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“to impart the sensation of things as they are perceived and not as they are known. The technique of art is to make objects ‘unfamiliar’, to make forms difficult, to increase difficulty and length of perception because the process of perception is an aesthetic end in itself and must be prolonged. Art is a way of experiencing the artfulness of an object: the object is not important…” 2. “Tolstoy makes the familiar seem strange by not naming the familiar object. He describes an object as if he were seeing it for the first time, an event as if it were happening for the first time. In describing something he avoids the accepted names of its parts and instead names corresponding parts of other objects.”
3. “I personally feel that defamiliarization is found almost everywhere form is found…An image is
not permanent referent for those mutable complexities of life which are revealed through it, its purpose is not to make us perceive meaning, but to create a special perception of the object - it creates a vision of the object instead of serving as a means for knowing it…” Letter to my Father 1. “Dearest Father, You asked me recently why I maintain that I am afraid of you. As usual, I was unable to think of any answer to your question, partly for the very reason that I am afraid of you, and partly because an explanation of the grounds for this fear would mean going into far more details than I could even approximately keep in mind while talking.” 2. “For instance, a short time ago, you said to me: ‘I have always been fond of you, even though outwardly I didn’t act toward you as other fathers generally do, and this precisely because I can’t pretend as other people can” Part I: Waking Up 1. “One morning, upon awakening from agitated dreams, Gregor Samsa found himself, in his bed, transformed into a monstruous vermin“ (p.119)
2. “But that would be extremely embarrassing and suspect, for throughout his five years with the
firm he had never been sick even once” (p.122) Part I: Immediate Changes 1. “No matter how forcefully he attempted to wrench himself over on his right side, he kept rocking back into his supine state. He must have tried a hundred times, closing his eyes to avoid having to look at those wriggling legs” (p.120)
2. “’Did you understand a single word of that?’ The office manager asked the parents. ‘He’s not
trying to make fools of us, is he?!’ […] ‘That was an animal’s voice’ said the manager” (p.132)
3. it had accumulated into a small principal” (p. who stepped aside. “he heard the office manager blurt out a loud “Oh!” and now he also saw him. were now being sold off” (p. a few raisins and almonds. the sister. and salted bread and butter. some cheese that Gregor had declared inedible two days ago. the person nearest to the door. which mother and sister had once blissfully sported at celebrations and festivities.135) Part II: Effects on Family 1. I’m almost annoyed that he never goes out in the evening” (p.162) Part II: Gregor’s Job 1. clasping her hands. she collapsed across the settee and remained motionless” (p.128) 2. he could not even stand their smell” (p. glaring at Gregoe as if trying to shove him back into his room. The father clenched his fist. “There were old. bread and butter.147) 4. “The mother […] would be sewing lingerie for a fashion boutique. half-rotten vegetables. greedily sucking at the cheese. some bones left over from supper and coated with a solidified white sauce.” (p. stood there with her hair still undone and bristling. which had promptly exerted a more emphatic attraction on him than any of the other food”(p.170) .172) 3. “their utter despair and their sense of being struck by a misfortune like no one else among their friends and relatives. “since the money that Gregor brought home every month (keeping only a little for himself) had never been fully spent. he was glad to hand it over. the boy thinks of nothing but his job. oh God!’ With outspread arms as giving up everything.147) 5. both the family and Gregor. having found a job as a salesgirl” (p. “’Am I less sensitive now?’ he wondered.152) Part III: Family’s Decline 1. then peered unsteadily around the parlor before covering his eyes with his hands and weeping so hard that his powerful chest began to quake ” (p. believe me. glimpsed the huge brown splotch on the flowered wallpaper. ‘Oh God. “the mother. shrieking voice before actually realizing that this was Gregor.151) 2. “even though Gregor was eventually earning so much money that he was able to cover and indeed did cover all the expenditures of the family.147) Part I: First Reactions 1. “ (p. but no great warmth came of it. first gaped at the father.” (p. they accepted the money gratefully. dry bread. “he’s not well. sir. The mother. “it even happened that various items of family jewelry.172) 2. and cried out in a harsh. Why else would Gregor miss a train! I mean. despite the office manager’s presence. They has simply grown accustomed to this. “he did not relish the fresh foods. who. then took two steps toward Gregor and collapsed. pressing his hand to his open mouth and slowly shrinking back as if he were being ousted by some unseeable relentless force.
drawn to the playing. long minutes to shuffle across his room like an old war invalid” (p. he would have realized long ago that human beings can’t possibly live with such an animal and he would have left of his own accord. Father.175) 4. no doubt for good. “My dear parents […] things cannot go like this. “Gregor spent his nights and days almost entirely without sleep” (p. We have done everything humanly possible to look after it and put up with it. and his final breath came feebly from his nostrils” (p.” (p. even firmer that his sister’s. impelling him to take long. He lingered in this state of blank and peaceful musing until the tower clock struck three in the morning [. “The family had gotten used to storing things here that could not be put anywhere else. “it was only out of sheer courtesy that they were allowing themselves to be put upon in their leisure. “Now Gregor’s injury may have cost him some mobility. “Gregor was now eating next to nothing” (p.179) 2.184) 3. You simply have to try and get rid of the idea that it is Gregor. “Gregor.] his head involuntarily sank to the floor. but he would go on living and honor his memory” (p. hairs. Just how can that possibly be Gregor? If that were Gregor. I will not pronounce my brother’s name in front of this monstrosity. if possible.4.173) 3. for they had rented out one room of the apartment to three boarders”(p. “the maid was now dismissed after all.187) . but I do.176) 5. “but even his sister. “he was with the dust that shrouded everything in his room […] threads. We might have no brother then.169) 2. and a gigantic bony charwoman […] would come every morning and evening to do the heaviest chores” (p. You may not realize it.179) Part III: his sister & the violin 1. and now there were many such items here. “It has to go […] that’s the only way. had ventured a bit further out.176) 6. I do not believe there is anything we can be reproached for” (p. and scraps of leftover food were sticking to his back and his sides” (p. […] And yet the sister was playing so beautifully. was fed up with looking after Gregor as before.180) Part III: Gregor’s Death 1..171 – 172) Part III: Gregor’s Neglect & Decline 1. and so all I will say is: We must try to get rid of it. so that his head was already sticking into the parlor” (p. exhausted from her work at the shop.183) 2. “his conviction that he would have to disappear was. Our real misfortune is that we believed it for such a long time. […] Was he a beast to be so moved by music? He felt as if he were shown the path to the unknown food he was yearning for” (p.
[…] their jobs were all exceedingly advantageous and also promising. […] they reflected it was high time they found a decent husband for her” (p.192) . upon seeing their daughter becoming more and more vivacious. stretching her young body” (p. and Mrs. […]they hoped to rent a smaller and cheaper apartment.192) 2. Samsa. “Then all three of them left the apartment together. […] and took the trolley out to the countryside beyond the town […] they discussed their future prospects and concluded that. she had blossomed into a lovely and shapely girl. despite all the sorrows that had left her cheeks pale. but with a better location and altogether more practical than their current place” (p. “And it was like a confirmation of their new dreams and good intentions that at the end of their ride the daughter was the first to get up. realized almost in unison that lately.Part III: Life after Gregor’s Death 1.192) 3. “Mr.
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