Tool and Die Design PTB 31304

Raja Aziz Raja Ma’arof Institute of Product Design and Manufacturing UniKL IPROM

References
§ Suchy, I., Handbook of die design; McGraw Hill 2nd Ed., Suchy, design; § § § § §
2006. Boljanovic, Boljanovic, V., Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design, Alkem, Design, Alkem, 2004. Alvarez, W., Roll Form Tool Design: Fundamentals, Fundamentals, Alkem, Alkem, 2006. Szumera, Szumera, J., The Metal Stamping Process, Alkem, 2003. Process, Alkem, Spitler, Spitler, David (tech. reviewer), Fundamentals of tool reviewer), design, design, Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003. Paquin, Paquin, J. R., Die design fundamentals, Industrial Press, fundamentals, 1986

Credit hours
§ Four (4) credit hours (2K, 2P) § Lecture (room nr 2038)
§ Two credit hours § Two hours per week § Every Tuesday, 0830 – 1030 hrs

§ Practical (room nr 0016)
§ Two credit hours § Four hours per week § Wednesday, 0830 – 1230 hrs

§ § § § § § § § §

Main topics
Sheet metal die design principles Press machine specifications Die plates and insert materials Detail single die design Detail design for progressive dies, incorporating piercing, blanking, bending, forming, embossing, etc. Deep Drawing Dies Casting Dies Basic operation and design knowledge of specialized dies Large and Super Large Stamping Dies

Sheetmetal Die Making flow
Sheet metal product & Product design
Ordered volume Volume per batch

Forming machine Forming machine selection Sheet metal die design…

Assessment
§ Coursework, 60%
§ At least two assignments: total 40% § At least one on sketching (at 10%) § At least one on Die design using CAD system
(SolidWorks / Catia / Inventor) (at 30%)

§ At least one test (mid semester): 20% § Approx 30% on theory § Approx 70% on practical using CAD system

§ Final exam, 40%
§ Approx 30% on theory § Approx 70% on practical using CAD system

Product design Flat Blank design Strip layout design Die design

Sheetmetal Die Design…

Machining Assembly Trial and debugging (trouble shooting)

Die commissioning

Sheet metal product design
§ Dimensioning tolerances § Positioning tolerances § Burr direction § Tensile strength (δ or Rm) (supplier) (δ § Material content (supplier) § Thickness § Surface pressure...
Burr:

Flat blank / blank sheet design
§ Def: Unfolded representation of sheetmetal
product design. § It incorporated the forming processes, eg. eg. Bending, deep drawing, embossing, lancing, etc.

§ Cutting clearance
§ Normally 2 to 5% of strip thickness per side § Die clearance: total clearance (both sides) § Less than 1% per side: to use fine blanking technology 26 July 2011

§ Bending factor / processes § Drawing factor / processes

Blank design with bending
§ Bending factor (v) parameters
§ Bending radius (r) § Sheetmetal thickness (t or s)

§ L = a + b + c + …- n.v …§ § § § L = flat blank length a, b, c = flange length (outer side) n = number of bendings v = bending factor

Bending operation: minimum allowable internal radius (r)

Bending operation: determining Bending Factor (v) value

Bending angle: other shapes
§
ß = 0º to 90º

§

ß = >90º to 165º

Verhaeltnis r:s = Ratio of radius:thickness

L=a+b–v v = Equivalent Value k = Correction Factor S = Material Thickness

Springback by bending
§ r1 = kR . (r2 + 0.5.s) – 0.5.s
§ § § § r1 = bending radius on tooling r2 = bending radius on product kR = springback factor s = sheet thickness

§ α1 = α2 / kR
§ α1 = bending angle on tooling § α2 = bending angle on product / workpiece

Springback by bending

Deep drawing (Tiefziehen) (Tiefziehen)
§ Deep drawing process and components:
§ § § § Flat blank sheetmetal Drawing punch Drawing insert Drawing thrust plate

§ Flat blank calculation
§ Refer to die catalogue #2 § To be discussed in later

Piercing punch stroke
§ Punch stroke = x + t + y §x= §t= §y=
x t y

Punch & Die dimensions
§ Piercing / punching
§ Dpunch = hole dimension on product

Dpunch

§ Blanking
§ Ddie = blank dimension on product

Ddie

Cutting & Die clearances
§ Cutting clearance (Shneidspalt), U (Shneidspalt),
§ Per side § U = Ddie - Dpunch

§ Die clearance, 2U
§ Both sides

2

U

U

§ Punch (Schneidstempel) (Schneidstempel) § Die (Schneidplatten) (Schneidplatten) § Hole (Lochen) (Lochen) § Blanking (Ausscheiden) (Ausscheiden)

Draft (Free) angle (Freiwinkel)

Cutting angle on Die
§ Cutting Clearance § § § §
(Schneidspalt) Schneidspalt) Material (Werkstoff) (Werkstoff) Sheet thickness (Blechdicke) Blechdicke) Mit Freiwinkel (with Flat cutting surface cutting angle) Ohne Freiwinkel (Flate cutting surface)
U

Cutting Clearance (U)
Based on: 1. Strip thickness 2. Cutting angle on Die 3. Strip Tensile Strength
14 Feb 12

Strip layout design
§ Production volume (yearly, monthly) § Type
§ § § § Single Compound Transfer Progressive (normally Production Vol > 10k / month)

§ Burr direction

Strip layout design (2)
§ Strip flow § Scrap flow § Product flow § Force calculation
§ § § § § § Cutting Stripping Spring Bending Drawing Force centre point

Cutting force (Fcut) (F
§ Tensile strength (δ or Rm) [N/mm2] (δ § Shear Stress (t) = 0.7 to 0.9 δ (t § Fcut = t [N/mm2] x Acut [mm2] § Fcut = t [N/mm2] x Lcut [mm] x tcut [mm] § Where:
§ Acut = Cutting cross sectional area § Lcut = Cutting length § tcut = Material thickness

Stripping force
§ Function:
§ To strip punches from strip layout

§ The smaller the cutting clearance, the higher the
stripping force required § Also it depends on strip material and thickness § Fstrip = 0.2 to 0.5 (Stripping Factor, SFac) of cutting force § SOP for piercing or blanking process
§ Thrust plate touches and holds strip layout § Then piercing or blanking punch cuts through the strip layout

§ Thus, at opening position, punch must be
securely positioned inside the thrust plate

Spring
§ Types
§ Elastomer / urethane (normally for stripper spring) § Coil (round & rectangular cross sectional type) § Leaf
21 feb 2012

Strip layout design (3)
§ Pitch puncher / Notching
punch
§ Function: To ensure strip layout moves forward at a fixed distance § No auto-feeder machine auto§ ‘U’ profile; material overcut to avoid obstruction of strip flow § Based on material thickness

§ Pitch / strip stopper
§ Function: to ensure strip layout stops at the desired position § Fixed on guide fence or die plate (more precise) § Web width

Web design
§ Minimum web width is required:
§ To have a stable strip layout § During forward motion § Avoid sagging § To have sufficient thrust force to hold the strip § Insufficient thrust, the strip will be pulled by the
punch, hence damaging the strip

§ Based on material thickness § Minimum width § Optimum width

Bridge / Web width (Wweb) (W

§ To reduce scrap. Optimise material utilization, ηMatlUtil (flat blank area / pitch area) § To have sufficient thrust force to hold the strip. Insufficient thrust, the strip will be pulled by the punch, hence damaging the strip § To avoid incomplete blank / punch operation § To avoid deformation on web, hence strip pitch distance will be distorted § To minimise strip overhang

Streifenbreite = Strip width

Web design

§ a = Web
width at external profile § b = Web width between profiles

Strip layout design (4)
§ Bullet Casing, Mini Stapler § One-side carrier (bridge / web) One§ Consider also:
§ Burr direction § Strip flow (on die or with spring-activated guide lifter) spring§ Strip over hang condition

Strip layout design (5)
§ Hinge, Door Bracket § Centre carrier § Take note on three (3) idle stations

Strip layout design (6)
§ Cap § Two-side carrier Two-

Mon 31 Jan 2011

Strip layout design (7)
§ Opening and closed conditions
§ Punches and dies § Displacement (closed to open positions)

§ Punch and blank processes
§ From top preferred § Scrap downwards

§ Strip level position during forward direction
§ On die plate preferred. No over hang. No guide lifter. Bend down on product parallel to flow (slot on die plate) § At a distance above die plate (with strip lifters) § For product with bends. § For drawing process

Strip layout design (8)
§ Force calculation
§ Cutting (pierce, blank, etc.), bending, drawing § Spring § Stripping § Drawing § Return (bending, levelling) § Strip carrier

Stripper spring design

Gap

Stripper spring calculation
§ FTotalCut=? § FStrip =? § Punch travel distance (x + t + y) § Spring load, Fmax and Maximum deflection
fmax per spring? § Nr of spring? § Fstrip/spring strip/spring

Piercing punch stroke
§ § § §
Punch stroke = x + t + y x = Distance inside trust plate t = Strip thickness y = Punch penetration distance from strip bottom

x t y

§ In text: Based on 90º bending formula, L =
a + b + c +… -nv (Heinzler et al., 1997), the flat length is thus xx mm…. (p. 260). § In text: Heinzler et al. (1997) proposes the 90º bending formula, L = a + b + c +… -nv (p. 260). § In references: Heiznler, M., Kilgus, R., Heiznler, Kilgus, Näher, Näher, F., Paetzold, H., Röher, W., Paetzold, Röher, Schilling, K. (1997). Tabellenbuch Metall. Metall. Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany: Europa-Lehrmittel. Europa-Lehrmittel.

Citation & References

Die design
§ Standard plates
§ Top, pressure, punch holder, stripper, thrust § Bottom, die, guide fence

German design

Die design

Japanese design

Die design (Japanese typical design)
§ Paper stapler, spring puncher § Note: stoppers on top & bottom dies are crucial
to avoid over travel of bending and drawing punches

Die design (German typical design)

§ Paper Puncher: Base

Die design
§ Datum (normally die top position) § Closed position
§ § § § Piercing / blanking punches Bending punches Drawing punches Spring maximum load condition
0 Die plate

Die design
§ Opening position
§ Spring pre-load condition. Better life span pre§ Spring selection § Elastomer / urethane spring
§ Higher force (approx. 20 times higher than coil spring: 150kN) § Lower compressible length (approx. 20%)

§ Coil spring
§ Higher compressible length (up to 50%) § Max. load approx. 7kN

§ Gas spring
§ Linear load increase (300N to 180kN) § Drawing and deep drawing process

§ Disc spring

Die design – Spring selection
§ Lpre-Comp, Pre-load length: 2mm or 5% – 10% prePreof spring length. Higher length for higher compression § Lstroke, Punch stroke = X + T + Y § LDeflTotal compressed length (Deflection)
§ Consider punches (pierce, bend, draw, etc.) movement

§ Load to strip the strip layout
§ Spring load at pre-load length + piercing prepunch travel up to thrust plate bottom level = F strip

Die design – Spring selection
§ Assume material: St 70-2, 3mm thick, total 70§ § § § §
cutting length at 300mm Tensile strength, δ or Rm for St 70-2 = 690 70- 830 N/mm2. assume average, δave = (690 + 830)/ 2 = 760 N/mm2 Shear stress, t = 0.7 to 0.9 δ. Assume average, tave = 0.8 x 760 N/mm2 = 600 N/mm2 F shear or cut = ? N F strip = ? N

Die design – Spring selection
§ F shear or cut = t x Area cut = t x Lcut x thick = 600
N/mm2 x 300mm x 3mm = 540,000N = 54,000kgf =54T § F strip = 20% - 50% of F cut . Assume Fstrip = 35% of 54T = 19T
§ E.g. Pre-load distance = 2mm (Lpt), pierce punch Pre(Lpt), distance to thrust bottom level distance is 3 (x) and working stroke is 9mm (t + y) § Total spring compressed length = Lpt+x+t+y

Die design – Coil spring selection (Stripper Spring)
§ Compressed length, f = LPre-Comp + LStroke Pre§ LPre-Comp = Pre-compressed length PrePre§ fmax (Spring Tech Spec) > f

§ Compressed length, fmax = 2+3+3+6 =
14mm § Consider to use 20 springs § Thus, F strip/spring 19T/20= 0.95T = 9,500N § Select coil spring SB x dia50x70L
§ 9,807N at 14mm compressed

Die design – Elastomer spring selection
§ Or 4 springs § Thus, F strip/spring 19T/4= 4.75T =
47,500N § Find spring fmax at 14mm, nearest Fmax at 30,100N for elastomer spring 246.5.090.040 § Nr of springs is 190,000N / 30,100N = 6 springs

Die design – Strip lifter spring
§ Strip weight = ρ x Volume § Number of springs § Weight per spring to hold strip § Spring selection § Compressed Length f = Lpc + Lstroke
§ Lpc = Pre-compressed length Pre§ Lc = Ldefl = Lpc + Lstroke

§ fmax (Spring Tech spec) > f

Die design
§ Punches safety level § Opening and closed positions § Piercing / blanking punches § Bending punches § Drawing punches § Punch stroke § Die total stroke

§ Die life
§ § § §

Die type determination

Small life volume (<50k): Single die High life volume: Progressive die E/E: product life of 200k to 300k in two years Automotive: product life of 500k to 2mil in five to seven years

§ Case study
§ Die life of 500k in six years § Monthly volume required: 500k / 6yrs / 12mths = approx. 6,945 monthly

§ Production data
§ Eight hours per shift § 22 days per month

§ Production allocation (Volume per batch)

Production planning calculation
§ Press machine 80 SPM (eg AMADA TP-45 (eg TPEX) § Press machine cycle time = 1/80 min x 60 sec/min = 0.75 sec § Daily time: 1day x 8hrs per day x 60 min/hr = 480 min / day § Volume / day = 480 min/day x 80 strokes/min = 38,400 strokes / day. § For 6,945 volume per month requirement § Time allocation to produce the part: 6,945/38,400
x 8 hours / day = approx. 1.5 hours
Mon 7 Feb 2011

Production planning calculation: Alternative
§ Machine cycle time: 0.75 sec § For 6,945 volume, time to produce = 6,945
x 0.75 sec = 5,209 sec § Or 5,209 sec / 3600 sec/hr = approx 1.5 hours

§ Production allocation (Volume per batch)

Production planning calculation
§ Press machine cycle time: 60 to 100 spm. Take average, 80 spm § Take average to cater down time & maintenance § Cycle time or time per stroke or time per piece § Cycle time = 1/80 spm or 0.0125 min/stroke or 0.75sec (60sec/80spm) § Daily volume: 8hrs per day x 3,600sec per hr / 0.75sec per stroke = 38,400 strokes per day (press machine capacity). § For 6,945 volume per month requirement § Nr. of days allocation per month: 6,945 units/38,400 units per day
= approx. 0.2 day, namely 0.2day x 8hrs per day= 1.6hrs for one shift to produce one month requirement (6,945 units)

Forming / Stamping machines

C-Frame Hydraulic press

Stamping / forming machine
§ Machine tonnage § Bolster size § Slide size § Shut height § Stroke § Die height (closed position)

Tue 20 Sept 2011

Stamping machine selection
§ Tonnage
§ Cutting, bending, drawing, stripping forces

§ Opening height § Stroke § Tightening position
§ Bolster dimension § Slide dimension

§ Feeding method § Die height § Die weight

Bending force parameter calculations
§ V-Bending
Rm = Tensile Strength Fb = C x Rm x b x S02 W r C = 1 + 4S0 W W C = Bending factor Fb = Open bending Fb1 = Closed bending S0 b Fb1 = 2 x Fb

Bending force parameter calculations
§ U-Bending
Uniform bending Fb = 0.4 x Rm x b x S0
L- Bending (one side) Fb = 0.2 x Rm x b x S0 L S0 b2

Fb

b1

Non-uniform bending Fb = 0.2 x Rm (b1+b2) x S0 Bending without opposing spring Ff = 2.5 x Fb
Mon 12 Oct 09

Ff

Bending force parameter calculations
§ U-Bending
Fos

Bending with opposing spring Fos = 1.3 x Fb

Opposing spring

Deep drawing: flat blank
§ Tiefziehen = Deep drawing § Ziehtail = Drawn component § Zuschnittdurchmesser = Diameter of flat
blank § Ohne Rand = without additional flat ends (lips) § Mit Rand = with additional flat end

Deep drawing: Flat blank calculation

Deep drawing: Drawing clearance & corner radii
§ Ziehspalt und
Radien am Ziehring und Ziehstempel = Drawing clearance & drawing radius on drawing ring & drawing punch
w s k rr rp or rst D dr d Drawing Clearance Sheet Thickness Sheet Material Factor (Wekstofffaktor) Corner Radius at Drawing Ring Corner Radius at Drawing Punch Cut Sheet Diameter Drawing Ring Diameter Punch Diameter

Stahl = steel Sonstige NE-Metalle = Special non-ferrous metal

Deep drawing: Drawing clearance & corner radii

Deep drawing parameter: Number of drawing stages and drawing factor
§ Ziehstufen &
Ziehverhaeltnis = Number of drawing stages and drawing factor Werkstoff = Material Zwichengluehen = heating during drawing Mit = with Ohne = without

§ Zug = Travel
D d1 d2 b1 b2 s Cut Sheet Diameter First Stage Punch Diameter Second Stage Punch Diameter First Stage Drawing Factor Second Stage Drawing Factor Sheet Thickness

§ § § §

Deep drawing parameter: Number of drawing stages and drawing factor

Deep drawing parameter: Number of drawing stages

Deep drawing: force calculations
§ Force calculation § Tiefziehkraft = Deep
drawing force § Niederhalterkraft = Thrust plate force
FD or Fz d1 s Rm b bmax FT or FN D dN p w Deep Drawing Force Punch Diameter, first stage Sheet Thickness Tensile Strength (or δ) Actual Drawing Factor Highest Allowable Drawing Factor Thrust or Holding Force Cut Sheet Diameter / Flat blank diameter Diameter on holding plate Thrust Plate Pressure Drawing Clearance (per side)

Deep drawing: force calculations

Dimensioning & machining procedures

§ Standard: ±0.1 § Standard : ±0.05 (pressure and punch
holder) § Thrust plate
§ Vertical: 0 to +0.05 § Horizontal: ±0.1

§ Guide fence
§ Horizontal top: -2 to - 3 § Horizontal bottom: -0.1 to -0.2 § Vertical: 0 to -0.05
In mm

Dimensioning
§ Die plate assembled in ground plate
§ Vertical: 0 to +0.1 § Horizontal: -0.1 to 0

§ Die plate opening, on top of ground plate
§ Horizontal: +0.1 to +0.2 § Vertical: ±0.05

§ Base plates: Mild steel. E.g. MS45, C45 § Punches
§ Materials: HSS (Euro), DF2, SKD11, SKH § Hardness: HRC 60 - 64

Die materials

§ Inserts
§ Materials: HSS, DF2, SKD11, SKH § Hardness: HRC 55 – 63 (normally lower than punches for maintenance purpose. Insert to break rather than punch)

§ Standard parts
§ Guide pillars & bushes (SUJ2,…) § bolts

Common problems in sheetmetal products

§ Burr
§ Higher than specification § Wrong direction

§ § § § § § § §

Dented: Foreign materials Different thickness / surface thinning Elongated hole (bend after hole punch) Wrinkle surface Torn off Springback Surface crack Rusty

Finished product problems in sheetmetal

Wrinkle

Surface thinning

Common problems on sheetmetal die

§ Misalignment between top and bottom die
plate sets § Forming machine stops halfway through
§ Insufficient load § Obstruction between punches and dies

Tue 18 Oct 2011

Special sheetmetal dies
§ Cam design, angular cut / bend § Side cut § Sensors § Air-assisted scrap / product removal Air-

Special forming machines
§ Fineblanking § Highspeed forming machines § Multi-actions bending machines Multi§ Sensors in forming machines

Cost calculation: Main cost components

§ Design § Raw materials and standard parts § Machining § Heat treatment § Handling § Delivery § Administration § Profit margin § Quotation

Design cost
§ RM / hr § Design duration
§ Design objective (based on problem statement) § Design needs analysis § Research ideas § Design alternatives § Final design

Raw material & standard part cost
§ Raw material, by:
§ Request for quotation from suppliers § Weight § Size or volume

§ Standard part catalogue
§ Price list from suppliers § Request for quotation from suppliers

Machining cost
§ Machine type
§ § § § § § Milling Turning Grinding Wirecut Diesink Welding

§ Machining accuracy § Machining time calculation § RM / hr rate, by machine depreciation

§ Normally based on depreciation § Cost to purchase a machine, e.g. RM300k (plus § § § § § § § §
interest) For forming machine: E.g. 80 spm. Cycle time = spm. 0.0125min/stroke or 0.75sec/stroke Year to depreciate, e.g. 7 years RM/yr: RM/month: RM/day: RM/hr: RM/min: RM per 0.0125min or RM per stroke:

Machining cost

Heat treatment
§ RM / kg rate § RM for special requirement
§ Material § Heat treatment method § Electrical furnace § Induction § Process control

Handling cost
§ Machine setting § Assembly and dismantling § Quality control § Progress control § Storage § RM/hr

Delivery
§ Transportation mode
§ § § § § Lorry or car or motorcycle (depreciation) Driver Petrol Maintenance (tyre wear, engine oil, etc) (tyre Toll

§ RM / km
§ Weight category , e.g. § Less than 150 kg at RM1/kg § Others at RM2/kg § Size or volume category

§ Apportionment: % to be budgeted on
capital expenditure, e.g. supporting machines, furniture, forklift, etc § RM/hr § Eg. Eg.
§ Admin staff payroll: Total RM50,000 per month § Power & utility: RM5,000 per month § Building depreciation or rentals: RM10,000 month § 2 shifts, 8 hours / shift, 22 days / month. Equals to 352 hours / month

Administration cost

Administration cost
§ Admin cost / month: RM65,000 § Rate: RM65,000 / 352 hours § RM185 / hr § For e.g. 50 projects per year.
Apportionment equals 1/50. or RM3.70 / hr / project

Profit margin
§ % of total production cost § % value depends on:
§ Difficulty level § Timeline given by customer § Wisdom: § Can others do it? § Rule of thumb

Quotation to customer
§ Project name § Project reference number § Price § Warranty § Delivery date

Amortisation
§ Definitions (ref: Wikipedia)
§ of capital expenditures of certain assets under accounting rules, particularly intangible assets, assets, in a manner analogous to depreciation § is the distribution of a single lump-sum cash lumpflow into many smaller cash flow installments, as determined by an amortization schedule

§ E.g. soft tools, R&D, prototype

Cost summary
Item Design Raw material Std. part Machining Heat treatment Handling Delivery Admin Total Profit margin Quotation Basis Hrs Kg L/s Hrs Kg Hrs Km, weight, volume Hrs % 50 to 200 Rate (e.g.) RM25/hr RM7/kg As manufacturer list RM5 to RM60/hr RM5/kg RM5/hr RM5 to RM60/km RM4 RM

Cost summary

Tue 09 Mar 2010

Forming technologies
§ Forming
automation § High Speed Forming Machine § Fineblanking

Yamada Omega: 3,000RPM

Fineblanking: 300 pcs/min Forming machine with auto-feeder

Design samples

Special designs
Sensors in die

Ball catch

§ Utilization rate of strip in producing the
workpiece flat blank § Determines a good design or otherwise § To determine the best configuration
§ Nr of row § Straight or slanting layout

Strip utilization

Strip utilization
§ Calculation:
§ § § § § Ŋ = Utilization efficiency (%) R = Nr of row A = flat blank surface area (inclusive holes) V = Strip pitch B = Strip width

R.A η= V.B

Force centre point
§ U = perimeter of each punch § a = distance of punch centre point to a reference
point § x = distance between force centre point to reference point

U1.a1 + U 2 .a2 + U 3 .a3 + ... x= U1 + U 2 + U 3 + ...

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