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Gii thiu | Hng dn | ng k | ng nhp | H thng Level


Level: 0 Exp: 4 - - - SP: 100 Per: 40.00% - - HP: 0 Attack: 0/ - - - ng nhp

Trang ch

u trng

thi

Ting Anh

Ton hc

Vt l

Ha hc

Sinh hc

Luyn tc

Bi ging

Kt bn

Hi p

Este lipid - 5
Phng php gii bi tp kim loi
I BI TP V XC NH TN KIM LOI 1) C th tnh c khi lng mol nguyn t kim loi M theo cc cch sau: - T khi lng (m) v s mol (n) ca kim loi M = - T M hp cht Mkim loi - T cng thc Faraday M = - T a < m < b v < n < (n l s electron trao i mi in cc) tm M tha mn trong khong xc nh
STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Hc sinh ng thong111 39 sctn_k24 38 nhatquangTT 38 tamvuong 37 tiendat_9x2009 36 quanchuon31 36 legiangson12t1csp 36 tuanhg71 35 giathi 35 toitoi10012 35 Forever10 35 lehandsome9x 34 hoaloaken 34 lechi1102 34 minmatngu123 34 o0oDepTraiTuNhieno0o 34 tokyo_06 34 rongden_167 34 haohao263 33 totran 33 phaletuyet190294 33 TOLIVEISTOFIGHT 33 junghoo 33 iamthebest 33 chienhuahu 33 rabulovenisu 33 haik13a1 32 be_kun 32 phantombaker 32 ptlinh211 32 cosi10a1 32 Denta 31 khanhss 31 thaohan_2006 31 henry1994 31 chimhacgiayhonnhien 30 vhq_94 30 daibang94 30 duyhg99 30 nhocmia28 30 phuongnghi 30 Lm 40 40 40 40 39 40 40 37 40 40 40 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 35 40 40 40 35 36 36 39 39 40 t 97.5% 95% 95% 92.5% 92.3% 90% 90% 94.5% 87.5% 87.5% 87.5% 87.1% 85% 85% 85% 85% 85% 85% 82.5% 82.5% 82.5% 82.5% 82.5% 82.5% 82.5% 82.5% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 88.5% 77.5% 77.5% 77.5% 85.7% 83.3% 83.3% 76.9% 76.9% 75% Time 3296 2735 3420 3638 3467 3468 3834 3634 3501 3715 3899 2483 3618 3718 3772 3806 3884 4264 3194 3221 3608 3641 3767 3781 3792 3887 2769 3653 3721 3858 3978 3362 3763 3783 3784 3520 2693 3014 3832 3852 2362

- Lp hm s M = f(n) trong n l ha tr ca kim loi M (n = 1, 2, 3), nu trong bi ton tm oxit kim loi MxO y th n= kim loi M tn 2 kim loi

- Vi hai kim loi k tip nhau trong mt chu k hoc phn nhm tm 2) Mt s ch khi gii bi tp:

- Bit s dng mt s nh lut bo ton nh bo ton khi lng, bo ton nguyn t, bo ton mol electron, Bit vit cc phng trnh ion thu gn, phng php ion electron - Khi bi khng cho kim loi M c ha tr khng i th khi kim loi M tc dng vi cc cht khc nhau c th th hin cc s oxi ha khc nhau t kim loi M c cc ha tr khc nhau - Khi hn hp u c chia lm hai phn khng bng nhau th phn ny gp k ln phn kia tng ng vi s mol cc cht phn ny cng gp k ln s mol cc cht phn kia 3) Mt s v d minh ha: V d 1: Cho 3,024 gam mt kim loi M tan ht trong dung dch HNO 3 long, thu c 940,8 ml kh NxO y (sn phm kh duy nht, ktc) c t khi i vi H2 bng 22. Kh NxO y v kim loi M l: A. NO v Mg B. NO 2 v Al C. N2O v Al D. N2O v Fe Hng dn: M(NxO y) = 44 nN2O = 0,042 mol MM
n+ +

+ ne

2NO 3- + 8e + 10H N2O + 5H2O 3,024 No duy nht n = 3 v M = 27 Al

Theo lbt mol electron: ne cho = ne nhn p n C

V d 2: Hn hp X gm Mg v kim loi M. Ha tan hon ton 8 gam hn hp X cn va 200 gam dung dch HCl 7,3 %. Mt khc cho 8 gam hn hp X tc dng hon ton vi kh Cl2 cn dng 5,6 lt Cl2 ( ktc) to ra hai mui clorua. Kim loi M v phn trm v khi lng ca n trong hn hp X l: A. Al v 75 % B. Fe v 25 % C. Al v 30 % D. Fe v 70 % Hng dn: nHCl = 0,4 mol ; nCl2 = 0,25 mol ; nMg = x mol ; nM = y mol 24x + My = 8 (1) - X tc dng vi dung dch HCl (M th hin ha tr n) 2x + ny = 0,4 (2) - X tc dng vi Cl2 (M th hin ha tr m) 2x + my = 0,5 (3) - T (2) ; (3) y(m n) = 0,1 m > n No duy nht m = 3 v n = 2 x = y = 0,1 mol - T (1) M = 56 Fe v % M = 70 % p n D V d 3: Hn hp X gm hai mui cacbonat ca 2 kim loi kim th hai chu k lin tip. Cho 7,65 gam X vo dung dch HCl d. Kt thc phn ng, c cn dung dch th thu c 8,75 gam mui khan. Hai kim loi l: A. Mg v Ca B. Ca v Sr C. Be v Mg D. Sr v Ba Hng dn: - t cng thc chung ca hai mui l

CO3. Phng trnh phn ng: CO3 + 2HCl Cl2 + CO 2 + H2O

- T phng trnh thy: 1 mol

CO3 phn ng th khi lng mui tng: 71 60 = 11 gam CO 3 tham gia phn ng

- Theo bi khi lng mui tng: 8,75 7,65 = 1,1 gam c 0,1 mol + 60 = 76,5 = 16,5 2 kim loi l Be v Mg p n C

V d 4: Ha tan hon ton 6 gam hn hp X gm Fe v mt kim loi M (ha tr II) vo dung dch HCl d, thu c 3,36 lt kh H2 ( ktc). Nu ch ha tan 1,0 gam M th dng khng n 0,09 mol HCl trong dung dch. Kim loi M l: A. Mg B. Zn C. Ca D. Ni Hng dn: nH2 = 0,15 mol - nX = nH2 = 0,15 mol X = 40 - ha tan 1 gam M dng khng n 0,09 mol HCl A V d 5: ha tan hon ton 6,834 gam mt oxit ca kim loi M cn dng ti thiu 201 ml dung dch HCl 2M. Kim 22,2 < M < 40 < 56 M l Mg p n

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loi M l: A. Mg

B. Cu

C. Al
+

D. Fe

Hng dn: Gi cng thc oxit l MxO y ; nHCl = nH = 0,402 mol - Ta c nO


2

(trong oxit) =

mol nMxO y =

mol (Mx + 16y) =

Mx = 18y

M=

No duy nht

v M = 27 Al p n C

II BI TON V KIM LOI TC DNG VI NC, KIM LOI TC DNG VI DUNG DCH BAZ KIM 1) Mt s ch khi gii bi tp: - Ch c kim loi kim, Ca, Sr, Ba mi tan trong nc nhit thng - Cc kim loi m hiroxit ca chng c tnh lng tnh nh Al, Zn, Be, Sn, Pbtc dng c vi dung dch kim (c) - Nu bi cho nhiu kim loi tc dng vi nc to dung dch kim, ri sau ly dung dch kim tc dng vi dung dch hn hp axit th: + Gii bng cch vit phng trnh ion thu gn + nOH = 2nH2 - Nu bi cho hn hp kim loi kim hoc kim th v kim loi M ha tr n vo nc th c th c hai kh nng: + M l kim loi tan trc tip (nh kim loi kim, Ca, Sr, Ba) + M l kim loi c hiroxit lng tnh (nh Al, Zn) M + (4 n)OH + (n 2)H2O MO 2
n4

H2 (da vo s mol kim loi kim hoc kim th s

mol OH ri bin lun xem kim loi M c tan ht khng hay ch tan mt phn) 2) Mt s v d minh ha: V d 1: Hn hp X gm Na, K, Ba ha tan ht trong nc d to dung dch Y v 5,6 lt kh ( ktc). Tnh V ml dung dch H2SO 4 2M ti thiu trung ha Y A. 125 ml B. 100 ml C. 200 ml D. 150 ml Hng dn: nH2 = 0,25 mol Ta c nOH = 2nH2 m nOH = nH nH2SO 4 = p n A V d 2: Thc hin hai th nghim sau: Th nghim 1: Cho m gam hn hp Ba v Al vo nc d, thu c 0,896 lt kh ( ktc) Th nghim 2: Cng cho m gam hn hp trn cho vo dung dch NaOH d thu c 2,24 lt kh ( ktc) Cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Gi tr ca m l: A. 2,85 gam B. 2,99 gam C. 2,72 gam D. 2,80 gam Hng dn: nH2 th nghim 1 = 0,04 < nH2 th nghim 2 = 0,1 mol th nghim 1 Ba ht, Al d cn th nghim 2 th c Ba v Al u ht - Gi nBa = x mol v nAl = y mol trong m gam hn hp - Th nghim 1: Ba + 2H2O Ba x
2+ +

= nH2 = 0,25 mol V = 0,125 lt hay 125 ml

+ 2OH + H2 2x x H2 3x

Al + OH + H2O AlO 2 + 2x nH2 = 4x = 0,04 x = 0,01 mol - Th nghim 2: tng t th nghim 1 ta c: x + m = 0,01.137 + 0,06.27 = 2,99 gam p n B

= 0,1 y = 0,06 mol

V d 3: Ha tan hon ton 7,3 gam hn hp X gm kim loi Na v kim loi M (ha tr n khng i) trong nc thu c dung dch Y v 5,6 lt kh hiro ( ktc). trung ha dung dch Y cn dng 100 ml dung dch HCl 1M. Phn trm v khi lng ca kim loi M trong hn hp X l: A. 68,4 % B. 36,9 % C. 63,1 % D. 31,6 % Hng dn: nH2 = 0,25 mol ; nHCl = 0,1 mol - Gi nNa = x mol v nM = y mol 23x + My = 7,3 (1) - Nu M tc dng trc tip vi nc nH2 = - Nu M l kim loi c hiroxit lng tnh (n = 2 hoc 3): M + (4 n)OH + (n 2)H2O MO 2 y
n4

nOH = 0,5 > nHCl = 0,1 loi

H2 ny/2

(4 n)y

- Do OH d nn kim loi M tan ht v nOH d = x (4 n)y mol x (4 n)y = 0,1 (2) v x + ny = 0,5 (3) y = 0,1 mol - Thay ln lt n = 2 hoc 3 vo (1) ; (2) ; (3) ch c n = 3 ; x = 0,2 ; M = 27 l tha mn %M = 36,9 % p n B III BI TON V KIM LOI TC DNG VI DUNG DCH AXIT 1) Kim loi tc dng vi dung dch axit: a) i vi dung dch HCl, H2SO4 long:

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M + nH+

M n+ + n/2H2

(M ng trc hiro trong dy th in cc chun) b) i vi H2SO 4 c, HNO 3 (axit c tnh oxi ha mnh): - Kim loi th hin nhiu s oxi ha khc nhau khi phn ng vi H2SO 4 c, HNO 3 s t s oxi ha cao nht - Hu ht cc kim loi phn ng c vi H2SO 4 c nng (tr Pt, Au) v H2SO 4 c ngui (tr Pt, Au, Fe, Al, Cr), khi S trong H2SO 4 b kh thnh S (SO 2) ; So hoc S (H2S) - Hu ht cc kim loi phn ng c vi HNO 3 c nng (tr Pt, Au) v HNO 3 c ngui (tr Pt, Au, Fe, Al, Cr), khi N N
+1 +5 +6 +4 -2

trong HNO 3 b kh thnh N


o -3 4+

+4

(NO 2)

- Hu ht cc kim loi phn ng c vi HNO 3 long (tr Pt, Au), khi N+5 trong HNO 3 b kh thnh N+2 (NO) ; (N2O) ; N (N2) hoc N (NH )

c) Kim loi tan trong nc (Na, K, Ba, Ca,) tc dng vi axit: c 2 trng hp - Nu dung dch axit dng d: ch c phn ng ca kim loi vi axit - Nu axit thiu th ngoi phn ng gia kim loi vi axit (xy ra trc) cn c phn ng kim loi d tc dng vi nc ca dung dch 2) Mt s ch khi gii bi tp: - Kim loi tc dng vi hn hp axit HCl, H2SO 4 long (H ng vai tr l cht oxi ha) th to ra mui c s oxi ha thp v gii phng H2: M + nH M + n/2H2 (nH = nHCl + 2nH2SO 4) - Kim loi tc dng vi hn hp axit HCl, H2SO 4 long, HNO 3 vit phng trnh phn ng di dng ion thu gn (H ng vai tr mi trng, NO 3 ng vai tr cht oxi ha) v so snh cc t s gia s mol ban u v h s t lng trong phng trnh xem t s no nh nht th cht s ht trc ( tnh theo) + - Cc kim loi tc dng vi ion NO 3 trong mi trng axit H xem nh tc dng vi HNO 3 - Cc kim loi Zn, Al tc dng vi ion NO 3 trong mi trng kim OH gii phng NH3 4Zn + NO 3 + 7OH 4ZnO 2
2 + + n+ + +

+ NH3 + 2H2O
2

(4Zn + NO 3 + 7OH + 6H2O 4[Zn(OH) 4]

+ NH3)

8Al + 3NO 3 + 5OH + 2H2O 8AlO 2 + 3NH3 (8Al + 3NO 3 + 5OH + 18H2O 8[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3 - Khi hn hp nhiu kim loi tc dng vi hn hp axit th dng nh lut bo ton mol electron v phng php ion electron gii cho nhanh. So snh tng s mol electron cho v nhn bin lun xem cht no ht, cht no d - Khi hn hp kim loi trong c Fe tc dng vi H2SO 4 c nng hoc HNO 3 cn ch xem kim loi c d khng. Nu kim loi (Mg Cu) d th c phn ng kim loi kh Fe3+ v Fe2+. V d: Fe + 2Fe3+ 3Fe2+ ; Cu + 3+ 2+ 2+ 2Fe Cu + 2Fe - Khi ha tan hon hon hn hp kim loi trong c Fe bng dung dch HNO 3 m th tch axit cn dng l nh nht mui Fe - Kim loi c tnh kh mnh hn s u tin phn ng trc - Nu bi yu cu tnh khi lng mui trong dung dch, ta p dng cng thc sau: mmui = mcation + manion to mui = mkim loi + manion to mui (manion to mui = manion ban u manion to kh) - Cn nh mt s cc bn phn ng sau: + 2H + 2e H2 SO 4 SO 4
2 + 2+

NO 3- + e + 2H NO 2 + H2O NO 3- + 3e + 4H NO + 2H2O 2NO3- + 8e + 10H+ N2O + 5H2O 2NO 3- + 10e + 12H N2 + 6H2O
+ + + +

+ 2e + 4H SO 2 + 2H2O + 8e + 10H H2S + 4H2O


+

SO 42 + 6e + 8H+ S + 4H2O
2

NO 3- + 8e + 10H NH4 + 3H2O - Cn nh s mol anion to mui v s mol axit tham gia phn ng: nSO 4
2 to mui

= .

nX (a l s electron m S

+6

nhn to sn phm kh X)

nH2SO 4 phn ng = 2nSO 2 + 4nS + 5nH2S nNO 3 to mui = a.nX (a l s electron m N nhn to ra sn phm kh X) nHNO 3 phn ng = 2nNO 2 + 4nNO + 10nN2O + 12nN2 3) Mt s v d minh ha V d 1: Cho 3,68 gam hn hp gm Al v Zn tc dng vi mt lng va dung dch H2SO 4 10 %, thu c 2,24 lt kh H2 ( ktc). Khi lng dung dch thu c sau phn ng l: A. 101,68 gam B. 88,20 gam C. 101,48 gam D. 97,80 gam Hng dn: nH2 = nH2SO 4 = 0,1 mol m (dung dch H2SO 4) = 98 gam m (dung dch sau phn ng) = 3,68 + 98 - 0,2 = 101,48 gam p n C V d 2: Ho tan hon ton 14,6 gam hn hp X gm Al v Sn bng dung dch HCl (d), thu c 5,6 lt kh H2 ( ktc). Th tch kh O 2 ( ktc) cn phn ng hon ton vi 14,6 gam hn hp X l: A. 2,80 lt B. 1,68 lt C. 4,48 lt D. 3,92 lt Hng dn: Gi nAl = x mol ; nSn = y mol 27x + 119y = 14,6 (1) ; nH2 = 0,25 mol - Khi X tc dng vi dung dch HCl:
+5

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V d 3: Cho 7,68 gam hn hp X gm Mg v Al vo 400 ml dung dch Y gm HCl 1M v H2SO 4 0,5M. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 8,512 lt kh ( ktc). Bit trong dung dch, cc axit phn li hon ton thnh cc ion. Phn trm v khi lng ca Al trong X l: A. 56,25 % B. 49,22 % C. 50,78 % D. 43,75 % Hng dn: nH = 0,8 mol ; nH2 = 0,38 mol nH - Gi nMg = x mol ; nAl = y mol p n A V d 4: Cho 0,10 mol Ba vo dung dch cha 0,10 mol CuSO 4 v 0,12 mol HCl. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, lc ly kt ta nung nhit cao n khi lng khng i thu c m gam cht rn. Gi tr ca m l: A. 23,3 gam B. 26,5 gam C. 24,9 gam D. 25,2 gam Hng dn: Cc phn ng xy ra l: Ba + 2HCl BaCl2 + H2 0,06 0,12 0,06 Ba + 2H2O Ba(OH)2 + H2 0,04 0,04
+ + phn ng

= 0,76 mol < 0,8 mol axit d, kim loi ht % Al = %

BaCl2 + CuSO4 BaSO4 + CuCl2 0,06 0,06 0,06 Ba(OH) 2 + CuSO 4 BaSO 4 + Cu(OH) 2 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 Cu(OH) 2 CuO + H2O

0,04 0,04 m (cht rn) = mBaSO 4 + mCuO = (0,06 + 0,04).233 + 0,04.80 = 26,5 gam p n B V d 5: Th tch dung dch HNO 3 1M (long) t nht cn dng ho tan hon ton 18 gam hn hp gm Fe v Cu trn theo t l mol 1 : 1 l: (bit phn ng to cht kh duy nht l NO) A. 1,0 lt B. 0,6 lt C. 0,8 lt D. 1,2 lt Hng dn: nFe = nCu = 0,15 mol - Do th tch dung dch HNO 3 cn dng t nht mui Fe2+ ne cho = 2.(0,15 + 0,15) = 0,6 mol - Theo lbt mol electron nH = nHNO 3 =
+

mol VHNO = 0,8 lt p n C

V d 6: Ha tan 9,6 gam Cu vo 180 ml dung dch hn hp HNO 3 1M v H2SO 4 0,5M, kt thc phn ng thu c V lt ( ktc) kh khng mu duy nht thot ra, ha nu ngoi khng kh. Gi tr ca V l: A. 1,344 lt B. 4,032 lt C. 2,016 lt D. 1,008 lt Hng dn: nCu = 0,15 mol ; nNO 3 = 0,18 mol ; nH = 0,36 mol 3Cu + 8H + 2NO 3 3Cu
+ 2+ +

+ 2NO + 4H2O

Do

H ht ; Cu d

0,36 0,09 VNO = 0,09.22,4 = 2,016 lt p n C V d 7: Cho hn hp gm 1,12 gam Fe v 1,92 gam Cu vo 400 ml dung dch cha hn hp gm H2SO 4 0,5M v NaNO 3 0,2M. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c dung dch X v kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht). Cho V ml dung dch NaOH 1M vo dung dch X th lng kt ta thu c l ln nht. Gi tr ti thiu ca V l: A. 360 ml B. 240 ml C. 400 ml D. 120 ml Hng dn: nFe = 0,02 mol ; nCu = 0,03 mol ne cho = 0,02.3 + 0,03.2 = 0,12 mol ; nH = 0,4 mol ; nNO 3 = 0,08 mol (Ion NO 3 trong mi trng H c tnh oxi ha mnh nh HNO 3) - Bn phn ng: NO 3 + 3e + 4H NO + 2H2O
+ + +

Do

kim loi kt v H d

0,12 0,16 + nH d = 0,4 0,16 = 0,24 mol nOH (to kt ta max) = 0,24 + 0,02.3 + 0,03.2 = 0,36 V = 0,36 lt hay 360 ml p n A V d 8: Cho 24,3 gam bt Al vo 225 ml dung dch hn hp NaNO 3 1M v NaOH 3M khuy u cho n khi kh ngng thot ra th dng li v thu c V lt kh ( ktc).Gi tr ca V l: A. 11,76 lt B. 9,072 lt C. 13,44 lt D. 15,12 lt Hng dn: nAl = 0,9 mol ; nNO 3 = 0,225 mol ; nOH = 0,675 mol 8Al + 3NO 3 + 5OH + 18H2O 8[Al(OH) 4] + 3NH3 (1) B: 0,9 P: 0,6 D: 0,3

Do

NO 3 ht

0,225

0,225
0

0,675 0,375 0,3

0,225

Al + OH (d) + H2O AlO 2 +

H2 (2)

0,3 0,3 0,45 T (1) ; (2) V = (0,225 + 0,45).22,4 = 15,12 lt p n D

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V d 9: Ha tan hon ton 100 gam hn hp X gm Fe, Cu , Ag trong dung dch HNO 3 (d). Kt thc phn ng thu c 13,44 lt hn hp kh Y gm NO 2, NO, N2O theo t l s mol tng ng l 3 : 2 : 1 v dung dch Z (khng cha mui NH4NO 3). C cn dung dch Z thu c m gam mui khan. Gi tr ca m v s mol HNO 3 phn ng ln lt l: A. 205,4 gam v 2,5 mol B. 199,2 gam v 2,4 mol C. 205,4 gam v 2,4 mol D. 199,2 gam v 2,5 mol Hng dn: nY = 0,6 mol nNO 2 = 0,3 mol ; nNO = 0,2 mol ; nN2O = 0,1 mol - nNO
to mui

= nNO

+ 3.nNO + 8.nN

= 0,3 + 3.0,2 + 8.0,1 = 1,7 mol mZ = mKl + mNO = 2.0,3 + 4.0,2 + 10.0,1 = 2,4 mol (2)

to mui

= 100 +

1,7.62 = 205,4 gam (1) - nHNO phn ng = 2.nNO + 4.nNO + 10.nN - T (1) ; (2) p n C

V d 10: Cho 6,72 gam Fe vo 400 ml dung dch HNO 3 1M, n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht) v dung dch X. Dung dch X c th ho tan ti a m gam Cu. Gi tr ca m l: A. 1,92 gam B. 3,20 gam C. 0,64 gam D. 3,84 gam Hng dn: nFe = 0,12 mol ne cho = 0,36 mol; nHNO 3 = 0,4 mol ne nhn = 0,3 mol - Do ne cho > ne nhn Fe cn d dung dch X c Fe2+ v Fe3+ - Cc phn ng xy ra l: Fe + 4HNO 3 Fe(NO 3)3 + NO + 2H2O 0,1 0,4 0,1 Fe (d) + 2Fe 3Fe 0,02 0,04 3+ 2+ 2+ Cu + 2Fe (d) Cu + 2Fe 0,03 0,06 mCu = 0,03.64 = 1,92 gam p n A V d 11: Ho tan hon ton 12,42 gam Al bng dung dch HNO 3 long (d), thu c dung dch X v 1,344 lt ( ktc) hn hp kh Y gm hai kh l N2O v N2. T khi ca hn hp kh Y so vi kh H2 l 18. C cn dung dch X, thu c m gam cht rn khan. Gi tr ca m l: A. 38,34 gam B. 34,08 gam C. 106,38 gam D. 97,98 gam Hng dn: nAl = 0,46 mol ne cho = 1,38 mol ; nY = 0,06 mol ;
4+ 3+ 2+

Y = 36

- D dng tnh c nN2O = nN2 = 0,03 mol ne nhn = 0,03.(8 + 10) = 0,54 mol < ne cho dung dch X cn cha mui NH4NO 3 nNH - Vy m X = mAl(NO
)

= NO 3 =
NO

mol

+ mNH

= 0,46.213 + 0,105.80 = 106,38 gam p n C


to mui

(Hoc c th tnh mX = mKl + m NO = 106,38 gam)

+ mNH

= 12,42 + (0,03.8 + 0,03.10 + 0,105.8 + 0,105).62 + 0,105.18

III BI TP V KIM LOI TC DNG VI DUNG DCH MUI 1) Kim loi tc dng vi dung dch mui: - iu kin kim loi M y c kim loi X ra khi dung dch mui ca n: xM (r) + nX
x+

(dd)

xM

n+

(dd) + nX (r)

+ M ng trc X trong dy th in cc chun + C M v X u khng tc dng c vi nc iu kin thng + Mui tham gia phn ng v mui to thnh phi l mui tan - Khi lng cht rn tng: m = mX to ra mM tan - Khi lng cht rn gim: m = mM tan mX to ra - Khi lng cht rn tng = khi lng dung dch gim - Ngoi l: + + Nu M l kim loi kim, kim th (Ca, Sr, Ba) th M s kh H ca H2O thnh H2 v to thnh dung dch baz kim. Sau l phn ng trao i gia mui v baz kim + trng thi nng chy vn c phn ng: 3Na + AlCl3 (khan) 3NaCl + Al + Vi nhiu anion c tnh oxi ha mnh nh NO 3-, MnO 4-,th kim loi M s kh cc anion trong mi trng axit (hoc baz) - Hn hp cc kim loi phn ng vi hn hp dung dch mui theo th t u tin: kim loi kh mnh nht tc dng vi cation oxi ha mnh nht to ra kim loi kh yu nht v cation oxi ha yu nht - Th t tng dn gi tr th kh chun (Eo) ca mt s cp oxi ha kh: 2+ 3+ 2+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + 2+ 3+ 2+ Mg /Mg < Al /Al < Zn /Zn < Cr /Cr < Fe /Fe < Ni /Ni < Sn /Sn < Pb /Pb < 2H /H2 < Cu /Cu < Fe /Fe < Ag /Ag < Hg /Hg < Au /Au 2) Mt s ch khi gii bi tp: - Phn ng ca kim loi vi dung dch mui l phn ng oxi ha kh nn thng s dng phng php bo ton mol electron gii cc bi tp phc tp, kh bin lun nh hn hp nhiu kim loi tc dng vi dung dch cha hn hp nhiu mui. Cc bi tp n gin hn nh mt kim loi tc dng vi dung dch mt mui, hai kim loi tc dng vi dung dch mt mui,c th tnh ton theo th t cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra - S dng phng php tng gim khi lng tnh khi lng thanh kim loi sau phn ng, - T s mol ban u ca cc cht tham gia phn ng bin lun cc trng hp xy ra - Nu cha bit s mol cc cht phn ng th da vo thnh phn dung dch sau phn ng v cht rn thu c bin lun cc trng hp xy ra - Kim loi kh anion ca mui trong mi trng axit (baz) th nn vit phng trnh dng ion thu gn - Kim loi (Mg Cu) y c Fe3+ v Fe 2+. V d: Fe + 2Fe3+ 3Fe2+ ; Cu + 2Fe3+ Cu2+ + 2Fe2+ - Fe + 2Ag Fe
+ 2+ + 2+ 3+

+ 2Ag. Nu Fe ht, Ag cn d th: Fe

2+

+ Ag Fe

3+

+ Ag

3) Mt s v d minh ha:

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Phng php gii bi tp kim loi

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V d 1: Nhng mt thanh kim loi M ha tr II nng m gam vo dung dch Fe(NO 3) 2 th khi lng thanh kim loi gim 6 % so vi ban u. Nu nhng thanh kim loi trn vo dung dch AgNO 3 th khi lng thanh kim loi tng 25 % so vi ban u. Bit gim s mol ca Fe(NO 3)2 gp i gim s mol ca AgNO 3 v kim loi kt ta bm ht ln thanh kim loi M. Kim loi M l: A. Pb B. Ni C. Cd D. Zn Hng dn: Gi nFe2+p = 2x mol nAg +p = x mol M + Fe M 2x 2x
2+ 2+

+ Fe 2x (1)

m = 2x.(M 56) %mKl gim = M + 2Ag M 0,5x x


+ 2+

+ 2Ag x (2)

m = 0,5x.(216 M) %mKl tng = - T (1) ; (2) M = 65 Zn p n D

V d 2: Cho m gam hn hp bt cc kim loi Ni v Cu vo dung dch AgNO 3 d. Khuy k cho n khi phn ng kt thc thu c 54 gam kim loi. Mt khc cng cho m gam hn hp bt cc kim loi trn vo dung dch CuSO 4 d, khuy k cho n khi phn ng kt thc, thu c kim loi c khi lng bng (m + 0,5) gam. Gi tr ca m l: A. 15,5 gam B. 16 gam C. 12,5 gam D. 18,5 gam Hng dn: Gi nNi = x mol ; nCu = y mol c trong m gam hn hp Ni + 2Ag Ni + 2Ag (1) Cu + 2Ag+ Cu2+ + 2Ag (2) 2+ 2+ Ni + Cu Ni + Cu (3) - T (3) (64 59).x = 0,5 x = 0,1 mol (*) - T (1) nAg(1) = 0,2 mol mAg(1) = 21,6 gam mAg(2) = 54 21,6 = 32,4 gam nAg(2) = 0,3 mol y = 0,15 mol (**) - T (*) ; (**) m = 0,1.59 + 0,15.64 = 15,5 gam p n A V d 3: Ha tan hn hp bt kim loi gm 8,4 gam Fe v 6,4 gam Cu vo 350 ml dung dch AgNO 3 2M. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c m gam cht rn. Gi tr ca m l: A. 70,2 gam B. 54 gam C. 75,6 gam D. 64,8 gam Hng dn: nFe = 0,15 mol ; nCu = 0,1 ; nAg+ = 0,7 mol Fe + 2Ag Fe + 2Ag (1) 0,15 0,3 0,15 0,3 + 2+ Cu + 2Ag Cu + 2Ag 0,1 0,2 0,2 Fe2+ + Ag+ Fe3+ + Ag (3) 0,15 0,15 0,15 T (1) ; (2) m = (0,3 + 0,2 + 0,15).108 = 70,2 gam p n A V d 4: Cho 2,24 gam bt st vo 200 ml dung dch cha hn hp gm AgNO 3 0,1M v Cu(NO 3) 2 0,5M. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c dung dch X v m gam cht rn Y. Gi tr ca m l: A. 2,80 gam B. 4,08 gam C. 2,16 gam D. 0,64 gam Hng dn: nFe = 0,04 mol ; nAg = 0,02 mol ; nCu = 0,1 mol Th t cc phn ng xy ra l: (Fe2+/Fe < Cu2+/Cu < Fe3+ < Fe 2+ < Ag+ < Ag) + 2+ Fe + 2Ag Fe + 2Ag (1) 0,01 0,02 0,02 Fe + Cu2+ Fe2+ + Cu (2) 0,03 0,03 T (1) ; (2) mY = 0,02.108 + 0,03.64 = 4,08 gam p n B V d 5: Cho hn hp gm 1,2 mol Mg v x mol Zn vo dung dch cha 2 mol Cu v 1 mol Ag n khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c mt dung dch cha ba ion kim loi. Trong cc gi tr sau y, gi tr no ca x tho mn trng hp trn: A. 1,8 B. 1,5 C. 1,2 D. 2,0 Hng dn: - Dung dch cha 3 ion kim loi Mg , Zn , Cu - ne cho = (2,4 + 2x) mol v ne nhn = 1 + 2.2 = 5 mol - Yu cu bi ton tha mn khi ne cho < ne nhn hay (2,4 + 2x) < 5 x < 1,3 x =1,2 p n C V d 6: Cho m gam bt Fe vo 800 ml dung dch hn hp gm Cu(NO 3) 2 0,2M v H2SO 4 0,25M. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c 0,6m gam hn hp bt kim loi v V lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, ktc). Gi tr ca m v V ln lt l: A. 17,8 v 4,48 B. 17,8 v 2,24 C. 10,8 v 4,48 D. 10,8 v 2,24 Hng dn: nCu = 0,16 mol ; nNO 3 = 0,32 mol ; nH = 0,4 mol - Cc phn ng xy ra l: + 3+ Fe + 4H + NO 3 Fe + NO + 2H2O (1) 0,1 0,4 0,1 0,1 0,1 VNO = 0,1.22,4 = 2,24 lt (*) Fe + 2Fe 3Fe 0,05 0,1
2+ 2+ 3+ 2+ 2+ + 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + + 2+ + 2+ + 2+

(2)

Fe + Cu Fe + Cu (3) 0,16 0,16 - T (1) ; (2) ; (3) nFep = 0,1 + 0,05 + 0,16 = 0,31 mol

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- Hn hp bt kim loi gm Fe d v Cu (m 0,31.56) + 0,16.64 = 0,6m m = 17,8 gam (**) - T (*) ; (**) p n B IV BI TP V KIM LOI TC DNG VI OXIT KIM LOI (PHN NG NHIT NHM) 1) Mt s ch khi gii bi tp: - Phn ng nhit nhm: Al + oxit kim loi (Hn hp X) - Thng gp: + 2Al + Fe2O 3 + 2yAl + 3FexO y y + (6x 4y)Al + 3xFe2O 3 Al2O 3 + 2Fe Al2O 3 + 3xFe 6FexO y + (3x 2y)Al2O 3 oxit nhm + kim loi (Hn hp Y)

- Nu phn ng xy ra hon ton, ty theo tnh cht ca hn hp Y to thnh bin lun. V d: + Hn hp Y cha 2 kim loi Al d ; oxit kim loi ht + Hn hp Y tc dng vi dung dch baz kim (NaOH,) gii phng H2 c Al d + Hn hp Y tc dng vi dung dch axit c kh bay ra th c kh nng hn hp Y cha (Al2O 3 + Fe) hoc (Al2O 3 + Fe + Al d) hoc (Al2O 3 + Fe + oxit kim loi d) - Nu phn ng xy ra khng hon ton, hn hp Y gm Al2O 3, Fe, Al d v Fe2O 3 d - Thng s dng: + nh lut bo ton khi lng: mhhX = mhhY + nh lut bo ton nguyn t (mol nguyn t): nAl (X) = nAl (Y) ; nFe (X) = nFe (Y) ; nO (X) = nO (Y) 2) Mt s v d minh ha: V d 1: Nung nng m gam hn hp Al v Fe2O 3 (trong iu kin khng c khng kh) n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton , thu c hn hp rn Y. Chia Y thnh hai phn bng nhau: Phn 1: tc dng vi dung dch H2SO 4 long (d) sinh ra 3,08 lt kh H2 ( ktc) Phn 2: tc dng vi dung dch NaOH (d) sinh ra 0,84 lt kh H2 ( ktc) Gi tr ca m l: A. 22,75 gam B. 21,40 gam C. 29,40 gam D. 29,43 gam Hng dn: nH2(1) = 0,1375 mol ; nH2(2) = 0,0375 mol - Hn hp rn Y tc dng vi NaOH gii phng H2 Al d v v phn ng xy ra hon ton nn thnh phn hn hp rn Y gm: Al2O 3, Fe v Al d - Gi nFe = x mol ; nAl d = y mol c trong 1/2 hn hp Y - T ta c h phng trnh: - Theo lbt nguyn t i vi O v Fe: nAl2O 3 = nFe2O 3 = = 0,05 mol

- Theo lbt khi lng: m = (0,05.102 + 0,1.56 + 0,025.27).2 = 22,75 gam p n A V d 2: Nung nng m gam hn hp gm Al v Fe3O 4 trong iu kin khng c khng kh. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c hn hp rn X. Cho X tc dng vi dung dch NaOH (d) thu c dung dch Y, cht rn Z v 3,36 lt kh H2 ( ktc). Sc kh CO2 (d) vo dung dch Y, thu c 39 gam kt ta. Gi tr ca m l: A. 45,6 gam B. 57,0 gam C. 48,3 gam D. 36,7 gam Hng dn: nH2 = 0,15 mol ; nAl(OH) 3 = 0,5 mol - T suy ra thnh phn hn hp rn X gm: Fe, Al2O 3 (x mol) v Al d (y mol) - Cc phn ng xy ra l: 2Al + 2NaOH + 6H2O 2Na[Al(OH) 4] + 3H2 Al2O 3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O 2Na[Al(OH)4] CO 2 + Na[Al(OH)4] Al(OH)3 + NaHCO3 - nH2 = 0,15 mol y = 0,1 mol - Theo lbt nguyn t i vi Al: 2x + y = 0,5 x = 0,2 mol - Theo lbt nguyn t i vi O: nO (Fe
O )

= nO (Al

O )

nFe3O 4 =

mol

- Theo lbt nguyn t i vi Fe: nFe = 3nF3O 4 = 3.0,15 = 0,45 mol - Theo lbt khi lng: m = 0,45.56 + 0,2.102 + 0,1.27 = 48,3 gam p n C V d 3: Thc hin phn ng nhit nhm hn hp X gm Al v mt oxit st FexO y (trong iu kin khng c khng kh) thu c 92,35 gam cht rn Y. Ha tan Y trong dung dch NaOH (d) thy c 8,4 lt kh H2 ( ktc) thot ra v cn li phn khng tan Z. Ha tan 1/2 lng Z bng dung dch H2SO 4 c, nng (d) thy c 13,44 lt kh SO 2 ( ktc) thot ra. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Khi lng Al2O 3 trong Y v cng thc oxit st ln lt l: A. 40,8 gam v Fe3O 4 B. 45,9 gam v Fe2O 3 C. 40,8 gam v Fe2O 3 D. 45,9 gam v Fe3O 4 Hng dn: nH2 = 0,375 mol ; nSO 2(c Z) = 2.0,6 = 1,2 mol - T suy ra thnh phn cht rn Y gm: Fe, Al2O 3, Al d v phn khng tan Z l Fe - nH2 = 0,375 mol nAl d = 0,25 mol - nSO 2 = 1,2 mol nFe = mol

- mAl2O 3 = 92,35 0,8.56 0,25.27 = 40,8 gam (1) nAl2O 3 = 0,4 mol - Theo lbt nguyn t i vi O nO (Fe O ) = 0,4.3 = 1,2 mol - Ta c: - T (1) ; (2) p n C V d 4: Trn 5,4 gam bt Al vi 17,4 gam bt Fe3O 4 ri tin hnh phn ng nhit nhm (trong iu kin khng c khng kh). Gi s ch xy ra phn ng kh Fe3O 4 thnh Fe. Ha tan hon ton cht rn sau phn ng bng dung dch H2SO 4 long (d) thu c 5,376 lt kh H2 ( ktc). Hiu sut phn ng nhit nhm v s mol H2SO 4 phn ng l: A. 75 % v 0,54 mol B. 80 % v 0,52 mol cng thc oxit st l Fe2O 3 (2)

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C. 75 % v 0,52 mol

D. 80 % v 0,54 mol

Hng dn: nAl = 0,2 mol ; nFe3O 4 = 0,075 mol ; nH2 = 0,24 mol - Phn ng xy ra khng hon ton: 8Al + 3Fe3O 4 4Al2O 3 + 9Fe x 0,5x (mol)

- Hn hp cht rn gm:

- Ta c phng trnh: - nH
+ phn ng

.2 + (0,2 x).3 = 0,24.2 x = 0,16 mol Hphn ng =

% (1)

= 2.nFe + 3.nAl + 6.nAl2O 3 + 8.nFe3O 4 = 0,36 + 0,12 + 0,48 + 0,12 = 1,08 mol mol (2)

nH2SO 4phn ng = - T (1) ; (2) p n D V MT BI TON KINH IN 1) Ni dung tng qut: M

hn hp rn (M, MxO y)

+n

+ sn phm kh

m gam m1 gam (n l s oxi ha cao nht ca M) (M l kim loi Fe hoc Cu v dung dch HNO 3 (H2SO 4 c nng) ly va hoc d) - Gi: nM = x mol ; ne (2) nhn = y mol ne nhng = x.n mol - Theo lbt khi lng t (1) nO = - ne nhn = ne + ne (2) = .2 + y = mol + y mol +y + M.y m.n = m. =

(oxi)

- Theo lbt mol electron: ne nhng = ne nhn x.n = - Nhn c hai v vi M ta c: (M.x).n =

m=

(*)

- Thay M = 56 (Fe) ; n = 3 vo (*) ta c: m = 0,7.m1 + 5,6.y (1) - Thay M = 64 (Cu) ; n = 2 vo (*) ta c: m = 0,8.m1 + 6,4.y (2) (Khi bit 2 trong 3 i lng m, m1, y ta s tnh c i lng cn li) 2) V d minh ha: V d 1: Cho 11,36 gam hn hp gm Fe, FeO, Fe2O 3 v Fe3O 4 phn ng ht vi dung dch HNO 3 long (d), thu c 1,344 lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, ktc) v dung dch X. C cn dung dch X thu c m gam mui khan. Gi tr m l: A. 38,72 gam B. 35,50 gam C. 49,09 gam D. 34,36 gam Hng dn: nNO = 0,06 mol y = 0,06.3 = 0,18 mol Theo cng thc (1) ta c: nFe = mmui khan = 0,16.242 = 38,72 gam p n A V d 2: kh hon ton 3,04 gam hn hp X gm FeO, Fe3O 4, Fe2O 3 cn 0,05 mol H2. Mt khc, ha tan hon ton 3,04 gam hn hp X trong dung dch H2SO 4 c thu c V ml kh SO 2 (sn phm kh duy nht ktc). Gi tr ca V l: A. 112 ml B. 224 ml C. 336 ml D. 448 ml Hng dn: Thc cht phn ng kh cc oxit l: H2 + O (oxit) H2O. V vy nO (oxit) = nH2 = 0,05 mol mFe = 3,04 0,05.16 = 2,24 gam Theo cng thc (1) ta c: ne nhn (S
+6

mol nFe(NO 3) 3 = 0,16 mol

S ) = y =

+4

mol nSO 2 = 0,01 mol V =

0,01.22,4 = 0,224 lt hay 224 ml p n B V d 3: Nung m gam bt Cu trong oxi thu c 37,6 gam hn hp rn X gm Cu, CuO v Cu2O. Ha tan hon ton X trong dung dch H2SO 4 c, nng (d) thy thot ra 3,36 lt kh ( ktc). Gi tr ca m l: A. 25,6 gam B. 32 gam C. 19,2 gam D. 22,4 gam Hng dn: nSO 2 = 0,15 mol y = 0,15.2 = 0,3 mol Theo cng thc (2) ta c: m = 0,8.37,6 + 6,4.0,3 = 32 gam p n B
Bin son H Ch Tun - H Y H Ni

Bnh lun (335)


aka_Mr.kute - (13/08/2011 02:40:35)

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