Determine the
volume of gravel needed and the x coordinate of the centroid of the
volume of the gravel. (Hint: The bottom of the gravel is an oblique plane,
which can be represented by the equation .) y a bx cz = + +
SOLUTION
First, determine the constants a, b, and c.
At 0, 0: 60 mm x z y = = = −
60 mm ; 60 mm a a ∴ − = = −
( )
At 7200 mm, 0: 100 mm
100 mm 60 7200
1
180
x z y
b
b
= = = −
∴ − = − +
= −
( )
At 0 , 12 000 mm: 120 mm
120 mm 60 mm 12000
1
200
x z y
c
c
= = = −
∴ − = − +
= −
It follows that
1 1
60
180 120
y x z = − − − where all dimensions
are in mm.
Choose as the element of volume a filament of base dx dz × and height
 . y Then
,
1 1
or 60
180 200
EL
dV y dxdz x x
dV x z dxdz
= =
= − − −
( )( )
( ) ( )
12000 7200
0 0
7200
12000
2
0
0
2
12000
0
12000
2
0
9 3 3
1 1
Then 60
180 200
1 1
60
360 200
7200 7200
60 7200
360 200
36
576000
2
9.504 10 mm 9.50 m
V x z dxdz
x x xz dz
z dz
z z
 
= + +

\ .
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
(
( = + +
(
¸ ¸
(
= +
(
¸ ¸
= × =
∫ ∫
∫
∫
3
9.50 m V = W
PROBLEM 5.127 CONTINUED
( )
12000 7200
0 0
7200
12000
2 3 2
0
0
12000
6
0
12000
6 2
0
13 13
13 4 4
1 1
and 60
180 200
60 1 1
2 540 400
2246.4 10 129 600
129 600
2246.4 10
2
2.695 10 0.933 10
3.63 10 mm 36.3 m
EL
x dV x x z dxdz
x x x z dz
z dz
z z
 
= + +

\ .
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
= × +
(
= × −
(
¸ ¸
= × + ×
= × =
∫ ∫ ∫
∫
∫
Now
( )
3 4
: 9.50 m 36.3 m
EL
xV x dV x = =
∫
or 3.82 m x = W
PROBLEM 5.128
Determine by direct integration the location of the centroid of the volume
between the xz plane and the portion shown of the surface
( )( )
2 2
2 2
16
.
h ax x bz z
y
a b
− −
=
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies
2
a
x =
2
b
z =
Choose as the element of volume a filament of base dx dz × and height y. Then
( ) ( )
EL
2 2
2 2
1
,
2
16
or
dV ydxdz y y
h
dV ax x bz z dxdz
a b
= =
= − −
Then
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 0 0
16 b a h
V ax x bz z dxdz
a b
= − −
∫ ∫
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 3
2 2 0
0
3 2 3
2 2 3
2 2 2
0
16 1
3
16 1 1 8 1 4
2 3 2 3 2 3 9 3
a
b
b
h a
V bz z x x dz
z a b
h a b ah b
a a z z b b abh
a b b
(
= − −
(
¸ ¸
( ( (
= − − = − =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
∫
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0
2
2 2 3 4 2 2 3 4
4 4 0 0
2 2
2 2 3 4 3 4 5
2 4 0
0
2 2 2
3 4 5
3
4 4
1 16 16
and
2
128
2 2
128 1
2
3 2 5
128 1
3 2 5 3
b a
EL
b a
a
b
h h
y dV ax x bz z ax x bz z dxdz
a b a b
h
a x ax x b z bz z dxdz
a b
h a a
b z bz z x x x dz
a b
h a a b b
a a a Z
a b
( (
= − − − −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= − + − +
(
= − + − +
(
¸ ¸
(
= − + −
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
∫
( ) ( ) ( )
4 5
0
2 3
3 4 5
2
4
1
5
64 1 32
3 2 5 225 15
b
Z Z
Z
ah b b
b b b abh
b
(
+
(
¸ ¸
(
= − + =
(
¸ ¸
PROBLEM 5.128 CONTINUED
Now
2
4 32
:
9 225
EL
yV y dV y abh abh
 
= =

\ .
∫
8
or
25
y h =
PROBLEM 5.129
Locate the centroid of the section shown, which was cut from a circular
cylinder by an inclined plane.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 x =
Choose as the element of volume a vertical slice of width 2x, thickness dz, and height y. Then
1
2 , ,
2
EL EL
dV xy dz y y z z = = =
Now
2 2
x a z = − and 1
2 2 2
h h h z
y z
a a
 
= − = −

\ .
So
2 2
1
z
dV h a z dz
a
 
= − −

\ .
( )
( ) ( )
3/2
2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
0
2 1 1
2
1 1
Then 1 sin
2 3
1
sin 1 sin 1
2
2
a
a
a
z z
V h a z dz h z a z a a z
a a a
a h
a h
π
−
−
− −
¦ ¹
( ¦ ¦    
= − − = − + + −
´ `
  (
\ . \ .
¦ ¦ ¸ ¸ ¹ )
(
= − −
¸ ¸
=
∫
PROBLEM 5.129 CONTINUED
Then
2 2
1
1 1
2 2
a
EL
a
h z z
y dV h a z dz
a a
−
( (    
= × − − −
  ( (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
∫ ∫
2 2
2 2
2
1 2
4
a
a
h z z
a z dz
a a
−
 
= − − +


\ .
∫
( )
3
2
2
2 2 2 1 2 2
1 2
sin
4 2 3
h z
z a z a a z
a a
−
¦
( ( ¦  
= − + + −
´
 ( (
\ . ¦ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹
( )
3
2
2 4
2 2 2 2 1
2
1
sin
4 8 8
a
a
z a z a z
a z a z
a a
−
−
¹
(
¦  
+ − − + − +
` (

\ .
¦ ¸ ¸
)
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
5
sin 1 sin 1
32
h a
− −
(
= − −
¸ ¸
Then
( )
2 2 2
5
:
2 32
EL
a h a
yV y dV y h
π
π
 
= =


\ .
∫
5
or
16
y h =
and
2 2
1
a
EL
a
z
z dV z h a z dz
a
−
(  
= − −
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
3 3
2 2
2 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 1
1 1
sin
3 4 8 8
a
a
z a z a z
h a z a z a z
a a
−
−
¦ ¹
(
¦ ¦  
= − − − − − + − +
´ ` (

\ .
¦ ¦ ¸ ¸
¹ )
( ) ( )
3
1 1
sin 1 sin 1
8
a h
− −
(
= − − −
¸ ¸
2 3
:
2 8
EL
a h a h
zV z dV z
π π
 
= = −


\ .
∫
or
4
a
z = −
PROBLEM 5.130
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
2
, in A
, in. x , in. y
3
, in xA
3
, in yA
1 14 20 280 × = 7 10 1960 2800
2
( )
2
4 16 π π − = − 6 12 301.59 − 603.19 −
Σ 229.73 1658.41 2196.8
( )
2 3
Then
229.73 in 1658.41in
X A xA
X
Σ = Σ
=
or 7.22 in. X =
( )
2 3
and
229.73 in 2196.8 in
Y A yA
Y
Σ = Σ
=
or 9.56 in. Y =
PROBLEM 5.131
For the area shown, determine the ratio a/b for which . x y =
SOLUTION
A
x y
xA yA
1
2
3
ab
3
8
a
3
5
b
2
4
a b
2
2
5
ab
2
1
2
ab −
1
3
a
2
3
b
2
6
a b
−
2
3
ab
−
Σ
1
6
ab
2
12
a b
2
15
ab
2
Then
1
6 12
X A xA
a b
X ab
Σ = Σ
 
=

\ .
or
1
2
X a =
2
1
6 15
Y A yA
ab
Y ab
Σ = Σ
 
=

\ .
or
2
5
Y b =
Now
1 2
2 5
X Y a b = ⇒ =
4
or
5
a
b
=
PROBLEM 5.132
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
Dimensions in mm
2
, mm A
, mm x , mm y
3
, mm xA
3
, mm yA
1 126 54 6804 × = 9 27 61 236 183 708
2
1
126 30 1890
2
× × = 30 64 56 700 120 960
3
1
72 1728
2
× × = 48 16 − 82 944 27 648 −
Σ 10 422 200 880 277 020
( )
2 2
Then
10 422 m 200 880 mm
X A xA
X
Σ = Σ
=
or 19.27 mm X = W
( )
2 3
and
10 422 m 270 020 mm
Y A yA
Y
Σ = Σ
=
or 26.6 mm Y = W
PROBLEM 5.133
Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express
your answer in terms of a and h.
SOLUTION
By observation
1
1
h
y x h
a
x
h
a
= − +
 
= −

\ .
For
2
: y At ( ) 0, : 1 0 or x y h h k k h = = = − =
( )
2
2
1
At , 0: 0 1 or x a y h ca C
a
= = = − =
2
2
2
Then 1
x
y h
a
 
= −


\ .
( )
2
2 1
2
2
2
Now 1 1
x x
dA y y dx h dx
a a
x x
h dx
a a
(
 
 
= − = − − − ( 


\ .
( \ .
¸ ¸
 
= −


\ .
( )
2
1 2
2
2
2
1
1 1
2 2
2
2
EL EL
h x x
x x y y y
a a
h x x
a a
(
 
 
= = − = − + − (
 
\ .
\ .
(
¸ ¸
 
= − −

\ .
2 2 3
2 2 0
0
Then
2 3
1
6
a
a x x x x
A dA h dx h
a a a a
ah
  (
= = − = −
 (

\ . ¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫
2 3 4
2 2 0
0
2
and
3 4
1
12
a
a
EL
x x x x
x dA x h dx h
a a a a
a h
( (
   
= − = − ( (  
 
( ( \ . \ .
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫
PROBLEM 5.133 CONTINUED
2 2
2 2 0
2 2 4
2 4 0
2 2 3 5
2
2 4
0
2
2
2 3
2
1
2 10 5
a
EL
a
a
h x x x x
y dA h dx
a a a a
h x x x
dx
a a a
h x x x
ah
a a a
(
   
= − − − (
 
\ . \ .
(
¸ ¸
 
= − +

\ .
(
= − + =
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
∫
2
1 1
:
6 12
EL
xA x dA x ah a h
 
= =

\ .
∫
1
2
x a = W
2
1 1
:
6 10
EL
yA y dA y ah a h
 
= =

\ .
∫
3
5
y h = W
PROBLEM 5.134
Member ABCDE is a component of a mobile and is formed from a single
piece of aluminum tubing. Knowing that the member is supported at C
and that l = 2 m, determine the distance d so that portion BCD of the
member is horizontal.
SOLUTION
First note that for equilibrium, the center of gravity of the component
must lie on a vertical line through C. Further, because the tubing is
uniform, the center of gravity of the component will coincide with the
centroid of the corresponding line. Thus, 0 X =
So that 0 xL Σ =
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0.75
Then cos55 m 0.75 m
2
0.75 m 1.5 m
1
1.5 m 2 m cos55 2 m 0
2
d
d
d
 
− − ° ×

\ .
+ − ×
(
 
+ − − × × ° × =
 (
\ . ¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 1
or 0.75 1.5 2 0.75 2 cos 55 0.75 1.5 3
2
d
(
+ + = − ° + +
(
¸ ¸
or 0.739 m d = W
PROBLEM 5.135
A cylindrical hole is drilled through the center of a steel ball bearing
shown here in cross section. Denoting the length of the hole by L, show
that the volume of the steel remaining is equal to the volume of a sphere
of diameter L.
SOLUTION
Calculate volumes by rotating cross sections about a line and using Theorem II of PappusGuldinus
For the sector:
2
2 sin
3
AA
R
y A R
α
α
α
= =
2
2 2 2 2 2
1 2 1
For the triangle: 4 4 ,
2 2 3 3
AA
L
h R R L y h R L
 
= − = − = = −

\ .
( )( )
1
2
A L h =
2 2
1
4R
4
L L = −
Using Theorem II of PappusGuldinus
( ) ( )
( )
( )
ball 1 2
1 2
2 2 2 2 2
3 2 2
2 2
2 sin 1 1
2 4 4
3 3 4
2
2 sin 4
3 12
AA AA
V y A y A
R
R R L L R L
L
R R L
π π
α
π α
α
π α
= −
(   
= − − −
  (
\ .\ .
¸ ¸
(
= − −
(
¸ ¸
Now sin
2
L
R α =
2 2 3
3
2 1 1
Then 2
3 2 3 12
6
L
V R LR L
L
π
π
(
 
= − +
 (
\ . ¸ ¸
=
Note
sphere
4
3
V r π = where r is the radius
If , then
2
L
r =
3
3
sphere
4
3 2 6
L
V L
π
π
 
= =

\ .
Therefore,
3
ball sphere
Q.E.D.
6
V V L
π
= =
PROBLEM 5.136
For the beam and loading shown, determine (a) the magnitude and
location of the resultant of the distributed load, (b) the reactions at the
beam supports.
SOLUTION
( )( )
( )( )
I
II
( ) Have 4 m 200 N/m 800 N
2
4 m 600 N/m 1600 N
3
a R
R
= =
= =
I II
Then :
or 800 1600 2400 N
y
F R R R
R
Σ − = − −
= + =
( ) ( ) ( ) and : 2400 2 800 2.5 1600
A
M X Σ − = − −
or
7
m
3
X =
2400 N ∴ = R , 2.33 m X =
(b) Reactions
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
( ) ( )
7
0: 4 m m 2400 N 0
3
A y
M B
 
Σ = − =

\ .
or 1400 N
y
B =
0: 1400 N 2400 N 0
y y
F A Σ = + − =
or 1000 N
y
A =
1000 N ∴ = A , 1400 N = B
PROBLEM 5.137
Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.
SOLUTION
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
I
II
III
1
Have 3 ft 480 lb/ft 720 lb
2
1
6 ft 600 lb/ft 1800 lb
2
lb 2 ft 600 lb/ft 1200
R
R
R
= =
= =
= =
Then 0: 0
x x
F B Σ = =
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 2 ft 720 lb 4 ft 1800 lb
B
M Σ = −
( ) ( )( ) 6 ft 7 ft 1200 lb 0 Cy + − =
or C 23601b
y
= 2360 lb = C
0: 720 lb 1800 lb 2360 lb 1200 lb 0
y y
F B Σ = − + − + − =
or 1360 lb
y
B = 1360 lb = B
PROBLEM 5.138
Locate the center of gravity of the sheetmetal form shown.
SOLUTION
First, assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the form will coincide with
the centroid of the corresponding area.
( )
( )
( )
I
I
III
1
1.2 0.4 m
3
1
3.6 1.2 m
3
4 1.8 2.4
m
3
y
z
x
π π
= − = −
= =
= − = −
2
, m A
, m x , m y , m z
3
, m xA
3
, m yA
3
, m zA
I ( ) ( )
1
3.6 1.2 2.16
2
= 1.5
−0.4 1.2 3.24
−0.864 2.592
II ( ) ( ) 3.6 1.7 6.12 = 0.75 0.4 1.8 4.59 2.448 11.016
III ( )
2
1.8 5.0894
2
π
=
2.4
π
− 0.8 1.8
−3.888 4.0715 9.1609
Σ
13.3694 3.942 5.6555 22.769
( )
2 3
Have : 13.3694 m 3.942 m X V xV X Σ = Σ =
or 0.295 m X =
( )
2 3
: 13.3694 m 5.6555 m Y V yV Y Σ = Σ =
or 0.423 m Y =
( )
2 3
: 13.3694 m 22.769 m Z V zV Z Σ = Σ =
or 1.703 m Z =
PROBLEM 5.139
The composite body shown is formed by removing a semiellipsoid of
revolution of semimajor axis h and semiminor axis
2
a
from a hemisphere of
radius a. Determine (a) the y coordinate of the centroid when h = a/2, (b)
the ratio h/a for which 0.4 . y a = −
SOLUTION
V
y yV
Hemisphere
3
2
3
a π
3
8
a −
4
1
4
a π −
Semiellipsoid
2
2
2 1
3 2 6
a
h a h π π
 
− = −

\ .
3
8
h −
2 2
1
16
a h π +
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
Then 4 4
6 16
V a a h yV a a h
π π
Σ = − Σ = − −
Now Y V yV Σ = Σ
so that ( )
( )
2 2 2 2
4 4
6 16
Y a a h a a h
π π (
− = − −
(
¸ ¸
or
2
3
4 4 (1)
8
h h
Y a
a a
(
   
− = − − (
 
\ . \ .
(
¸ ¸
(a) ? Y = when
2
a
h =
Substituting
1
2
h
a
= into Eq. (1)
2
1 3 1
4 4
2 8 2
Y a
(
   
− = − − (
 
\ . \ . (
¸ ¸
or
45
112
Y a = − 0.402 Y a = −
PROBLEM 5.139 CONTINUED
( ) ?
h
b
a
= when 0.4 Y a = −
Substituting into Eq. (1)
( )
2
3
0.4 4 4
8
h h
a a
a a
(
   
− − = − − (
 
\ . \ . (
¸ ¸
or
2
3 3.2 0.8 0
h h
a a
   
− + =
 
\ . \ .
Then
( ) ( )( )
( )
2
3.2 3.2 4 3 0.8
2 3
h
a
± − −
=
3.2 0.8
6
±
=
2 2
or and
5 3
h h
a a
= =
PROBLEM 5.140
A thin steel wire of uniform cross section is bent into the shape shown.
Locate its center of gravity.
SOLUTION
First assume that the wire is homogeneous so that its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the
corresponding line.
( )
( )
1
1
2
6
2
6
2
0.3sin 60 0.15 3 m
0.3cos60 0.15 m
0.6sin30
sin30
0.9
m
0.6sin30
cos30
0.9
3 m
0.6 0.2 m
3
x
z
x
z
L
π
π
π
π
π
π
= ° =
= ° =
 
°
= ° 

\ .
=
 
°
= ° 

\ .
=
 
= =

\ .
, m L , m x , m y
, m z 2
, m xL
2
, m yL
2
, m zL
1 1.0 0.15 3 0.4 0.15 0.25981 0.4 0.15
2
0.2π
0.9
π
0
0.9 3
π
0.18 0 0.31177
3 0.8 0 0.4 0.6 0 0.32 0.48
4 0.6 0 0.8 0.3 0 0.48 0.18
∑ 3.0283 0.43981 1.20 1.12177
Have
( )
2
: 3.0283 m 0.43981m X L x L X Σ = Σ =
or 0.1452 m X =
( )
2
: 3.0283 m 1.20 m Y L yL Y Σ = Σ = or 0.396 m Y =
( )
2
: 3.0283 m 1.12177 m Z L z L Z Σ = Σ = or 0.370 m Z =
PROBLEM 5.141
Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area
about the x axis.
SOLUTION
First note that symmetry implies 0 y =
and 0 z =
Have ( )
2
y k X h = −
( )
2
At 0, : x y a a k h = = = −
2
or
a
k
h
=
Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
Then
2
,
EL
dV r dx X x π = =
Now ( )
2
2
a
r x h
h
= −
so that ( )
2
4
4
a
dV x h dx
h
π = −
( ) ( )
2 2
4 5
4 4 0
0
2
Then
5
1
5
h
h a a
V x h dx x h
h h
a h
π
π
π
(
= − = −
(
¸ ¸
=
∫
( )
( )
2
4
4 0
2
5 4 2 3 3 2 4
4 0
2
6 5 2 4 3 3 4 2
4
0
2 2
and
4 6 4
1 4 3 4 1
6 5 2 3 2
1
30
h
EL
h
h
a
x dV x x h dx
h
a
x hx h x h x h x dx
h
a
x hx h x h x h x
h
a h
π
π
π
π
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
= − + − +
(
= − + − +
(
¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫
∫
2 2 2
Now :
5 30
EL
xV x dV x a h a h
π π  
= =

\ .
∫
1
or
6
x h =
PROBLEM 5.2
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
A, mm 2
x , mm
40 112.5
y , mm
xA, mm3
yA, mm3
56 250 295 300 351 600
1
2
Σ
1 × 60 × 75 = 2250 2 105 × 75 = 7875 10 125
25 37.5
90 000 885 900 975 900
Then and
X = Y =
ΣxA 975 900 mm3 = ΣA 10 125 mm 2 Σ yA 351 600 mm3 = ΣA 10 125 mm 2
or X = 96.4 mm or Y = 34.7 mm
PROBLEM 5.3
Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
SOLUTION
For the area as a whole, it can be concluded by observation that Y =
A, in 2
2 ( 24 in.) 3
x , in. xA, in 3
or Y = 16.00 in.
1 2
Σ
1 × 24 × 10 = 120 2 1 × 24 × 16 = 192 2 312
2 (10 ) = 6.667 3 10 + 1 (16 ) = 15.333 3
800 2944 3744
Then
X =
Σ xA 3744 in 3 = ΣA 312 in 2
or X = 12.00 in.
4 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.5 −6 8 y .421 mm or Y = 12. mm xA. mm3 5082 −54 −72 4956 1 2 3 Σ 21 × 22 = 462 − − 1 ( 6 )( 9 ) = −27 2 1 ( 6 )(12 ) = −36 2 399 11 2 2 693 162 −288 567 Then and X = Y = Σ xA 567 mm3 = ΣA 399 mm 2 Σ yA 4956 mm3 = ΣA 399 mm 2 or X = 1. mm3 yA. mm 1.42 mm .PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION A. mm 2 x .
mm 2 x .4 mm or Y = 93. SOLUTION A. mm3 2 880 000 −678 600 2 201 400 1 2 Σ 120 × 200 = 24 000 − 120 120 1 440 000 −534 600 905 400 π ( 60 ) 2 2 = −5654. mm 60 94. mm xA.8 mm and .PROBLEM 5.9 18 345 Then X = Y = Σ xA 905 400 mm3 = ΣA 18 345 mm 2 Σ yA 2 201 400 mm3 = ΣA 18 345 mm 2 or X = 49.5 y .5 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown. mm3 yA.
in.40 in. SOLUTION A. in 2 x . y .5 in 3 = ΣA 131.5 445.6 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.5 2 131.1 Then X = Σ xA 94.721 in.8917 3 x A.5 1 2 Σ π (9) 4 2 = 63.617 −4 ( 9 ) = −3.5 y A.1 in 2 or X = 0. or Y = 3.8917 ( 3π ) 5 1 (15)( 9 ) = 67.PROBLEM 5. and Y = Σ yA 445.1 in 2 . in 3 −243 337.5 in 3 = ΣA 131.5 94. 3. in. in 3 243 202.
7 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown. SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies X = Y A. mm 2 x .98 xA. mm3 1 2 Σ 40 × 40 = 1600 − 32 000 −21 330 10 667 π (40) 2 4 = −1257 343 Σ xA 10 667 mm3 = ΣA 343 mm 2 Then X = or X = 31.1 mm and Y = X = 31. mm 20 16.PROBLEM 5.1 mm .
in 2 y .8 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.33 in 3 = ΣA 31.33 31.PROBLEM 5. 1. in. SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies X =0 A.42 Σ yA 101.55 2.67 1 − π ( 4) 2 2 = −25. in 3 −42.546 144 101.6977 yA.13 2 2 Σ π ( 6) 2 = 56. .42 in 2 Then Y = or Y = 3.23 in.
PROBLEM 5.9
For the area of Problem 5.8, determine the ratio r2 /r1 so that y = 3r1/4.
SOLUTION
A 1 2 Σ − r12 2
y
yA 2 − r13 3 2 3 r2 3 2 3 r2 − r13 3
π
4r1 3π 4r2 3π
π
2
r22 − r12
π
(r 2
2 2
) ) ( )
(
)
Then or
Y ΣA = Σy A
3 π 2 2 3 r1 × r2 − r12 = r2 − r13 4 2 3
(
2 r 3 9π r2 − 1 = 2 − 1 16 r1 r1
Let
p=
r2 r1
9π [ ( p + 1)( p − 1)] = ( p − 1)( p 2 + p + 1) 16 or 16 p 2 + (16 − 9π) p + (16 − 9π) = 0
PROBLEM 5.9 CONTINUED
Then or Taking the positive root
p= −(16 − 9π) ± (16 − 9π) 2 − 4(16)(16 − 9π) 2(16)
p = −0.5726
p = 1.3397 r2 = 1.340 r1
PROBLEM 5.10
Show that as r1 approaches r2 , the location of the centroid approaches that of a circular arc of radius ( r1 + r2 ) / 2.
SOLUTION
First, determine the location of the centroid. From Fig. 5.8A:
y2 = 2 sin 2 − α r2 π 3 −α 2
(
(π
)
)
A2 =
( π2 − α ) r22
= Similarly
Then Σ yA =
2 cos α r2 π 3 −α 2
(
)
A1 =
y1 =
2 cos α r1 3 π −α 2
(
)
( π2 − α ) r12
( )
and
Now
2 cosα π 2 cosα π − α r22 − r1 π − α r12 r2 π 2 3 3 −α −α 2 2 2 2 3 = r2 − r13 cosα 3 π π Σ A = − α r22 − − α r12 2 2 π 2 2 = − α r2 − r1 2 Y Σ A = Σ yA π 2 3 Y − α r22 − r12 = r2 − r13 cos α 2 3 2 r23 − r13 cos α Y = 3 r22 − r12 π − α 2
(
(
)
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
PROBLEM 5. r1 = r2 ). then r23 − r13 3 = r 2 2 2 r2 − r1 3 1 = × (r1 + r2 ) 2 2 2 3 cos α Y = × ( r1 + r2 ) π 3 4 −α 2 2 so that Which agrees with Eq.10 CONTINUED Using Figure 5. or Y = 1 cos α ( r1 + r2 ) π 2 −α 2 .e. Y of an arc of radius 1 ( r1 + r2 ) is 2 Y = sin − α 1 ( r1 + r2 ) π 2 2 −α 2 ( (π ) ) (1) = 1 cos α (r1 + r2 ) π 2 −α 2 ( Now ( r2 − r1 ) r22 + r1 r2 + r12 r23 − r13 = r22 − r12 ( r2 − r1 )( r2 + r1 ) 2 r + r1 r2 + r12 = 2 r2 + r1 r2 = r + ∆ r1 = r − ∆ 1 r = ( r1 + r2 ) 2 2 ( ) ) Let Then ( r + ∆ ) + ( r + ∆ )( r − ∆ ) + ( r − ∆ ) r23 − r13 and = 2 2 r2 − r1 (r + ∆) + (r − ∆) 3r 2 + ∆ 2 = 2r In the limit as ∆ → 0 (i.. (1).8B.
667 5.632 in. . in 2 y .283 2 − y ′ = 0.283 Then Y Σ A = Σ yA Y 8. in 3 1 1 ( 4)(3) = 6 2 1 6 1.2330 in 3 ( ) or Y = 0.8997 −2.11 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown. α = 45° y2 = ′ 2r sin α 2 2 2 sin = 3α 3 π 4 ( ) ( ) = 1. SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies X =0 r2 = 2 2 in. y A.PROBLEM 5.6667 3 Σ 1 ( 4)( 2) = −4 2 8. π ( ) 4 A.3024 0. in.6977 in.283 in 2 = 5.2330 2 π (2 2 ) 4 − 2 = 6..
mm xA. mm3 72 000 −10 125 1 2 (40)(90) = 3600 20 −15 −54 000 6750 π ( 40)( 60) 4 = 2121 3 Σ Then 1 (30)( 45) = 675 2 6396 −25.099 −54 000 −101 250 −40 500 21 375 XA = Σ xA X 6396 mm 2 = −101 250 mm3 and YA = Σ yA ( ) or X = −15. SOLUTION A.PROBLEM 5. mm 2 x .34 mm .83 mm Y 6396 mm 2 = 21 375 mm3 ( ) or Y = 3.12 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown. mm −15 10 y . mm3 yA.47 −19.
333 102 400 −85 330 17 067 Then X Σ A = Σ XA X 533. mm 48 53. mm3 32 000 −21 330 10 667 1 2 Σ 2 ( 40)(80) = 2133 3 − 1 ( 40)(80) = −1600 2 533. mm3 yA. mm 2 x .13 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.3 15 13.PROBLEM 5.0 mm Y 533.0 mm . SOLUTION A. mm xA.3 mm 2 = 17 067 mm3 and Y Σ A = Σ yA ( ) or X = 32.3 mm 2 = 10 667 mm3 ( ) or Y = 20.33 y .
mm 56.PROBLEM 5. mm 2 x .0 mm Y 15 000 mm 2 = 1 944 000 ( ) or Y = 129. mm3 yA.6 mm . mm xA.25 50 y . SOLUTION A. mm3 2 304 000 −360 000 1 944 000 1 2 Σ 2 (150 )( 240 ) = 24 000 3 − 1 (150)(120) = −9000 2 15 000 96 40 1 350 000 −450 000 900 000 Then X Σ A = Σ xA X 15 000 mm 2 = 900 000 mm3 and Y Σ A = Σ yA ( ) or X = 60.14 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.
in 3 yA. 7.71 X Σ A = Σx A Then X 226. in 3 375 2892 3267 1 2 Σ 1 (10)(15) = 50 3 4. SOLUTION A.366 225 1125 1350 π 4 (15)2 = 176. y . in.71 in 2 = 1350 in 3 and Y ΣA = Σy A ( ) or X = 5.71 in 2 = 3267 in 3 ( ) or Y = 14.5 16.366 xA. Y 226. .41 in.15 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown. in.PROBLEM 5.5 6.71 226.95 in. in 2 x .
in.8 −0. SOLUTION A.73 1 2 Σ 2 (8)(8) = 42.21 in. 2. in 2 x .16 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown. in.33 in 2 = 123.73 in 3 ( ) or Y = 3. in 3 119.PROBLEM 5.33 3 1. in 3 yA.33 in 2 = 120 in 3 and Y ΣA = Σy A ( ) or X = 3.31 in.8 xA.267 123. y .47 4. Y 37.333 3 37.67 3 − 2 ( 4)( 2) = −5.5 128 −8 120 Then X Σ A = Σx A X 37. .
17 The horizontal x axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown and divides the area into two component areas A1 and A2.0 × 103 mm3 Now Qx = ( Qx )1 + ( Qx ) 2 = 0 This result is expected since x is a centroidal axis ( thus y = 0 ) and Qx = Σ y A = Y Σ A (y = 0 ⇒ Qx = 0 ) . SOLUTION Note that Then and Qx = Σ yA (Qx )1 = 5 3 ( Qx )2 1 m × 6 × 5 m 2 2 or ( Qx )1 = 25. and explain the results obtained.5 m 2 3 2 3 2 or ( Qx ) 2 = −25.0 × 103 mm3 2 1 1 1 = − × 2.5 m × 9 × 2. Determine the first moment of each component area with respect to the x axis.5 m 2 + − × 2.5 m × 6 × 2.PROBLEM 5.
mm yA.0 mm . SOLUTION First. Determine the first moment of each component area with respect to the x axis. A. mm3 7 200 000 −2 560 000 1 2 Σ 160 × 300 = 48 000 −150 × 80 = −16 000 32 000 Y ΣA = Σy A 150 160 4 640 000 Then Y 32 000 mm 2 = 4 640 000 mm3 or ( ) Y = 145.PROBLEM 5. and explain the results obtained. locate the position y of the figure. mm 2 y .18 The horizontal x axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown and divides the area into two component areas A1 and A2.
since x is a centroidal axis. .393 × 10 mm A II : Q II = Σ yA 145 =− (160 × 145) − 2 = −1.393 × 106 mm3 ∴ 85 − 2 ( 80 × 85 ) ( Qarea ) x = QI + QII = 0 Which is expected since Qx = Σ yA = yA and y = 0 .PROBLEM 5.18 CONTINUED A I: Q I = Σ yA 155 115 − ( 80 × 115) (160 × 155) + = 2 2 6 3 = 1.
5. 2 r sin π − θ r 2 π − θ − Qx = 3 π 2 2 −θ 2 2 = r 3 cos θ − cos θ sin 2 θ 3 ( ) ( 2 ) ( 3 r sin θ ) 1 × 2r cos θ × r sin θ 2 ( ) or Qx = (b) By observation.19 The first moment of the shaded area with respect to the x axis is denoted by Qx . (a) Express Qx in terms of r and θ . and what is the maximum value? SOLUTION (a) With Qx = Σ yA and using Fig. Qx is maximum when and then 2 3 r cos3 θ 3 θ =0 Qx = 2 3 r 3 . (b) For what value of θ is Qx maximum.PROBLEM 5.8 A.
Knowing that the force exerted on the bolt at A is 70 lb.) 2 + 2 ( 7.75 in 3 = 47.5 in. As proved in mechanics of materials.82 in 3 + 8.49 in 3 ( 70 lb) = 115.82 in 3 . The bolts are equally spaced along the beam.5 in. in parts a and b of the figure. and the beam supports a vertical load.) = 28.49 in 3 Then FB = 47. (1. angles as shown. − in. SOLUTION From the problem statement: F ∝ Qx FA FB so that = (Qx ) A (Qx ) B and Now So FB = (Qx ) B F (Qx ) A A Qx = ∑ yA ( Qx ) A ( Qx )B 0.5 in. the shearing forces exerted on the bolts at A and B are proportional to the first moments with respect to the centroidal x axis of the red shaded areas shown. respectively.)( 0. 10 in. − 1 in.375 in.3 lb 28.) and = 28.)( 0.20 A composite beam is constructed by bolting four plates to four 2 × 2 × 3/8in.) ( 2 in.921 in 3 + 9. + in.375 = 7. determine the force exerted on the bolt at B.625 in.375 in.82 in 3 2 0.PROBLEM 5. × ( 0.375 in.375 = ( Qx ) A + 2 7.
21 A thin.PROBLEM 5. Y (72 in. y . xL. Locate the center of gravity of the wire figure thus formed. SOLUTION First note that because the wire is homogeneous. . its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line. in.) = 480 in 2 or Y = 6. in. L.67 in. in. in 2 yL.) = 336 in 2 and Y ΣL = Σ y L or X = 4. x . in 2 1 2 16 12 24 8 16 4 0 6 12 128 102 96 −48 −32 0 72 288 54 48 18 480 3 4 6 8 6 72 −8 −4 9 6 3 5 6 Σ 0 0 336 Then X ΣL = Σ x L X ( 72 in. homogeneous wire is bent to form the perimeter of the figure indicated.67 in.
05 441. mm 2 yL. mm x . mm xL.5 13 612 12 375 11 812 2881 40 680 X ΣL = Σx L X (441.5 75 37.PROBLEM 5.22 A thin. mm 2 0 2812 7875 3602 14 289 1 2 3 4 Σ Then 165 75 105 602 + 752 = 96.05 mm) = 40 680 mm 2 and Y ΣL = Σ y L or X = 92.5 30 y . its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line. Locate the center of gravity of the wire figure thus formed.05 0 37. L.5 165 112.05 mm) = 14 289 mm 2 Y = 32.4 mm . SOLUTION First note that because the wire is homogeneous. homogeneous wire is bent to form the perimeter of the figure indicated. mm 82.2 mm Y (441.
233 3 14 22 14 3 80.233 mm) = 111.32 mm 2 and Y ΣL = Σ y L or X = 1.72 mm .45 982. L.416 16 21 16 62 + 92 = 10. mm 2 yL.7 1 2 3 4 5 Σ Then 122 + 62 = 13.32 X ΣL = Σx L X (77.PROBLEM 5.233 mm) = 982.7 mm 2 or Y = 12.50 −144 −48.441 mm Y (77.5 y .50 192 31.23 A thin. mm 6 12 1.67 111. mm xL. SOLUTION First note that because the wire is homogeneous. Locate the center of gravity of the wire figure thus formed.25 224 462 224 32. mm x . homogeneous wire is bent to form the perimeter of the figure indicated.5 −9 −4. its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line. mm 2 40.817 77.
416 in. Locate the center of gravity of the wire figure thus formed.24 A thin.546 Then Y ΣL = Σ y L Y (35. in. X =0 y . 0 2 ( 6) yL. .) = 104 in 2 or Y = 2.820 0 π ( 4) 35. SOLUTION First note that because the wire is homogeneous.PROBLEM 5.416 π = 2. By symmetry L. its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line. homogeneous wire is bent to form the perimeter of the figure indicated. in.94 in. in 2 0 72 0 32 104 1 2 3 4 Σ 2 π ( 6) 2 π 2 ( 4) = 3.
5 m ) sin 30° π/6 = Then 1.1° . The rod is supported by a pin at A and the cord BC.358 N + (1.358 N ( ) Also note that ∆ ABD is an equilateral triangle. SOLUTION First note.5 m cos 30° ( 7.4698 N ) sin 60° = 0 or Ay = 6.75 kg ) 9.358 N ) − ( 0.7349 N ΣFy = 0: Ay − 7. Equilibrium then requires (a) ΣM A = 0: 1.4698 N or TBC = 1.25 A 750 = g uniform steel rod is bent into a circular arc of radius 500 mm as shown.8B: X = ( 0.PROBLEM 5.5 m ) sin 60° TBC = 0 0. Determine (a) the tension in the cord.81 m/s 2 = 7.470 N (b) ΣFx = 0: Ax + (1. from Figure 5.5 m − π or TBC = 1. (b) the reaction at A.4698 N ) cos 60° = 0 or Ax = −0.5 π m W = mg = ( 0.085 N thus A = 6.13 N 83.
which implies that x = 0 or ΣxL = 0 Hence − 2(6 in. the center of gravity of the wire must lie on a vertical line through B. SOLUTION First note that for equilibrium. Knowing that l = 8 in. ( 8 in.26 The homogeneous wire ABCD is bent as shown and is supported by a pin at B. determine the angle θ for which portion BC of the wire is horizontal. Further.PROBLEM 5. because the wire is homogeneous.) = 0 2 Then cosθ = 4 9 or θ = 63.) π (π × 6 in. − cosθ ( 6 in. Thus ΣM B = 0.) + 8 in. + 8 in. its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line.) 2 6 in..6° .
77 in. determine the length l for which portion CD of the wire is horizontal.) sin 30° (π × 6 in. + ( l in.) − cos 30° + ( 6 in. Taking the positive root l = 12. its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line. the center of gravity of the wire must lie on a vertical line through B.) 2 6 in. Thus ΣM B = 0.0l − 316. Further.) = 0 2 or l 2 + 12. . which implies that x = 0 Hence or Σxi Li = 0 2 ( 6 in.) π ( l in.) cos 30° − ( 6 in.77 and −24. because the wire is homogeneous. Knowing that θ = 30°.) + cos 30° ( l in.16 = 0 with roots l1 = 12.PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION First note that for equilibrium.27 The homogeneous wire ABCD is bent as shown and is supported by a pin at B.77.
because the wire is homogeneous. SOLUTION First note that for equilibrium. Further.) + ( −4 in. Thus ΣM C = 0.) = 0 2 L2 = 144 in 2 or L = 12. which implies that x = 0 or Hence or Σ xi Li = 0 L ( L ) + ( −4 in. the center of gravity of the wire must lie on a vertical line through C. its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line. Determine the length L for which the portion BCD of the wire is horizontal.00 in. .)(10 in.)(8 in.28 The homogeneous wire ABCD is bent as shown and is attached to a hinge at C.PROBLEM 5.
6.2.PROBLEM 5.29 Determine the distance h so that the centroid of the shaded area is as close to line BB′ as possible when (a) k = 0. (b) k = 0. SOLUTION Then y = ΣyA ΣA or (a + h) a ( ab ) − kb ( a − h ) 2 2 y = ba − kb ( a − h ) = Let Then 2 2 1 a (1 − k ) + kh 2 a(1 − k ) + kh c =1− k y = and a c + kζ 2 2 c + kζ ζ = h a (1) Now find a value of ζ (or h) for which y is minimum: 2 dy a 2kζ ( c + kζ ) − k c + kζ = =0 dζ 2 ( c + kζ ) 2 ( ) or 2ζ ( c + kζ ) − c + kζ 2 = 0 ( ) (2) .
6 ) 2 2 ( 0.6 )(1 − 0.2 ) or h = 0.387a .2 ) + 4 ( 0.6: h=a −2 (1 − 0.29 CONTINUED Expanding (2) Then 2cζ + 2ζ 2 − c − kζ −2c ± 2 =0 or kζ 2 + 2cζ − c = 0 ζ= ( 2c) 2 − 4 ( k ) ( c ) 2k Taking the positive root.2 ) + 2 ( 0.6 ) + 4 (1 − 0.2: h=a −2 (1 − 0.6 ) + 4 ( 0.PROBLEM 5. since h > 0 (hence ζ > 0 ) h=a −2 (1 − k ) + 4 (1 − k ) + 4k (1 − k ) 2 2k 4 (1 − 0.2 ) 2 (a) k = 0.472a (b) k = 0.2 )(1 − 0.6 ) or h = 0.
30 Show when the distance h is selected to minimize the distance y from line BB′ to the centroid of the shaded area that y = h.29. replacing the righthand side of (1) by 2ζ . note that Eq.D.E. (2) yields the value of ζ that minimizes h. (3) We obtain y = a ( 2ζ) 2 h a Q. SOLUTION From Problem 5. from Eq. Then from Eq. (2) We see 2ζ = c + kζ 2 c + kζ (3) Then. But So ζ= y =h .PROBLEM 5.
Express your answer in terms of a and h. SOLUTION For the element of area (EL) shown and dA = ( h − y ) dx x = h 1 − dx a y = h x a Then xEL = x yEL = 1 (h + 2 h = 1 + 2 y) x a a Then area A = ∫ dA = ∫ a x h 1 0 a h 1 0 x x2 1 − dx = h x − = 2 ah 2a a 0 a and ∫ xEL dA = ∫ x 2 x3 x 1 2 − dx = h 2 − 3a = 6 a h a 0 ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 a h x x h2 a x2 1 + h 1 − dx = 1 − 2 dx ∫ a 2 2 0 a a a h2 x3 = x− 2 2 3a = 0 1 2 ah 3 Hence xA = ∫ xEL dA 1 1 x ah = a 2h 2 6 x = yA = ∫ yEL dA 1 1 y ah = ah 2 2 3 y = 1 a 3 2 h 3 .PROBLEM 5.31 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.
32 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express your answer in terms of a and h.PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION For the element (EL) shown At Then Now x = a. y = h : h = ka3 x= or a 1/3 y h1/3 k = h a3 dA = xdy = a 1/3 y dy h1/3 xEL = 1 1 a 1/3 x= y . yEL = y 2 2 h1/ 3 h Then A = ∫ dA =∫0 h a 1/3 3 a y dy = y 4/3 1/3 4 h1/3 h ( ) h = 0 3 ah 4 and ∫ xEL dA = ∫0 1 a 1/3 a 1/3 1 a 3 5/3 3 2 y 1/3 y dy = a h y = 2 h1/3 2 h 2/3 5 10 h 0 h h a 3 7/3 3 2 h a 1/3 ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 y h1/3 y dy = h1/3 7 y = 7 ah 0 Hence 3 2 3 xA = ∫ xEL dA : x ah = a h 4 10 3 3 yA = ∫ yEL dA: y ah = ah 2 4 7 x = y = 2 a 5 4 h 7 .
on line 1 or k2 = a h3 k1 = h a3 or y = and on line 2 y = Then h h dA = 1/3 x1/3 − 3 x3 dx a a h 3 x a3 h 1/3 x a1/3 and yEL = 1 h 1/3 h 3 1/3 x + 3 x a 2 a a h 1 1 a h 3 ∴ A = ∫ dA = ∫0 1/3 x1/3 − 3 x3 dx = h 1/3 x 4/3 − 3 x 4 = ah 2 a a 4a 4a 0 ∫ xELdA = ∫ a x 0 h 1/3 h 1 8 2 3 x − 3 x3 dx = h 1/3 x7/3 − 3 x5 = a h 1/3 5a a a 7a 0 35 1 h h h h a a 1/3 3 1/3 3 ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 2 a1/3 x + a3 x a1/3 x − a3 x dx h 2 a x 2/3 x 6 h 2 3 x5/3 1 x 6 8 2 = 2/3 − 6 dx = ∫0 a 5 a5/3 − 7 a 6 = 35 ah 2 2 a 0 a From and 8 2 ah xA = ∫ xEL dA: x = a h 2 35 8 2 ah yA = ∫ yEL dA: y = ah 2 35 or x = or y = 16 a 35 16 h 35 .PROBLEM 5. Express your answer in terms of a and h.33 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. y = h: h = k1a3 a = k 2 h3 Hence. SOLUTION For the element (EL) shown At x = a.
SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies For the element (EL) shown 2r x =0 yEL = π dA = π rd r r2 π rd r r1 (Figure 5.8B) Then A = ∫ dA = ∫ r2 π 2 r2 − r12 =π = 2 2 r1 r2 ( ) and 2 ∫ yEL dA = ∫r1 r 2r ( π rd r ) = 2 r 3 = r23 − r13 3 r π 3 1 1 r2 2 ( ) So π 2 3 yA = ∫ yEL dA: y r22 − r12 = r2 − r13 2 3 4 r23 − r13 or y = 3π r22 − r12 ( ) ( ) .34 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.PROBLEM 5.
SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies For the element (EL) shown x =0 y = R cos θ.35 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. y = 2 3 − sin 2 α R sin α 3 2α + sin 2α .PROBLEM 5. x = R sin θ dx = R cos θ d θ dA = ydx = R 2 cos 2θ dθ Hence 1 2 α θ sin 2θ A = ∫ dA = 2∫0 R 2 cos 2 θ dθ = 2 R 2 + = R ( 2α sin 2α ) 2 4 0 2 R 2 2 2 31 2 ∫ yEL dA = 2∫0 2 cosθ R cos θ dθ = R 3 cos θ sin θ + 3 sin θ 0 α α ( ) α = R3 cos 2 α sin α + 2sin α 3 ( ) But yA = ∫ yEL dA so R3 cos 2 α sin α + 2sin α 3 y = R2 ( 2α + sin 2α ) 2 ( ) or cos 2 α + 2 2 y = R sin α 3 ( 2α + sin 2α ) ( ) Alternatively.
let x = a sin θ : a 2 − x 2 = a cosθ . SOLUTION For the element (EL) shown y = and b 2 a − x2 a xEL Then ) 1 b = x.36 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. y = ( y + b ) = a+ a −x ) 2 2a ( b A = ∫ dA = ∫ ( a − a − x ) dx a = b a − a 2 − x 2 dx a dA = ( b − y ) dx ( EL 2 2 a 0 2 2 To integrate. dx = a cosθ dθ Then A = ∫0 π /2 b a ( a − a cosθ )( a cosθ dθ ) π /2 b 2θ θ = a 2 sin θ − a 2 + sin a 4 0 2 π = ab 1 − 4 1 a b b a and ∫ xEL dA = ∫0 x a − a 2 − x 2 dx = x 2 + a 2 − x 2 a a 2 3 ( ) ( ) 3/2 π /2 0 = 1 3 ab 6 a b 2 2 b 2 2 ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 2a a + a − x a a − a − x dx ( ) ( ) b2 a 2 b 2 x3 x dx = = 2 ∫0 2a 2a 2 3 ( ) a = 0 1 2 ab 6 or x = or y = 2a 3 ( 4 − π) 2b 3 ( 4 − π) xA = ∫ xEL dA: yA = ∫ yEL dA: π 1 x ab 1 − = a 2b 4 6 π 1 y ab 1 − = ab 2 4 6 .PROBLEM 5.
PROBLEM 5. −2b = k1a3 ∴ y = −2b 3 x a3 2b b dA = 2 x 2 + 3 x3 dx a a Then b 2 x3 b x3 2 x 4 A = ∫ dA = ∫ 2 x 2 + dx = 2 + x 4a a a 3 a 0 a 0 1 1 5 = ab + = ab 3 2 6 and ∫ xEL dA = ∫ = a x 0 b 2 2b 3 b x 4 2 x5 2 2 1 x + 3 x dx = 2 2 4 + 5a = a b 4 + 5 a a a 0 a 13 2 ab 20 2b 3 b 2 2b 3 a1 b 2 ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 2 a 2 x − a3 x a 2 x + a3 x dx 1 b 2b = ∫ 2 x 2 − 3 x 3 2 a a a 0 2 2 b 2 x5 2 7 dx = 4 5 − 7a 2 x 2a 0 a 2 13 1 = b 2a5 − = − ab 2 70 10 7 Then xA = ∫ xEL dA: yA = ∫ yEL dA: 5 13 2 x ab = ab 6 20 5 13 2 y ab − ab 6 70 or x = or y = − 39 a 50 39 b 175 . b = k2a 2 ∴ y = On line 2 at or b 2 x a2 or k2 = −2b a3 k2 = b a2 x = a. SOLUTION For the element (EL) shown on line 1 at x = a.37 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express your answer in terms of a and b.
38 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. yEL = dA = ydx = A = ∫ dA = ∫0 a a b b 1 2 3 x − a ) dx = 2 ( x − a ) = ab 2( 0 3 3a a and 2 a a 3 2 2 ∫ xEL dA = ∫0 x a 2 ( x − a ) dx = a 2 ∫0 ( x − 2ax + a x )dx b b = b x4 2 3 a2 2 1 2 2 4 − 3 ax + 2 x = 12 a b a b b b2 1 a 2 2 5 a ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 2a 2 ( x − a ) a 2 ( x − a ) dx = 2a 4 5 ( x − a ) 0 = Hence 1 2 ab 10 1 2 1 xA = ∫ xEL dA: x ab = ab 3 12 x = y = 1 a 4 3 b 10 1 2 1 yA = ∫ yEL dA: y ab = ab 3 10 .PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION At x = 0. Express your answer in terms of a and b. y = b b = k (0 − a) 2 or k = b a2 Then Now and Then y = b ( x − a )2 a2 y b 2 = x − a) 2( 2 2a b ( x − a )2 dx a2 xEL = x.
PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION Have yEL = xEL = x 1 a x x2 y = 1 − + 2 2 2 L L x x2 dA = ydx = a 1 − + 2 dx L L Then A = ∫ dA = ∫ 2L a 1 0 x x2 x2 x3 8 − + 2 dx = a x − + 2 = aL L L 2 L 3L 0 3 2L 2L and x2 x x2 x3 x4 2L ∫ xEL dA = ∫0 x a 1 − L + L2 dx = a 2 − 3L + 4L2 0 10 2 = aL 3 ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 = 2L a x x2 x x2 1 − + 2 a 1 − + 2 dx L L L L 2 a 2 EL x x2 x3 x 4 ∫0 1 − 2 L + 3 L2 − 2 L3 + L4 dx 2 a2 2 x 2 x3 x4 x5 11 + 2 − 3 + 4 = a2L x − L 5 L 2L 5L 0 2L = Hence 8 10 2 xA = ∫ xEL dA: x aL = aL 3 3 1 11 yA = ∫ yEL dA: y a = a 2 5 8 x = y = 5 L 4 33 a 40 .39 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.
y = 2b y1 = 2b = ka 2 2b 2 x a2 or k = 2b a2 Then By observation Now and for 0 ≤ x ≤ a : y2 = − b x ( x + 2b) = b 2 − a a xEL = x yEL = For a ≤ x ≤ 2a : yEL = Then 1 b y1 = 2 x 2 2 a and dA = y1dx = 2b 2 x dx a2 1 b x y2 = 2 − 2 2 a A = ∫ dA = ∫0 a and x dA = y2dx = b 2 − dx a 2b 2 x 2a x dx + ∫a b 2 − dx 2 a a 2a a 2 a 2b x3 x 7 = 2 + b − 2 − = ab a 6 a 3 0 2 0 and x a 2b 2 2a ∫ xEL dA = ∫0 x a 2 x dx + ∫a x b 2 − a dx = = = 2 x3 2b x 4 + b x − 3a 0 a2 4 0 a 2a 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 a b + b ( 2a ) − ( a ) + 3a 2a − ( a ) 2 7 2 ab 6 { ( ) . Express your answer in terms of a and b.40 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION For y1 at x = a.
PROBLEM 5.40 CONTINUED x x a b 2 2b 2 2a b ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 a 2 x a 2 x dx + ∫0 2 2 − a b 2 − a dx 2b 2 = 4 a = Hence a 3 x5 b2 a x + − 2 − 2 3 a 5 0 a 2a 17 2 ab 30 7 7 xA = ∫ xEL dA: x ab = a 2b 6 6 x =a y = 17 b 35 7 17 2 yA = ∫ yEL dA: y ab = ab 6 30 .
dA = y2dx = b dx 2 2 2 a a For a 1 b x 1 x1/2 ≤ x ≤ a : yEL = ( y1 + y2 ) = − + 2 2 2a 2 a x1/2 x 1 dA = ( y2 − y1 ) dx = b − + dx a a 2 Then A = ∫ dA = ∫0 b b = a = a/2 x1/2 x 1 x1/2 a dx + ∫a/2 b a − a + 2 dx a a a/2 2 x3/2 x2 1 2 3/2 x + b − + x 3 2a 2 a/2 0 3 a 3/2 3/2 2 b a 3/2 a + ( a ) − 3 a 2 2 2 1 a 1 a 2 + b − a − + ( a ) − 2 2 2 2a ( ) = 13 ab 24 . Express your answer in terms of a and b. SOLUTION For y2 Then Now and for 0≤ x≤ at x = a.41 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. y = b : a = kb 2 y2 = b 1/2 x a or k = a b2 xEL = x a y b x1/2 x1/2 : yEL = 2 = .PROBLEM 5.
PROBLEM 5.423b 26 y = .546a 130 11 b = 0.41 CONTINUED and 1/2 x1/2 x 1 a/2 x a − + dx xEL dA = ∫0 x b dx + ∫a/2 x b ∫ a a a 2 a/2 2 x5/2 x3 x 4 b 2 5/2 = − + x + b 4 a/2 a 5 0 5 a 3a a = 5/2 5/2 2 b a 5/2 a + ( a ) − 5 a 2 2 1 3 a 3 1 2 a 2 + b − ( a ) − + ( a ) − 2 3a 2 4 = 71 2 ab 240 a/2 b dx b ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 2 a a x1/2 x1/2 1 x1/2 x1/2 x 1 a b x + ∫a/2 − + − + dx b 2 a 2 a a a 2 a/2 3 b2 1 2 b 2 x 2 1 x 1 x = + − − 2a 2 0 2 2a 3a a 2 a/2 a = = b a 2 a + ( a ) − 4a 2 2 2 2 b2 a 1 − − 6a 2 2 3 11 2 ab 48 x = Hence 71 2 13 xA = ∫ xEL dA: x ab = ab 24 240 13 11 2 yA = ∫ yEL dA: y ab = ab 24 48 17 a = 0.
Express your answer in terms of a. SOLUTION First note that because the wire is homogeneous.574a .8484a 2 ( ) x = 0. y = a : a = ka 2 y = or dy = k = 1 a 1 2 x a 2 and 2 xdx a 2 Then dy 2 dL = 1 + dx = 1 + x dx dx a a 0 ∴ L = ∫ dL = ∫ = x a 2 4 4x2 4x2 1 + 2 x 2 dx = 1 + 2 + ln x + 1 + 2 4 a 2 a a a 0 a a a 5 + ln 2 + 5 = 1.42 A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown. Determine by direct integration the x coordinate of its centroid.4789a ) = 0.4789a 2 4 a x 0 ( ) ∫ xELdL = ∫ = 3/2 4x2 2 a2 4 1 + 2 dx = 1 + 2 x 2 3 8 a a 0 a Then a 2 3/2 5 − 1 = 0.PROBLEM 5. its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line Have at Thus x = a.8484a 2 12 xL = ∫ xEL dL: x (1.
43 A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown. SOLUTION First note that because the wire is homogeneous. its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line Now Then and xEL = r cos θ 7π /4 and dL = rd θ 7π /4 L = ∫ dL = ∫π /4 rdθ = r [θ ]π /4 = 7π /4 ∫ xELdL = ∫π /4 r cosθ ( rdθ ) 3 πr 2 1 1 7π /4 2 = r 2 [sin θ ]π /4 = r 2 − − = −r 2 2 2 Thus 3 xL = ∫ xdL : x π r = −r 2 2 2 x =− 2 2 r 3π .PROBLEM 5. Determine by direct integration the x coordinate of its centroid.
44 A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown.PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION First note that because the wire is homogeneous. its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line Now Where xEL = a cos3 θ and dL = dx 2 + dy 2 x = a cos3 θ : dx = −3a cos 2 θ sin θ dθ y = a sin 3 θ : dy = 3a sin 2 θ cosθ dθ Then dL = −3a cos 2 θ sin θ dθ ( ) + (3a sin θ cosθ dθ ) 2 2 2 1/2 = 3a cosθ sin θ cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 3a cosθ sin θ dθ ∴ L = ∫ dL = ∫0 = and 3 a 2 π /2 ( ) 1/2 dθ π /2 1 3a cosθ sin θ dθ = 3a sin 2 θ 2 0 π /2 3 ∫ xEL dL = ∫0 a cos θ ( 3a cosθ sin θ dθ ) 1 = 3a 2 − cos5 θ 5 0 Hence π /2 = 3 2 a 5 x = 2 a 5 3 3 xL = ∫ xEL dL : x a = a 2 2 5 . Determine by direct integration the x coordinate of its centroid.
PROBLEM 5.44 CONTINUED Alternative solution x x = a cos3 θ ⇒ cos 2 θ = a y y = a sin θ ⇒ sin θ = a 3 2 2/3 2/3 x ∴ a Then Now and 2/3 y + a 2/3 =1 or 1/2 y = a 2/3 − x 2/3 ( ) 3/2 dy = a 2/3 − x 2/3 dx xEL = x dy dL = 1 + dx 2 ( ) (−x ) −1/3 dx = 1 + a 2/3 − x 2/3 ( ) (−x ) 1/2 −1/3 1/2 2 dx Then L = ∫ dL = ∫0 a a1/3 3 3 dx = a1/3 x 2/3 = a 1/ 3 2 2 x 0 a 3 1/3 3 5/3 dx = a x = a 2 5 0 5 a and ∫ xELdL = ∫ 1/3 a a x 1/3 0 x Hence 3 3 xL = ∫ xEL dL : x a = a 2 2 5 x = 2 a 5 .
PROBLEM 5.623a 2 2 2 2 4 0 ( ) and π 2 2θ θ 3 π 3θ ∫ xELdA = ∫0 3ae cosθ 2 a e dθ = 3 a ∫0 e cosθ dθ 2 1 1 To proceed. with u = e3θ and du = 3e3θ dθ and v = sin θ dv = cosθ dθ Then 3θ 3θ 3θ ∫ e cosθ dθ = e sin θ − ∫ sin θ ( 3e dθ ) Now let u = e3θ then then du = 3e3θ dθ v = − cosθ dv = sin θ dθ .26a3 3 10 0 30 π ( ) Also π 2 2θ θ 3 π 3θ ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 3 ae sin θ 2 a e dθ = 3 a ∫0 e sin θ dθ 2 1 1 .45 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. use integration by parts. SOLUTION Have xEL = yEL 2 2 r cosθ = aeθ cosθ 3 3 2 2 θ = r sin θ = ae sin θ 3 3 1 1 ( r )( rdθ ) = a 2e2θ dθ 2 2 π and Then dA = 1 1 1 π 1 A = ∫ dA = ∫0 a 2e 2θ dθ = a 2 e 2θ = a 2 e2π − 1 = 133. Then So that 3θ 3θ −3θ 3θ ∫ e sin θ dθ = e sin θ − 3 −e cosθ − ∫ ( − cosθ ) ( 3e dθ ) 3θ ∫ e cosθ dθ = 10 ( sin θ + 3cosθ ) e3θ 1 e3θ a3 ∴ ∫ xEL dA = a3 ( sin θ + 3cos θ) = −3e3π − 3 = −1239.
26a3 yA = ∫ yEL dA: 2 3 ( ) y (133.623a ) = 413.09a or x = −9.623a 2 = −1239.09a .09a3 3 10 0 30 ( ) Hence xA = ∫ xEL dA: x 133.27a or y = 3.45 CONTINUED Using integration by parts. as above.PROBLEM 5. with u = e3θ and du = 3e3θ dθ and v = − cosθ dv = ∫ sin θ dθ Then 3θ 3θ 3θ ∫ e sin θd θ = −e cos θ − ∫ ( − cos θ) ( 3e d θ) So that ∫ e3θ sin θd θ = e3θ ( − cos θ + 3sin θ) 10 π 1 e3θ a3 ∴ ∫ yEL dA = a3 ( − cos θ + 3sin θ) = e3π + 1 = 413.
46 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.PROBLEM 5. yEL = 1 πx x sin 2 L dA = ydx A = ∫ dA = ∫0 x sin L/2 πx L2 πx L πx − x cos dx = 2 sin π L L L 0 π L/2 = L2 π2 and πx L/2 x = ∫ xEL dA = ∫0 x x sin dx L 2 L2 π x 2 L3 π x L 2 π x = 2 x sin + 3 cos − x sin L π L π L 0 π L/2 = L3 π2 −2 L3 π3 Also y = ∫ yEL dA = ∫0 L/2 1 2 x sin πx πx dx x sin L L L/2 1 2 L2 πx L 2 L3 π x = 2 x sin − x − 3 cos 2π L π L π 0 = L2 L L3 1 1 L3 6 + π2 − ( −1) = 2 2 6 8 4π 2 2 96π ( ) . SOLUTION Have and xEL = x.
363L L2 L3 1 2 yA = ∫ yEL dA: y 2 = π 96π 2 π 2 − π 3 or y = 0.46 CONTINUED Hence L2 z 1 xA = ∫ xEL dA: x 2 = L3 2 − 3 π π π or x = 0.PROBLEM 5.1653L .
36 × 106 mm3 ( Area ) ( Line ) ( ) ( ) .01774 × 105 mm 2 A = 0. SOLUTION From the solution to Problem 5.4 mm )( 441.7 mm From the solution to Problem 5.2 about (a) the x axis.21 × 106 mm3 (b) Rotation about x = 165 mm: Area = 2π 165 − X line L = 2π (165 − 92.2075 × 106 mm3 V = 2.4 mm. Yline = 32. we have (a) Rotation about the x axis: Area = 2π Yline L = 2π ( 32.7 mm )(10 125 mm ) = 2.8 × 103 mm 2 Volume = 2π Yarea A = 2π ( 34. 5.PROBLEM 5.05 mm X line = 92.2 ) mm ( 441.22: L = 441.202 × 106 mm 2 Volume = 2π 165 − X area A = 2π (165 − 96.2: A = 10 125 mm 2 .47 Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the area of Problem.05 mm ) = 2.2 mm.786 × 103 mm 2 A = 89.3641 × 106 mm3 V = 4. X area = 96.4 ) mm (10 125 mm ) = 4. Yarea = 34.4 mm Applying the theorems of PappusGuldinus.05 mm ) = 89. (b) the line x = 165 mm.
50 × 103 mm 2 Volume = 2π 22 − Yarea A = 2π ( 22 − 12.46 mm3 V = 26. Yline = 12. X line = 1. SOLUTION From the solution to Problem 5.233 mm.5 × 103 mm3 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) .421) mm 399 mm 2 = 26 521.72 mm (Line) (Area) Applying the theorems of PappusGuldinus.42 ) mm 399 mm 2 = 24 016.421 mm.23: L = 77.4: A = 399 mm 2 .441) mm ( 77. (b) the line x = 12 mm.421) A = 2π (12 − 1.42 mm From the solution to Problem 5.233 mm ) = 5124.45 mm 2 A = 5.48 Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the area of Problem 5.PROBLEM 5. X area = 1.441 mm. we have (a) Rotation about the line y = 22 mm: Area = 2π 22 − Yline L = 2π ( 22 − 12.72 ) mm ( 77.97 mm3 V = 24. Yarea = 12.4 about (a) the line y = 22 mm.0 × 103 mm3 (b) Rotation about line x = 12 mm: Area = 2π 12 − X line L = 2π (12 − 1.12 × 103 mm 2 Volume = 2π (12 − 1.233 mm ) = 4503 mm 2 A = 4.
60 in.) = 3017. Yarea = 6.60 in. 240 in 2 = 15 682.)( 72 in.67 ) in. SOLUTION From the solution to Problem 5..6 in 2 Ax =16 = 5130 in 2 Vx =16 = 2π 16 − X area A = 2π (16 − 5.67 in. ( 72 in.: Ax =16 = 2π 16 − X line L = 2π (16 − 4.60 in. Yline = 6.8 in 3 Vx =16 = 15. (b) the line x = 16 in. From the solution to Problem 5. we have (a) Rotation about the x axis: Ax = 2π Yline L = 2π ( 6.6 in 3 V = 9950 in 3 (b) Rotation about x = 16 in.) = 5125. X line = 4.4 in 2 A = 3020 in 2 Vx = 2π Yarea A = 2π ( 6.1 about (a) the x axis..49 Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the area of Problem 5.) 240 in 2 = 9952.60 ) in.21: L = 72 in. X area = 5.68 × 103 in 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) .67 in.67 in.. (Area) Applying the theorems of PappusGuldinus.1: A = 240 in 2 .PROBLEM 5.
SOLUTION Applying the second theorem of PappusGuldinus.PROBLEM 5. (b) the axis BB′. (c) the y axis. we have (a) Rotation about axis AA′: π ab 2 2 Volume = 2π yA = 2π ( a ) =π ab 2 (b) Rotation about axis BB′: π ab 2 2 Volume = 2π yA = 2π ( 2a ) = 2π a b 2 (c) Rotation about yaxis: 4a π ab 2 2 Volume = 2π yA = 2π = πa b 3π 2 3 V = 2 2 πa b 3 V = 2π 2a 2b V = π 2a 2b .50 Determine the volume of the solid generated by rotating the semielliptical area shown about (a) the axis AA′.
and L = 10 in. + π ( 3 in. which is made from a 2in. + π ( 3 in.198 in 2 A = 488 in 2 . SOLUTION First note that the area A and the circumference C of the cross section of the bar are A= π 4 d2 and C = πd Observe that the semicircular ends of the link can be obtained by rotating the cross section through a horizontal semicircular arc of radius R.049 in 3 V = 122. Then.) 4 = 122.) = 488.diameter bar. if R = 3 in.) π ( 4 in.0 in 3 Area = 2 ( Aside ) + 2 ( Aend ) = 2 ( CL ) + 2 (π RC ) = 2 ( L + π R ) C = 2 10 in.) ( 2 in.PROBLEM 5. applying the theorems of PappusGuldinus.51 Determine the volume and the surface area of the chain link shown. we have Volume = 2 (Vside ) + 2 (Vend ) = 2 ( AL ) + 2 (π RA) = 2 ( L + π R ) A 2 π = 2 10 in.
PROBLEM 5.52
Verify that the expressions for the volumes of the first four shapes in Figure 5.21 on page 261 are correct.
SOLUTION
Following the second theorem of PappusGuldinus, in each case a specific generating area A will be rotated about the x axis to produce the given shape. Values of y are from Fig. 5.8A. (1) Hemisphere: the generating area is a quarter circle Have 4a π V = 2π yA = 2π a 2 3π 4 or V = 2 3 πa 3
(2) Semiellipsoid of revolution: the generating area is a quarter ellipse Have 4a π V = 2π yA = 2π ha 3π 4 or V = 2 2 πa h 3
(3) Paraboloid of revolution: the generating area is a quarter parabola Have 3 2 V = 2π yA = 2π a ah 8 3 or V = 1 2 πa h 2
(4) Cone: the generating area is a triangle Have a 1 V = 2π yA = 2π ha 3 2 or V = 1 2 πa h 3
PROBLEM 5.53
A 15mmdiameter hole is drilled in a piece of 20mmthick steel; the hole is then countersunk as shown. Determine the volume of steel removed during the countersinking process.
SOLUTION
The required volume can be generated by rotating the area shown about the y axis. Applying the second theorem of PappusGuldinus, we have
5 1 V = 2π xA = 2π + 7.5 mm × × 5 mm × 5 mm 3 2 or V = 720 mm3
PROBLEM 5.54
Three different drive belt profiles are to be studied. If at any given time each belt makes contact with onehalf of the circumference of its pulley, determine the contact area between the belt and the pulley for each design.
SOLUTION
Applying the first theorem of PappusGuldinus, the contact area AC of a belt is given by
AC = π yL = πΣ yL
Where the individual lengths are the “Lengths” of the belt cross section that are in contact with the pulley
Have AC = π 2 ( y1L1 ) + y2 L2 2.5 mm 2.5 = π 2 60 − mm 2 cos 20° + ( 60 − 2.5 ) mm (12.5 mm ) or AC = 3.24 × 103 mm 2 Have
AC = π 2 ( y1L1 )
7.5 mm 7.5 = 2π 60 − 1.6 − mm × 2 cos 20 or AC = 2.74 × 103 mm 2
Have
2× 5 AC = π ( y1L1 ) = π 60 − mm (π × 5 mm ) π or AC = 2.80 × 103 mm 2
of the punch bowl shown if R = 12 in.PROBLEM 5.) = 3526. we have V = 2π xA = 2πΣxA = 2π ( x1 A1 + x2 A2 ) 1 1 1 1 π 2 3 2 R sin 30 = 2π × R × R × cos30 R R + 2 3× π 3 2 2 2 6 6 R3 R3 3 3 3 = 2π + 16 3 2 3 = 8 π R = 3 3 3 π (12 in.03 in 3 = 15.03 in 3 8 Since 1 gal = 231 in 3 V = 3526.26 gal .26 gal 231 in 3/gal V = 15. Applying the second theorem of PappusGuldinus and using Fig.8A. in gallons. 5. SOLUTION The volume can be generated by rotating the triangle and circular sector shown about the y axis.55 Determine the capacity.
60 + 0.101 lb/in 3 × 22. determine the weight of the shade.6 mm ) + mm × 2 2 ( 0. This area can be generated by rotating the line shown about the x axis.40 mm )2 ( 0.5 + mm × 2 = 22.50 mm )2 + ( 0.21362 lb 32 W = 0. = 0.15 mm )2 + (1.25 + 1.25 mm )2 + (1. Applying the first theorem of PappusGuldinus.75 + 1.25 mm )2 3 in.101 lb/in 3 .5607 in 2 × W = 0.6 mm 0.5607 in Then 2 ( 0.214 lb .56 The aluminum shade for a small highintensity lamp has a uniform thickness of 3/32 in. we have A = 2π yL = 2πΣyL = 2π ( y1L1 + y2 L2 + y3 L3 + y4 L4 ) 0.5 mm )2 0.PROBLEM 5. Knowing that the specific weight of aluminum is 0.25 + mm × 2 1.75 = 2π ( 0. SOLUTION The weight of the lamp shade is given by W = γ V = γ At where A is the surface area of the shade.
075π × 106 mm3 2 Vtop = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 Applying the second theorem of PappusGuldinus to parts 3 and 4 2 2 Vtop = π ( 529 mm ) × (18 mm ) + π ( 535 mm ) × (12 mm ) π 4 × 12 2 + 2π 535 + mm × (12 mm ) 3π 4 π 4 × 18 2 + 2π 529 + mm × (18 mm ) 3π 4 = π ( 5.8671) π × 106 mm3 = 0.81 m/s 2 × 5000 ( tops ) ( ) or Wwaste = 2.PROBLEM 5. Knowing that the diameter of the top is 1100 mm before shaping and that the density of the wood is 690 kg/m3 . determine the weight of the waste wood resulting from the production of 5000 tops.2731) × 106 mm3 = 8.2079π × 10−3 m3 Finally Wwaste = ρ wood Vwaste g N tops = 690 kg/m3 × 0.347 + 0. SOLUTION All dimensions are in mm Have Vwaste = Vblank − Vtop Vblank = π ( 550 mm ) × ( 30 mm ) = 9.2079π × 10−3 m3 × 9.21 kN .8671π × 106 mm3 ∴ Vwaste = ( 9.1222 + 0.0750 − 8.57 The top of a round wooden table has the edge profile shown.0371 + 3.
57 and using the first theorem of PappusGuldinus. SOLUTION Referring to the figure in solution of Problem 5.115π × 10−3 m 2 × 1 liter × 5000 × 3 12 m 2 or # liters = 2424 L . Determine how many liters of lacquer are required to finish 5000 tops knowing that each top is given three coats of lacquer and that 1 liter of lacquer covers 12 m2.58 The top of a round wooden table has the shape shown.115π × 103 mm 2 Then # liters = Asurface × Coverage × N tops × N coats = 617. we have Asurface = Atop circle + Abottom circle + Aedge 2 2 = π ( 535 mm ) + π ( 529 mm ) π 2 × 12 + 2π 535 + mm × (12 mm ) π 2 π 2 × 18 + 2π 529 + mm × (18 mm ) π 2 = 617.PROBLEM 5.
Knowing that the specific 3 weight of yellow brass is 0. sin φ = 0. determine the weight of the escutcheon.1175 in.59 The escutcheon (a decorative plate placed on a pipe where the pipe exits from a wall) shown is cast from yellow brass.0755 in. − 2.306 lb/in . we have V = 2π yA = 2πΣ yA . V can be generated by rotating the area A about the x axis. Applying the second theorem of PappusGuldinus and then using Figure 5.958 in.8A. = 0. SOLUTION The weight of the escutcheon is given by W = (specific weight)V where V is the volume of the plate.4059 α = 8.143169 rad The area A can be obtained by combining the following four areas.5941° 3 or 2α = 26 − 9. Have and Then a = 3.5 ⇒ φ = 0. as indicated.PROBLEM 5.20295 = 0.16745 R = 9.5941 = 16.
7395 2 − ( 0.1533 –0.5) = 2. in 2 y .4476 in 3 0. in.12325 –0.5 3 1.5) = −0.28851 2 − 1 ( 2.16667 3 1 ( 0.44296 in 3 Then so that V = 2π 0. in 3 1 2 3 4 1 ( 3.4476 in 3 W = 1.78497 –0.3066 2 −α ( 3) = −1.44296 lb ( ) ( ) W = 0.14688 Σ yA = 0.44296 in 3 = 1.306 lb/in 3 = 0.60921 3α 1 ( 0.5 ) = −0.05875 2 ( 3) sin α × sin (α + φ ) = 0.5) = 0.5) = 0.1755 )( 0.443 lb .59 CONTINUED A.0755)(1. yA.5 ) = 0.25 2 1 (1.958)( 0.PROBLEM 5.
PROBLEM 5.15 y 2 and 2 Now So dx dL = 1 + dy = 1 + 0.09 y 3 0.09 y 2 dy dy A = 2π yL 12. (1) ⇒ k = 0.60 The reflector of a small flashlight has the parabolic shape shown. SOLUTION First note that the required surface area A can be generated by rotating the parabolic cross section through 2π radians about the x axis. 2 at x = a : a = k ( 7. Determine the surface area of the inside of the reflector.5 ) 2 or At or Then a = 56.15 ∴ x = 0. (1) 56.5 and yL = ∫ ydL ∴ A = 2π ∫7.4375 mm 1 mm dx = 0.25k : = Eq. Applying the first theorem of PappusGuldinus.25k (2) Eq.25 k x = ( a + 15 ) mm: a + 15 = k (12.25k a or a = 8.09 y 2 dy 2 1 2 = 2π 1 + 0.5 y 1 + 0.5 3/2 7.5 ) 2 (1) a + 15 = 156. since x = ky .5 = 1013 mm 2 or A = 1013 mm 2 .3 y dy Eq. we have A = 2π yL Now.18 ( ) 12. (2) a + 15 156.
determine (a) the magnitude and location of the resultant of the distributed load.61 For the beam and loading shown. Ay = 1800 lb ΣM A = 0: M A − (1800 lb )(10.80 ft (b) ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 ΣFy = 0: Ay − 1800 lb = 0.444 lb ⋅ ft ∴ A = 1800 lb or M A = 19.44 kip ⋅ ft . (b) the reactions at the beam supports.PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION Resultant (a) Have R = R1 + R2 R1 = ( 40 lb/ft )(18 ft ) = 720 lb R2 = 1 (120 lb/ft )(18 ft ) = 1080 lb 2 R = 1800 lb or ΣM A: The resultant is located at the centroid C of the distributed load x Have or (1800 lb ) x = ( 40 lb/ft )(18 ft )( 9 ft ) + x = 10.80 ft 1 (120 lb/ft )(18 ft )(12 ft ) 2 R = 1800 lb x = 10.8 ft ) = 0 M A = 19.
75 m ) = 0 By = 2250 N B = 2250 N ΣFy = 0: Ay + 2250 N = 3600 N or Ay = 1350 N A = 1350 N .75 m R = 3600 N x = 3.PROBLEM 5.5 m )(1800 N ) or x = 3.62 For the beam and loading shown. determine (a) the magnitude and location of the resultant of the distributed load.75 m (b) Reactions ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 ΣM A = 0: or ( 6 m ) By − ( 3600 N )( 3. (b) the reactions at the beam supports. SOLUTION (a) Have RI = ( 300 N/m )( 6 m ) = 1800 N RII = 1 ( 6 m )( 900 N/m ) = 1800 N 3 Then or ΣFy : − R = − RI − RII R = 1800 N + 1800 N = 3600 N ΣM A : − x ( 3600 N ) = − ( 3 m )(1800 N ) − ( 4.
SOLUTION Have RI = (100 lb/ft )( 4 ft ) = 400 lb RII = RIII 1 ( 200 lb/ft )( 6 ft ) = 600 lb 2 = ( 200 lb/ft )( 4 ft ) = 800 lb ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 ΣM A = 0: Then ( 2 ft )( 400 lb ) − ( 4 ft )( 600 lb ) − (12 ft )(800 lb ) + (10 ft ) By By = 800 lb ΣFy = 0: Ay + 800 lb − 400 lb − 600 lb − 800 = 0 =0 or B = 800 lb or Ay = 1000 lb A = 1000 lb .63 Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.PROBLEM 5.
3 lb = 0 B = 1233 lb or Ay = 866.PROBLEM 5.64 Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.5 ft )(1800 lb ) − (10 ft )( 300 lb ) + ( 9 ft ) By = 0 or By = 1233.3 lb ΣFy = 0: Ay − 1800 lb − 300 lb + 1233. SOLUTION Have RI = ( 9 ft )( 200 lb/ft ) = 1800 lb RII = 1 ( 3 ft )( 200 lb/ft ) = 300 lb 2 Then ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 ΣM A = 0: − ( 4.7 lb A = 867 lb .
38 m )(18 N ) or M A = 2.22 m )( 40 N ) + ( 0.0 N M A = 2. SOLUTION Have RI = 1 ( 200 N/m )( 0.8 m )(12 N ) − ( 0.PROBLEM 5.12 m ) = 12 N 2 RII = ( 200 N/m )( 0.2 m ) = 40 N Then ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 ΣFy = 0: Ay + 18 N − 12 N − 40 N = 0 or Ay = 34 N ΣM A = 0: M A − ( 0.92 N ⋅ m .92 N ⋅ m A = 34.65 Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.
Have RI = (1. replace the given loading with the loading shown below.8 m )( 2000 N/m ) = 3600 N RII = 1 (1. and the values at the end points are the same. The two loadings are equivalent because both are defined by a linear relation between load and distance.4 m )( 4050 N ) or Ay = 270 N ΣFy = 0: 270 N − 3600 N + 4050 N − By = 0 A = 270 N or By = 720 N B = 720 N . SOLUTION First.PROBLEM 5.1 m )( 3600 N ) + ( 2.66 Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.8 m )( 4500 N/m ) = 4050 N 2 Then ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 ΣM B = 0: − ( 3 m ) Ay − ( 2.
7 N 3 ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 Then ΣFy = 0: Ay − 2667 N − 666.5 m )( 666.33 kN ⋅ m . SOLUTION Have RI = RII = 1 ( 4 m )( 2000 kN/m ) = 2667 N 3 1 ( 2 m )(1000 kN/m ) = 666.33 kN or M A = 6334 N ⋅ m M A = 6.67 Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading.PROBLEM 5.7 N ) A = 3.7 N = 0 or Ay = 3334 N ΣM A = 0: M A − (1 m )( 2667 N ) − ( 5.
replace the given loading with the loading shown below. and the values at end points are the same.PROBLEM 5. The two loadings are equivalent because both are defined by a parabolic relation between load and distance. Have RI = ( 8 ft )(100 lb/ft ) = 800 lb RII = 2 (8 ft )( 600 lb/ft ) = 3200 lb 3 ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 Then ΣM A = 0: 11B + ( 5 ft )( 800 lb ) − ( 4 ft )( 3200 ) lb = 0 or B = 800 lb ΣFy = 0: Ay − 3200 lb + 800 lb + 800 lb = 0 or A = 1600 lb .68 Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading. SOLUTION First.
(1) and (2) ΣFy = 0: Ay − 60a − ( 240 − 2a ) + By = 0 Ay + By = 240 + 40a Ay = By ⇒ Ay = By = 120 + 20a a 1 ΣM B = 0: − (12 m ) Ay + ( 60a ) lb 12 − ft + (12 − a ) ft ( 240 − 20a ) lb = 0 3 3 Ay = 80 − (1) 140 10 2 a− a 3 9 140 10 a − a2 3 9 (2) 120 + 20a = 80 − or Then Now (b) Have Eq.2 lb .6077 ft.61) = 152.608 ft a ≤ 12 ft ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 Ay = By = 120 + 20 (1. a = 22. SOLUTION (a) Have RI = RII = 1 ( a ft )(120 lb/ft ) = ( 60a ) lb 2 1 (12 − a )( 40 lb/ft ) = ( 240 − 20a ) lb 2 Then or Now Also or Equating Eqs.2 lb A = B = 152. (1) 40 2 a − 320a + 480 = 0 3 a = 1.PROBLEM 5.392 a = 1. (b) the corresponding reactions at the supports.69 Determine (a) the distance a so that the vertical reactions at supports A and B are equal.
70 Determine (a) the distance a so that the vertical reaction at support B is minimum. SOLUTION (a) Have RI = RII = 1 ( a ft )(120 lb/ft ) = 60a lb 2 1 (12 − a ) ft ( 40 lb/ft ) = ( 240 − 20a ) lb 2 Then or Then (b) Eq.PROBLEM 5. (b) the corresponding reactions at the supports.00 ) lb + 150 lb = 0 or Ay = 210 lb A = 210 lb .0 lb ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 = 150 lb and ΣFy = 0: Ay − 60 ( 3.00 )2 − ( 3.00 ) lb − 240 − 20 ( 3.00 ) + 160 9 3 B = 150.00 ft 20 20 a− =0 9 3 10 20 ( 3. (1) a a ΣM A = 0: − ft ( 60a lb ) − ( 240 − 20a ) lb 8 + ft + (12 ft ) By = 0 3 3 By = dBy da By = 10 2 20 a − a + 160 9 3 = (1) or a = 3.
4583 kN ΣFy = 0: By − 9 kN − 13.4583 = 0 C = 15.5 kN/m.0417 kN B = 7.5 kN + 15.5 kN ) + ( 6 m ) C y = 0 or C y = 15.PROBLEM 5.71 Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading when w0 = 1.46 kN or By = 7. SOLUTION Have RI = 1 ( 9 m )( 2 kN/m ) = 9 kN 2 RII = ( 9 m )(1.5 kN/m ) = 13.5 kN Then ΣFx = 0: Cx = 0 ΣM B = 0: − 50 kN ⋅ m − (1 m )( 9 kN ) − ( 2.5 m )(13.04 kN .
5 m ) ( 9w0 kN ) = 0 9w0 + 28.5 ( 3. (b) ΣFx = 0: Cx = 0 ΣFy = 0: − 4.19 ) kN + 9 ( 3. (b) the corresponding reactions at C.1944 kN/m w0 = 3.5 − w0 ) kN + ( 3.5 + 3.5 − w0 ) kN/m = 4.19 kN/m Note: the negative sign means that the distributed force w0 is upward. SOLUTION Have RI = 1 ( 9 m ) ( 3.75 = 0 w0 = −3.5 ( 3.19 ) kN + C y = 0 or C y = 1.72 Determine (a) the distributed load w0 at the end D of the beam ABCD for which the reaction at B is zero.5 ( 3.375 kN C = 1.PROBLEM 5.5 − w0 ) kN 2 RII = ( 9 m ) ( w0 kN/m ) = 9w0 kN (a) Then or so ΣM C = 0: − 50 kN ⋅ m + ( 5 m ) 4.375 kN .
SOLUTION Have RI = (1.2 m )( 6.45 wA kN 2 2 1 RIII = (1.8 m )(18 kN/m ) + ( 0.8 m ) wA kN/m = 0. Knowing that P = 4 kN and wB = 1 wA .9 m ) ( 0.2 m )( 4 kN/m ) − ( 0.9 m )( 6.67 kN/m ) − 24 kN − 18 kN − 4 kN or RR = 29.2 wA ) kN + ( 0.8 m ) wA kN/m = 0.2 m )( wA kN/m ) = 1.73 A grade beam AB supports three concentrated loads and rests on soil and the top of a large rock.0 kN RR = 29. and the rock exerts a concentrated load RR as shown.0 kN .9 wA ) kN/m − (1.6 m ) ( 0.67 kN/m ΣFy = 0: RR + (1.45 m )( 6.67 kN/m ) + ( 0.2 wA kN RII = 1 1 (1.67 kN/m ) + ( 0.9 wA kN 2 Then ΣM C = 0: − ( 0.7 m )( 24 kN/m ) = 0 or and wA = 6.6 m ) (1. determine the values of wA and RR corresponding to 2 equilibrium.PROBLEM 5.45 wA ) kN/m + ( 0.667 kN/m wA = 6. The soil exerts an upward distributed load.
(b) the corresponding value of wA.72 wA kN (a) Then ΣM A = 0: ( 0. the maximum acceptable value of P is that for which R = 0.6 m ) (1.7 P P = 6.6 wA kN/m ) = 0.2 WA + 0.72 wA ) kN − ( 0. (2): 0.54 wA kN 2 RIII = (1.488 − 2.11 kN or WA = 19.1067 = 42 .74 A grade beam AB supports three concentrated loads and rests on soil and the top of a large rock.46 WA − 6.72 WA − 24 − 18 − P = 0 RR + 2.4 lb/ft3 for the specific weight of fresh water and γc = 150 lb/ft3 for the specific weight of concrete if U.PROBLEM 5.54 wA ) kN + ( 2.4wA.0 m )(18 kN ) + ( 2. P = 6. (1) and (2) to eliminate wA : ( 3. use ρ = 103 kg/m3 for the density of fresh water and ρc = 2.2 wA ) kN + (1.8 m )( 0.8 m ) ( 0.46 WA − P = 42 (2) (1) Now combine Eqs.4 P = 48 ΣFy = 0: RR + 1.2 RR − 2. Knowing that wB = 0. customary units are used. (See the footnote on page 222 for how to determine the specific weight of a material given its density.252 RR = 16. 1 ⇒ or (b) Then.8 m )( 0. In the following problems.) j SOLUTION Have RI = (1. and the rock exerts a concentrated load RR as shown.2 m ) RR + (1.4 wA kN/m ) = 0.S.204 wA + 1.46 ) Eq.4 m ) P = 0 or and or 3. from Eq. use γ = 62.5 m )( 24 kN ) − ( 2.204 ) Eq.54 WA + 0. 2 − ( 2.40 × 103 kg/m3 for the density of concrete.2 m )( wA kN/m ) = 1. determine (a) the largest value of P for which the beam is in equilibrium.2 wA kN RII = 1 (1.1067 kN 2. The soil exerts an upward distributed load.1 m ) ( 0. With SI units.56 kN/m Since RR must be ≥ 0.
(c) the resultant of the pressure forces exerted by the water on the face BC of the dam.75 The cross section of a concrete dam is as shown. Note: X1 = 6 m X 2 = ( 9 + 3) m = 12 m X 3 = (15 + 2 ) m = 17 m X 4 = (15 + 4 ) m = 19 m (a) Now W = ρ gV so that 1 W1 = 2400 kg/m3 9.7 kN or V = 5933 kN V = 5.7 kN 2 Also P= 1 1 Ap = (18 m )(1 m ) 103 kg/m3 9.81 m/s 2 ( 6 m )(18 m )(1 m ) = 2543 kN 1 W3 = 2400 kg/m3 9. For a dam section of unit width.81 m/s 2 ( 6 m )(18 m )(1 m ) = 529.PROBLEM 5.81 m/s 2 (18 m ) 2 2 = 1589 kN Then or ΣFx = 0: H − 1589 kN = 0 H = 1589 kN ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) H = 1589 kN ΣFy = 0: V − 1589 kN − 2543 kN − 1271 kN − 529.S. In the following problems. (b) the point of application of the resultant of the reaction forces of part a.) SOLUTION The free body shown consists of a 1m thick section of the dam and the triangular section BCD of the water behind the dam. use ρ = 103 kg/m3 for the density of fresh water and ρc = 2.81 m/s 2 ( 6 m )(18 m )(1 m ) = 1271 kN 2 1 W4 = 2400 kg/m3 9. customary units are used. With SI units.81 m/s 2 ( 9 m )(15 m )(1 m ) = 1589 kN 2 ( )( ) W2 = 2400 kg/m3 9.4 lb/ft3 for the specific weight of fresh water and γc = 150 lb/ft3 for the specific weight of concrete if U.93 MN . determine (a) the reaction forces exerted by the ground on the base AB of the dam. use γ = 62.40 × 103 kg/m3 for the density of concrete. (See the footnote on page 222 for how to determine the specific weight of a material given its density.
81 m/s 2 (18 m ) = 176.6 kN/m 2 ( )( ) Then R= 1 1 Ap = (18.43° or R = 1675 kN Alternative solution to part (c) Consider the face BC of the dam.6 kN/m 2 2 2 = 1675 kN ( ) ∴ R = 1675 kN 18.43° 18.PROBLEM 5.7 ) = 0 or X = 10. Have ΣF = 0 Then −R = 1675 kN 18. Have BC = 62 + 182 = 18.97 m )(1 m ) 176.48 m to the right of A (c) Consider water section BCD as the free body.75 CONTINUED (b) Have ΣM A = 0: X ( 5933 kN ) + ( 6 m )(1589 kN ) − ( 6 m )(1589 kN ) − (12 m )( 2543 kN ) − (17 m )(1271 kN ) − (19 m )( 529.48 m X = 10.43° .43° p = ( ρ g ) h = 1000 kg/m3 9.9737 m tan θ = and 6 18 θ = 18.
PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION The free body shown consists of a 1ft thick section of the dam and the parabolic section of water above (and behind) the dam. (c) the resultant of the pressure forces exerted by the water on the face BC of the dam. (b) the point of application of the resultant of the reaction forces of part a.5 ft 8 .76 The cross section of a concrete dam is as shown. For a dam section of unit width. Note x1 = 5 (16 ft ) = 10 ft 8 1 x2 = 16 + ( 6 ) ft = 19 ft 2 1 x3 = 22 + (12 ) ft = 25 ft 4 5 x4 = 22 + (12 ) ft = 29. determine (a) the reaction forces exerted by the ground on the base AB of the dam.
800 lb ) − ( 29. Have ΣF = 0 ∴ R = 13.800 lb 3 2 W4 = 62.PROBLEM 5.8 lb ) = 0 or X = 15.4 lb/ft 3 (12 ft )(18 ft ) × (1 ft ) = 8985. 600 lb 1 W3 = 150 lb/ft 3 (12 ft )(18 ft ) × (1 ft ) = 10.6° .8 kips ΣM A = 0: X ( 79.108.90 ft to the right of A (c) Consider the water section BCD as the free body.5 ft )( 8985.6 V = 79.4 lb/ft 3 × 18 ft = 10.785.8 lb 2 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ΣFx = 0: H − 10. 600 lb − 10.800 lb − 8995.108.76 CONTINUED Now W = γV 2 W1 = 150 lb/ft 3 (16 ft )( 24 ft ) × (1 ft ) = 38.6 lb ) + ( 6 ft )(10.108.6° On the face BD of the dam R = 13.11 kips ΣFy = 0: V − 38.8 lb = 0 or H = 10.53 kips 41.53 kips θ = 41.600 lb ) − ( 25 ft )(10.90 ft The point of application of the resultant is 15.6 lb 3 Also (a) Then P= 1 1 Ap = (18 × 1) ft 2 × 62.6 lb = 0 or (b) V = 79. 785. 400 lb − 21.6 lb ) − ( 6 ft )( 38. 400 lb 3 ( ) W2 = 150 lb/ft 3 ( 6 ft )( 24 ft ) × (1 ft ) = 21. 400 lb ) − (19 ft )( 21.
32 ft . SOLUTION Consider the freebody diagram of the side. determine the maximum allowable depth of water d in the tank. If the tank is slowly filled with water.92 ft 3 d max = 8. The maximum tensile force the rod can withstand without breaking is 40 kips.77 The 9 × 12ft side AB of a tank is hinged at its bottom A and is held in place by a thin rod BC.4 lb/ft d max = 0 3 2 ( ) 3 216 × 103 ft 3 = 374. for d max: P= 1 1 Ap = A (γ d ) 2 2 ΣM A = 0: ( 9 ft ) T − d P=0 3 ( 9 ft ) ( 0. and the design specifications require the force in the rod not exceed 20 percent of this value.2 ) ( 40 × 103 lb ) − or or d max 1 3 (12 ft ) ( d max ) 62. Have Now Then.4 d max 3 d max = 576.PROBLEM 5.
22 lb = 0 or A = −21.78 The 9 × 12ft side of an open tank is hinged at its bottom A and is held in place by a thin rod. 618 lb A = 21. SOLUTION Consider the freebody diagram of the side. The tank is filled with glycerine. 720 lb ) = 0 3 or T = 9102. Have P= 1 1 Ap = A (γ d ) 2 2 1 ( 8 ft )(12 ft ) 80 lb/ft 3 ( 8 ft ) = 30. Determine the force T in the rod and the reactions at the hinge after the tank is filled to a depth of 8 ft.PROBLEM 5. whose specific weight is 80 lb/ft 3.720 lb − 9102. 720 lb 2 ΣFy = 0: Ay = 0 = ( ) Then ΣM A = 0: ( 9 ft ) T 8 − ft ( 30.6 kips .10 kips ΣFx = 0: Ax + 30.22 lb T = 9.
81 m/s 2 = 0 ( ) or T = 20.81 m/s 2 ( 3 m ) 2 2 ( )( ) = 58.81 m/s 2 ( 5 m ) 2 2 F = 0. SOLUTION Consider the freebody diagram of the gate.1P = 0. Now PI = 1 1 ApI = ( 2 × 2 ) m 2 103 kg/m3 9.10 kN Then = 0.10 ) kN = 15.6 kN .86 + 98.1( PI + PII ) ( )( ) = 98.696 kN − ( 500 kg ) 9. Determine the initial force needed to lift the gate that its mass is 500 kg.1( 58.696 kN Finally ΣFy = 0: T − 15.PROBLEM 5.79 The friction force between a 2 × 2m square sluice gate AB and its guides is equal to 10 percent of the resultant of the pressure forces exerted by the water on the face of the gate.86 kN PII = 1 1 ApII = ( 2 × 2 ) m 2 103 kg/m3 9.
5 m ) 2 ( )( ) = 99.97 − 176.76 × 103 kg/m3 and considering a 1mwide section of dam. Assuming that silt is equivalent to a liquid of density ρ s = 1. SOLUTION First..75% .424 kN Then The percentage increase.76 × 103 kg/m3 9.5 m ) 2 ′ P′ = Pw + ( Ps )I + ( Ps )II = 184.5 m )(1 m ) 1. determine the force on the dam face without the silt.326 kN ( Ps )I = (1. is then given by % inc.218 kN ( )( ) ( Ps )II = 1 (1. determine the force on the dam face with silt.80 The dam for a lake is designed to withstand the additional force caused by silt which has settled on the lake bottom. Have ′ Pw = 1 ( 4.5 m. determine the percentage increase in the force acting on the dam face for a silt accumulation of depth 1.81 m/s 2 ( 4.PROBLEM 5.7503% P′ − Pw × 100% = 176.5 m )(1m ) 103 kg/m3 9.5 m )(1 m ) 103 kg/m3 9.81 m/s 2 ( 6 m ) 2 = ( )( ) = 176. = 4. = (184.5 m ) = 66. % inc.81 m/s 2 (1.97 kN ( )( ) = 19.58 kN Next. Have Pw = 1 1 Apw = A ( ρ gh ) 2 2 1 ( 6 m )(1 m ) 103 kg/m3 9.81 m/s 2 ( 4.58) × 100% = 4.58 Pw % inc.
905 ( 6 − d ) kN ( Ps )I = d (1 m ) 103 kg/m3 9.87 kN Next determine the force P′ on the dam face after a depth d of silt has settled. Considering a 1mwide section of dam.6328d 2 kN ′ P′ = Pw + ( Ps )I + ( Ps )II = 4. it is found that silt (which is equivalent to a liquid of density ρ s = 1.58 kN ) = 264.905 36 − 12d + d 2 + 9.6328d 2 kN = 3.81 m/s 2 ( d ) m 2 ( )( ) ) = 8.58 kN. determine the number of years until the dam becomes unsafe. is Pw = 176.81 The base of a dam for a lake is designed to resist up to 150 percent of the horizontal force of the water. After construction.58 kN ( ( ) .81 6d − d 2 kN ( )( ) ( ) ( Ps )II = 1 d (1 m ) 1. Have ′ Pw = 1 ( 6 − d ) m × (1 m ) 103 kg/m3 9.76 × 103 kg/m3 ) is settling on the lake bottom at a rate of 20 mm/y.81 m/s 2 ( 6 − d ) m = 9.81 m/s 2 ( 6 − d ) m 2 2 ( )( ) = 4.81 6d − d 2 + 8. The maximum allowable force Pallow on the dam is then: Pallow = 1. the force on the dam face before the silt is deposited.5 )(176. SOLUTION From Problem 5.76 × 103 kg/m3 9.PROBLEM 5.5Pw = (1.80.7278d 2 + 176.
8667 m ) 4.PROBLEM 5.81 CONTINUED Now required that P′ = Pallow to determine the maximum value of d. ∴ or Finally ( 3.58 kN = 264.7278d 2 + 176.87 kN d = 4.8667 m = 20 × 10−3 m ×N year or N = 243 years .
35 kN 30.7 m ) 2 ( )( ) = 26. For a depth of water d = 3. Have Then PI = P= 1 1 Ap = A ( ρ gh ) 2 2 1 (18 m )2 103 kg/m3 9.7 × 1.99 kN ) + ( 51.0° .74 kN ) − FB = 0 3 3 FB = 43.99 kN PII = 1 (18 m )2 103 kg/m3 9.74 kN Now or or ΣM A = 0: 1 2 ( LAB ) PI + ( LAB ) PII − LAB FB = 0 3 3 1 2 ( 26. SOLUTION First consider the force of the water on the gate.49 kN FB = 4.81 m/s2 (1.8cos 30° ) m 2 ( )( ) = 51. determine the force exerted on the gate by the shear pin.81 m/s2 (1.PROBLEM 5.5 m.82 The square gate AB is held in the position shown by hinges along its top edge A and by a shear pin at B.
9 ft ) B + ( 0. ΣM A = 0: − ( 0.0 ft )( 702 lb ) = 0 or B = 1014 lb B = 1014 lb ΣFx = 0: 2 Ax + or 4 4 ( 421.5 ft )( 421. Have So that P= PI = 1 1 Ap = A (γ h ) 2 2 1 (1.4 lb/ft 3 ( 3 ft ) 2 ( ) = 702 lb 5. determine the reactions at A and B when rope BC is slack.4 lb/ft 3 (1.84 Problem 5.1° .28 lb Note that the factor 2 (2 Ax ) is included since Ax is the horizontal force exerted by the board on each piling.08 lb ∴ A = 563 lb 37. determine the magnitude and direction of the minimum tension required in rope BC to move board AB.83 Find the reactions at A and B when rope is slack.PROBLEMS 5.2 lb PII = 1 (1.2 lb ) − ( 702 lb ) + Ay = 0 5 5 Ay = −340. Neglecting friction. Neglecting friction.2 lb ) + ( 702 lb ) = 0 5 5 Ax = −449. consider the force of the water on the gate.2 lb ) + (1.8 ft ) 2 ( ) = 421.5 ft )( 5 ft ) 62. Problem 5.83 AND 5. ΣFy = 0: 1014 lb − or 3 3 ( 421.84: A temporary dam is constructed in a 5ftwide fresh water channel by nailing two boards to pilings located at the sides of the channel and propping a third board AB against the pilings and the floor of the channel.5 ft )( 5 ft ) 62.83: A temporary dam is constructed in a 5ftwide fresh water channel by nailing two boards to pilings located at the sides of the channel and propping a third board AB against the pilings and the floor of the channel. SOLUTION First.
PROBLEMS 5.83 AND 5.84 CONTINUED 5.84
Note that there are two ways to move the board: 1. Pull upward on the rope fastened at B so that the board rotates about A. For this case B → 0 and TBC is perpendicular to AB for minimum tension. 2. Pull horizontally at B so that the edge B of the board moves to the left. For this case Ay → 0 and the board remains against the pilings because of the force of the water. ΣM A = 0: −1.5TBC + ( 0.5 ft )( 421.2 lb ) + (1.0 ft )( 702 lb ) = 0 or TBC = 608.4 lb
Case (1)
Case (2)
ΣM B = 0: − (1.2 ft ) ( 2 Ax ) − ( 0.5 ft )( 702 lb ) − (1.0 ft )( 421.2 lb ) = 0
or
2 Ax = − 643.5 lb ΣFx = 0: − TBC − 643.5 lb + + 4 ( 421.2 lb ) 5
4 ( 702 lb ) = 0 5
or
TBC = 255.06 lb ∴
( TBC )min
= 255 lb
PROBLEMS 5.85 AND 5.86
Problem 5.85: A 2 × 3m gate is hinged at A and is held in position by rod CD. End D rests against a spring whose constant is 12 kN/m. The spring is undeformed when the gate is vertical. Assuming that the force exerted by rod CD on the gate remains horizontal, determine the minimum depth of water d for which the bottom B of the gate will move to the end of the cylindrical portion of the floor. Problem 5.86: Solve Problem 5.85 if the mass of the gate is 500 kg.
SOLUTION
First, determine the forces exerted on the gate by the spring and the water when B is at the end of the cylindrical portion of the floor.
Have
Then
sin θ =
1 2
∴ θ = 30°
xsp = (1.5 m ) tan 30° Fsp = kxsp = (12 kN/m )(1.5 m ) tan 30° = 10.39 kN
and
Assume Have Then
PI = P=
d ≥ 2m 1 1 Ap = A ( ρ g ) h 2 2
1 ( 2 m )( 3 m ) 103 kg/m3 9.81 m/s 2 ( d − 2 ) m 2
(
)(
)
= 29.43 ( d − 2 ) kN
PII =
1 ( 2 m )( 3 m ) 103 kg/m3 9.81 m/s 2 ( d − 2 + 2cos 30° ) m 2
(
)(
)
= 29.43 ( d − 0.2679 ) kN
PROBLEMS 5.85 AND 5.86 CONTINUED 5.85
Find d min so that gate opens, W = 0.
2 ΣM A = 0: m 29.43 ( d − 2 ) kN 3 4 + m 29.43 ( d − 0.2679 ) kN 3 − (1.5 m )(10.39 kN ) = 0
Using the above freebody diagrams of the gate, we have
or
19.62 ( d − 2 ) + 39.24 ( d − 0.2679 ) = 15.585
58.86d = 65.3374 or
d = 1.1105 m d = 1.110 m
5.86
Find d min so that the gate opens.
W = 9.81 m/s 2 ( 500 kg ) = 4.905 kN
(
)
Using the above freebody diagrams of the gate, we have 2 ΣM A = 0: m 29.43 ( d − 2 ) kN 3 4 + m 29.43 ( d − 0.2679 ) kN 3 − (1.5 m )(10.39 kN ) + − ( 0.5 m )( 4.905 kN ) = 0 or or 19.62 ( d − 2 ) + 39.24 ( d − 0.2679 ) = 18.0375 d = 1.15171 m d = 1.152 m
88: The gate at the end of a 3ftwide fresh water channel is fabricated from three 240lb.33 lb or . The gate is hinged at A and rests against a frictionless support at D.4 lb ) − (1 ft )(187. p2. Problem 5.5 ft. p0.5 ) ft = 156.5 = 62.5 = 6. Determine the depth of water d for which the gate will open.6 lb ) − ( 2 ft )( 468 lb ) = 0 3 3 D = 11. rectangular steel plates. h = 0.0 lb/ft 2 ( ) ( ) Then P = 1 1 ( 0.87: The gate at the end of a 3ftwide fresh water channel is fabricated from three 240lb.4 lb 2 ( ) P2 = ( 2 ft )( 3 ft ) 31.2 lb/ft 2 h = 2.5 ft.2 lb P3 = P4 = and 1 ( 2 ft )( 3 ft ) 31.2 lb/ft 2 = 23. Knowing that d = 2.2 lb/ft 2 = 93.5 ft. determine the reactions at A and D. rectangular steel plates.PROBLEMS 5.5 ) ft = 31. at Note that in addition to the weights of the gate segments.2 lb ) 3 2 1 − ( 2 ft )( 93.4 lb/ft 3 ( 0. The gate is hinged at A and rests against a frictionless support at D.88 Problem 5.5 ft )( 3 ft ) 31. the water exerts pressure on all submerged surfaces ( p = γ h ) .24 lb/ft 3 ( 2.6 lb 2 1 ( 2 ft )( 3 ft ) 156 lb/ft 2 = 468 lb 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ΣM A = 0: − 4 D + ( 2 ft )( 240 lb ) + (1 ft )( 240 lb ) − 2 + × 0.2 lb/ft 2 = 187.325 lb ∴ D = 11.87 Thus. SOLUTION 5.5 ft ( 23.87 AND 5.
88 γ = 62. pd = (γ d ) lb/ft 2 Then P = 1 1 1 3 2 A1 pd − 2 = ( d − 2 ) ft × ( 3 ft ) γ lb/ft 3 ( d − 2 ) ft = γ ( d − 2 ) lb 2 2 2 where ∴ A = 800 lb 41. rather than at this level of the calculations.55 ft = 7. the numerical value of the density γ will be substituted into the equilibrium equations below.88 CONTINUED ΣFx = 0: Ax + 11.8 lb At h = ( d − 2 ) ft.8° 5.32 lb ΣFy = 0: Ay − 240 − 240 − 240 + 187.53846 Solving numerically yields .87 AND 5.PROBLEMS 5.2 = 0 or Ay = 532.4 d = 2. D → 0 ∴ ΣM A = 0: ( 2 ft )( 240 lb ) + (1 ft )( 240 lb ) − 2 ft + ( d − 2 ) ft 1 3 3 2 γ ( d − 2 ) lb + 2 2 − (1 ft ) 6γ ( d − 2 ) lb − ( 2 ft ) 3γ ( d − 2 ) lb 3 1 − ( 2 ft ) 3γ ( d − 2 ) lb + 6γ lb = 0 3 or 1 720 −4 ( d − 2 )3 + 3 ( d − 2 )2 + 12 ( d − 2 ) = γ 2 = 720 −4 62.32 + 23.4 lb/ft 3 (Note: For simplicity.4 + 93.6 + 468 = 0 or Ax = −596.) P2 = A2 pd − 2 = ( 2 ft )( 3 ft ) γ ( d − 2 ) ft = 6γ ( d − 2 ) lb P3 = P4 = 1 1 A3 pd − 2 = ( 2 ft )( 3 ft ) γ ( d − 2 ) ft = 3γ ( d − 2 ) lb 2 2 1 1 A4 pd = ( 2 ft )( 3 ft ) γ ( d ft ) = ( 3γ d ) lb = 3γ ( d − 2 ) + 6γ lb 2 2 As the gate begins to open. pd − 2 = γ ( d − 2 ) lb/ft 2 h = d ft.
0.08 m )( 0. ( −R ) + P + Ww tan θ = Ww P =0 = 42. the gutter slowly fills with rainwater.67 N Now So that R = ( )( ) ΣF = 0: P 2 + Ww2 .4° (b) Consider the freebody diagram of a 0.PROBLEM 5.6 m apart.6 m long section of water and gutter. When the gutter is completely filled with water.89 A rain gutter is supported from the roof of a house by hangers that are spaced 0.67 N = 0 or By = 37.7 N . Then P= 1 1 Ap = A ( ρ gh ) 2 2 1 ( 0. SOLUTION (a) Consider a 0.1 N 63.67 N ) = 0 or M B = −0.06 − 0.6 m ) 3 = 37.81 m/s 2 ( 0.6 m long parabolic section of water.4° R = 42.08 m ) 2 = ( )( ) = 18. Then ΣFx = 0: Bx = 0 ΣFy = 0: By − 37.81 m/s2 ( 0.12 m )( 0.84 N Ww = ρ gV 2 = 103 kg/m3 9. (b) the forcecouple system exerted on a hanger where it is attached to the gutter. θ = 63. determine (a) the resultant of the pressure force exerted by the water on the 0.67 N ΣM B = 0: M B + ( 0.08 m )( 0.6 m ) 103 kg/m3 9.6m section of the curved surface of the gutter.4520 N ⋅ m 37.452 N ⋅ m The forcecouple system exerted on the hanger is then .12 N. After leaves clog the gutter’s drain.048 ) m ( 37.
2 + 1.6 = 0 R R r = 0. for the axes shown V y 3 yV 1 2 Σ (π R ) ( 2R ) = 2π R 2 −R −2π R 4 1 4 πr 4 2 − π r3 3 3 − r 8 r3 2π R3 − 3 r4 −2π R 4 − 8 Then 1 R4 − r 4 Σ yV 8 Y = =− 1 ΣV 3 R − r3 3 1− = 1 r 8 R 4 1 r 1− 3 R 1− 3 (a ) r = 3 R: y = − 4 1 3 3 4 4 1 3 1− 3 4 3 R or y = −1. (b) the ratio r/R for which y = −1.2 R = − 1 r 8 R 4 1 r 1− 3 R 3 3 R or r r − 3. Determine (a) the y coordinate of the centroid when r = 3R/4.2 R : − 1.118R 1− (b) y = −1.884 R 4 Solving numerically .90 The composite body shown is formed by removing a hemisphere of radius r from a cylinder of radius R and height 2R.2 R.PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION Note.
PROBLEM 5.91 Determine the y coordinate of the centroid of the body shown. SOLUTION First note that the values of Y will be the same for the given body and the body shown below. Then V Cone Cylinder Σ y yV 1 − π a 2h 2 12 1 2 2 πa b 8 − 1 2 πa h 3 1 a −π b = − π a 2b 2 4 2 1 − h 4 1 − b 2 π 12 a 2 ( 4h − 3b ) π 24 a 2 2h 2 − 3b 2 ( ) Have Y ΣV = ΣyV Then π π Y a 2 ( 4h − 3b ) = − a 2 2h 2 − 3b 2 24 12 ( ) or Y = − 2h 2 − 3b 2 2 ( 4h − 3b ) .
” as shown.92 Determine the z coordinate of the centroid of the body shown.PROBLEM 5.13 Have Then Z ΣV = ΣzV 1 π Z a 2 ( 4h − 3b ) = − a3 ( 2h − b ) 24 12 or Z = − 2a 2h − b π 4h − 3b . HalfCone HalfCylinder Σ V 1 2 πa h 6 − − z a π * zV 1 3 − ah 6 1 3 ab 12 − 1 3 a ( 2h − b ) 12 π a π 24 2 2 b=− ab 22 8 π − 4 a 2a =− 3π 2 3π a 2 ( 4h − 3b ) From Sample Problem 5.) SOLUTION First note that the body can be formed by removing a “halfcylinder” from a “halfcone.13. (Hint: Use the result of Sample Problem 5.
PROBLEM 5.93
Consider the composite body shown. Determine (a) the value of x when h = L/2 , (b) the ratio h/L for which x = L .
SOLUTION
V Rectangular prism Pyramid Then Now Lab 1 b a h 3 2 x 1 L 2 1 L+ h 4 ΣxV = xV 1 2 L ab 2 1 1 abh L + h 6 4
1 ΣV = ab L + h 6
1 2 1 ab 3L + h L + h 6 4 so that
X ΣV = ΣxV
1 1 1 X ab L + h = ab 3L2 + hL + h 2 6 6 4 or (a) X = ? when h =
h 1 h2 1 h 1 X 1 + = L3 + + L 4 L2 6 L 6
(1)
1 L 2 h 1 Substituting = into Eq. (1) L 2
2 1 1 1 1 11 X 1 + = L 3 + + 6 2 6 2 4 2
or (b) h = ? when X = L L Substituting into Eq. (1)
X =
57 L 104
X = 0.548L
h 1 h2 1 h 1 = L3 + + L 1 + L 4 L2 6 L 6
or or
1+
1h 1 1h 1 h2 = + + 6L 2 6 L 24 L2 h2 = 12 L2 ∴ h =2 3 L
PROBLEMS 5.94 AND 5.95
Problem 5.94: For the machine element shown, determine the x coordinate of the center of gravity. Problem 5.95: For the machine element shown, determine the y coordinate of the center of gravity.
SOLUTIONS
First, assume that the machine element is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding volume.
I II III IV
Σ
V , in 3 (4)(3.6)(0.75) = 10.8 (2.4)(2.0)(0.6) = 2.88
x , in. 2.0 3.7 4.2 1.2
y , in. 0.375 1.95 2.15 0.375
xV , in 4 21.6 10.656 1.0688
yV , in 4 4.05 5.616 0.54711
π(0.45)2 (0.4) = 0.2545
−π(0.5) 2 (0.75) = − 0.5890 13.3454
−0.7068 32.618
−0.22089 9.9922
5.94
Have
X ΣV = Σ x V
X 13.3454 in 3 = 32.618 in 4
(
)
or X = 2.44 in.
5.95
Have
Y ΣV = Σ yV
Y 13.3454 in 3 = 9.9922 in 4
(
)
or Y = 0.749 in.
PROBLEMS 5.96 AND 5.97
Problem 5.96: For the machine element shown, locate the x coordinate of the center of gravity. Problem 5.97: For the machine element shown, locate the y coordinate of the center of gravity.
SOLUTIONS
First, assume that the machine element is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding volume.
V , mm3 1 2
3 4
Σ
x , mm
y , mm
xV , mm 4 12 441 600
5 443 200 3 534 114 −2 316 233 19 102 681
yV , mm 4 1 399 680
4 354 560 185 508 −130 288 5 809 460
(160 )( 54 )(18) = 155 520
1 (120 )( 42 )( 54 ) = 136 080 2
80
40 160 + 160 36
9
32
π
2
(27) 2 (18) = 6561π
π
9 9
−π(16)2 (18) = −4608π 297 736
5.96
Have
X ΣV = Σ x V X 297 736 mm3 = 19 102 681 mm 4
(
)
or X = 64.2 mm
5.97
Have
Y ΣV = Σ yV Y 297 736 mm3 = 5 809 460 mm 4
(
)
or Y = 19.51 mm
98 AND 5.6 mm 5. Have. mm xV .99: For the stop bracket shown. assume that the bracket is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding volume.99 Have Z ΣV = ΣzV Z 1 673 520 mm3 = 8 785 584 mm 4 ( ) or Z = 52.99 Problem 5. mm3 I II III IV Σ x .98 Have X ΣV = ΣxV X 1 673 520 mm3 = 156 586 080 mm 4 ( ) or X = 93. mm z .5 mm . locate the z coordinate of the center of gravity. Z II = 24 mm + Z III = 24 mm + X III = 68 mm + 1 (90 + 86) mm = 112 mm 2 1 (102) mm = 58 mm 3 1 ( 20) mm = 78 mm 2 2 ( 90) mm = 170 mm 3 2 (132) mm = 156 mm 3 Z IV = 110 mm + X IV = 60 mm + V . Problem 5. SOLUTIONS First..98: For the stop bracket shown. mm 4 84 480 000 84 480 000 9 865 440 −22 239 360 156 586 080 zV .PROBLEMS 5. mm 4 1 013 760 94 617 600 733 840 −24 235 200 8 785 584 ( 200 )(176 )( 24 ) = 844 800 ( 200 )( 24 )(176 ) = 844 800 1 ( 20 )(124 )(102 ) = 126 480 2 1 − ( 90 )(132 )( 24 ) = −142 560 2 1 673 520 100 100 78 156 12 112 58 170 5. locate the x coordinate of the center of gravity.
9 mm 2 = 1 469 688 mm3 or Z = 75. mm3 81 000 yA. SOLUTION First.100 Locate the center of gravity of the sheetmetal form shown. mm xA.3 mm ( ) ( ) . mm3 378 000 zA.3 mm Z ΣA = Σ zA Z 19 380. assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding area.5 60 30 80 120 160 + 810 000 −101 250 1 080 000 −135 000 1 440 000 −540 000 π 4 Σ Have 2 = 1012. mm 2 1 1 ( 90 )( 60 ) 2 = 2700 ( 90 )( 200 ) = 18 000 − ( 45 )(100 ) = −4500 x .1 mm Y ΣA = Σ yA Y 19 380.9 ( 45)2 ( 4 )( 45) 3π = 179.9 mm 2 = 932 889 mm3 ( ) or = 48. mm3 0 30 120 + 20 = 140 0 2 3 45 22. mm y . mm z .9 mm 2 = 1 323 000 mm3 or Y = 68.1 mm X = 48.1 45 0 143 139 932 889 0 1 323 000 569 688 1 469 688 X ΣA = ΣxA: X 19 380.8 mm Y = 68.8 mm Z = 75.PROBLEM 5. A.5π 19 380.
5)( 60 ) = 450 − (12. mm z .36 2263.PROBLEM 5.64 mm 2 = −10 313 mm3 Z ΣA = Σ zA ( ) or X = 20.5 19.75 10 10 0 −6.5 − 4 ( 6. mm3 18 750 18 750 12 937.6 46 074 yA.64 mm 2 = 46 074 mm3 Y ΣA = Σ yA Y 2263.64 12.25 ) 3π = 19. mm3 0 −4687. assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the bracket coincides with the centroid of the corresponding area.55 mm Z 2263.25 −12. SOLUTION First. mm y .5 )( 30 ) = −375 −61.4 mm ( ) or Y = −4. Locate the center of gravity of the bracket. mm3 45 000 22 500 13 500 −14 062. mm 2 I II III IV V Σ Have x .0 mm .36 mm 2 A.5 0 0 30 30 30 37.0 65 720 ( 25)( 60) = 1500 (12.5 −3750 −613. mm xA.85 mm AV = − π 2 ( 6.101 A mounting bracket for electronic components is formed from sheet metal of uniform thickness.64 mm 2 = 65 720 mm3 ( ) or Z = 29. Then (see diagram) zV = 22.85 X ΣA = ΣxA X 2263.5 −5625 0 0 −10 313 zA.25)2 = −61.5)( 60 ) = 750 ( 7.5 −1218.5 25 28.
01 in 2 = 273. 7. in.0 in 3 ( ) or Y = 3.5) = 10. in 3 0 216 255 −36.603 273. ( ) or Z = 2.65 90 −10. Y 95.PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION First. 3 1 ( 6) = 2 in.8197 in.333 3.0 in 3 Z ΣA = Σ z A Z 95.102 Locate the center of gravity of the sheetmetal form shown.4 y A.62 434. in 3 88 216 0 0 304 z A. assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the form coincides with the centroid of the corresponding area. .87 in.01 in 2 = 434 in 3 Y ΣA = Σ y A ( ) or X = 4. 1 ( 4)(1. 0 3.8197 8.01 x . 2 3 3 3 x A. 3 1 xII = yII = xIV = 11 − π ( 2)( 6) = 3.363 in. in 3 24 169.333 in.01 in 2 = 304.8197 0 0 z .363 y . in. in.55 30 −3. 3π I II III IV Σ A.5 10. in 2 12 56.57 in.20 in.0 Have X ΣA = Σ x A X 95.534 95. yI = 6 + zI = 4 = 7.
591 13.6 10.8 4.6 9.89 1402.6 7.7 1 (11.454 ) = 8. or Y = 6.6 9.5 4.0 91. 4.6 y . SOLUTION First.5)(11.591 2 8.3)( 2.1 or X = 4.1 in .7 493.103 An enclosure for an electronic device is formed from sheet metal of uniform thickness.00 in. 0 5.5 yA.6 (12 )( 9 ) = 108 (11. Note that symmetry implies and A8 = A2 A7 = A 3 A6 = A5 Z = 6.467 5.25 569.15 64.45 1 (1.06 91. assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the form coincides with the centroid of the corresponding area.59 in.2 in 2 = 2239.54 in.8 10.5 132.72 64.5 101.2 7.5 2239.PROBLEM 5. Locate the center of gravity of the enclosure.3)( 9 ) = 101.15 101.454 ) = 137. Consider the division of the back.5 in 3 2 3 ( ) Y ΣA = Σ yA: Y ( 493.2 10.06 132.89 457.56 2 (12 )(11.467 7.6 3251. in 3 0 569. in 2 1 2 3 x .4 ) = 13. sides.25 769. 4 5 6 7 8 Σ Have X ΣA = ΣxA: X 493.467 7.56 101. in 3 486 457.2 in ) = 3251.467 5.5 xA. Thus A. and top into eight segments according to the sketch. in. in.
337080 mm 2 ) = 0.028274 −0.30 0.000667 0.1) = 0.1)2 = −0. m 2 x.1) = −0.7 mm .3)( 0.007500 0.15 4 ( 0.066991 ( 0.030 0.1) 0.30 0.15 0. m xA.2 mm Y ΣA = Σ yA: Y 0.15 0.06366 3 4 5 6 7 8 Σ π 2 −4 ( 0. m3 1 2 π ( 0.1) 3π 0.001200 −0.2 )( 0.25 0.007500 0.001800 0.1) = 0.01571 2 π = 0.20 0.004500 0. Also note that symmetry implies Z =0 A.3)( 0. m3 yA.007854 π 2 ( 0.003142 0.004500 0.023667 0.15 0. m y. assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the duct coincides with the centroid of the corresponding area.2 )( 0.060 − π 2 ( 0.0314 ( 0.25 0 −0.00900 −0.PROBLEM 5.19874 m Y = 198.337080 mm 2 = 0.0702 m X = 70.3)( 0.004712 0.023667 mm3 X = 0.2 ) = 0. SOLUTION First.1885 − 0 2 ( 0.04244 3π 0.25 −0.104 A 200mmdiameter cylindrical duct and a 100 × 200mm rectangular duct are to be joined as indicated.1571 ( 0.337080 Have or X ΣA = Σ xA: X (0. Knowing that the ducts are fabricated from the same sheet metal.1) = −0.3) = 0.000667 0.030 ( 0. which is of uniform thickness.060 ( 0.066991 mm3 ( ) or Y = 0.15 0. locate the center of gravity of the assembly.3)( 0.20 0.2 ) = 0.00900 0.02000 0.1) = 0.
39 168. Also.04 −896.2094 12. in 3 438.5 in.6047 14 xA.1239 4 π 2 −2 ( 8 ) = −100.) = 10.32 −865.9070 in. ( ) . Note that xI = zI = 16 in.16 −768. 5. − (8 in.PROBLEM 5.32 −1267. assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the duct coincides with the centroid of the corresponding area.2094 in. 5.105 An elbow for the duct of a ventilating system is made of sheet metal of uniform thickness. − 2 2 π (16 in.6047 in. 3π 4 zV = 12 in.0 3703. 3π Also note that the corresponding top and bottom areas will contribute equally when determining x and z .04 in 3 or Z = 7.0 3703.04 π 2 (16 )( 3) = 75. − xV = 16 in.18 96. in. − zII = 12 in. Locate the center of gravity of the elbow.) = 8. ( ) Z ΣA = Σ zA: Z 362.5309 4 −2 ( 4 )( 8 ) = −64 362.21 in.6047 in.74 in.37 260.71 zA. in 3 438.37 411.69 Have X ΣA = Σ xA: X 362. − 4 (8 in. 3π π xIV = zIV = 16 in. (8 in. note that the shape of the duct implies Y = 1.) = 6.9070 8 9.81408 6.81408 10.0 2613.9070 in. − xII = 16 in.81408 in.69 in 2 = 2613.2094 8. in.6991 4 ( 3) = 12 π 2 π 2 2 (16) = 402.) = 5. π 2 (8 in. Thus I II III IV V VI Σ A.69 in 2 = 2809. 4 (16 in.9070 14 9.) = 12. SOLUTION First.6047 12 z .71 in 3 or X = 7. in 2 x .0 2809.3982 (8)( 3) = 37.) = 9.
4 × 106 0.67 × 106 27. symmetry implies and Y ΣA = Σ yA: Y 1. yII = yVI = 80 + zII = zVI = yIV = 80 + zIV = ( 4 )( 500 ) 3π = 292.2176 × 106 212. assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the awning coincides with the centroid of the corresponding area.9 × 106 10 × 106 41.2 Now.2 40 398.2 mm ( 4 )( 500 ) π 3π ( 2 )( 500 ) = 212. mm3 I A.061 × 106 mm 2 = 300. SOLUTION First.6 × 106 57. mm3 zA.4 × 106 332.061 × 10 mm ( 6 2 ) = 332.3 mm = 196 350 mm 2 AII = AVI = AIV = ( 500 )2 π 2 ( 500 )( 680 ) = 534 071 mm2 yA.3 250 212.5 × 106 X = 340 mm II III IV V VI Σ 196 350 (80)(680) = 54 400 534 071 (80)(500) = 40 000 196 350 1.PROBLEM 5.3 mm ( 2 )( 500 ) π π 4 = 318. mm 2 (80)(500) = 40 000 y .7 × 106 1.2 × 106 170 × 106 10 × 106 41.67 × 106 300.2 212. mm 40 250 1.2 500 318. Locate the center of gravity of the awning.3 40 292. mm z .6 × 106 57.106 A window awning is fabricated from sheet metal of uniform thickness.061 × 106 292.5 × 106 mm3 or Z = 283 mm ( .9 × 10 ) 6 mm 3 or Y = 314 mm Z ΣA = Σ zA: Z 1.2 mm = 398.
Locate the center of gravity of the cover.29 0 1 075 000 −174 783 11 246 363 Have Y Σ A = Σ yA: Y 94 170 mm 2 = 1 075 000 mm3 or Y = 11.PROBLEM 5. mm3 11 760 000 1 960 000 0 1 960 000 1 2 3 4 5 ( 300 )( 280 ) = 84 000 0 25 25 25 0 140 140 0 140 130 ( 280 )( 50 ) = 14 000 ( 300 )( 50 ) = 15 000 ( 280 )( 50 ) = 14 000 −π (100 ) 2 = −31 416 −4 084 070 −174 783 6 7 Σ −π ( 30 )2 4 = −706.86 −π ( 30 )2 4 = −706.42 mm ( ) Z Σ A = Σ zA: Z 94 170 mm 2 = 11 246 363 mm3 or Z = 119. note that symmetry implies X = 150.29 0 0 260 − ( 4 )( 30 ) 3π = 247. mm 2 y . plastic front cover of a wall clock is of uniform thickness. assume that the plastic is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the cover coincides with the centroid of the corresponding area. Next.0 mm A. SOLUTION First. mm y A.86 94 170 0 260 − ( 4 )( 30 ) 3π = 247. mm3 0 350 000 375 000 350 000 0 z .4 mm ( ) .107 The thin. mm z .
56 65.0 382. Have X ΣL = Σ x L: X ( 65.5 0 0 30 24 0 0 6 0 98 149. y .5 225.56 π π = 9.) = 337.5 in 2 Y ΣL = Σ y L: Y ( 65. in 2 z L.549 π = 7.5 0 0 0 0 78 4 Σ (15) 2 = 23.) = 258.5 180.94 in.0 337.0 or X = 5.0 in 2 .56 in.PROBLEM 5. in.15 in. where arc BC is a quarter circle of radius R.in. SOLUTION First.) = 382. Locate its center of gravity. or Z = 3.0 258.5 in 2 Z ΣL = Σ z L: Z ( 65.5 3 2 × 15 5 π = 5.639 135. L. in 2 1 2 3 15 14 13 0 7 5 9 12 = 11.83 in. in 2 x . x L.56 in. assume that the wire is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line. in 2 y L. in.56 in.108 A thin steel wire of uniform cross section is bent into the shape shown.73 7. z . or Y = 5.5 112.
816 0 0 4. ft 1.110 ft ) = 17.110 ft ) = 96. assume that the wire is homogeneous so that its center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line Have x2 = z2 = L1 = ( 2 )(8) π = 16 π ft 82 + 32 = 8.5 z . ft 2 12. ft 0 16 x L.316 ft 2 Z ΣL = Σ z L: Z ( 32.109 A thin steel wire of uniform cross section is bent into the shape shown.5440 ft 8π L 2 = 2 = 4π ft 4 L. ft 2 34.99 ft . ft 2 0 64.5440 4π 8 3 32.176 ft 2 Y ΣL = Σ y L: Y ( 32.0 ft 2 or X = 3.539 ft or Z = 2. ft 1 2 3 4 8. where arc BC is a quarter circle of radius R.06 ft or Y = 0.0 π 4 0 Have X ΣL = Σ x L: X ( 32.0 0 0 98.110 x .PROBLEM 5.110 ft ) = 98.176 y L. Locate its center of gravity.5 17.316 z L.176 64.0 32 0 96.5 0 0 1. ft 4 16π 0 0 y . SOLUTION First.
6 0. m y. m 2 0 0 1.57296 m y8 = y9 = 1.681 m 2 Z ΣL = Σ zL: Z (11.8082 m 2 .75 0.9 ) π = 2.681 zL.9 1.6 0.573 0.9 0.5 1. Note x8 = x9 = ( 2 )( 0. m 2 0.827 m ) = 6.8082 or X = 0.6 0 0.9 1. SOLUTION First.073 2.54 0 0. Locate the center of gravity of the portion of the frame shown.45 0.PROBLEM 5.9 ) π = 0. m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Σ Have 0.525 m or Y = 1.6 0 0.18 0.6 11.827 0.827 m ) = 4.5 2.540 0.6 0.9 0.2 1.9306 2.4 0.9 0 0.440 14.4137 0.44 0.18 4.18 0. assume that the channels are homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the frame coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line.540 0.350 1.210 yL.9 0.3 0.573 0 0 0 0.45 0.8100 0.125 2.75 1.210 m 2 Y ΣL = Σ yL: Y (11.8100 0 6.9306 1.880 0.073 m π 2 ( 0.110 The frame of a greenhouse is constructed from uniform aluminum channels.6 0.5 1.5 2.5 + L 7 = L8 = ( 2 )( 0.3 xL.3 0. m z.4050 1.4 0.241 m or Z = 0.125 1.350 0 0.8482 0. m 2 0. m x.4137 1.073 2.827 m ) = 14.406 m X ΣL = Σ xL: X (11.9 ) = 1.6 0.9 1.9 1.54 0 0.4137 m L.4050 0.350 2.
2) cos 45° = 0.2) cos 45° = 0.88 1.425 m ) = 41.7639 1. Note that symmetry implies Z =0 L.610 m or Y = 2. m 2 4.7639 = 0.5456 2.6π 15.5456 0 yL.* PROBLEM 5.7639 1.5 14. m 2 2.594 or X = 0. assume that the tubes are homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the metalwork coincides with the centroid of the corresponding line.0949 41.5 1.70 m 5 Σ Have X ΣL = Σ xL: X (15.2 ) π π 0 = 0.1897 (1.594 m 2 .2 ) ( 2 )(1.425 3 3.2π 0.2π 1.8485 ( 2 )(1. locate the center of gravity of the metalwork.8485 (1.111 The decorative metalwork at the entrance of a store is fabricated from uniform steel structural tubing. m 1 2 3 4 3 3 x.44 9. SOLUTION First.3097 7.5 4. Knowing that R = 1.425 m ) = 9. m y. m xL.2 m.5 3.4112 11.4112 m 2 Y ΣL = Σ yL: Y (15.7639 2.
003169 0. note that symmetry implies Y =Z =0 xI = 5 2π ( 0.017987 0.0374 lb/in 3 and of steel is 0. .3 in.) ( 2 in.5 7.12 in.7 in. locate the center of gravity of the awl.12 in.093996 −0.) = 0.) = 7. WI = 0. + 0. Knowing that the specific weight of plastic is 0.000846 lb 4 ( ) ( ) 2 2 π xIV = 7.284 lb/in 3 ( 0.000428 0..) = 0. WIII = − 0.003060 0.009791 lb 8 3 ( ) xII = 1.093996 lb 2 2 π xIII = 3.) = 0.3 in.12136 lb ) = 0. = 2. = 4.2 in.. in ⋅ lb 0. − 2.080942 0. SOLUTION First. in.PROBLEM 5.1 in.33 in.) = −0.112 A scratch awl has a plastic handle and a steel blade and shank.28228 Have X ΣW = ΣxW : X ( 0.0374 lb/in 3 ( 0.4 in..6 in.) = 0.7 4.)2 ( 0.) ( 5.5 in.12136 x .0374 lb/in 3 ( 0.28228 in.000428 lb 4 3 ( ) I II III IV V Σ W .)3 = 0.1 2.7 in.197393 −0.) ( 3.4 in.284 lb/in 3.5 in. lb 0..8 in.6 in.002284 0. + 1 π ( 0.4 in.3125 2. 0.0374 lb/in 3 (π )( 0.5 in.⋅ lb or X = 2.017987 lb 4 ( ) xV = 7. WV = 0.009791 0.5 in. = 2.284 lb/in 3 ( 0. − 1 in.4 xW .5 in. WII = 0. WIV = 0.3125 in.06 in.000846 0.
determine the center of gravity of the assembly.3406 N + 0. WII = 7860 kg/m3 9.02252 − 0.23731 N Have Y = Y ΣW = Σ yW ( 4 mm)( 0. Knowing that the density of bronze is 8800 kg/m3 and of steel is 7860 kg/m3 .51887 N π yII = 18 mm. note that symmetry implies X =Z =0 Now W = ( ρ g )V π yI = 4 mm .51 mm ( above base ) .102 m 2 ( 0.81 m/s2 0.0362 − 0.2373 N or Y = 10.052 m 2 ( 0.5189 N + 0.5189 N ) + (18 mm)( 0.81 m/s 2 0.81 m/s2 0.PROBLEM 5.008 m ) 4 ( )( ) ( ) = 0.0152 m 2 ( 0. WIII = 8800 kg/m3 9.2373 N ) 0. SOLUTION First.34065 N π yIII = 14 mm. WI = 7860 kg/m3 9.113 A bronze bushing is mounted inside a steel sleeve.3406 N ) + (14 mm )( 0.028 m ) 4 ( )( ) ( ) = 0.02 m ) 4 ( )( ) ( ) = 0.152 − 0.
specify the 4 minimum thickness h for which the center of gravity of the marker is approximately 12 in.114 A marker for a garden path consists of a truncated regular pyramid carved from stone of specific weight 160 lb/ft3.) ( −366 in 3 ) 2352 in 3 ΣyV ΣV = 45 in. Assume that the stone is homogeneous so that the center of gravity coincides with the centroid of the corresponding volume.. Knowing that the specific weight of steel is 490 lb/ft3 and that steel plate is available in 1 in.78 lb Wsteel = γ steelVsteel 1 ft = 490 lb/ft (12 in. increments. 4 V1 = 1 (12 in. 3 ( 3 )( 1 ft 2352 in 12 in. SOLUTION First.)(12 in.)( 28 in. Therefore.) 3 1 ( 6 in. 3 ) 3 ( 3 ) = ( 40. locate the center of gravity of the stone. Now Wstone = γ stoneVstone = 160 lb/ft = 217.) 3 = 2688 in 3 y2 = V2 = − = −366 in 3 Then Vstone = 2688 in 3 − 366 in 3 = 2352 in 3 and Y = = ( 42 in. above the base.833h ) 1b .)(12 in. above the top of the base.) = 21 in.PROBLEM 5. The pyramid is mounted on a steel base of thickness h.) h 12 in.)( 56 in. 4 3 ( 28 in.) = 42 in.. = 17 in. Have y1 = 3 ( 56 in.) ( 2688 in 3 ) + ( 21 in.)( 6 in. the center of gravity of the stone is ( 45 − 28 ) in.
∴ specify h = 2 in.334 = 0 With positive solution h = 2.PROBLEM 5.114 CONTINUED Then Ymarker = ΣyW = 12 in.833h ) lb h 2 + 24h − 53. ( 40.833 h ) lb 2 ( 217.0476 in.)( 217.78 + 40. . ΣW = or (17 in.78 lb ) + − h in.
81 m/s 2 ( 0. W1 = ( ρc g )V1 = 2320 kg/m3 9.408 m )( 0. Knowing that the density of concrete is 2320 kg/m3 and of wood is 470 kg/m3 .PROBLEM 5.115 The ends of the park bench shown are made of concrete.072 m ) = −7.81 m/s 2 ( 0. determine the x and y coordinates of the center of gravity of the bench.180 m ) = 23. note that we will account for the two concrete ends by counting twice the weights of components 1.41 N W4 = W5 = W6 = W7 = ρ wVboard = 470 kg/m3 9.096 m )( 0.81 m/s 2 ( 0. Each piece of wood is 36 × 120 × 1180 mm.504 N ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) .551 N W3 = ( ρc g )V3 = 2320 kg/m3 9.9 N W2 = − ( ρc g )V2 = − 2320 kg/m3 9.036 m )(1.120 m )( 0.81 m/s 2 ( 0.096 m )( 0. and 3.072 m ) = 320.072 m ) = 60.480 m )( 0.048 m )( 0. SOLUTION First. 2. while the seat and back are wooden boards.384 m )( 0.
504 23.PROBLEM 5.504 23.1 423.1 23 196.6 5799.4 −4711.4 ) = 641.1 −204 −384 192 18 18 18 328.2 3281.115 CONTINUED W. N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Σ Have 2 ( 320.06 N ) = 236 590 mm ⋅ N or X = 274 mm Y ΣW = Σ yW : Y ( 865.6 mm .504 23.41) = 120.551) = −15.8 10 148.06 x .3 10 388.504 865.10 2 ( 60. mm ⋅ N 200 251.5 5358.1 7716.9 3762. mm ⋅ N −130 933.7 160.5 2930.5 423.82 23.3 139. mm x W. mm y .1 423.9 236 590 y W.504 23.6 X ΣW = Σ xW : X ( 865.83 2 ( −7.06 N ) = −89 671 mm ⋅ N or Y = −103.8 8461.1 −89 671 312 312 84 228 360 442 124.
A hemisphere. 5. SOLUTION Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.116 Determine by direct integration the values of x for the two volumes obtained by passing a vertical cutting plane through the given shape of Fig.PROBLEM 5. The cutting plane is parallel to the base of the given shape and divides the shape into two volumes of equal height. Then dV = πr 2dx.21. xEL = x The equation of the generating curve is x 2 + y 2 = a 2 so that r 2 = a 2 − x 2 and then dV = π a 2 − x 2 dx Component 1 V1 = ∫ = a/2 π 0 a/2 ( ) ( x3 a − x dx = π a 2 x − 3 0 2 2 ) 11 3 πa 24 and a/2 2 2 ∫1 xEL dV = ∫0 x π ( a − x ) dx x2 x4 = π a 2 − 4 0 2 = Now 7 π a4 64 a/2 7 11 x1V1 = ∫1 xEL dV : x1 π a3 = π a4 24 64 or x1 = Component 2 V2 = ∫ a π a /2 a 21 a 88 ( x3 a − x dx = π a 2 x − 3 a/2 2 2 ) a3 a = π a 2 ( a ) − − a2 − 3 2 5 = πa 3 24 (a) 2 3 3 .
PROBLEM 5.116 CONTINUED and 2 x2 x4 a 2 2 ∫2 xELdV = ∫a/2 x π a − x dx = π a 2 − 4 a/2 ( ) a 2 2 ( a )4 − a 2 a − 2 (a) 2 a =π − 2 4 2 9 = π a4 64 ( ) (a) 2 4 4 Now 9 5 x2V2 = ∫2 xELdV : x2 π a3 = π a4 24 64 or x2 = 27 a 40 .
117 Determine by direct integration the values of x for the two volumes obtained by passing a vertical cutting plane through the given shape of Fig. 5. Then dV = πr 2dx. xEL = x The equation of the generating curve is r2 = a2 2 h − x 2 and then h2 x2 y2 + 2 = 1 so that h2 a ( ) dV = π Component 1 V1 = ∫ = h/2 π 0 a2 2 h − x 2 dx h2 ( ) a2 2 a2 x3 h − x 2 dx = π 2 h 2 x − 3 0 h2 h ( ) h/2 11 2 πa h 24 and h/2 2 2 ∫1 xEL dV = ∫0 x π h 2 ( h − x ) dx a2 a2 =π 2 h = 2 x2 x4 − h 4 0 2 h/2 Now 7 π a 2h 2 64 7 11 x1V1 = ∫1 xEL dV : x1 π a 2h = π a 2h 2 24 64 or x1 = 21 h 88 .PROBLEM 5. A semiellipsoid of revolution. The cutting plane is parallel to the base of the given shape and divides the shape into two volumes of equal height. SOLUTION Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.21.
117 CONTINUED Component 2 V2 = ∫h/2 π h a2 2 a2 x3 h − x 2 dx = π 2 h 2 x − 2 3 h/2 h h ( ) h 3 a 2 2 ( h )3 − h 2 h − h 2 = π 2 h ( h ) − 3 2 3 h 5 = πa 2 h 24 () and h 2 2 ∫2 xELdV = ∫h/2 x π h2 ( h − x ) dx a2 =π a2 h2 2 x2 x4 − h 4 h/2 2 h 2 2 ( h )4 − h 2 h − a2 2 ( h ) 2 = π 2 h − 2 4 2 h 9 = π a 2h 2 64 ( ) (h) 2 4 4 Now 9 5 x2V2 = ∫2 xEL dV : x2 π a 2h = π a 2h 2 24 64 or x2 = 27 h 40 .PROBLEM 5.
xEL = x The equation of the generating curve is x = h − r2 = a2 ( h − x ) and then h dV = π Component 1 V1 = ∫0 π =π = and h/2 h 2 y so that a2 a2 ( h − x ) dx h a2 ( h − x ) dx h x2 hx − 2 0 h/2 a2 h 3 2 πa h 8 2 h/2 a xEL dV = ∫0 x π ( h − x ) dx ∫1 h a 2 x 2 x3 =π − h 3 0 h 2 = 1 π a 2h 2 12 h/2 Now 1 3 x1V1 = ∫1 xEL dV : x1 π a 2h = π a 2h 2 8 12 or x1 = 2 h 9 . The cutting plane is parallel to the base of the given shape and divides the shape into two volumes of equal height.21. 5. Then dV = πr 2dx.PROBLEM 5.118 Determine by direct integration the values of x for the two volumes obtained by passing a vertical cutting plane through the given shape of Fig. A paraboloid of revolution. SOLUTION Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
PROBLEM 5.118 CONTINUED Component 2 V2 = ∫h/2 π a2 =π h = h a2 a2 x2 ( h − x ) dx = π hx − h h 2 h/2 ( h )2 − h h − h ( h ) − 2 2 h (h) 2 2 2 1 2 πa h 8 h and a2 a 2 x 2 x3 h ∫2 xELdV = ∫h/2 x π h ( h − x ) dx = π h h 2 − 3 h/2 2 2 ( h )3 − h h − a2 ( h ) h 2 =π − 3 2 h 2 1 = π a 2h 2 12 ( ) (h) 2 3 3 Now 1 1 x2V2 = ∫2 xEL dV : x2 π a 2h = π a 2h2 8 12 or x2 = 2 h 3 .
xEL = x x2 Now r = b1 − 2 so that a x2 dV = πb 1 − 2 dx a 2 2 Then x2 2x2 x4 a a V = ∫0 π b 2 1 − 2 dx = ∫0 π b 2 1 − 2 + 4 dx a a a 2 x5 2 x3 = πb x − 2 + 4 3a 5a 0 2 1 = π ab 2 1 − + 3 5 8 = π ab 2 15 and 2 a 2x2 x4 a xEL dV = ∫0 π b 2 x 1 − 2 + 4 dx ∫ a a x2 2x4 x6 = πb − 2 + 4 2 4a 6a 2 a 0 1 1 1 = π a 2b 2 − + 2 2 6 = 1 2 2 πa b 6 .PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies y =0 z =0 Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx. Then dV = πr 2dx.119 Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area about the x axis.
PROBLEM 5.119 CONTINUED Then 1 8 xV = ∫ xEL dV : x π ab 2 = π a 2b 2 15 16 or x = 15 a 6 .
note that symmetry implies y =0 z =0 Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.PROBLEM 5.09861π ) m Now xV = ∫ x EL dV : X 0.46944π m3 = 1. SOLUTION First. xEL = x Now r = 1 − 1 so that x 1 dV = π 1 − dx x 2 1 = π 1 − + 2 dx x x Then 2 1 1 3 V = ∫1 π 1 − + 2 dx = π x − 2 ln x − x x x 1 1 1 = π 3 − 2 ln3 − − 1 − 2 ln 1 − 3 1 = ( 0.34 m ( ) .09861π m 4 or x = 2.120 Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area about the x axis. Then dV = πr 2dx.46944π ) m3 3 2 and ∫ x ELdV = ∫ 3 x π 1 x2 2 1 1 − + 2 dx = π − 2 x + ln x x x 2 1 3 32 13 = π − 2 ( 3) + ln 3 − − 2 (1) + ln1 2 2 = (1.
note that symmetry implies x =h z =0 Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.095870π ah 2 . yEL = y Now x 2 = Then and Let Then h2 2 h 2 a − y2 a − y 2 so that r = h − 2 a a 2 h2 dV = π 2 a − a 2 − y 2 dy a ( ) ( ) V = ∫0 π a h2 a − a2 − y2 2 a ( ) dy 2 y = a sin θ ⇒ dy = a cos θ d θ V =π =π h 2 π /2 2 2 2 ∫ a − a − a sin θ a2 0 ( ) a cosθ dθ 2 h 2 π /2 2 2 2 2 ∫ a − 2a ( a cosθ ) + a − a sin θ a cosθ dθ a2 0 ( ) = π ah 2 ∫0 π /2 ( 2 cosθ − 2 cos θ − sin θ cosθ ) dθ 2 2 θ sin 2θ 1 3 = π ah 2 2sin θ − 2 + − sin θ 4 3 2 0 = π ah 2 2 − π 1 2 2 − 2 3 π /2 = 0. Then dV = πr 2dy. SOLUTION First.121 Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area about the line x = h.PROBLEM 5.
121 CONTINUED and a 2 2 ∫ y ELdV = ∫0 y π a 2 a − a − y dy h2 ( ) 2 =π =π =π = Now h2 a 2a 2 y − 2ay a 2 − y 2 − y 3 dy 2 ∫0 a h2 a2 2 2 2 2 2 a y + 3 a a − y ( ) ( ) 3/2 − 1 4 y 4 0 a 1 2 h2 2 2 a ( a ) − a4 − a a2 2 4 3 a ( ) 3/2 1 π a 2h 2 12 yV = ∫ y EL dV : y 0.PROBLEM 5.095870π ah 2 = ( ) 1 π a 2h 2 12 or y = 0.869a .
Then dV = πr 2dx.PROBLEM 5. xEL = x Now so that Then r = b sin πx 2a dV = πb 2 sin 2 2a πx 2a dx V = ∫a π b 2 sin 2 2 πx 2a dx 2a x x sin π a 2 = πb − 2π 2 a a = π b 2 22a − 1 = π ab 2 2 ( ) ( a ) 2 πx and 2a 2 2 ∫ x ELdV = ∫a x π b sin 2a dx Use integration by parts with u = x du = dx dV = sin 2 V = x − 2 2π a πx 2a a sin π x .122 Locate the centroid of the volume generated by revolving the portion of the sine curve shown about the x axis. SOLUTION First. note that symmetry implies y =0 z =0 Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx.
122 CONTINUED Then x sin π x x EL dV = π b x − 2π a ∫ 2 a 2 sin π x 2a x − ∫a − 2π a 2 a a 2a dx 2a πx a2 2a a 1 = π b 2 2a − a − x 2 + cos 2 2 2 4 a a 2π 1 a2 a2 2 2 3 1 = π b 2 a 2 − ( 2a ) + − (a) + 2 2 4 2π 2π 2 4 1 3 = π a 2b 2 − 2 4 π Now = 0.PROBLEM 5.64868π a 2b 2 2 or x = 1.64868π a 2b 2 1 xV = ∫ x EL dV : x π ab 2 = 0.297a .
(Hint: Use a thin cylindrical shell of radius r and thickness dr as the element of volume. 1 dV = ( 2πr )( y )( dr ) .) SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies Choose as the element of volume a cylindrical shell of radius r and thickness dr. yEL = y Then 2 Now so that Then y = b sin x =0 z =0 πr 2a dV = 2πbr sin V = ∫a 2πbr sin 2a πr 2a dr πr 2a dr Use integration by parts with u =r du = dr dv = sin v=− 2a πr 2a dr π cos πr 2a Then 2a 2a πr πr 2a 2a V = 2πb ( r ) − cos − ∫a cos dr π π 2a a 2a 2a 2a 4a 2 πr ( 2a ) ( −1) + 2 sin = 2πb − π 2a a π 2 2 4a 4a − 2 V = 2πb π π 1 = 8a 2b 1 − π = 5.123 Locate the centroid of the volume generated by revolving the portion of the sine curve shown about the y axis.PROBLEM 5.4535 a 2b Also 2a ∫ y ELdV = ∫a 1 b sin 2a 2πbr sin 2a dr 2 πr πr = πb 2 ∫a r sin 2 2a πr dr 2a .
PROBLEM 5.4535a 2b = 2.0379a 2b 2 Now yV = ∫ y EL dV : y 5.0379a 2b 2 or y = 0.123 CONTINUED Use integration by parts with u =r du = dr dv = sin 2 v= r − 2 dr 2a sin πar 2π a πr Then r sin πar ∫ y EL dV = π b ( r ) 2 − 2π a 2 sin π r 2a r − ∫a − 2π a 2 a a 2a dr 2a a2 πr 2a a r 2 cos = π b 2 ( 2a ) − ( a ) − + 2 2 4 a a 2π 2 3 ( 2a ) 2 ( a )2 + a 2 a2 = π b2 a 2 − + − 2 4 2π 2 2π 2 4 1 3 = π a 2b 2 − 2 4 π = 2.374b ( ) .
124 Show that for a regular pyramid of height h and n sides ( n = 3. have s h−y = b h b s = (h − y) h b2 2 dV = Aslicedy = ks 2dy = k 2 ( h − y ) dy h V = ∫0 k = h or Then and b2 b2 ( h − y )2 dy = k 2 h2 h 3 1 − 3 ( h − y ) 0 h 1 2 kb h 3 Also yEL = y 2 b2 h h b 2 so then ∫ y EL dV = ∫0 y k 2 ( h − y ) dy = k 2 ∫0 h 2 y − 2hy 2 + y 3 dy h h ( ) =k 1 2 2 b2 1 2 2 2 3 1 4 h y − hy + y = kb h 2 3 4 0 12 h 2 h Now 1 2 2 1 yV = ∫ y EL dV : y kb 2h = kb h 3 12 or y = 1 h Q. Using similar triangles.D. … ) the centroid of the volume of the pyramid is located at a distance h / 4 above the base.E. SOLUTION Choose as the element of a horizontal slice of thickness dy. see note below. For any number N of sides.PROBLEM 5. the area of the base of the pyramid is given by Abase = kb 2 where k = k ( N ) . 4 Note 1 Abase = N × b × 2 = N b2 π 4 tan N b 2 π tan N = k ( N ) b2 . 4.
Now dA = (π r )( Rdθ ) yEL = − 2r π where so that r = R sin θ dA = π R 2 sin θ dθ yEL = − 2R π sin θ π Then 2 A = ∫02 π R 2 sin θ dθ = π R 2 [ − cosθ ]0 π = π R2 and 2 ∫ y ELdA = ∫02 − π sin θ (π R sin θ dθ ) π 2R sin 2θ 2 = −2 R − 4 0 2 =− 3 θ π π 2 R3 Now yA = ∫ y EL dA: y π R 2 = − ( ) π 2 R3 1 or y = − R 2 Symmetry implies z = y∴ z =− 1 R 2 . SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies x =0 The element of area dA of the shell shown is obtained by cutting the shell with two planes parallel to the xy plane.PROBLEM 5. uniform hemispherical shell of radius R.125 Determine by direct integration the location of the centroid of onehalf of a thin.
(b) the punch. the center of gravity of the bowl will coincide with the centroid of the shell. ybase = − 3 R 2 y ΣA = ΣyA π 3 π 3 y π 3R 2 + R 2 = − π R3 + R 2 − R 4 4 4 2 y = −0.7 mm or (b) Punch First note that symmetry implies x =0 z =0 and that because the punch is homogeneous. For the walls of the bowl.126 The sides and the base of a punch bowl are of uniform thickness t.PROBLEM 5. If t << R and R = 350 mm. Then dAwall = ( 2π R sin θ )( Rdθ ) and ( yEL ) wall = − R cos θ Then Awall = ∫π /6 2π R 2 sin θ dθ = 2π R 2 [ − cosθ ]π /6 = π 3R 2 ywall Awall = ∫ ( yEL )wall dA π /2 π /2 π /2 and = ∫π /6 ( − R cosθ ) 2π R 2 sin θ dθ = π R3 cos 2 θ 3 = − π R3 4 By observation Now or π /2 π /6 ( ) Abase = π 4 R2. determine the location of the center of gravity of (a) the bowl. an element of area is obtained by rotating the arc ds about the y axis. Now assume that the bowl may be treated as a shell. SOLUTION (a) Bowl First note that symmetry implies x =0 z =0 for the coordinate axes shown below. Then dV = π x 2dy.48763R R = 350 mm ∴ y = −170. Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius x and thickness dy. its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding volume. yEL = y .
126 CONTINUED Now Then x2 + y 2 = R2 V =∫ so that 0 π − 3/2 R dV = π R 2 − y 2 dy ( 1 R 2 − y 2 dy = π R 2 y − y 3 3 − 3 ) ( ) 0 3/2 R 3 1 3 3 = −π R 2 − = π 3R3 R − − R 2 3 2 8 and ∫ yEL dV = ∫− 0 1 1 y π R 2 − y 2 dy = π R 2 y 2 − y 4 3/2 R ( ) 2 4 − ( ) 0 3/2 R 2 4 1 R 2 − 3 R − 1 − 3 R = − 15 π R 4 = −π 2 2 4 2 64 Now or 15 3 yV = ∫ yEL dV : y π 3 R3 = − π R 4 8 64 y =− 5 8 3 R R = 350 mm ∴ y = −126.3 mm .PROBLEM 5.
a = −60 mm x = 7200 mm. z = 0 : y = −60 mm ∴ −60 mm = a. the builder places a minimum of 60 mm of gravel beneath the slab. z = 12 000 mm: y = −120 mm b=− ∴ − 120 mm = −60 mm + c (12000 ) c=− 1 200 At It follows that y = −60 − 1 1 x− z where all dimensions 180 120 are in mm. Choose as the element of volume a filament of base dx × dz and height  y . xEL = x or dV = −60 − 1 1 x− z dxdz 180 200 Then V = ∫0 12000 7200 60 0 ∫ + 1 1 x+ z dxdz 180 200 7200 = ∫0 =∫ 12000 1 2 1 60 x + 360 x + 200 xz 0 dz 12000 0 ( 60 )( 7200 ) ( 7200 )2 + 360 12000 + ( 7200 ) z dz 200 36 2 z = 576000 z + 2 0 = 9.504 × 109 mm3 = 9. To provide a firm. b. and c. which can be represented by the equation y = a + bx + cz.127 After grading a lot.50 m3 V = 9. a builder places four stakes to designate the corners of the slab for a house. determine the constants a.) SOLUTION First. At x = 0. Determine the volume of gravel needed and the x coordinate of the centroid of the volume of the gravel. level base for the slab. z = 0 : y = −100 mm At ∴ − 100 mm = −60 + b ( 7200) 1 180 x = 0 . (Hint: The bottom of the gravel is an oblique plane.50 m3 . Then dV = y dxdz.PROBLEM 5.
82 m .695 × 1013 + 0.3 m 4 Now xV = ∫ x EL dV : x 9.127 CONTINUED and 12000 7200 ∫ x ELdV = ∫0 ∫0 x 60 + 180 x + 200 z dxdz 1 1 = ∫0 = ∫0 12000 60 12000 ( 2246.PROBLEM 5.4 × 106 z − 2 0 = 2.4 × 10 2 x2 + 1 3 1 2 x + x z 540 400 0 6 7200 dz + 129 600 z dz 12000 ) 129 600 2 z = 2246.3 m 4 ( ) or x = 3.63 × 1013 mm 4 = 36.933 × 1013 = 3.50 m3 = 36.
128 Determine by direct integration the location of the centroid of the volume between the xz plane and the portion shown of the surface 16h ax − x 2 bz − z 2 y = . Then dV = ydxdz. yEL = or Then V = = and 1 y 2 dV = 16h ax − x 2 bz − z 2 dxdz a 2b 2 b a ( )( ) V = ∫0 ∫0 16h ax − x 2 bz − z 2 dxdz 2 2 ab ( )( ) 16h b 1 a bz − z 2 x 2 − x3 dz 2 2 ∫0 3 0 ab z 16h a 2 1 3 b 1 8ah b 2 1 3 4 a − ( a ) z 2 − z 3 = 2 ( b ) − ( b ) = abh 2 2 3 3 0 3b 2 3 a b 2 2 9 1 16h 2 ( ) a ( ) b b a 2 2 2 2 ∫ yELdV = ∫0 ∫0 2 a 2b2 ( ax − x )( bz − z ) a 2b2 ( ax − x )( bz − z ) dxdz 16h = = 128h b a 2 2 a x − 2ax3 + x 4 b 2 z 2 − 2bz 3 + z 4 dxdz 4 4 ∫0 ∫0 ab 2 128h 2 b 2 2 a 4 1 5 3 4 a 3 ∫0 b z − 2bz + z 3 x − 2 x + 5 x dz a 2b 4 0 ( )( ) ( ) a = = 128h 2 a 4b 4 a2 a 1 5 b2 3 b 4 1 5 3 4 (a) − (a) + (a) Z − Z + Z 5 0 Z 2 5 3 3 b 64ah 2 b3 1 32 b abh 2 ( b )3 − ( b )4 + ( b )5 = 4 2 5 225 15b 3 . a 2b 2 ( )( ) SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies x = a 2 b z = 2 Choose as the element of volume a filament of base dx × dz and height y.PROBLEM 5.
PROBLEM 5.128 CONTINUED Now 32 4 yV = ∫ y EL dV : y abh = abh 2 9 225 or y = 8 h 25 .
and height y.129 Locate the centroid of the section shown. z EL = z 2 h h h z Now y = − z = 1 − x = a2 − z 2 and a 2 2a 2 So z dV = h a 2 − z 2 1 − dz a V =∫ = = a h 0 Then z 1 z 1 2 a − z 1 − dz = h z a 2 − z 2 + a 2 sin −1 + a − z2 a 3a a 2 2 2 ( ) 3/2 a −a 1 2 −1 a h sin (1) − sin −1 ( −1) 2 π 2 a 2h . SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies x =0 Choose as the element of volume a vertical slice of width 2x.PROBLEM 5. Then 1 dV = 2 xy dz. thickness dz. which was cut from a circular cylinder by an inclined plane. yEL = y.
PROBLEM 5.129 CONTINUED Then h z a 1 2 2 ∫ yEL dV = ∫−a 2 × 2 1 − a h a − z 1 − = h2 a z z2 2 2 ∫−a a − z 1 − 2 a + a 2 dz 4 2 2 h2 1 −1 z 2 2 2 a − z2 z a − z + a sin + 4 2 a 3a z dz a = ( ) 3 2 a 1 + 2 a z 2 2 − a − z 4 ( ) 3 2 a2z 2 a4 z + a − z2 + sin −1 8 8 a −a = 5h 2a 2 −1 sin (1) − sin −1 ( −1) 32 Then π a 2 5h 2a 2 yV = ∫ yEL dV : y 2 h = 32 (π ) or y = z a 2 2 ∫ zELdV = ∫−a z h a − z 1 − a dz 1 = h − a 2 − z 2 3 5 h 16 and ( ) 3 2 1 z − − a 2 − z 2 a 4 ( ) 3 2 a2 z 2 a4 z + a − z2 + sin −1 8 8 a a −a =− a3h −1 −1 sin (1) − sin ( −1) 8 π a 2h π a3h zV = ∫ z EL dV : z =− 2 8 or z = − a 4 .
8 Then ( ) or X = 7. y .56 in.41 in 3 1658. in 3 1 2 Σ 14 × 20 = 280 −π ( 4 ) = −16π 2 7 10 1960 −301. SOLUTION A. in.73 in 2 = 1658.22 in. and Y Σ A = ΣyA Y 229.130 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.73 in 2 = 2196. in 2 x . in. xA.PROBLEM 5. in 3 yA.73 X Σ A = ΣxA X 229. ( ) .19 6 12 229.8 in 3 or Y = 9.41 2196.59 2800 −603.
PROBLEM 5. SOLUTION A 1 2 Σ x 3 a 8 1 a 3 y xA ab 4 a 2b − 6 a 2b 12 2 yA 2ab 2 5 ab 2 − 3 ab 2 15 2 ab 3 1 − ab 2 1 ab 6 3 b 5 2 b 3 Then X Σ A = ΣxA 1 a 2b X ab = 6 12 or 1 a 2 Y Σ A = ΣyA X = 1 ab 2 Y ab = 6 15 2 Y = b 5 1 2 X =Y ⇒ a= b 2 5 or Now or 4 a = b 5 . determine the ratio a/b for which x = y.131 For the area shown.
SOLUTION Dimensions in mm A.132 Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.PROBLEM 5. mm 2 1 2 x . mm y .6 mm ( ) .27 mm ( ) and Y Σ A = Σ yA Y 10 422 m 2 = 270 020 mm3 or Y = 26. mm xA. mm3 3 Σ 126 × 54 = 6804 1 × 126 × 30 = 1890 2 1 × 72 × = 1728 2 10 422 9 30 48 27 64 −16 61 236 56 700 82 944 200 880 183 708 120 960 −27 648 277 020 Then X ΣA = Σ xA X 10 422 m 2 = 200 880 mm 2 or X = 19. mm3 yA.
SOLUTION By observation y1 = − h x+h a x = h 1 − a or For y2: At x = 0.PROBLEM 5. Express your answer in terms of a and h. y = 0: 0 = h 1 − ca 2 ( ) or C = x2 y2 = h 1 − 2 a Now x2 x dA = ( y2 − y1 ) dx = h 1 − 2 − 1 − dx a a x x2 = h − 2 dx a a 1 h x x2 = ( y1 − y2 ) = 1 − + 1 − 2 2 2 a a = A = ∫ dA = ∫ = 1 ah 6 a x h 0 a h 0 xEL = x yEL h x x2 2 − − 2 a a 2 a Then x2 x x2 x3 − 2 dx = h − 2 a a 2a 3a 0 and ∫ x ELdA = ∫ = x 3 x x2 x4 − 2 dx = h − 2 a a 3a 4a 0 a 1 2 a h 12 .133 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. y = h: h = k (1 − 0) k =h 1 a2 At Then x = a.
PROBLEM 5.133 CONTINUED ∫ y EL dA = ∫0 = a h x x2 x x2 2 − − 2 h − 2 dx a a a a 2 h2 a x x2 x4 ∫0 2 a − 3 2 + 4 dx 2 a a a h2 x2 x3 x5 1 2 = − 2 + 4 = ah 2 a a 5a 0 10 1 2 1 xA = ∫ x EL dA: x ah = a h 6 12 1 2 1 yA = ∫ y EL dA: y ah = a h 6 10 x = y = 1 a 2 3 h 5 .
the center of gravity of the component must lie on a vertical line through C.75 ) − 2 cos 55° + ( 0.5 − d ) m − × 2 m × cos 55° × ( 2 m ) = 0 2 or ( 0.75 )(1. Further.5 ) + 3 2 or d = 0.75 cos 55° m × ( 0. Knowing that the member is supported at C and that l = 2 m. SOLUTION First note that for equilibrium.5 + 2 ) d 2 1 = ( 0. the center of gravity of the component will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line.PROBLEM 5. Thus.75 + 1.739 m .134 Member ABCDE is a component of a mobile and is formed from a single piece of aluminum tubing. because the tubing is uniform. X = 0 So that Then Σ xL = 0 0.75 − d ) m × (1.5 m ) 1 + (1.75 m ) − d − 2 + ( 0. determine the distance d so that portion BCD of the member is horizontal.
3 3 For the triangle: 1 L R2 − = 4R 2 − L2 2 2 1 ( L )( h ) 2 1 L 4R 2 − L2 4 Using Theorem II of PappusGuldinus Vball = 2π ( y AA )1 A1 − 2π ( y AA )2 A2 2 R sin α 1 1 α R 2 − 4R 2 − L2 L 4R 2 − L2 = 2π 3α 3 4 ( ) L 2 4 R 2 − L2 = 2π R3 sin α − 12 3 ( ) Now Then R sin α = L 2 2 L 1 1 3 V = 2π R 2 − LR 2 + L 3 12 3 2 = π 6 L3 Note Vsphere = L If r = .135 A cylindrical hole is drilled through the center of a steel ball bearing shown here in cross section. show that the volume of the steel remaining is equal to the volume of a sphere of diameter L.D. then 2 4 πr where r is the radius 3 Vsphere 4 L π = π = L3 3 2 6 Vball = Vsphere = 3 Therefore.PROBLEM 5. π 6 L3 Q. .E. SOLUTION Calculate volumes by rotating cross sections about a line and using Theorem II of PappusGuldinus For the sector: y AA = h= A= = 2R sin α 3α 2 A = α R2 y AA = 2 1 h= 4R 2 − L2 . Denoting the length of the hole by L.
136 For the beam and loading shown. B = 1400 N . (b) the reactions at the beam supports. SOLUTION (a) Have RI = ( 4 m )( 200 N/m ) = 800 N RII = 2 ( 4 m )( 600 N/m ) = 1600 N 3 ΣFy : −R = − RI − RII Then or and or (b) Reactions R = 800 + 1600 = 2400 N ΣM A: − X ( 2400 ) = −2 ( 800 ) − 2.33 m ΣFx = 0: Ax = 0 7 ΣM A = 0: ( 4 m ) By − m ( 2400 N ) = 0 3 or By = 1400 N ΣFy = 0: Ay + 1400 N − 2400 N = 0 or Ay = 1000 N ∴ A = 1000 N .5 (1600 ) X = 7 m 3 ∴ R = 2400 N . determine (a) the magnitude and location of the resultant of the distributed load.PROBLEM 5. X = 2.
137 Determine the reactions at the beam supports for the given loading. SOLUTION Have RI = RII = 1 ( 3 ft )( 480 lb/ft ) = 720 lb 2 1 ( 6 ft )( 600 lb/ft ) = 1800 lb 2 RIII = ( 2 ft )( 600 lb/ft ) = 1200 lb Then ΣM B = 0: ΣFx = 0: Bx = 0 ( 2 ft )( 720 lb ) − ( 4 ft )(1800 lb ) + ( 6 ft ) Cy − ( 7 ft )(1200 lb ) = 0 C = 2360 lb or C y = 2360 1b ΣFy = 0: − 720 lb + By − 1800 lb + 2360 lb − 1200 lb = 0 or By = 1360 lb B = 1360 lb .PROBLEM 5.
m3 2.2) = 2. m3 3.PROBLEM 5.6555 m3 or Y = 0.942 m3 ( ) Y ΣV = ΣyV : Y 13. m3 −0.888 yA.8 2.3694 3.2 m 3 4 (1.4 m =− =− 3π π A.3694 m 2 = 5.75 − 2.24 4.12 1. m xA. m 2 I II III Σ x.3694 m 2 = 22. assume that the sheet metal is homogeneous so that the center of gravity of the form will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding area.16 2 (3.4 1.448 4. SOLUTION First.016 9.8) 2.8 1.4 m 3 1 (3.138 Locate the center of gravity of the sheetmetal form shown.0894 π 13.6) = 1.423 m ( ) or X = 0.295 m Z ΣV = Σ zV : Z 13.3694 m 2 = 3.8 0.592 11.2 1.2) = −0.1609 22.8) 2 = 5.6) (1. m −0.703 m ( ) .769 1 ( 3.59 −3.7) = 6. yI = − zI = xIII 1 (1. m y.6555 π 2 (1.6)(1.0715 5.769 m3 or Z = 1.5 0.864 zA.4 0.942 Have X ΣV = ΣxV : X 13.4 z.
Determine (a) the y coordinate of the centroid when h = a/2.139 The composite body shown is formed by removing a semiellipsoid of revolution of semimajor axis h and semiminor axis a from a hemisphere of 2 radius a.PROBLEM 5. (b) the ratio h/a for which y = −0.4a. (1) a 2 2 1 3 1 Y 4 − = − a 4 − 2 8 2 or Y =− 45 a 112 Y = −0.402a . SOLUTION V y yV 1 − πa 4 4 + 1 πa 2 h 2 16 Hemisphere Semiellipsoid 2 3 πa 3 2 a 1 − π h = − πa 2 h 3 2 6 2 3 − a 8 3 − h 8 Then Now ΣV = π 6 a 2 ( 4a − h ) Y ΣV = Σ yV ΣyV = − π 16 a 2 4a 2 − h 2 ( ) so that or (a) Y = ? when h = Substituting a 2 π π Y a 2 ( 4a − h ) = − a 2 4a 2 − h 2 16 6 ( ) (1) 2 h 3 h Y 4 − = − a 4 − a a 8 h 1 = into Eq.
8 = 0 a a 2 h 3.139 CONTINUED (b) h = ? when Y = −0.PROBLEM 5.8 ) = a 2 ( 3) Then = 3.8 6 or h 2 h 2 = and = a 5 a 3 . (1) ( −0.2 ) − 4 ( 3)( 0.2 + 0.2 ± ( −3.2 ± 0.4a a Substituting into Eq.4a ) 4 − 2 2 h 3 h = − a 4 − a 8 a or h h 3 − 3.
6 0.9 = m π 0.20 m 2 Z Σ L = Σ z L: Z ( 3. m 2 0.9 3 0.3cos 60° = 0. SOLUTION First assume that the wire is homogeneous so that its center of gravity will coincide with the centroid of the corresponding line.18 0 0 0.2π x.6sin 30° x2 = sin 30° π 6 0.8 0.9 π 0 0 π 0.18 1.32 0.PROBLEM 5.8 0.2π ) m 3 L.15 3 y. m 0.6sin 30° z2 = cos 30° π 6 0.12177 0.25981 0. m 1 2 3 4 ∑ 1.48 0.6 ) = ( 0.12177 m 2 or X = 0. Locate its center of gravity. m z.0283 m ) = 1.15 3 m z1 = 0.3 0.15 0.140 A thin steel wire of uniform cross section is bent into the shape shown.15 m 0.370 m .48 1.6 3.4 0. m 2 0.43981 yL.15 0.1452 m or Y = 0. x1 = 0.0 0.0283 Have X Σ L = Σ x L: X ( 3.43981 m 2 Y Σ L = Σ yL: Y ( 3.0283 m ) = 0.0283 m ) = 1. m 2 0. m xL.9 = 3m π π L2 = ( 0.4 0 0.396 m or Z = 0.20 zL.31177 0.3sin 60° = 0.4 0 0.
SOLUTION First note that symmetry implies y = k ( X − h) x = 0.141 Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area about the x axis. y = a: a = k ( −h ) 2 y =0 and z = 0 Have At 2 or k = a h2 Choose as the element of volume a disk of radius r and thickness dx. Then dV = π r 2dx. X EL = x a 2 r = 2 ( x − h) h dV = π V = ∫0 π = h Now so that Then a2 ( x − h)4 dx h4 h a2 π a2 ( x − h )4 dx = 4 ( x − h )5 4 0 5h h 1 2 πa h 5 and 4 h ∫ x EL dV = ∫0 x π h 4 ( x − h ) dx a2 =π =π = a2 h 5 x − 4hx 4 + 6h 2 x3 − 4h3 x 2 + h 4 x dx 4 ∫0 h ( ) a2 1 6 4 5 3 2 4 4 3 3 1 4 2 x − hx + h x − h x + h x 5 2 3 2 h4 6 0 h 1 π a 2h 2 30 Now π π 2 2 xV = ∫ x EL dV : x a 2h = a h 5 30 or x = 1 h 6 .PROBLEM 5.