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CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE GAUGE

AIM: To check the accuracy of a Bourdon tube pressure gauge using dead weight tester. INTRODUCTION: Many types of gauges are available for measurement of pressure. The Bourdon gauge (named after its inventor Bourdon) uses the deflection of a tube of oval cross-section to cause to cause a pointer to move over a scale. Because of its simplicity and low cost, and the large selection of pressure ranges, which are available, the Bourdon gauge is widely used in engineering practice. All pressure gauges, of whatever type, needs to be calibrated. As the calibration may change over a period, repeat calibrations may well be needed from time to time. The normal calibration procedure is to load the gauge with known pressures, using a dead weight tester using oil. The present experiment, however, works satisfactorily with water instead of oil. In this experiment we check the accuracy of the Bourdon Tube pressure gauge. The procedure will be to calibrate the gauge by applying weights of known magnitude to the piston of known cross-sectional area and hence create a known (calibration) pressure. The experiment will explore gauge error and prompt discussion of common gauge errors such as hysteresis, friction and backlash scale marking. THEORY: The mechanism of the gauge may be seen through the transparent dial of the instrument. A tube, having a thin wall of oval cross-section, is bent to a circular arc encompassing about 270 degrees. It is rigidly held at one end, where the pressure is admitted to the tube, and is free to move at the other end, which is sealed. When pressure is admitted, the tube tends to straighten, and the movement at the free end operates a mechanical system, which moves a pointer round the graduated scale the movement of the pointer being proportional to the pressure applied. The sensitivity of the gauge

depends on the material and dimensions of the Bourdon tube; gauges with a very wide selection of pressure ranges are commercially available.

PROCEDURE: 1. To fill the cylinder, the piston is removed, and water is poured into the cylinder until it is full to the overflow level. Any air present in the tube may be cleared by tilting and gently tapping the apparatus. The piston is replaced in the cylinder and allowed to settle. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. removed. 7. recorded. PRECAUTIONS: The cross-sectional area and the mass of the piston should be Ensure the cylinder is vertical. Masses are added gradually in approximately 8 increments upto The pressure gauge readings should be recorded at each To prevent the piston sticking, rotate the piston gently as each Reverse the procedure, taking readings as the masses are

a maximum of 5.2 kg. increment of loading. mass is added.

1. loaded. 2.

On no account should more than the supplied masses be Do not drop the masses onto the platform. The actual hydrostatic pressure (p) in the system due to a mass of M

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS: kg (including the piston mass) applied to the piston is given by: p= M 9.81 10 3 kN / m 2 A Gauge Reading - Actual pressure 100 Full scale deflection

Where A is the piston area in m2 % Error =

The observed and derived results are tabulated in the form of following table. RESULTS: Gauge Reading Sr. Mass to (kg) Total mass on M (kg) Actual pressure P kN/m2 Increasing Pressure (kN/m2) Decreasin g Pressure (kN/m2) Gauge error Increasing Decreasing Pressure % Pressure %

No. added

piston piston

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:

GRAPHS: 1. 2. Gauge pressure against actual pressure Gauge error against actual pressure

CONCLUSION: