Necropsy Report

Killer Whale (Orcinus-orca) Kenau & fetus
Age 17 yrs — SeaWorld of Florida
Name: Kenau (female) and fetus Species: Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Source: wild capture, 10-25-1976, Medallandsbugt coast, Iceland, age: est. 2 yrs Deceased: 7:15 a.m., 08-06-1991, SeaWorld of Florida, age: est. 17 yrs Reported cause of death (per NMFS MMIR data): Hemorrhagic Bacterial Pneumonia Necropsy info: Morpholic Diagnosis- Jack C. Rhyan, DVM (1991): Pneumonia, acute diffuse, necrohemorrhagic, severe, with associated gram-negative bacilli Glomerulonephropathy, chronic, multifocal, membranous, mild Abscess, with associated trematode Diagnoses and Comment- Kent G. Osborne, DVM (1991): Diagnoses: 1) lung, pleura, severe inflammation, neutrophilic infiltrate, associated with bacteria 2) lung, coagulative necrosis, hemorrhage 3) lymphnode, not otherwise specified (NOS), severe inflammation, neutrophilic infiltrate, associated with bacteria, rods. (see necropsy report for more info) Comment: Cause of death in this animal is probably shock associated with endotoxemia. The isolation of Pseudomonas from her calf helps to support this possibility, suggesting a terminal septicemia. Beyond this, it is difficult to determine what the initiating problem is in this case (see more in necropsy data) Diagnosis- Dr. Terry W. Campbell, Dr. Michael (Mike) T. Walsh, Dr. Kintner, Dr. Scott Wright (1991) -Acute hemorrhagic pneumonia, diffuse, severe, probably infectious in origin -septicemia (see more in the following necropsy data)

The Orca Project Corp

4/15/2012

www.theorcaproject.com

Conclusions of the above doctors: (after histology & clinical pathology review) The cause of death in this animal was a severe, necrotizing, hemorrhagic, bacterial pneumonia that resulted in a fatal overwhelming septicemia and pulmonary anoxia. (see more in the necropsy reports that follow)

T.O.P. Notes: 1. Two weeks prior to death, treatment was initiated for an infected tooth- lower 3rd right. 2. 110 lb, 12 month-old male fetus appeared to be alive until mother’s death.

Notes: Prior to reforms of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) in 1994, holders of marine mammals for public display were required to submit necropsy reports (animal autopsy reports) for deceased animals, making the documents available to the public and scientific community. Presently, marine mammal parks in the U.S. are only required to provide a “cause of death” to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) which maintains Marine Mammal Inventory Reports (MMIR). Details of marine mammal deaths are now a closely guarded secret at U.S. entertainment facilities. The Orca Project acquired the following documents from the National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.A) via the Freedom of Information Act for deaths that occurred prior to implementation of the 1994 MMPA changes. For more information visit www.theorcaproject.com
Necropsy, Autopsy, Veterinarian, NOAA, NMFS, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, MMIR, Marine Mammal Inventory Report, MMPA, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Killer Whale, Orca, Shamu, Death, Die, SeaWorld, Orlando, Florida, Kenau, Fetus

The Orca Project Corp

4/15/2012

www.theorcaproject.com

September 5 . 1991

Dr. Nancy Foster D i r e c t o r , O f f i c e of Protected Resources and Habitat Programs National Harine Fi s h e r i e s Service 1335 East-Hest Highway, Roorn 8268 S i l v e r Spring, Maryland 20910
Dear Dr. Foster: This i e t t e r contains the Gross necropsy and histcpathology of t h p W Ki1:er Hhale i d e n t i f i e d as S C 007602, which died August 6th a t Sea Horld of Florida. Thi s adul t female Ki 1 1 e r Hhal e (Orcinus orca 007602) exhibited a depressed a p p e t i t e on 8/5/91. P r i o r t o t h i s time, she was c l i n i c a l l y h e a l t h y , except f o r a tooth i n f e c t i o n f o r which treatment wax i n i t i a t e d on 7/21/91 and which was c l i n i c a l l y normal a t the time of t h e necropsy. I n t h e afternoon of 8/5/91, stie was a l s o r e l u c t a n t t o i n t e r a c t with her t r a i n e r s and unvilling t o present her fluke f o r blood c o l l e c t i o n . She was a l e r t and a c t i v e a t t h i s time and her r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e was normal. Houever, e a r l y i n the morning of 8/6/91, her condition began t o d e t e r i o r a t e rapidly. Hhen her r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e increased and she began t o show e r r a t i c behavior, the medical team vas c a l l e d and emergency medical treatment was given a f t e r she was guided i n t o and held t o t h e s i d e of t h e medical pool. The animal d i d not respond t o treatment and died within f i v e hours of the onset of the increased r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e . The gross necropsy vas performed imnediately following her death. T h e . necropsy team consisted of Hichael T. Halsh, DVH, Sea Horld of F l o r i d a ; Terry H. Campbell, DVH; PhD, Sea Horld of F l o r i d a ; Loren D. Kintner, CW, PhD, Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer S e r v i c e s , Division of Animal Industry/Kissimee Diagnostic Laboratory; and S c o t t D. Hright, PhD, Marine M m a l Research I n s t i t u t e , Florida Department o f Katural Resources. David J. Kel l y , DVH, 3 v e t e r i n a r y medical o f f i c e r f o r t h e Animal and Plant Inspection Service of t h e United S t a t e s Department of Agriculture vas an independent observer during t h e necropsy- The gross necropsy. histopathology and bacteriology i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e animal died of a severe, n e c r o t i z i n g , hemorrhagic b a c t e r i a l pneumonia t h a t resulted i n a f a t a l overwhelming septicemia and pulmonary anoxia. Sincerely,
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DATE RECEIVED: 08/09/91

ACCESSIOS: 91-39319 RE FERRA L : OWNER: SEA W R D OF FLORIDA OL ORLANDO ,FL

SUBHITTED BY: SEA WORLD 7007 SEA W R D DRIVE OL O W D O , FL 32821 P W O S E : GEKERAL DIAGNOSTIC

LOCATION OF ANIMALS: ORANGE C O W , FL DATE COLLECTED: 08/06/91 SMPLE IG: LIST 0:; FILE
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COLLECTED BY: DR. CWBELL SPECIES : UNKNOWN

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H i s c o p a t h o l o g y R e s u l t s 91-39319/91W.505: F o r m a l i n i z e d c i s s u e s p e c i m e n s from a f e m a l e k i l l e r whale and i t s f e t u s were r e c e i v e d . T i s s u e s v e r e r o u t i n e l y p r o c e s s e d f o r h i s t o p a t h o l o g i c examTnation. H i s ~ o p a t h o l o g y : S e c t i o n s o f l u n g . l i v e r , k i d n e y , s p l e e n , lymph n o d e s , h e a r z , esophagus, stomach, i n t e s t i n e , a d r e n a l , t o n s i l , t r a c h e a , pancreas, l a r g e a r c e r y , o r a l mucosa, p e r i p h e r a l n e r v e , u t e r u s , placenta, and f e c z l t i s s u e s a r e e x a m i n e d . S e c t i o n s o f l u n g r e v e a l a s e v e r e , n e c r o h e m o r r h a g i c pneumonia c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f u s e hemorrhage i n a i r w a y s , marked n e c r o s i s o f pulmonary parenchyma, and l a r g e numbers o f g r a m - n e g a t i v e b a c i l l i c o l o n i z i n g t h e n e c r o t i c i n t e r s t i t i u m . A t t h e d e m a r c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e pneumonic and more normal l u n g t h e r e a r e moderate numbers o f n e u t r o p h i l s a n d d e g e n e r a t i n g l e u k o c y t e s . Many l e u k o c y t e s c o n t a i n l a r g e numbers o f p h a g o c y t i z e d g r a m - n e g a t i v e b a c i l l i . . Kidney s e c t i o n s r e v e a l m i l d t o m o d e r a t e f o c a l t h i c k e n i n g o f g l o m e r u l a r c a p i l l a r y t u f c and t u b u l a r basement membranes. I n o n e s e c t i o n o f c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e , a l a r g e e n c a p s u l a t e d a c c u m u l a t i o n o f mixed l e u k o c y t e s s u r r o u n d s a n o v a l s t r u c t u r e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y t y p i c a l o f a tremarsode. F e t a l l i v e r s e c t i o n s c o n ~ a i n o d e r ~ t ee x c r a n e d u l l a r y e r y t h r o p o i e s i s . No o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t l e s i o n s m a r e noted. tlorphologic diagnosis: Pneumonia, a c u t e , d i f f u s e . n e z r ~ t ~ e i n o r r h a g i c+ e v e y e , , 'vich a s s o c i a t e d gram-negative b a c i l l i Glomerulonephropathy. c h r o n i c , m u l t i f o c a l , membranous, m i l d Abscess, v i c h a s s o c i a t e d trematode

Comments: The pulmonary l e s i o n s a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f a s e v e r e , a c u t e , bacterial pneumonia. The m i l d r e n a l l e s i o n s a n d t h e p a r a s i t i c l e s i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n c i d e n c a l t o he c a u s e o f d e a t h . N evidence o f d i s e a s e vas n o t e d 5 n t h e o fecal tissues.

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r ~ ~ l ~ r n u r c . 1 ymphopl o s m a c y t ~ c in71 I t r a t p , ~ a , c p i t h e 1 a1 d e g c n e r c ? ti o n , cause

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T h e f o l l o t . r l c ~L~ l,sue-i w ~ r e x a m ~ n e 1 l c r n s c c ~ p l ~ ;l 1 1 and fount ~ n y t r j Ile essen t i a 1 I v I r r l ~r L 12 1 on ( 0 1 n ~ n do n r ~ c c 1ve t I ~ - ( I P c t ( E l , u 1 a ~ e n t . a (9). l y m p h rode N O S ( D ) . p a r l c r - ~ a s ( D l . L > l ~ ~ b b e r F ) , ,( n e r v ~ and c o n n e C t i v P I v r n g h node NOS ( F ) . c_krldtal rnu~cl~. ) , F tlssue (F1, thy^-old ( G ) . C ~ t j n p y ( G I , h e r t ( H J . l v n ~ p h ~ d e O S ( H I n N

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) : Most l y m p h o i d f o l l i c l e p r e s e n t 11-t-r arw I - e a c t j v e L a r g c n L l m - e r 5 o f ??nc e r - i a l r o d 5 a r e t ( s e c o n d a r y ) foll i c l e s . p r e s e n t i n t h e i n t ~ r s t i t i u r na d j a c n t t n t o n c i l a r c r y p t 5 , b t ~ t he-s b a c t e r l a . a r e 5 1 m i l a r w i t l ~ u u t a s s o c i a t e d n e b l r o p h ~E. I t o those pre5nnt i n the p r e v i o u s 1 d e s c r i b c d lymph-hode.

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.

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a b s c e s s ( D l . : l h l s is a t ~ t . 11 ( : J I - ~ - C I N ! r i b e d l e s i o n w i t h a t h i c k c f l b r o u s ~:nyc=s.u l e . T l ~ u c r ~ > r ~ L J I I ~ i r 1 5 rial K Q C ~ i n f l a m m a t o r y r i i 1 1 fi 1 t r a t e t h d t j n c l u c j e s l y r n p h o r y t 6 , p o l y m o r p h o n u c l r a r e e l 1s a n d m i j d n c ~ m b ~ r co . m a c r o p l i o q e ~ . . I h e s t . e r t- a s s o c i;.ted ;f w i t h v ~ yr 1 a r - ~ r 1runtL1erc, U'-T ( r e t n a t o d e : ~ q a s . 4t o n e ~ d ' qj ~ . a S population o f .Iy m p h o c y t e s , p o ~ s . 1 e d g e c ~ fa l y m p h ' n o d e . T h i s . l e s i o n p t - o b a b l y c , o r r ~ q p o r ~ d s t h e p e r i p a r l c r t . a L i c I ymph n o d e n o d u l e s d ~ a c rhie d A t n e c r o p j d . D x i meqenteric nddtrlp and I h node. dbscess assoc i a t e d w j th trematode e$qs

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bib 40

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y 1q n d b l a r s t c ~ ~ ~ g ~ ~ - l M_dt.ratp Eo)_: e r f i c i . a 1 m u c o s a l (3yperemi.a i s p r n s a n t i n t h e t . w n g l a n d u l h r st tiact-I 6ec t - i o n s p r e 5 e i . t h e r e . S u p e r i i c l a 1 m u c o s a ] p p j t h e l . i u m is i s s i l - t q , n t o s ! I i L ~ 1 . jd u e t o sutolysinNo i n f l a r n ( n a t i o n i.r. pi- !;ert.

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s u ~ e r j i ~ i asubmucora, l a t the contains 6 r n o d e r a l el y 1 arge Very &ntel 1 njmbers of 1 ycnphopl asrnacy t j c population. p o l y m o r p h o n u c l e a r c e 1 1 s a r e ~ c a t t e k r d i t h j r ~t h i ~n f i : t r s t e w i Within tllr it~iddlt. l b y i c ~ of n u 06a a 15 vat-]able, diffuse @ p i t h e li a l dcqencratjon, char c t e r j zed by ballooninq i n t a c y t o p l a 6 ~ i c e o s i ' n o p h i 1 i~ d e g e n e r a t irJli, w i t l r c plidt.rlsed precjpitator Thiti p r o C > d b 1y cc~-c-esponds t o the 1e5ion3 recognized at necr-ophv, though 111, i not ~n ulcer, as s u q q e s t e d ~n t h e n r r r o p s y d ~ ~ c r ii op . n lyrnphopl r 5 m a c ~ t i c f urltlic tI I FU b uc o s a Dw r asr~ciatod w.1 t h rnucosn, epithclidl i n f i.1 t - r a t ~ ,
t .

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lunq (I J) r , TIlese s n c t i o n s p r e a v a r i a b l e appearance. but c o n t . ~ i n5csttefe-j T h o s e i n s l i d e I a r r l a l i v ~ l yn f o c i o f e r ~ t h r o c v .t a~r ~ ~ r q - f - e ~ , ~ r v i t i 1 oat t p r 1 a d s ~ I - c v ~ O Y I I Y d c ~ c t - i b . ~ ! , i t i d i s t a l : a i r w a y s and n e n r b y e l v e o l i. I n o t h ~ a r e a s is n j l d / n ~ o d ~ - r a t . e ,q s i n o p h i 1 j c p u l r n o n e r y edema. r e Eram .stain rt.vea!c, the b a c t e r i a l pcjpulat i o n 5 t o c o n 6 i s t o f Gram n e g a t i v e a n d G ; - a m p o s i t i v e r o d s , a 5 W F ! .l a s s m a i l e r 1 3lide 2 , t r t c s e c t i o n s a r e n u m b e r 5 o f G r a m posi t j v e c o c c i . S e v Q r ely ~1 { a c t e d , w i C l t c e v e r e I > . m o r r l ~ a c j c onrl s e v e r e a c u t e pleural i n { larrlnril i o r l , c . o n r i ~ t i g -of 1arqe 'numbers of n e u t r o p h ~ s. 1 Dx: lung, plrur'e, 5cvere i r ~ f l a r n r n a ti o n , n e u t r o p h i 1 ic i n i i l Crate, a s s o c i d t e d w l . t h b a c t e r i a D x : l ttnq , ~ ~ , I I L >r C . ~ a y e \ . I

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death with e n d o t o r ~ r n i a . helps to suppol-t s e p t ~ c e r n i a . Beyond i n i t i a t i n g pfoblern i
Causo

1

p r o b a b l y hock a s s o c i a t e d The i . o l a t l o n 0:'b s e u d o m o n ~ f r o m her c a l f thjs possibility suggesting a terminal t h i s , i t j s d ~ l f l { u l t to d e t e r m i n e w h a t t h e 3 i n t h i s c a s e . . Tqolrgh n o l e s i o r i s s u g g e s t i n g a p r i m a r y v i r a l e t i o l o g y a r e r e c o g n i z e d f t h i s d o e 5 n o t r u l e o u t thp p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a v i r u s may hevw p r o v i d ' o d t h e i n l t i a l i n s u l t , w i t h I t h e b a c t e r i a l p u l r r l u ~ ~ a r iy ' f e c t i o n t h e n c o m i n g i n a s a s e c o n d a r y , n b u t n c v e r t l ~ eels s m a j c r p r o b l e m .
i n

of

t h i s animal

I

I

Osborn,

D ~ T

Sea W o r l d of

Florida

GROSS NECROPSY REPORT
F A C I L I T Y : Sea

world cf Florida

PBoaECTOn:

D r . Terry C w p b e l l . D r . ri)ce Walsh, Dr, ~ i n t n e r ,Dr. Scott Wriaht
. .

GEXU8/8PECIB8: Qrcinus orca

adclt fernale k i l l e t whale e r L ? i b i t e d n o m e C i c a l probleas s i n c e her zrrival at Sea Wcrld cf Florida on 2 / 1 8 / 5 1 u n t i l 7 / 2 1 / 9 1 wile,? she 7 2 s t r ? e t e < for a n i n f e c t e d t c o t h . The animal r e m a i n e d c l i n i c a l l y norsal until 8/5/91 v h e n s h e r e f u s e d t o e a t a f t e r her f i r s t meal. Although she remzined a c t - v e and alert, s h e vould n o t r e s p o n d t o h e r t r a i n e r s ' r e q u e s t for c c n t a c t . At 3 : 00 a . m . , 2 u r i n g a tventy-four h o u r watch, her respiratory r a t e beqzn t o increase- The v e t e r i n a r y a n d c u r a t o r i l l s t a f f s were nccifieC m e d i a t e l y and. a r r i v e d t o assess h e r c a n d i t i c n . ~l'iniczlly the a n i r n a l ' s c a n d , i t i ~ n deteriorated r a ~ i d l yand she z p p e a r e S t~ be i n c c l i e r e n t t o her s z r a u n d i n $ s and =ias exhibiting c j e s t r i c r e t c h i n q . S h e wzs coaxed incc t h e medic21 p o c l w h e r e s h e was giver, therapy f o r shock i n c l u d i n g g l u ~ c c ~ ~ i c c s : e r o i d ~ , a n t i b i o t i c s , v i t n a i n K , a n d oxycjen. Elnutes prior t o her d e z t h sZe e;chzlez blood-tinged fluid from h e r b l o v . In spite of t A e r z F Y , she C i e d a t 7 : 1 5 a.m., a p ~ a r e n t l yo f r e s p i r a t o r y f a i l u r e .
This

Page 2

I.D.

B0. 007602

GlWI9-L

E

m APPEWCX:

(oral cavity, e x t e r n a l n a r e s , s k i n , eyes)

The necropsy was performed with the animal in left lateral recumbency. There were no external indicators of trauma. The eyes and external nare were clear. The oral cavity appeared normal. NO swelling W a s found around t h e lower third right tooth which had previously been i n f e c t e d ,
BWBDERKAL CONDZTTQN;. (blubber, muscles, l p p h nodes)
T h e anlraal w a ~
L A

-

IIV

T

muscle pathology was detected and superficial l p p h nodes appeared normal.
C W I h L 8XXM:

{ears, melon, ptrrygaid sinus)
The pterygoid sinus area was c l e a n

No significant gross lesions vere found. and free of parasites.
CENTRAL ZTEBYOUB B Y B T e l d :

(brain, pituitary, spinal cord)

The brain was removed in one piece for magnetic resonance imaging, g r o s s pathologic, and histologic evaluation. There were no significant gross

lesions.
m ~ I
CAVITY: c

(pleura)

There were occasional patchy foci of ecchymoses and petechia on the p a r i e t a l pleura and diaphragm. Diffuse ecchymoses was also found on t h e dorsal costal pleura ventral to the rete area. ~pproximately 300 cc of serosanquinous fluid was found in the right hemithorax.
REBPIPATORY EY8TEM:

(nasal sacs, nares, larynx)

No significant gross lesions were found in .thenasal sacs, nzres, and l a r y n x .

Page 3
U V E R R E ~ P ~ R A T O R Y Y6TgWz B

I.D.

YO.

007602

( t r a c h e a , b r o n c h i , l u n g s , lymph n o d e s )

The trachea c o n t a i n e d a s m a l l amount of

blood t i n g e d f l u i d . There were no gross tracheal o r bronchial l e s i o n s . The a n t e r i o v e n t r a l o n e - t h i r d o f each l u n g was c o n g e s t e d with t h e i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y g i v i n g i t a dark r e d c o l o r , Each l u n g had a 1 5 t o 2 0 cm e l e v a t e d s p h e r i c a l area on t h e d o r s a l border: onethird of the way from the a n t e r i o r leading edge. The s p h e r e s bulged 6 t o 10 a above t h e surrounding lung c o n t o u r . These lesions b l e n d e d i m p e r c e p t i b l y n i n t o t h e more normal lung t i s s u e . Hemorrhage a n d p a n i a l l i q u e f a c t i o n n e c r o s i s when viewed on t h e c u t s u r f a c e . The l e s i o n s had no odor. The major pulmonary v e s s e l s appeared normal and free O f e m b o l i . Approximately

sl L
i n both lungs. These t r a c t s , p o s s i b l e lymph c h a ~ e l 5 ,were l o c a t e d on the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of t h e l u n g a n d a p p e a r e d t o c o n t a i n diluted b l o o d . Both s k i r t lymph nodes ( t h o s e a t t a c k e d b y t h e v e n t r a l l u n g s u r f a c - ) were edematous w i t h semi-clear f l u i d . C o n g e s t i o n and hemorrhage were p r e s e n t i n a p o r t i o n of t h e s e lymph nodes.

~ ~ o v k s c ~ t8Y6TEH: A R

( h e a r t , a o r t a , major v e s s e l s )

p e r i c a r d i a l p e t e c h i a and ecchymoses were s e e n i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s . The h e a r t c o n t a i n e d w e l l formed c u r r e n t j e l l y c l o t s and b o t h v e n t r i c l e s s t o p p e d i n diastole. The h e e r t and v e s s e l s w e r e normal. T h e r e w a s z p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 ml o f amber c o l o r e d p e r i c a r d i a l f l u i d t h a t c o n t a i n e d p a r t i c u l a t e m a t e r i a l .
ZLBPOHINAL,

(lymph n o d e s )

The abdominal c a v i t y c o n t a i n e d a s m a l l amount o f c l e a r f l u i d . There was a g e n e r a l i z e d e n l a r g e m e n t o f the lymph n o d e s . S e v e r a l 5 cz s i z e d lymph nodes ( m e s e n t e r i c ) n e a r t h e p a n c r e a s c o n t a i n e d up t o 3 o r 4 fibrous s p h e r e s 8 m i i n d i a m e t e r . T h e s e spheres had n e c r o t i c centers and a p p e a r e d t o be h e a l e d

granulomas due t o p r e v i o u s parasltisa o r i n f e c t i o n ,
QIGESTIV~ 8YBTEX:

( e s o p h a g u s , s t o m a c h , i n t e s t i n e , cecum, r e c t u n , l p p h nodes1

The f i r s t compartment of t h e stomach c o n t a i n e d a s m a l l a m o u n t of s a n d and s m a l l round s t o n e s . ?LC G . S c n h e a l e d mucssal u l c e r s were found in t h e junction between the first a n d s e c o n d compartment o f t h e s t o m a c h . A p o r t i o n of t h e second stomach compartment had e v e r t e d i n t o Che first compartment. O c c a s i o n a l ecchymotic l e s i o n s w e r e found on t h e s e r o s a l s u r f a c e o f t h e intestine beginning a t t h e m e s e n t e r i c j u n c t i o n a n d r o t a t i n g b i l a t e r a l l y o v e r

the intestine.
LITER:

The mucosa was n o r m a l .

One s m a l l e c c h y m o t i c l e s i o n was found
)

i n the nucosa c o l o n .
I

( b i l i a r y system) N s i g n i f i c a n t cjross l e s i o n s Were o

The l i v e r was normal i n size and s h a p e .

found .

I.D.

NO. 0 0 7 6 0 2

The pancreas w a s of normal size and.shape. It had a uniformly gray s u r f a c e . The visceral surface contained a fe& petechial le6ions. Several 0.5 a sized sacculations o f f the pancreatic duct contained a few 1 to 2 mm concretions.

The spleen appeared normal except for a single 1.5 cm diameter outgrowth.

The uterus contained a 12-month male fetus that appeared to have Seen alive until the dam died. A large corpus luteum was found on the left o v a r y .
U R X l € A R Y SYSTEM:

(kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra) No significant .gross lesions .we.re

Kidneys were of normal size and shape. found in the urinary tract.

The right adrenal gland was diffusely discolored from hemorrhage. adrenal gland had a red cortex and a non-remarkable medulla.
B X E L E W 8YSTgM:

The - l e f t

No significant gross lesions.

No parasites were found.

Tissues submitted for histopatholoqy, cytology o f fluids, aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures, 'mycotLc cqltures, virus investiqatian and toxicolq; .

Fage 5

I.D. NO. C c 7 5 Q 2

-

-

Bilateral pulmonary lesions characterized by hamorrhaye, congestion, and liquefaction necrosis- diffuse, severe milmonary pleura and pericardial petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhage, mderate Generalized lymphadenopathy Hemorrhage of the right adrenal- severe 110 lb. male fetus

- septicemia
CONCLUSION^:

-

~ c U t e hemorrhagic

diffuse, severe, probably infectious in origin

(after histology & clinical pathology review)

The cause of death in this animal was a severe, necrotizing;, hemorrhagic, bacterial pneumonia that resulted in a fatal overwhelming septicemia and pulmonary anoxia.

~lthough a variety of bacteria were isolated by culture and seen cn histol-, primary pathogen was pseudomorlaS aerusinosa. The hemorrhage from the blow prior to death resulted from the hemorrhagic lung lesiors and/or terminal disseminated intravascular coagulation [DICj as determined by a positive fibrin split products test. The generalized lymphadenopathy, petechia, and ecchymoses found on gross necropsy were associated vith the septicemia and DIC. The histologic changes seen in the liver and kidneys were associated with anoxia caused by the cardiovascular collapse just prior to death. Several nodules along the gastrointestinal tract contained trematode eggs indicating a previous infection with trematode parasites. The fluid found in the thoracic cavity and pericardial fluid resulted from the infections process. The corpus lute- was a c o r p u s luteum of pregnancy. The agonal, erratic swimming observed in many dying cetaceans vhich often results in additional trauma did not occur in this case because the animal was restrained by personnel in the medical pool which did not allow for swimming room.

Page 6

I.D.

NO.

Go7602

p s e u d c ~ o n a sp e n s has been recovered from numerous C e t a c e a n s which have not shovn any evidence o f clinical illness and it widely distributed in many areas including the gastrointestinal tract of m M u n a 1 ~ . The sane organism in the lung was also found in the intestinal t r a c t . The toxins t h a t

can be produced by pseudomonas aemqinosa include hemolysin, f ibrinolysin, elastase coagulase, endotoxin, enterotoxin and exotoxin. Some of these may contribute to its pathogenicity. The rapid decline O f this a n h a l vas due to the overvhelming loss of functional lung t i s s u e resulting from the b a c t e r i a l pneumonia and D I C .

DATE :

BIGflD1
Michael T. Walsh, DVM Sea World o f ~ l o r i d a 7007 Sea World rive Orlando, FL 32821

DATE :
/
/

8IGEED:

Terry ~ J c d r n ~ b e l l , ~ V M , ~ D P Sea World of F l o r i d a 7007 Sea World Drive Orlando, FL 3 2 8 2 1

5% ~//lGcw~&!?s,&

--

DEPARTMEST OF COMPARATIVE ASD EXPERIMESTAL PATHOLOGY
I

C c l l c ~ c \ c ; c r ~ n a r ! !.!c:.;snc of

PO BOA 1WI;J
Caincr\illc. Florida .:14I! '60l: (W)392-1221 (9o.r) 392-5426 F A X
.,

THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

September 2 4 , 1991

Mr. A r t J e f f e r s O f f i c e of Protected Resources U n i t e d S t a t e s ~ e ~ a r t m e n f Commerce ot N a t i o n a l O c e a n i c and A t m o s p h e r i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n N a t i o n a l Marine F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e 1335 E a s t West Highway. 20910 S i l v e r S p r i n g , MD

i

D e a r Mr. J e f f e r s : .

..

Thank you f o r t a k i n g t h e t i m e t o t a l k t o me t o d a y . A s I m e n t i o n e d i n o u r phone c o n v e r s a t i o n , D r . Ruth F r a n c i s - F l o y d p r o v i d e d c o p i e s o f t h e n e c r o p s y r e p o r t s and l e t t e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e a t h s o f t h e two k i l l e r w h a l e s a t t h e S e a World I .independently reviewed t h e s e F a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d i n T e x a s and F l o r i d a t o me. documents and b e l i e v e t h a t t h e d e a t h s o f t h e s e two a n i m a l s were n o t r e l a t e d . The I c a n n o t d e t e c t any evidence t o f a c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d c l e a r l y and h o n e s t l y . s u g g e s t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n h a s been k n o w i n g l y o m i t t e d . The c a u s e o f d e a t h i n t h e w h a l e l o c a t e d i n F l o r i d a seems c l e a r c u t , a s g r o s s n e c r o p s y f i n d i n g s , a l o n g w i t h h i s t o p a t h o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and c u l t u r e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e d i a g n o s i s of a c u t e , s e v e r e , n e c r o t i z i n g pneumonia d u e t o Pseudomonas g . , a w e l l recognized pathogen. Although s e v e r a l p r e d i s p o s i n g c o n d i t i o n s m y a l l o w t h i s o r g a n i s m t o grow, i t i s o f t e n n o t p o s s i b l e t o . i d e n t i f y t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s by t h e t i m e a n a n i m a l becomes c l i n i c a l l y ill. The c a u s e o f d e a t h o f t h e w h a l e a t t h e T e x a s f a c i l i t y is less s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d The o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e s e c u r i t y g u a r d a n d t h e l e s i o n s f o u n d a t n e c r o p s y s u p p o r t I d o n ' t believe, t h e d i a g n o s i s o f trauma a s t h e i m m e d i a t e c a u s e o f d e a t h . however, t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s a n i m a l ' s v i o l e n t b e h a v i o r p r i o r t o d e a t h can be determined w i t h c e r t a i n t y . A s i n t h i s c a s e , ganglioneurornas have p r i m a r i l y o c c u r i n younger a n i m a l s . Some o f t h e c l i n i c a l s i g n s a s s o c i ' a t e d w i t h i n t e s t i n a l ganglioneuromas d e s c r i b e d i n a n i m a l s i n c l u d e s t r a i n i n g , c o n s t i p a t i o n , o r gaseous d i l a t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e s t i n e s . W h i l e I k n o ~ f n o c a s e i n which v i o l e n t b e h a v i o r o o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g a n g l i o n e u r o m a , I would n o t a b s o l u t e l y r u l e o u t t h i s p o s s L t i l i t y . Though I would p e r s o n a l l y p r e f e r t o s a y t h a t t h e c a u s e o f t h e a p p a r e n t l y s e l f - i n d u c e d trauma c o u l d n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d a t necropsy, r e l a t i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s is a r e a s o n a b l e i n t e r p r e ' a t i o n . Thank you f o r p e r m i t t i n g m e t o r e v i e w t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n 'Sincerely,
I

1

L o i s Roth, D . V . M . , Ph.D. D i p l o m a t e , A . C . V . P.

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H A M M O N D CONSULTANTS, INC.
ANIMAL SPECIALISTS
123 N. STECKEL DR. SANTA PAULA. CA. 93060 TEL: (835) 525-9544 Fax# (805) 643-0490

Ms. Ann Terbush, Chief, Permit Division U.S. Department of Commerce, OPR, NMFS, NOAA Permlt Division, -SSMCI, Room 7324 1335 East-West Hlghway Sllver Sprlng, MD 20910 September 24, 1991 .Dear Ms. ferbush: I have reviewed the material you sent to me concerning the death of a Killer Whale at Sea World of Florlda and a second animal's death at Sea World of San Antonlo, Texas. I have also had Informal talks with some of the Sea World anlmal husbandry and veterlnarlan staff. There appears to be three areas of review concerning the deaths of these two Killer Whales: a. Is the death of Killer Whale SWC 007602 due to an infective process? b. Is the death of Killer Whale SWC 007803 due to trauma, and i f so, was It self Induced? c. Are there any anlmal husbandry or veterinarian policies or procedures thet merit changlng?
, Revlew of Necropsy reports of Klller Whale SWC OG7602 (animal died b g u s t 6 1991 at S_ea World of Florida).

1. The necropsy was conducted In the presence of several competent professlonals. The tissue samples were sent to publlcly funded faclllties n that are well known for their ~ ~ n b l a s e d work.

2. The description o f the gross pathology, histopathology and bacteriology confirm that the Klller Whale SWC 00-7602 died from bacterial pneumonla that was the result of a termlnai overwhelmlng septicemla and pulmonary anoxla.
/

Revlew of Necropsy reports of Klller Whale SWC 00-7803(animal died May 14, 1991 a Sea W d d of San Antonlo, Texas. t
1. The etlology of the death of this animal Is from trauma and the resultlng Injuries It suffered. The source of the trauma had to be sushnled from a vloient Impact. I f the two accompanylng whales had been involved In traumatlzlng this whale, all anlmais connected wlth the encounter would have had some degree of injury. Physical examination of the two surviving whales did not show any signs of trauma. The whale 00-7803 had none of the classic e" m a r k i n p caused from teeth a r The descriptions given in the necropsy report and the night watchman are all in keeping wlth self Induced trauma.
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2. The assumption has to be made that whale SWC 00-7803 died from trauma it received when the animal struck its body against the wall@) of the pool resultlng In It own death. The difficulty remains as to how to account l o r the animal's behavlor resulting in striking its body against the pool wall. The necropsy and hlstopathology reports confirmed the presence of a small tumor. There are medical reports that this cell type (see various pathology reports in this brief), has in some species, produced sever pain. If the tumor was malignant or not is academic at this point since there was only one tumor found. The question remains if this tumor could crate sufficient pain t o cause the anlmal to traumatize itself resulting in its own death.

I find that the most probable working hypothesis Is that the presence of t h e tumor could have caused a functional colic condition as well as produclng a primary source of pain. I experienced "colic" behavjor in a killer whale In Hong Kong. This anlmal would have sustained substantial bodily harm to itself had we not dralned the pooi and restrained .the whale. A functional obstruction Is one In which there Is no torsion or physical blockage of the Intestinal tract. A section of intestines lacks motility and/or is in muscle spasm resultlng in gas formation within the intestinal tract. This symptom alone Is sufficient to cause excruciating pain similar to thbt seen i n horses with colic.
Based upon the information given and having experienced treating a Killer Whale with colic, I feel the correct diagnosis has been made of death dl le to skull fractures and blood loss. The whale had experienced excruclatlng pain in part or as the sole resuit of a tumor of neural orlgln. A resulting "collc like" condition developed causing the whale striking its head and body against the pooi wall.
I

Review of Anlmal Husbandary Procedures and Pracitices at Sea World: Sea World has had a marlne breedlng program for several years. Thelr dolphln breeding program has produced some 35 calves. In fact, Sea World has not had to capture any dolphins for their performance or feedlng pools slnce the late 1970's. Thls Is by far the best breedlng program of any faclllty world wlde. Sea World has undertaken to breed Killer Whales and, has had 7 s ~ ~ c c e s s f u l

of all Killer Whale calves In the wild die within the first 18 months of life, the longevity of the calves at Sea World Is exceptional. When any killer Whale becomes ill or requires any unusual medical treatment, the veterinarian attending the whale immediately faxes ail pertinent Information to all other veterinarlans at the various parks in the Sea World complex. This affords the other veterinarians a chance to participate from the immediate onset of the problem to its conclusion. In addition, there are weekly telephone conference calls between all veterinaiians at all locations. Each veterinarian responslble for marine mammals, visually checks his anlmals twice dally and meets with the trainers and lay staff at least.once a day. Routine physlcal and blood and b.low hole samples are taken at that tlme. The success of the dolphin breeding program provides a strong indication of how successful the anlmal husbandry,program Is at the various Sea World

locations.
I find no reason for Sea World Inc. to change any of Its procedures or policies regarding the husbandry of Killer Whale or Dolphin programs.
Sincerely yours,.,"
P
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Douglds (Ted) .Hammond D . v . ~
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U n i v e r s i t y of Florida
I n s t c t u t e of

Food a n d A g r i c u l t u r a l Sciences

S c h o o l o f F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s a n d Conservation

11

U n a v c n s I T y Of

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DEPARTMENT

OF FISHERIES AND

AQUACULTURE

Telephone: 9041392-96 17

September 27, 1991

7922 N.W. nsl street Gainesville. Florida 32WW300

Mr. A r t Jeffers O f f i c e of Protected Resources

ceanic an N a t i o n a l Marine F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e 1 3 3 5 ' E a s t West Highway S i l v e r S p r i n g s , MD 2 0 9 1 0 Dear M r . J e f f e r s ;
A t your r e q u e s t , I have reviewed t h e n e c r o p s y r e p o r t s and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f o r k i l l e r w h a l e s #SWF-00-7803 a n d ,#SWC-007602 which d i e d i n S e a World p a r k s e a r l i e r t h i s y e a r . With y o u r permission, I forwarded t h i s information t o D r . L o i s Roth, a board c e r t i f i e d v e t e r i n a r y p a t h o l o g i s t , f o r i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w ; D r . Roth w i l l forward h e r f i n d i n g s u n d e r s e p a r a t e c o v e r .

. F o l l o w i n g c a r e f u l r e v i e w o f a l l d o c u m e n t s , it i s m - o p i n i o n y t h a t t h e r e is n o a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o d e a t h s . E a c h s l o r t a l i t y r e p r e s e n t e d a n i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t , a n d , i n my o p i n i o n , n e i t h e r e v e n t c o u l d have been a n t i c i p a t e d o r p r e v e n t e d . It is a n u n f o r t u n a t e c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e s e m o r t a l i t i e s o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a few months o f e a c h o t h e r , b u t I see n o l i n k a g e b e t w e e n them. From t h i s p o i n t o n I s h a l l d i s c u s s t h e two m o r t a l i t i e s s e p a r a t e l y .
The f i r s t i n c i d e n t i n v o l v e d a m a t u r e f e m a l e k i 1 l e . r w h a l e (#SWF-00-7803) w h i c h d i e d s u d d e n l y , a n d t r a u m a t i c a l l y , on M a y ' 1 4 , 1 9 9 1 n e a r 6:00 am. The e v e n t o c c u r r e d a t S e a World o f T e x a s . The i n c i d e n t was o b s e r v e d , a n d r e p o r t e d i m m e d i a t e l y , by s e c u r i t y s t a f f . Animal c a r e p e r s o n n e l a r r i v e d w i t h i n 10-15 m i n u t e s . N e c r o p s y o f t h i s a n i m a l was i ~ i t i a t e d i t h i n t h r e e h o u r s o f d e a t h . P r o s e c t o r s w i n c l u d e d a n i n d e p e n d e n t v e t e r i n a r y p a t h o l o g i s t a n d a n indepenaen'c veterinarian. T h e r e seems l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e i m m e d i a t e c a u s e of d e a t h i n t h i s a n i m a l was h e a d t r a u m a c a u s e d b y c o l l i s i o n w i t h t h e c o n c r e t e p o o l w a l l . T h e p r i n c i p l e c b n c e r n , t h e r e f o r e , seems t o be what c a u s e d t h e whale t o b e h a v e i n s u c h a v i o l e n t , and u l t i m a t e l y f a t a l , manner.
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The s e c u r i t y r e p o r t seems t o a d e q u a t e l y r u l e o u t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r w h a l e s which might h a v e i r e s u l t e d i n f a t a l i n j u r y t o w h a l e t SWF-00-7803. T h e s e c u r i t y r e p o r t s t a t e s , " t h e o t h e r n a l e a n d f e m a l e w h a l e s were . . . v e r y c a l m , and f l o a t i n g on t h e s u r f a c e 1 ' r\rr,+i\rne rAe ' h 9r-c~ r ~ i - e . 0
WAAAAI * b n g r r , p ~ r ~ i n r * r The InTt'ule ol fax and Agr-ural Scaences 1 en Equal Enployrnc>t Opponunlry - Afl~rrnal~ve s Anion Ernpbrer aulnorlred lom-& reS8ac e d u ~ i r ~ g ~ x ' and nnst~tuleons !hat lunclon vllhoul regard lo race 0 1 sex age handaca; 01 nallOra 3r'g'n *n'3frnallon 2-C ocher swvlces only lo 1na0v6duals
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d u r i n g t h e i n c i d e n t . I f o n e o r S c t h o f t h e s e a n i m a l s had b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n c i d e n t t h e y ~ o s c i k e l y x o u l d h a v e b e e n swimr;,ing l around t h e p o o l a t a r a p i d r a t e o f s p e e d , p o s s i b l y c h a s i n g t h e a n i m a l w h i c h d i e d . T h i s was n o t o b s e r v e d . L a c k o f i n v o l v e m e n t by t h e o t h e r w h a l e s seems t o be f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y t h e l a c k o f "recent r a k e marksu on t h e dead animal, and l a c k o f trauma o r r a k e marks on t h e s u r v i v i n g whales. T h e q u e s t i o n remains a s t o w h a t w o u l d c a u s e t h i s a n i m a l t o t h r a s h v i o l e n t l y enough t o i n c u r m u l t i p l e s k u l l f r a c t u r e s and f a t a l i n j u r y . S e a World h a s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a c u t e a b d o m i n a l p a i n , c a u s e d b y a t u m o r (neurofibroma/ganglioneuroma) i n t h e d i s t a l s m a l l p l a u s i b l e . Cetaceans are p a r t i c u l a r l y prone t o abdominal discomfort f r o m bowel d i s t e n t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e r e s t r i c t e d s p a c e w i t h i n t h e p e r i t o n e a l c a v i t y ( S w e e r ~ e y , 1 9 9 0 ) . D i s t e n d e d l o o p s o f bowel were n o t r e p o r t e d o n t h e g r o s s necropsy r e p o r t f o r t h i s a n i m s l , however p r o s e c t o r s d i d o b s e ~ e h i c k brownish-red l i q u i d i n t h e jejunum, t a n t e r i o r t o t h e tumor. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a n i m a l ' s h i s t o r y o f e r r a t i c a p p e t i t e is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n t e s t i n a l d i s e a s e (Sweeney, 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e a n i m a l ' s a p p e t i t e had been i r r e g u l a r f o r a t l e a s t 6 months p r i o r t o d e a t h , and t h i s b e h a v i o r had been a t t r i b u t e d t o c o n v a l e s c e n c e from a n a p p a r e n t l y . u n r e l a t e d m e d i c a l p r o b l e m w h i c h was s u c c e s s f u l l y t r e a t e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1920.
It is w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g t h a t t h e r e is p r e c e d e n t f o r s e l f i n f l i c t e d i n j u r y i n c a p t i v e k i l l e r w h a l e s . I n t h e e a r l y 1970s a m a l e k i l l e r w h a l e h o u s e d i n Miami h i t a n o b s e r v a t i o n window w i t h e n o u g h f o r c e t o b r e a k t h e window, c a u s i n g l o s s o f a s i g n i f i c a n t volume o f water, a n d s l i c i n g o f f t h e e n d o f h i s n o s e . T h e a t t e n d i n g v e t e r i n a r i a n f o r t h a t i n c i d e n t was D r . J e s s e W h i t e . I h a v e l i s t e d Dr., W h i t e ' s p r e s e n t a d d r e s s a n d p h o n e n u m b e r a t t h e e n d o f t h i s l e t t e r s h o u l d you w i s h t o c o n t a c t him w i t h s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h a t event.
A f i n a l point concerns speculation about an "unidentified f o r e i g n body" c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h e m o r r h a g e i n t h e m e d i a s t i n u m o f t h e dead w h a l e . I n g e s t i o n o f f o r e i g n b o d y c e r t a i n l y h a s a p l a c e o n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l d i a g n o s i s f o r a c a p t i v e c e t a c e a n which died suddenly, h o w e v e r , i n t h i s case t h e f a c t s s e e m t o e f f e c t i v e l y r u l e o u t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . I n my own m i n d , t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e t r a u m ? which was observed s e e m s s u f f i c i e n t t o cause s u b s t a n t i a l s o f t t i s s u e i n j u r y w h i c h c o u l d i n c l u d e h e m o r r h a g e i n t h e m e d i a s t i n u m . The e s o p h a g u s a n d m a j o r b l o o d v e s s e l s i n a n a n i m a l of t h i s s i z e a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t h a t a l a c e r a t i o n o r o t h e r a b n o r m a l i t y s h o u l d be a p p a r e n t d u r i n g g r o s s n e c r o p s y . I n a d d i t i o n , i n g e s t i o n o f f o r e i g n body i s generally considered a preventable disease (Sweeney, 1 9 9 0 ) . P r e v e n t i o n is a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h c l o s e s u r v e i l l a n c e o f p o o l s h o u s i n g m a r i n e mammals, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e where p u b l i c vkewing is p e r m i t t e d . S e a W o r l d h a d t a k e n t h i s p r e c a u t i o n a s e v i d e n c e d by assignment o f s e c u r i t y p e r s o n n e l . t o t h e k i l l e r whale pool aroundthe-clock.

The d e a t h o f w h a l e t SWC-00-7602 a t S e a World i n O r l a ~ d o o c c u r r e d n e a r 7:00 am on A u g u s t 6 , 1991, l e s s t h a n 2 4 h o u r s a f t e r t h e w h a l e f i r s t showed b e h a v i o r a l s i g n s o f i l l n e s s . The a n i m a l was necropsied the same day. Prosectors included two staff v e t e r i n a r i a n s , a n d two i n d e p e n d e n t p a t h o l o g i s t s . T i s s u e s c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e g r o s s necropsy w e r e submitted t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e v e t e r i n a r y p a t h o l o g y l a b o r a t o r i e s . The f i n a l d i a g n o s i s was t h e same f r o m e a c h o f t h e s e i n d e p e n d e n t l a b o r a t o r i e s . The w h a l e d i e d of a n a c u t e n e c r o t i z ' i n g pneumonia o f b a c t e r i a l o r i g i n . The p a t h o g e n Pseudomonas a e r u q i n o s a was i s o l a t e d from t h e r e s p i r a t o r y t r a c t o f t h e d e a d w h a l e a s w e l l a s f r o m t h e 1 2 month f e t u s w h i c h d i e d in utero. F a t a l consequences o f t h i s a c u t e b a c t e r i a l i n f e c t i o n
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d i s s e m i n a t e d i n t r a v a s c u l a r c o a g u l a t i o n (DIC) Given t h e g r a v e n a t u r e o f t h e s e s e q u e l a e it is d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e how t h e outcome f o r t h i s a n i m a l might h a v e b e e n changed. The r a p i d o n s e t o f i l l n e s s and n o r t a l i t y r e p o r t e d i n t h i s a n i m a l i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r Pseudomonas i n f e c t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n c a p t i v e c e t a c e a n s ( L i o n g e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ) . B a c t e r i a l pneumonia is t h e most common c a u s e o f m o r t a l i t y i n c a p t i v e d o l p h i n s (Sweeney, 1986) a n d it is n o t uncommon f o r b e h a v i o r a l s i g n s o f d i s e a s e t o be masked u n t i l t h e d i s e a s e p r o c e s s i s q u i t e advanced (Sweeney, 1 9 9 0 ) , . I n summary, t h e l o s s o f S e a World k i l l e r w h a l e s #SWF-00-7803 y a n d #SWC-00-7602 is a t r a g i c l o s s , b u t it i s m o p i n i o n t h a t t h e d e a t h s of t h e s e animals c o u l d n o t have been a n t i c i p a t e d o r p r e v e n t e d . I n d e p e n d e n t p a t h o l o g i s t s and o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e knowledge b a s e f o r e a c h a n i m a l . I n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d i n a f o r t h r i g h t a n d h o n e s t manner b y S e a World staff. Thank-you f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e v i e w t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . I f I c a n b e o f f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e t o you p l e a s e d o n o t h e s i t a t e t o c o n t a c t me. Sincerely,

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DVM, M S R u t h Fraacis-Floyc!, Assistant Professor A q u a t i c Animal M e d i c i n e

Archived st T n Orca, Oroje-C: Ce WWA~. t h ~ o ~ c ~ ~ r p i e c t . COT

Literature Cited: Sweeney, J.C. 1990. Marine Mammal Behavioral Diagnostics. In: Handbook of Marine a m Medicine: Health, Disease, and Rehabilitation, L.A. Dierauf (ED). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp 53-72.
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Liong, E.; Hamrnond, D.D.; Vedros, N.A. 1985. Pseudomonas pseudomallei infection in a dolphin.(Tursiops gilli) : a case study. Aquatic Mammals 11:20. Sweeney, J.C. 1986. Infectious Diseases (marine mammal section). In: Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Second Edition, M. Fowler (ED). Additional Resource: (Re: self-inflicted trauma in,captive killer whales) Dr. Jesse White 12025 N. Elkcam Blvd. Dunnellon FL 32630 (904) '489-8142
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