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Tool and Die Design PTB 31304

Raja Aziz Raja Maarof Institute of Product Design and Manufacturing UniKL IPROM

Suchy, I., Handbook of die design; McGraw Hill 2nd Ed., Suchy, design;
2006. Boljanovic, Boljanovic, V., Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design, Alkem, Design, Alkem, 2004. Alvarez, W., Roll Form Tool Design: Fundamentals, Fundamentals, Alkem, Alkem, 2006. Szumera, Szumera, J., The Metal Stamping Process, Alkem, 2003. Process, Alkem, Spitler, Spitler, David (tech. reviewer), Fundamentals of tool reviewer), design, design, Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003. Paquin, Paquin, J. R., Die design fundamentals, Industrial Press, fundamentals, 1986

Credit hours
Four (4) credit hours (2K, 2P) Lecture (room nr 2038)
Two credit hours Two hours per week Every Tuesday, 0830 1030 hrs

Practical (room nr 0016)

Two credit hours Four hours per week Wednesday, 0830 1230 hrs

Main topics
Sheet metal die design principles Press machine specifications Die plates and insert materials Detail single die design Detail design for progressive dies, incorporating piercing, blanking, bending, forming, embossing, etc. Deep Drawing Dies Casting Dies Basic operation and design knowledge of specialized dies Large and Super Large Stamping Dies

Sheetmetal Die Making flow

Sheet metal product & Product design
Ordered volume Volume per batch

Forming machine Forming machine selection Sheet metal die design

Coursework, 60%
At least two assignments: total 40% At least one on sketching (at 10%) At least one on Die design using CAD system
(SolidWorks / Catia / Inventor) (at 30%)

At least one test (mid semester): 20% Approx 30% on theory Approx 70% on practical using CAD system

Final exam, 40%

Approx 30% on theory Approx 70% on practical using CAD system

Product design Flat Blank design Strip layout design Die design

Sheetmetal Die Design

Machining Assembly Trial and debugging (trouble shooting)

Die commissioning

Sheet metal product design

Dimensioning tolerances Positioning tolerances Burr direction Tensile strength ( or Rm) (supplier) ( Material content (supplier) Thickness Surface pressure...

Flat blank / blank sheet design

Def: Unfolded representation of sheetmetal
product design. It incorporated the forming processes, eg. eg. Bending, deep drawing, embossing, lancing, etc.

Cutting clearance
Normally 2 to 5% of strip thickness per side Die clearance: total clearance (both sides) Less than 1% per side: to use fine blanking technology 26 July 2011

Bending factor / processes Drawing factor / processes

Blank design with bending

Bending factor (v) parameters
Bending radius (r) Sheetmetal thickness (t or s)

L = a + b + c + - n.v L = flat blank length a, b, c = flange length (outer side) n = number of bendings v = bending factor

Bending operation: minimum allowable internal radius (r)

Bending operation: determining Bending Factor (v) value

Bending angle: other shapes

= 0 to 90

= >90 to 165

Verhaeltnis r:s = Ratio of radius:thickness

L=a+bv v = Equivalent Value k = Correction Factor S = Material Thickness

Springback by bending
r1 = kR . (r2 + 0.5.s) 0.5.s
r1 = bending radius on tooling r2 = bending radius on product kR = springback factor s = sheet thickness

1 = 2 / kR
1 = bending angle on tooling 2 = bending angle on product / workpiece

Springback by bending

Deep drawing (Tiefziehen) (Tiefziehen)

Deep drawing process and components:
Flat blank sheetmetal Drawing punch Drawing insert Drawing thrust plate

Flat blank calculation

Refer to die catalogue #2 To be discussed in later

Piercing punch stroke

Punch stroke = x + t + y x= t= y=
x t y

Punch & Die dimensions

Piercing / punching
Dpunch = hole dimension on product


Ddie = blank dimension on product


Cutting & Die clearances

Cutting clearance (Shneidspalt), U (Shneidspalt),
Per side U = Ddie - Dpunch

Die clearance, 2U
Both sides

Punch (Schneidstempel) (Schneidstempel) Die (Schneidplatten) (Schneidplatten) Hole (Lochen) (Lochen) Blanking (Ausscheiden) (Ausscheiden)

Draft (Free) angle (Freiwinkel)

Cutting angle on Die

Cutting Clearance
(Schneidspalt) Schneidspalt) Material (Werkstoff) (Werkstoff) Sheet thickness (Blechdicke) Blechdicke) Mit Freiwinkel (with Flat cutting surface cutting angle) Ohne Freiwinkel (Flate cutting surface)

Cutting Clearance (U)

Based on: 1. Strip thickness 2. Cutting angle on Die 3. Strip Tensile Strength
14 Feb 12

Strip layout design

Production volume (yearly, monthly) Type
Single Compound Transfer Progressive (normally Production Vol > 10k / month)

Burr direction

Strip layout design (2)

Strip flow Scrap flow Product flow Force calculation
Cutting Stripping Spring Bending Drawing Force centre point

Cutting force (Fcut) (F

Tensile strength ( or Rm) [N/mm2] ( Shear Stress (t) = 0.7 to 0.9 (t Fcut = t [N/mm2] x Acut [mm2] Fcut = t [N/mm2] x Lcut [mm] x tcut [mm] Where:
Acut = Cutting cross sectional area Lcut = Cutting length tcut = Material thickness

Stripping force
To strip punches from strip layout

The smaller the cutting clearance, the higher the

stripping force required Also it depends on strip material and thickness Fstrip = 0.2 to 0.5 (Stripping Factor, SFac) of cutting force SOP for piercing or blanking process
Thrust plate touches and holds strip layout Then piercing or blanking punch cuts through the strip layout

Thus, at opening position, punch must be

securely positioned inside the thrust plate

Elastomer / urethane (normally for stripper spring) Coil (round & rectangular cross sectional type) Leaf
21 feb 2012

Strip layout design (3)

Pitch puncher / Notching
Function: To ensure strip layout moves forward at a fixed distance No auto-feeder machine auto U profile; material overcut to avoid obstruction of strip flow Based on material thickness

Pitch / strip stopper

Function: to ensure strip layout stops at the desired position Fixed on guide fence or die plate (more precise) Web width

Web design
Minimum web width is required:
To have a stable strip layout During forward motion Avoid sagging To have sufficient thrust force to hold the strip Insufficient thrust, the strip will be pulled by the
punch, hence damaging the strip

Based on material thickness Minimum width Optimum width

Bridge / Web width (Wweb) (W

To reduce scrap. Optimise material utilization, MatlUtil (flat blank area / pitch area) To have sufficient thrust force to hold the strip. Insufficient thrust, the strip will be pulled by the punch, hence damaging the strip To avoid incomplete blank / punch operation To avoid deformation on web, hence strip pitch distance will be distorted To minimise strip overhang

Streifenbreite = Strip width

Web design

a = Web
width at external profile b = Web width between profiles

Strip layout design (4)

Bullet Casing, Mini Stapler One-side carrier (bridge / web) One Consider also:
Burr direction Strip flow (on die or with spring-activated guide lifter) spring Strip over hang condition

Strip layout design (5)

Hinge, Door Bracket Centre carrier Take note on three (3) idle stations

Strip layout design (6)

Cap Two-side carrier Two-

Mon 31 Jan 2011

Strip layout design (7)

Opening and closed conditions
Punches and dies Displacement (closed to open positions)

Punch and blank processes

From top preferred Scrap downwards

Strip level position during forward direction

On die plate preferred. No over hang. No guide lifter. Bend down on product parallel to flow (slot on die plate) At a distance above die plate (with strip lifters) For product with bends. For drawing process

Strip layout design (8)

Force calculation
Cutting (pierce, blank, etc.), bending, drawing Spring Stripping Drawing Return (bending, levelling) Strip carrier

Stripper spring design


Stripper spring calculation

FTotalCut=? FStrip =? Punch travel distance (x + t + y) Spring load, Fmax and Maximum deflection
fmax per spring? Nr of spring? Fstrip/spring strip/spring

Piercing punch stroke

Punch stroke = x + t + y x = Distance inside trust plate t = Strip thickness y = Punch penetration distance from strip bottom

x t y

In text: Based on 90 bending formula, L =

a + b + c + -nv (Heinzler et al., 1997), the flat length is thus xx mm. (p. 260). In text: Heinzler et al. (1997) proposes the 90 bending formula, L = a + b + c + -nv (p. 260). In references: Heiznler, M., Kilgus, R., Heiznler, Kilgus, Nher, Nher, F., Paetzold, H., Rher, W., Paetzold, Rher, Schilling, K. (1997). Tabellenbuch Metall. Metall. Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany: Europa-Lehrmittel. Europa-Lehrmittel.

Citation & References

Die design
Standard plates
Top, pressure, punch holder, stripper, thrust Bottom, die, guide fence

German design

Die design

Japanese design

Die design (Japanese typical design)

Paper stapler, spring puncher Note: stoppers on top & bottom dies are crucial
to avoid over travel of bending and drawing punches

Die design (German typical design)

Paper Puncher: Base

Die design
Datum (normally die top position) Closed position
Piercing / blanking punches Bending punches Drawing punches Spring maximum load condition
0 Die plate

Die design
Opening position
Spring pre-load condition. Better life span pre Spring selection Elastomer / urethane spring
Higher force (approx. 20 times higher than coil spring: 150kN) Lower compressible length (approx. 20%)

Coil spring
Higher compressible length (up to 50%) Max. load approx. 7kN

Gas spring
Linear load increase (300N to 180kN) Drawing and deep drawing process

Disc spring

Die design Spring selection

Lpre-Comp, Pre-load length: 2mm or 5% 10% prePreof spring length. Higher length for higher compression Lstroke, Punch stroke = X + T + Y LDeflTotal compressed length (Deflection)
Consider punches (pierce, bend, draw, etc.) movement

Load to strip the strip layout

Spring load at pre-load length + piercing prepunch travel up to thrust plate bottom level = F strip

Die design Spring selection

Assume material: St 70-2, 3mm thick, total 70
cutting length at 300mm Tensile strength, or Rm for St 70-2 = 690 70- 830 N/mm2. assume average, ave = (690 + 830)/ 2 = 760 N/mm2 Shear stress, t = 0.7 to 0.9 . Assume average, tave = 0.8 x 760 N/mm2 = 600 N/mm2 F shear or cut = ? N F strip = ? N

Die design Spring selection

F shear or cut = t x Area cut = t x Lcut x thick = 600
N/mm2 x 300mm x 3mm = 540,000N = 54,000kgf =54T F strip = 20% - 50% of F cut . Assume Fstrip = 35% of 54T = 19T
E.g. Pre-load distance = 2mm (Lpt), pierce punch Pre(Lpt), distance to thrust bottom level distance is 3 (x) and working stroke is 9mm (t + y) Total spring compressed length = Lpt+x+t+y

Die design Coil spring selection (Stripper Spring)

Compressed length, f = LPre-Comp + LStroke Pre LPre-Comp = Pre-compressed length PrePre fmax (Spring Tech Spec) > f

Compressed length, fmax = 2+3+3+6 =

14mm Consider to use 20 springs Thus, F strip/spring 19T/20= 0.95T = 9,500N Select coil spring SB x dia50x70L
9,807N at 14mm compressed

Die design Elastomer spring selection

Or 4 springs Thus, F strip/spring 19T/4= 4.75T =
47,500N Find spring fmax at 14mm, nearest Fmax at 30,100N for elastomer spring Nr of springs is 190,000N / 30,100N = 6 springs

Die design Strip lifter spring

Strip weight = x Volume Number of springs Weight per spring to hold strip Spring selection Compressed Length f = Lpc + Lstroke
Lpc = Pre-compressed length Pre Lc = Ldefl = Lpc + Lstroke

fmax (Spring Tech spec) > f

Die design
Punches safety level Opening and closed positions Piercing / blanking punches Bending punches Drawing punches Punch stroke Die total stroke

Die life

Die type determination

Small life volume (<50k): Single die High life volume: Progressive die E/E: product life of 200k to 300k in two years Automotive: product life of 500k to 2mil in five to seven years

Case study
Die life of 500k in six years Monthly volume required: 500k / 6yrs / 12mths = approx. 6,945 monthly

Production data
Eight hours per shift 22 days per month

Production allocation (Volume per batch)

Production planning calculation

Press machine 80 SPM (eg AMADA TP-45 (eg TPEX) Press machine cycle time = 1/80 min x 60 sec/min = 0.75 sec Daily time: 1day x 8hrs per day x 60 min/hr = 480 min / day Volume / day = 480 min/day x 80 strokes/min = 38,400 strokes / day. For 6,945 volume per month requirement Time allocation to produce the part: 6,945/38,400
x 8 hours / day = approx. 1.5 hours
Mon 7 Feb 2011

Production planning calculation: Alternative

Machine cycle time: 0.75 sec For 6,945 volume, time to produce = 6,945
x 0.75 sec = 5,209 sec Or 5,209 sec / 3600 sec/hr = approx 1.5 hours

Production allocation (Volume per batch)

Production planning calculation

Press machine cycle time: 60 to 100 spm. Take average, 80 spm Take average to cater down time & maintenance Cycle time or time per stroke or time per piece Cycle time = 1/80 spm or 0.0125 min/stroke or 0.75sec (60sec/80spm) Daily volume: 8hrs per day x 3,600sec per hr / 0.75sec per stroke = 38,400 strokes per day (press machine capacity). For 6,945 volume per month requirement Nr. of days allocation per month: 6,945 units/38,400 units per day
= approx. 0.2 day, namely 0.2day x 8hrs per day= 1.6hrs for one shift to produce one month requirement (6,945 units)

Forming / Stamping machines

C-Frame Hydraulic press

Stamping / forming machine

Machine tonnage Bolster size Slide size Shut height Stroke Die height (closed position)

Tue 20 Sept 2011

Stamping machine selection

Cutting, bending, drawing, stripping forces

Opening height Stroke Tightening position

Bolster dimension Slide dimension

Feeding method Die height Die weight

Bending force parameter calculations

Rm = Tensile Strength Fb = C x Rm x b x S02 W r C = 1 + 4S0 W W C = Bending factor Fb = Open bending Fb1 = Closed bending S0 b Fb1 = 2 x Fb

Bending force parameter calculations

Uniform bending Fb = 0.4 x Rm x b x S0
L- Bending (one side) Fb = 0.2 x Rm x b x S0 L S0 b2



Non-uniform bending Fb = 0.2 x Rm (b1+b2) x S0 Bending without opposing spring Ff = 2.5 x Fb

Mon 12 Oct 09


Bending force parameter calculations


Bending with opposing spring Fos = 1.3 x Fb

Opposing spring

Deep drawing: flat blank

Tiefziehen = Deep drawing Ziehtail = Drawn component Zuschnittdurchmesser = Diameter of flat
blank Ohne Rand = without additional flat ends (lips) Mit Rand = with additional flat end

Deep drawing: Flat blank calculation

Deep drawing: Drawing clearance & corner radii

Ziehspalt und
Radien am Ziehring und Ziehstempel = Drawing clearance & drawing radius on drawing ring & drawing punch
w s k rr rp or rst D dr d Drawing Clearance Sheet Thickness Sheet Material Factor (Wekstofffaktor) Corner Radius at Drawing Ring Corner Radius at Drawing Punch Cut Sheet Diameter Drawing Ring Diameter Punch Diameter

Stahl = steel Sonstige NE-Metalle = Special non-ferrous metal

Deep drawing: Drawing clearance & corner radii

Deep drawing parameter: Number of drawing stages and drawing factor

Ziehstufen &
Ziehverhaeltnis = Number of drawing stages and drawing factor Werkstoff = Material Zwichengluehen = heating during drawing Mit = with Ohne = without

Zug = Travel
D d1 d2 b1 b2 s Cut Sheet Diameter First Stage Punch Diameter Second Stage Punch Diameter First Stage Drawing Factor Second Stage Drawing Factor Sheet Thickness

Deep drawing parameter: Number of drawing stages and drawing factor

Deep drawing parameter: Number of drawing stages

Deep drawing: force calculations

Force calculation Tiefziehkraft = Deep
drawing force Niederhalterkraft = Thrust plate force
FD or Fz d1 s Rm b bmax FT or FN D dN p w Deep Drawing Force Punch Diameter, first stage Sheet Thickness Tensile Strength (or ) Actual Drawing Factor Highest Allowable Drawing Factor Thrust or Holding Force Cut Sheet Diameter / Flat blank diameter Diameter on holding plate Thrust Plate Pressure Drawing Clearance (per side)

Deep drawing: force calculations

Dimensioning & machining procedures

Standard: 0.1 Standard : 0.05 (pressure and punch

holder) Thrust plate
Vertical: 0 to +0.05 Horizontal: 0.1

Guide fence
Horizontal top: -2 to - 3 Horizontal bottom: -0.1 to -0.2 Vertical: 0 to -0.05
In mm

Die plate assembled in ground plate
Vertical: 0 to +0.1 Horizontal: -0.1 to 0

Die plate opening, on top of ground plate

Horizontal: +0.1 to +0.2 Vertical: 0.05

Base plates: Mild steel. E.g. MS45, C45 Punches

Materials: HSS (Euro), DF2, SKD11, SKH Hardness: HRC 60 - 64

Die materials

Materials: HSS, DF2, SKD11, SKH Hardness: HRC 55 63 (normally lower than punches for maintenance purpose. Insert to break rather than punch)

Standard parts
Guide pillars & bushes (SUJ2,) bolts

Common problems in sheetmetal products

Higher than specification Wrong direction

Dented: Foreign materials Different thickness / surface thinning Elongated hole (bend after hole punch) Wrinkle surface Torn off Springback Surface crack Rusty

Finished product problems in sheetmetal


Surface thinning

Common problems on sheetmetal die

Misalignment between top and bottom die

plate sets Forming machine stops halfway through
Insufficient load Obstruction between punches and dies

Tue 18 Oct 2011

Special sheetmetal dies

Cam design, angular cut / bend Side cut Sensors Air-assisted scrap / product removal Air-

Special forming machines

Fineblanking Highspeed forming machines Multi-actions bending machines Multi Sensors in forming machines

Cost calculation: Main cost components

Design Raw materials and standard parts Machining Heat treatment Handling Delivery Administration Profit margin Quotation

Design cost
RM / hr Design duration
Design objective (based on problem statement) Design needs analysis Research ideas Design alternatives Final design

Raw material & standard part cost

Raw material, by:
Request for quotation from suppliers Weight Size or volume

Standard part catalogue

Price list from suppliers Request for quotation from suppliers

Machining cost
Machine type
Milling Turning Grinding Wirecut Diesink Welding

Machining accuracy Machining time calculation RM / hr rate, by machine depreciation

Normally based on depreciation Cost to purchase a machine, e.g. RM300k (plus

interest) For forming machine: E.g. 80 spm. Cycle time = spm. 0.0125min/stroke or 0.75sec/stroke Year to depreciate, e.g. 7 years RM/yr: RM/month: RM/day: RM/hr: RM/min: RM per 0.0125min or RM per stroke:

Machining cost

Heat treatment
RM / kg rate RM for special requirement
Material Heat treatment method Electrical furnace Induction Process control

Handling cost
Machine setting Assembly and dismantling Quality control Progress control Storage RM/hr

Transportation mode
Lorry or car or motorcycle (depreciation) Driver Petrol Maintenance (tyre wear, engine oil, etc) (tyre Toll

RM / km
Weight category , e.g. Less than 150 kg at RM1/kg Others at RM2/kg Size or volume category

Apportionment: % to be budgeted on
capital expenditure, e.g. supporting machines, furniture, forklift, etc RM/hr Eg. Eg.
Admin staff payroll: Total RM50,000 per month Power & utility: RM5,000 per month Building depreciation or rentals: RM10,000 month 2 shifts, 8 hours / shift, 22 days / month. Equals to 352 hours / month

Administration cost

Administration cost
Admin cost / month: RM65,000 Rate: RM65,000 / 352 hours RM185 / hr For e.g. 50 projects per year.
Apportionment equals 1/50. or RM3.70 / hr / project

Profit margin
% of total production cost % value depends on:
Difficulty level Timeline given by customer Wisdom: Can others do it? Rule of thumb

Quotation to customer
Project name Project reference number Price Warranty Delivery date

Definitions (ref: Wikipedia)
of capital expenditures of certain assets under accounting rules, particularly intangible assets, assets, in a manner analogous to depreciation is the distribution of a single lump-sum cash lumpflow into many smaller cash flow installments, as determined by an amortization schedule

E.g. soft tools, R&D, prototype

Cost summary
Item Design Raw material Std. part Machining Heat treatment Handling Delivery Admin Total Profit margin Quotation Basis Hrs Kg L/s Hrs Kg Hrs Km, weight, volume Hrs % 50 to 200 Rate (e.g.) RM25/hr RM7/kg As manufacturer list RM5 to RM60/hr RM5/kg RM5/hr RM5 to RM60/km RM4 RM

Cost summary

Tue 09 Mar 2010

Forming technologies
automation High Speed Forming Machine Fineblanking

Yamada Omega: 3,000RPM

Fineblanking: 300 pcs/min Forming machine with auto-feeder

Design samples

Special designs
Sensors in die

Ball catch

Utilization rate of strip in producing the

workpiece flat blank Determines a good design or otherwise To determine the best configuration
Nr of row Straight or slanting layout

Strip utilization

Strip utilization
= Utilization efficiency (%) R = Nr of row A = flat blank surface area (inclusive holes) V = Strip pitch B = Strip width

R.A = V.B

Force centre point

U = perimeter of each punch a = distance of punch centre point to a reference
point x = distance between force centre point to reference point

U1.a1 + U 2 .a2 + U 3 .a3 + ... x= U1 + U 2 + U 3 + ...