1. What is meant by charge? Charge is an electrical property of the atomic particles which matter consists. The charge of an electron is so small. Charge in motion represents current. The unit of charge is coulomb. 2. What is meant by Current? The flow of free electrons in a conductor is called current. Unit is ampere (A). I = Q/t 3. What is meant by Voltage? The poterntial difference between two points is called as voltage. Unit is Volts (V). V=W/Q , W=work done in joules & Q = charge in coulombs 4. State Ohm’s Law. The potential difference across any two ends of a conductor is directly proportional to the current flowing between the two ends provided the temperature of the conductor remains constant. 5. State Krichoff’s Voltage Law KVL states that the algebraic sum of voltages in a closed path is zero.

6. State Krichoff’s current Law. KCL states that the algebraic sum of currents in a node is zero. 7. Give notes on Nodal Analysis. • • KCL is used. No: of equations = n-1, n=no: of nodes

8. Give notes on Mesh Analysis. • • KVL is used Here mesh currents are found.

9. Give short notes on resistor. It is a property of a substance3 which opposes the flow of electrons. It is denoted by R and its unit is Ohm ( ) 10. Distinguish between a Branch and a node of a circuit. A pair of network which connects the various points of the network is called branch A point at which two or more elements are joined together is called node. 11. Distinguish between a mesh and a loop of a circuit. A mesh is a loop that does not contain other loops. All meshes are loop, but all loops are not meshes. A loop is any closed path of branches 12. Write down the formula for a star connected network is converted into a delta network? RA=( R1 R2)/( R1 +R2+ R3) RB=( R1 R3)/( R1 +R2+ R3) RC=( R2 R3)/( R1 +R2+ R3) 13. Write down the formula for a delta connected network is converted into a star network? R1=( RARB+RBRC+RCRA)/RC R2=( RARB+RBRC+RCRA)/RB R3=( RARB+RBRC+RCRA)/RA 14. Define line currents and phase currents? • • The currents flowing in the lines are called as line currents The currents flowing through phase are called phase currents

15. Define line voltage and phase voltage? The voltage across one phase and neutral is called line voltage & the voltage between two lines is called phase voltage 16. Give the phase value & Line value of a star connected system. VL=


17. Give the phase value and line valued of a delta connected system.


3I ph

18. What is the power equation for a star connected system?


3I L VL cosΦ W

19. What is the power equation for a delta connected system?

P= 3I L VL cosΦ W
20. What is meant by Real power?

Real power means the useful power transfer from source to load. Unit is watts.
21. What is meant by apparent power?

Apparent power is the product of voltage and current and it is not true power. Unit is VA
22. What is reactive power?

If we consider the circuit as purely inductive the output power is reactive power. Its unit is VAR
23. Define Instrument.

Instrument is defined as a device for determining the value or magnitude of a quantity or variable.
24. Mention the two main differences between an ammeter and a voltmeter.

Ammeter It is a current measuring device Always connected in series with circuit The resistance is very small
25. Give short notes on resistor.

Voltmeter it is a voltage measuring deveice
Always connected in parallel with circuit

The resistance is very high

It is a property of a substance3 which opposes the flow of electrons. It is denoted by R and its unit is Ohm ( )
26. What is control system?

A system consists of a number of components connected together to perform a specific function . In a system when the output quantity is controlled by varying the input quantity then the system is called control system.

27. What are the two major types of control system?

The two major types of control system are open loop and closed loop
28. .Define open loop control system.

The control system in which the output quantity has no effect upon the input quantity are called open loop control system. This means that the output is not feedback to the input for correction.
29. .Define closed loop control system.

The control system in which the output has an effect upon the input quantity so as to maintain the desired output value are called closed loop control system
30. Mention the errors in Moving iron instruments. • • • • •

Hysteresis error Temperature error Stray magnetic field error Frequency error Eddy current error

31. Mention any two precautions to be taken while using an Ammeter. • • •

It should never be connected across any source. The polarity must be observed correctly. First use the highest range and then decrease the voltage range until the sufficient deflection is obtained.

32. Give some applications of DC motor.

Shunt : driving constant speed, lathes, centrifugal pumps, machine tools,

blowers and fans, reciprocating pumps
Series : electric locomotives, rapid transit systems, trolley cars, cranes and

hoists, conveyors
Compound : elevators, air compressors, rolling mills, heavy planners

p = no. It will stop if it tries to achieve synchronous speed.notesengine. f = supply frequency in Hz 35. Its stator winding produces a flux which only alternates along one space axis. as in the case of a 2 or 3phase stator winding. Why a single phase induction motor does not self start? When a single phase supply is fed to the single phase induction motor. . ii) Used as in expensive indicators such as charging and discharging current indicators in automobiles. S = Ns – Nr Ns Where. Is Induction motor runs with synchronous speed or not. What are the applications of MI instruments? i) Used as multirange ammeters and voltmeters. 36. 39. Form factor= RMS value Average Value Crest(peak) factor=Maximum Value RMS value 38.com 33. Where Ns = synchronous speed. It is not a synchronously revolving field. Ns Nr S = synchronous speed in rpm. of stator poles. Define Form factor and Crest factor. because these instruments can be used for AC and DC. Induction motor never runs with synchronous speed. fed from 2 or 3 phase supply. Define synchronous speed. Define slip. Which type of instrument is called as universal instrument? The moving iron instrument are known as universal instruments. It is given by Ns = 120f / p rpm.www. . = rotor speed in rpm = Slip 34. 37.

direct current which produces the same heat as that produced by the alternating current when passed which produces the same heat as that produced by the alternating current when passed through the same resistance for the same interval of time.a current flows known as eddy current. This current intersect with the magnetic field to produce an electromagnetic torque .How is electrical power measured? i) Using Voltmeter-ammeter method for DC circuits.c circuit? i) Real power or active power P=EI cosθ ii) Reactive power Q=EI sinθ iii) Apparent power. What are the three types of power used in a a. Q=EIsinθ. 45. The effective value of an alternating current is that value of steady . 42. The unit is VAR.S=EI 44. What is meant by eddy current damping? When the conductor moves in a magnetic field an emf is induced in it and if a closed path is provided .notesengine.The error caused by the pressure coil flowing in the current coil can be neutralized.www. 41.com iii)Extensively used in industries for measurement of AC voltage and current where errors of the order of 5% to 10% are accepetable. .What do you mean by compensation coil in a wattmeter? By connecting a compensating coil in series with a p[ressure coil . which opposes the deflecting torque.c circuit is called reactive power. 40. ii)Using Watt meters for AC circuits. . Define average value. Define reactive power. The power consumed by a pure reactance (XL or Xc ) in a a. Define RMS value. 43. The average value of an alternating current is that value of steady direct current which transfers the same charge as the alternating current flowing for the same time. . 46.

c machines commutating poles or interpoles are provided to improve commutation. What is the basic principle of a dc generator? Basic principle of a dc generator is Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. 51. iii)Single phase series motor 54. 52.The field winding should have less number of turns of thick wire. What are the different types of single phase motor? i)Single phase induction motor ii)Single phase synchronous motor. What are the two types of rotors of an induction motor? i) Squirrel cage rotor ii)Slip ring or wound rotor .com 47.c series motor? In a d.notesengine.c machine? The commutator converts the alternating emf into unidirectional or direct emf.www. 49. What is meant by transformer? The transformeris a static piece of apparatus by means of which electrical energy is transformed from one circuit to another with desired change in voltage and current . 53.That is whenever a conductor is moved in amagnetic field dynamically induced emf is produced in that conductor.It works on the principle of mutual induction. What is the use of commutator and brush in a d. The brushes are mainly used to collect current from the commutator.What is the purpose of interpoles in modern d.the field winding is connected in series with the armature. without any change in the frequency. 50.c machine? In modern d. . Why a series motor cannot be started without any load? Series motor cannot be started without any load because under no load condition the starting torque is less and motor rotates at dangerous speed and may be damaged.c series motor. 48. What is a d.

the circuit could not normally be used with this particular source. the voltage can be decreased (stepped down) to 10 volts and the current increased (stepped up) to 2 amperes. it must be used with an input source voltage that varies in amplitude. if a transformer is connected between the source and the load. but may involve changes in magnitudes of voltage and current. There are many types of power that fit this description. Solution N s = 120f/p = 120*50/4 = 1500r. Running speed of motor n= 1460r. for ease of explanation and understanding. find its % of slip. If. The electrical energy is always transferred without a change in frequency. .m. 20 volts times 1 ampere equals the same power as 10 volts times 2 amperes.p. That is. The amount of power used by the load of an electrical circuit is equal to the current in the load times the voltage across the load.p. Because a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Notice in the above case that the power remains the same. transformer action will be explained using an ac voltage as the input source. Slip S=( N s–N)/ N s*100 =(1500-1460) x 100 / 1500 = 2.www. for example. or P = EI. A Transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by electromagnetic induction (transformer action). However.com 6 MARKS 1.m.667% 2.m. the load in an electrical circuit requires an input of 2 amperes at 10 volts (20 watts) and the source is capable of delivering only 1 ampere at 20 volts. Explain the working principle of Transformer.notesengine.p. A 3 φ 4 pole 50 hz induction motor runs at 1460 r.

notesengine. The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an alternating voltage into the winding. The magnetic field (flux) builds up (expands) and collapses (contracts) about the primary winding.com A Transformer consists of the following parts • A primary coil or winding. given values of voltage (E) and current (I): the amount of resistance (R) offered by the lamp . • A secondary coil or winding. The primary winding is connected to a 50 hertz ac voltage source. Calculate the amount of resistance (R) in a circuit.www. 3. • A core that supports the coils or windings. This voltage causes alternating current to flow through the load. The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the design of the primary and secondary windings.

given values of current (I) and resistance (R): the amount of voltage provided by the battery 5. Calculate the electric power in the given circuit and discuss the effect of increasing the battery voltage. calculate the amount of voltage supplied by a battery." Let's apply this to the given circuit.com 4. .notesengine.www. The formula for determining the power in an electric circuit: by multiplying the voltage in "volts" by the current in "amps" we arrive at an answer in "watts.

Using Ohm's Law to determine current. The method of producing this torque depend upon the type of instrument.com In the above circuit.www.notesengine. electrostatic and electromagnetic induction effects of current or voltage and causes the moving system of the instrument to move from its zero position when the instrument is connected in an electrical circuit to measure the electrical quantity. we get: Now that we know the current. In attracting the type of instrument. What is meant by DEFLECTING TORQUE ? The deflecting torque is produced by making use of one of the magnetic. we know we have a battery voltage of 18 volts and a lamp resistance of 3 .magnetic density . we can take that value and multiply it by the voltage to determine power: 6. this torque to equal to Td = 1/2 I2 dL/dθ Whereas in Pmmc instruments Td = Bilur Where B . chemical.

Find the voltage across each resistors in the following circuit.www.radius of coil 7.notesengine.number of turn r . .com i .current flowing l .length of coil u .

Determine the value of two resistors Series R1+R2=100 R1R2/R1+R2 = 24 R1R2/100 = 24 R1R2 =2400 R1 (100-R1) = 2400 => R2 =100 . Kirchhoff’s Current Law . The effective resistance of two resistors connected in series is 100 . R2 = 100 – 60 = 40 .8547) 10.R1 100 R1-R1^2-2400 = 0 R1^2-100 R1 + 2400 = 0 (R1-60)(R1-40) = 0 There Fore R1 = 60.com 8. 1/Req = ½+1/3+1/3 = 1. Find the Req between two points A & B. then effective value in 24 ohm’s.85+4 Req = 7. When connected in parallel.17= 0.notesengine. R2 = 100 .www.17 1/Req = 2+. R1 = 40 When R1 = 60 When R1 = 40 .2 (Req = 1/1.40 = 60 9. Explain about Krichoffs voltage and current laws.

notesengine. Sum of potential drops = IR1+IR2+IR3 . i1+i4+i5+i6 = i2+i3 (Flowing towards) (Flowing away from A) Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (II Law) In a closed circuit.www. . We have a potential drop of V. Consider a function formed by 6 conductors.com The sum of current flowing towards a function is equal to the current flowing away from it.Some of these currents are flowing towards a 8 other’s away from A According to Kirchhoff’s Law.i6. From A -> B. From D -> A. i2. the sum of the potential drops is equal to the sum of the potential resistance ABCDA forms a closed circuit. The current in these conductors are i1. We have a potential drop of IR1.

through the brush labeled A2 and back to the negative lead. Explain the principle of operation of DC Motor. In terms of conventional current flow (positive to negative) then. through the brush labeled A1 through one commutator section. the other side. On the side of the conductor where the lines of flux are not opposing each other. Because of the strong field on one side of the conductor and a weak field or. lines of magnetic force (flux) are generated around the conductor. through the other commutator section. The direction of the flux is dependent on the direction of the current flow. The armature is connected to the commutator which rides along the brushes which are connected to a DC power source. the conductor will be pushed into the weaker field. On the side of thecoil where the lines of flux .This current will generate lines of flux around the armature and affect the lines of flux in the air gap. using your right hand point your thumb in the direction of the current flow and your fingers will wrap around the conductor in the same direction of the flux lines. When a current passes through a conductor. through the armature coil.notesengine. the magnetic field will be made stronger.com Potential rise from D -> A =V IR1+IR2+IR3 = V 11. On the side of the conductor where the lines of flux oppose each other. the magnetic field will be made weaker. The current from the DC power source flows from the positive lead.www.

Since each phase reaches its maximum at a different time within a cycle of the current. that field pole whose magnetic field is largest is constantly changing between the three poles. On the side of the coil where the lines of flux are riot opposing each other. the magnetic field generated by the stator rotates in the ac case. In three phase induction motor. the coil will be pushed into the weaker field and. each phase energizing an individual field pole. the squirrel cage winding.com oppose each other. because the armature coil is free to rotate. When the motor is initially switched on and the rotor is stationary.www. The flux is determined by the current flowing through the armature coil and strength of the field magnets. bears a strong resemblance to the running wheel used in cages for pet gerbils. depends on the frequency of the power supply and the number of poles produced by the stator winding. the magnetic field at that pole reaches a maximum value. as used in the United States. The speed of rotation of the magnetic field. 12. the magnetic field is made stronger. Three electrical phases are introduced through terminals. . Because of the strong field on one side of the coil and the weak field on the other side. it will rotate. The most common type of rotor winding. with the effect that the magnetic field seen by the rotor is rotating. the rotor conductors experience a changing magnetic field sweeping by at the synchronous speed. but are essentially short circuits. For a standard 60 Hz supply. The torque available at the motor shaft (turning effort) is determined by the magnetic force (flux) acting on the armature coil and the distance from the renter of rotation that force is. so does the magnetic field. known as the synchronous speed. the magnetic field will be made weaker.600 rpm. As the current decreases. the maximum synchronous speed is 3. the windings on the rotor are not connected to a power supply. Explain the working principle of three phase induction motor. In the three phase induction motor. When each phase reaches its maximum current.notesengine.

The rotor can never rotate at the synchronous speed because there would be no relative motion between the magnetic field and the rotor windings and no current could be induced. The induction motor has a high starting torque. This current produces a pulsating magnetic field. the rotor is the squirrel cage type. the magnitude of this current depends on the impedance of the rotor windings. Due to induction. Hence. that is. this situation results in the induction of currents round the rotor windings. the rotor is energized. This will cause the rotor to vibrate. Single phase induction motor has only one stator winding (main winding) and operates with a single-phase power supply.www. current carrying conductors are found in a magnetic field. 13. Explain the working principle of single phase induction motor. When the motor is connected to a single-phase power supply. Since the conditions for motor action are now fulfilled. the torque necessary for the motor rotation is not generated. the single phase induction motor is required to have a starting mechanism that can provide the starting kick for the motor to rotate.notesengine. the rotor experiences a torque and starts to turn. In all single-phase induction motors. The single-phase induction motor is not self-starting.com From Faraday's law. but not to rotate. the main winding carries an alternating current. As the main magnetic field is pulsating. .

They may also record other variables including the time when the electricity was used. the single-phase motor can maintain sufficient torque to operate on its own. a centrifugal switch disconnects the start winding. Explain the working principle of single phase Energy Meter. the utilities record the values measured by these meters to generate an invoice for the electricity. current in the start winding leads/lags the supply voltage depending on the starting mechanism impedance. current in the main winding lags the supply voltage due to the main winding impedance.www. When the supply voltage is applied. The start winding can have a series capacitor and/or a centrifugal switch. From this point on.com The starting mechanism of the single-phase induction motor is mainly an additional stator winding (start/ auxiliary winding) as shown in Figure. Interaction between magnetic fields generated by the main winding and the starting mechanism generates a resultant magnetic field rotating in one direction. .notesengine. At the same time. Once the motor reaches about 75% of its rated speed. The most common type is a kilowatt hour meter. When used in electricity retailing. 14. An electric meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electrical energy supplied to or produced by a residence. business or machine. The motor starts rotating in the direction of the resultant magnetic field.

The meters fall into two basic categories. The aluminium disc is supported by a spindle which has a worm gear which drives the register. Different phase configurations use additional voltage and current coils. or of the pointer type where a pointer indicates each digit. This causes the disc to rotate at a speed proportional to the power being used. The number of revolutions is thus proportional to the energy usage. . The type of meter described above is used on a single-phase AC supply. The register is a series of dials which record the amount of energy used. It should be noted that with the dial pointer type. typically around 2 watts. an odometer-like display that is easy to read where for each dial a single digit is shown through a window in the face of the meter.www.this act as a brake which causes the disc to stop spinning when power stops being drawn rather than allowing it to spin faster and faster. electromechanical and electronic. A permanent magnet exerts an opposing force proportional to the speed of rotation of the disc . adjacent pointers generally rotate in opposite directions due to the gearing mechanism. The dials may be of the cyclometer type. It consumes a small amount of power. This produces eddy currents in the disc and the effect is such that a force is exerted on the disc in proportion to the product of the instantaneous current and voltage. kilowatt-hours etc). One coil is connected in such a way that it produces a magnetic flux in proportion to the voltage and the other produces a magnetic flux in proportion to the current. The energy meter operates by counting the revolutions of an aluminium disc which is made to rotate at a speed proportional to the power. The metallic disc is acted upon by two coils.notesengine. The field of the voltage coil is delayed by 90 degrees using a lag coil.com Modern electricity meters operate by continuously measuring the instantaneous voltage (volts) and current (amperes) and finding the product of these to give instantaneous electrical power (watts) which is then integrated against time to give energy used (joules.


www.com B 20*30/20+30 = 12 STEP – III A 35 8 60 B 60*20/60+20 = 15 STEP – I V STEP – V RAB = 50 .notesengine.

notesengine.www. Find the mesh currents in the following network Solution: .com 2.

robust in construction and can be manufactured with required accuracy. In both type of these instruments.www. Repulsion type instrument are more sensitive than attraction type instrument as in repulsion type instrument large separating torque is developed by having two iron element positional class together inside the field coil where the magnetizing effect is maximum. The instrument to be used as an ammeter is provided with a . The attraction type. In actuality. These instruments are widely used in laboratories and switch board at commercial frequencies because these are cheaper in cost.com The solution of -1 amp for I2 means that our initially assumed direction of current was incorrect. The coil may be of a few turns of very heavy conductor or of many turns of fine wire. The repulsion type. 2. the current under measurement is passed through a coil of wire. Explain the working of a moving iron type instruments. These are generally of two types:1. The attraction type instrument operate on the principle of attraction of a single piece of soft iron into a magnetic field and repulsion type instrument operate on the principle of repulsion of two adjacent iron pieces magnified by the same magnetic field. This current carrying coil set up the necessary field depending on the magnitude of the current to be measured.notesengine. I2 is flowing in a counter-clockwise direction at a value of (positive) 1 amp: 3.

Find the number of revolutions made by it during an hour when connected across when connected 20A at 210V and 0.360 kwh. Energy consumed in one hour = VI cos φ / 1000 = 210 x 20 x 0. If energy meter revolves 350 revolutions. The change in energy of magnetic field. dw = Td dθ Since change in energy dE = workdone.8 power factor leading.www. 5. 4. find the % error. Let L be the self inductance corresponding to a total angular deflection of q radians and change in inductance be dL correponding to small change in deflection angel dq due to small change in current.com coil of few turns of thick wire in order to have low resistance and carry large current and that to be used as a voltameter is provided with a coil of large number of turns of wire in order to have high resistance and draw as small current as possible. The number of revolution the meter should make it is correct = 3. L is in Henry and θ is in Radians. An energy meter revolves 10 revolutions of disc for unit of energy.8 / 1000 = 3. Thus toruqe is proportional to the square of the instrument current and to the rate of change of inductance with deflection. Derive the expression for torque produced in moving iron instrument. dw Td dθ = ½ I2dL Td = ½ I2dL/dθ where I is in amperes. Answer.360 x .notesengine.

number of turn r . electrostatic and electromagnetic induction effects of current or voltage and causes the moving system of the instrument to move from its zero position when the instrument is connected in an electrical circuit to measure the electrical quantity. chemical.length of coil u .notesengine.radius of coil 2. Explain how following torque are produced in pmmc instrument and attracted type moving iron instruments 1.The deflecting torque is produced by making use of one of the magnetic. Control torque 3. In attracting the type of instrument.www. Damping torque 1. The method of producing this torque depend upon the type of instrument. DEFLECTING TORQUE:.magnetic density i .current flowing l .The magnitude of the movement to the moving system would be somewhat indefinite under the influence of deflecting torque unless some controlling torque exist. This torque opposes .360 x 100 = 336 Number of revolution actually made = 350 % error = (350-336) x 100 / 350 % error = 0. CONTROLLING TORQUE:.1466 % 6. Deflecting torque 2. this torque to equal to Td = 1/2 I2 dL/dθ Whereas in Pmmc instruments Td = Bilur Where B .com registration const in revolution per kwh = 3.

The rectangular coil is wound of many turns of coil.com the deflecting torque and increases with increase in deflection of the moving system without controlling system the irrespective magnitude of current and moreover. In attraction type instrument it is produced by spring control and in PMMC too it would be produced by spring control.In a permanent magnet with soft iron pole pieces. Briefly discuss the construction and working of a PMMC instrument. DAMPING TORQUE:. 3.notesengine.This torque is also necessary to avoid oscillation of the moving system about it's final deflected position owing to the inertia of the moving parts and to bring the moving system to rest in it's final deflected position quickly. once deflected it would not return to its zero position on removing the current. a cylindrical iron core is mounted between the two poles of the magnet giving very narrow air gap in which the sides of a pointted light rectangular coil lies. 7.www. The purpose of using . CONSTRUCTION:. How range is extended in moving coil ammeter and voltmeter? Answer.

deflecting force F = BilN newtons. A low reluctance helps to retain permeance of magnet for a longer period.When the current to be measured is passed through the coil. the scale of the basic dc PMMC instrument are usually linearly spaced. Then deflecting torque Td = F x r = BilNr Nm From the above expression it is obvious that if flux density B in the air gap is constant. the direction of deflecting torque can be determined by applying Fleming's left hand rule. If r is the distance in meters in between the centers of the coil and force F. On account of relation between permanent magnetic field and coil magnetic field. (a).notesengine. then deflecting torque Td = i . θ = i And since q is directly proportional to current. WORKING OF TORQUE EQUATION:. Hence scale is linear. . deflecting torque is produced. Tc= Td So.com core is to make the field uniform and to reduce the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. It is the current in amperes flowing through the coil of turns N and length l meters B is flux density in test as in air gap:Then.www. say in the direction as shown in fig.

is employed as current coil and the moving coil is used as pressure coil.Let us be the supply voltage. The movement is controlled by hair springs which also leads the current into and out of the moving element. WORKING AND CONSTRUCTION:. Td ∝ if im ∝ V/R For a DC circuit the deflecting torque is thus proportional to the power and for any circuit with fluctuating torque. the fixed coil which is divided into two equal portions in order to provide them uniform field . THEORY:.com 8.e the fixed coil carries the current proportional to the voltage across the circuit. Discuss the construction and working of an electrodynamic wattmeter with the help of diagram? Answer.When the instrument of this type is used as wattmeter. This type of instrument is similar in design and principle to the dynanometer type ammeter and voltameter. Damping is provided by light aluminium moving in an air dash pot. if = i Current through moving coil. Current through fixed coil. is employed as current coil and moving coil is used as pressure coil. im = V/R deflecting torque. The instantaneous to the instantaneous . i. The magnetic field of the fixed and moving coil react on one another causing the moving coil to turn about it's axis. A high non inductive resistance is connected in series with the moving coil in order to limit current. The pointer is fixed to the moving coil spindle and moves over a suitable caliberated scale. i the load current and R the load resistance of the moving coil circuit.www.notesengine. The fixed coil which is divided into two equal portion in order to provide them uniform field.

FRICTION LOSS:. 4. 2.Dynamometer type instruments have considerable friction error. Compare merits and demerits of moving iron type instruments and dynamometer type instruments.Dynamometer type instruments have equal small torque height ratio.As a result of measures to reduce the frictional error.www. dynamometer type instruments have more friction losses.notesengine.com power. the dynamometer type instruments are more sensitive to overloads and mechanical impactsis in comparison to moving iron type instruments. FRICTION ERROR:. 9. 1.Owing to heavy moving system. TORQUE HEIGHT RATIO:. Which one is superior why? Answer. COST AND SENSITIVITY TO OVERLOAD:. 3. .

CALIBRATION:. Shunt is usually used in voltmeter and ammeter to extend the range of voltmeter and ammeters. 8. HYSTERISIS AND EDDY CURRENT ERRORS:. . POWER CONSUMPTION:. 9.Dynamometer type instruments are very useful for accurate measurement of runs voltage while frequency change serious e rrors in AC measurement in moving iron type instruments.The senstivity of dynamometer instrument is typically very poor due to poor deflecting torque. voltage upto 50V 2.Dynamometer type instrument have comparatively higher power consumption. 10. 10. EFFECT OF STRAY MAGNETIC FIELD:. 7. Show how the instrument may be used to measure:- 1.www.com 5. Why shunt is usually used voltmeter and ammeter? A moving coil instrument has a resistance of 5 and gives full deflection of 100mv.There is no effect of stray magnetic field on moving iron type while dynamometer type are most sensitive towards it. EFFECT OF WAVE FORM:.Dynamometer type instruments are free from these erors while moving iron have these errors. 6.Dynamometer type instruments have same calibration for AC and DC measurements while moving iron type have a difference between AC and DC calibration. SENSTIVITY:. current upto 10A Answer.notesengine.

01002004 11.www. a magnetic field is set up inside the solenoid. When the current to be measured is passed through the solenoid.Rm = 50/(20 x 10-3) .1] = 5/[10/20 x 10-3 -1] = 5 x 2/998 Rf = 0. Such resistance of resistance Rf is used to be connected Rf = Rm/[I/Im . To this iron a pointer is attached so that it may deflect along with the moving iron over a graduate scale. The moving iron is drawn into field of solenoid when current flows through it. The earliest and simplest form of attraction moving iron instruments uses a solenoid and moving oval shaped soft iron pinoted eccentrically. Thus the iron is attached into the coil causing the spindle and the pointer to rotate. Series resistance is used with the instrument whose resistance is R = V/Im .5 R = 2. For measuring voltage upto 50V.notesengine. .5 x 10-3 . The movement of the iron always from weaker magnetic field outside the coil into the stronger field inside the coil regardless the direction of flow of current. which in turn magnetises the iron. So much instruments normally have spring control and pneumatic damping forces. Explain the principle of operation of attraction type moving iron instruments and explain how the controlling and damping forces are obtained? Answer.5 = R = 2495 2. The iron is made of sheet metal specially shaped to give a scale as nearby uniform as possible.com Rm = 5 Vm = 100mv Im = Vm/Rm = 100mv/5 = 20mA 1.

m.m.notesengine.6 .www.p. 2) speed when slip is 4% or .com 12. 3-φ 4 pole induction motor is supplied from 3φ 50Hz ac supply.m.04 N=Ns (1-s) =1500(1-0.04) = 1440 r.m. 3) slip when motor runs at 600 r.p.p. S’=(Ns –N)/Ns =(1500-600)/1500 = 0. Find (1) synchronous speed (2) rotor speed when slip is 4% (3) the rotor frequency when runs at 600r. Sulution 1) Ns =120f/p =120*50/4 = 1500 r.p.

open loop and closed loop control. This can be in a situation where an object is required to be heated. Explain the method of temperature control in open loop and closed loop systems. If you set the car temperature to 75°. regardless of the changing environment around it.www. Open loop is the most basic form and applies continuous heating/cooling with no regard for the actual temperature output. the climate control will automatically adjust the heating (during cold days) or cooling (during warm days) as required to maintain the target temperature of 75°. cooled or both and to remain at the target temperature (set point). In a closed loop application. during warmer weather. It is analogous to the internal heating system in a car. the same setting would leave the inside of the car much warmer than the desired 75°. There are two fundamental types of temperature control.com 13. Open loop control block diagram Closed loop control is far more sophisticated than open loop. However. Temperature controllers are needed in any situation requiring a given temperature be kept stable. Closed loop control block diagram . Closed loop control is analogous to a car with internal climate control. On a cold day.notesengine. the output temperature is constantly measured and adjusted to maintain a constant output at the desired temperature. Closed loop control is always conscious of the output signal and will feed this back into the control process. you may need to turn the heat on to full to warm the car to 75°.

Temperature controllers are also used in ovens. The simplest example of a temperature controller is a common thermostat found in homes. When a temperature is set for an oven. The response C(s) is measured using the sensor H(s) and the resultant is compared with the input R(s). . a controller initiates an action to bring the temperature down.com A temperature controller is a device used to hold a desired temperature at a specified value.www. Thermostats are also used in refrigerators. it sends a signal to activate the heater to raise the temperature back to the set point. A computed force is applied to the system which is expected to respond based on the specifications. a controller monitors the actual temperature inside of the oven. a hot water heater uses a thermostat to control the temperature of the water and maintain it at a certain commanded temperature. Explain about open loop and closed loop control system. Figure 1 shows an open loop system.notesengine. For instance. The actuator then applies the required force on the system. The resultant difference (error) is acted upon by the controller which works on the actuator. So if the temperature gets too high. On the other hand. If it falls below the set temperature. then there is no way to correct the course. 14. figure 2 shows a feed-back system. If the system fails to respond correctly (because your estimates were off) or an unanticipated disturbance acted on it.

" just like the flow of a liquid through a hollow pipe. It should be noted that all measurements have to be done or converted if necessary into one unit so that comparison with the target signal is possible. we are referring to the measurement of how much potential energy exists to move electrons from one particular point in that circuit to another particular point. controller and actuator dynamics. resistance is a quantity . what goes into the sensor (it is commonly denoted by H(s)) and the actuator comes out unmodified instantaneously. this conversion from a mechanical input to an electrical output is also included in the sensor. it will not send the right input at the right time. The amount of current in a circuit depends on the amount of voltage available to motivate the electrons. Voltage is a specific measure of potential energy that is always relative between two points. Usually. current and resistance An electric circuit is formed when a conductive path is created to allow free electrons to continuously move. and also the amount of resistance in the circuit to oppose electron flow. Explain the relation between voltage. and it is often referred to in terms of "flow. Just like voltage. we will assume perfect sensor and actuator dynamics. measurements result in currents and voltages. In this class. Hence. This continuous movement of free electrons through the conductors of a circuit is called a current.www. If the controller is very slow compared to the system. Without reference to two particular points.notesengine. When we speak of a certain amount of voltage being present in a circuit. 15. the term "voltage" has no meaning. So we replace them with unity transfer functions. the actuator dynamics in addition to the system we are interested in. or opposition to motion.com The closed loop thus contains the sensor dynamics. Free electrons tend to move through conductors with some degree of friction.. the controller dynamics. In designing the full control system the dynamics of all the components need to be accounted for. The force motivating electrons to "flow" in a circuit is called voltage.e. This opposition to motion is more properly called resistance. i.

machine consists mainly of two part the stationary part called stator and the rotating part called stator. and resistance: 16. volume.commutating poles or interpoles in between the main poles to avoid sparking at the commutator but in the case of small machines sometimes the interpoles are avoided and finally the frame or yoke which forms the supporting structure of the machine." For temperature we might use degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius. To be able to make meaningful statements about these quantities in circuits. A D. The stator consists of main poles used to produce magnetic flux . For mass we might use the units of "kilogram" or "gram. length. or any other kind of physical quantity. we need to be able to describe their quantities in the same way that we might quantify mass. the quantities of voltage and resistance are often stated as being "between" or "across" two points in a circuit.www. The rotor consist of an armature a cylindrical metallic body or core with slots in it to place armature windings or bars.C. temperature.com relative between two points. . For this reason. Explain the construction of DC machine with neat diagram. Here are the standard units of measurement for electrical current.notesengine. a commutator and brush gears The magnetic flux path in a motor or generator is show below and it is called the magnetic structure of generator or motor. voltage.

5 Wb/sq. Yoke In early days Yoke was made up of cast iron but now it is replaced by cast steel.m.8 Wb/sq.m where as saturation with cast iron steel is about 1. The ring shaped body portion of the frame which makes the magnetic path for the magnetic fluxes from the main poles and interpoles is called Yoke.www.notesengine.com Cross sectional view of a DC Machine Frame Frame is the stationary part of a machine on which the main poles and commutator poles are bolted and it forms the supporting structure by connecting the frame to the bed plate. This is because cast iron is saturated by a flux density of 0.So for the same magnetic flux density the cross .

so now rolled steels are developed and these have consistent magnetic and mechanical properties. A high non-inductive resistance is connected to the potential coil so that its current is almost in phase with the load voltage. The deflection torque is produced by the interaction of two magnetic fluxes.www.com section area needed for cast steel is less than cast iron hence the weight of the machine too. It has a non . If the diameter of the armature is large a brush holder yoke is generally fixed to the frame. If the armature diameter is greater than 1m pedestral type bearings are mounted on the machine bed plate outside the frame. The control torque is provided by a control spring.The moving coil (pressure coil) is connected across the load. Explain the Working of dynamometer type wattmeter The principle of operation of the electrodynamometer-type wattmeter is the same as that for dynamo-electric machines.notesengine. End Shields or Bearings If the armature diameter does not exceed 35 to 45 cm then in addition to poles end shields or frame head with bearing are attached to the frame. These bearings could be ball or roller type but generally plain pedestral bearings are employed. In a dynamometer type wattmeter the fixed coil (current coil) is connected in series with the load. The other flux is created by a movable coil which carries a current proportional to the load voltage and thus called the voltage or potential coil. One of the fluxes is produced by a fixed coil which carries a current proportional to the load current and therefore called the current coil.inductive high resistance in series with it . It is thin in cross .This coil is divided in to two parts and they are kept parallel to each other. If we use cast iron there may be chances of blow holes in it while casting.section and has hundreds of turns. 17. The coil is thick in cross section and has less number of turns.

com The wattmeter is an electrodynamic instrument for measuring the electric power or the supply rate of electrical energy of any given circuit. The two circuits of a wattmeter are likely to be damaged by excessive . Also. the deflection of the needle is proportional to both the current and the voltage.www. The strength of this field is proportional to the line current and in phase with it. On an ac circuit the deflection is proportional to the average instantaneous product of voltage and current. A current flowing through the current coil generates an electromagnetic field around the coil. known as current coils. and possibly (depending on load characteristics) showing a different reading to that obtained by simply multiplying the readings showing on a stand-alone voltmeter and a stand-alone ammeter in the same circuit. The potential coil has. as a general rule.notesengine. while the potential coil is connected in parallel. The device consists of a pair of fixed coils. the potential coil carries a needle that moves over a scale to indicate the measurement. thus measuring true power. thus conforming to the equation W=VA or P=EI. on analog wattmeters. a high-value resistor connected in series with it to reduce the current that flows through it. and a movable coil known as the potential coil. The current coils are connected in series with the circuit. The result of this arrangement is that on a dc circuit.

. a wattmeter is rated not only in watts. their pointers will be driven off scale . voltage and current. Explain the construction of transformer with neat diagram. but at the same frequency. The ammeter and voltmeter are both vulnerable to overheating . usually iron. if the primary coil consists of 100 turns and carries 480 volts and a secondary coil consists of 25 turns. the secondary voltage is then: secondary voltage = (480 volts) * (25/100) = 120 volts Two coils of wire (called windings) are wound on some type of core material. 18.but in the wattmeter. Therefore. or windings. The input line connects to the 'primary' coil.in case of an overload. The voltage at each of the secondary coils is directly related to the primary voltage by the turns ratio.www. such as 50 hertz and 400 hertz. changing direction during each electrical cycle. This type of transformer is called an IRON-CORE TRANSFORMER. Transformers used at low frequencies. the core material is air and the transformer is called an AIR-CORE TRANSFORMER. Most power transformers are of the ironcore type.notesengine. The alternating flux in the core in turn induces an alternating current in each of the secondary coils. In some cases the coils of wire are wound on a cylindrical or rectangular cardboard form. require a core of low-reluctance magnetic material. For instance. while the output lines connect to 'secondary' coils. In effect. Thus. The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are: • The CORE. either or even both the current and potential circuits can overheat without the pointer approaching the end of the scale! This is because the position of the pointer depends on the power factor. a circuit with a low power factor will give a low reading on the wattmeter. or the number of turns in the primary coil divided by the number turns in the secondary coil. of wire are wrapped. The construction of a transformer includes a ferromagnetic core around which multiple coils. but also in volts and amperes.com current. even when both of its circuits are loaded to the maximum safety limit. which provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux. A transformer is an electrical device used to convert AC power at a certain voltage level to AC power at a different voltage. The alternating current in the primary coil induces an alternating magnetic flux that 'flows' around the ferromagnetic core.

The SECONDARY WINDING.notesengine.www. The iron-core transformer provides better power transfer than does the air-core transformer. such as varnish. A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily. It takes about 50 such laminations to make a core an inch thick. These steel laminations are insulated with a non conducting material. and mechanical damage. . which receives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the load. The purpose of the laminations is to reduce certain losses. The majority of transformers you will encounter in Navy equipment contain laminatedsteel cores.com • • The PRIMARY WINDING. • The ENCLOSURE. and then formed into a core. which receives energy from the ac source. A soft-iron-core transformer is very useful where the transformer must be physically small. which protects the above components from dirt. yet efficient. thus it provides for the efficient transfer of power. moisture.

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