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0.M.I.

1

Three-Dimensional

State of Stress

NORMAL

TO 6A

Internal forces in solid body.
y

x

ON

oA

z

Normal and shear forces on small area.
y

Resolution of force of along Cartesian axes, where OX is normal to surface.

TzX

x z Stress components referred to Cartesian co-ordinates.

M!v1 1.2 Two-Dimensional State of Stress x ! y (a) x (b) .

y -I I (a) Txy x = TyX --------------a1 -\ B (8 = 90°) Sf I. i 1 Txy '----- aaver a x + av . - Txy I 0 P2 a2~ t T XlYl a X. = 2 2 k------ax------------~ L a XI .

!yXAO e e cos e = 0 In the same manner.y y x I.ayAo e + axAo sin e .. summation !xIYIAO of forces in the Yl direction gives sec .sin? 2 0) .a xAo cos e tan e sin e . (a) Stresses (b) Forces Wedge-shaped stress element in plane stress: (a) stresses acting on element and (b) forces acting on element tan e by summing forces in the a xlAo sec .ayAo Xl direction. is !xyAO sin tan e .A.!xyAO cos e tan e cos e + !yXAO tan e sin e = 0 we obtain the following equations: aXI = ax cos? !xlYI = -(ax - e + ay sin? e + 2!xy sin e cos e ay)sin e cos 0 + !Xy(cos e .

Equations can be expressed introducing the following trigonometric cos? in a useful alternate identities: sin2 e = "2 (1 + cos 1 20) e = ~(l 2 .50.cos 20) sin 0 cos 0 = ~ sin 20 2 Then the equations become or o -0.x • .

Cos (). T X}' tyx j x De. (.). 6 y YI Sy 1-= ~I /l.fv1}v1I.}l·ne: L. Stresses Ily c. II . -::: { r Cos 82 -::: n ~x . Ay -=/1 Cos~ 8.x ax =s..

:X. i + t'Yl force . yY1 s: y ~. + --Z.r ~ )( G'""'x .0MI. ~. ~x f.

S"::::J' Y'Y7 <::! .-.8 y x 6'.MM 1. t = + S"y. Sx f_' + rn' . == ~ I s:..

= [0< l' [ G-' ] .MM I. '7 y j ". [G-'J eX.