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RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN 09764259
Use of image to secure text message with the help of LSB replacement
Saurabh Singh, Gaurav Agarwal Invertis Institute of Engineering and Technology, Bareilly, India email@example.com
ABSTRACT As the communication increases day by day the value for security over network also increases. There are many ways to hide information or transmission of information secretly. In this sense steganography is the best part of sending information secretly. This is the art of writing message or information in such a way that no one apart suitable recipient knows the meaning of the message or information. As there are many techniques to perform steganography on electronic media, most notably audio and image files. The out come of this paper is to generate a crossplatform that can effectively hide a message inside a digital image file. An image is the combination of several pixels and each pixel has three color numbers and an image consist of millions of numbers. So the change in few color numbers resulting the picture which would probably look a lot likes the original image. In this paper we are presenting the technique which works by changing a few pixel color value; we will use selected pixel value to represent characters instead of a color value. Obviously the resulting image will still look mostly like the original except that a few points seem little out of place if we look very closely. Keywords: Encryption, Cryptography, Staganography, Text in Image, LSB
Steganography is the art of hiding the fact that communication is taking place, by hiding the information in or under information. There are different kinds of steganography used in communication channel but in digital file format the format that are more suitable are those with a high degree of redundancy. This can be defined as the bits of an object that provide accuracy far greater than necessary for the object’s use and display. The redundant bits of an object are those bits that can be altered without the alteration being detected easily. Hiding information in text is historically the most important method of steganography.an obvious method was to hide a secret message in every nth letter of every word of a text message text steganography using digital files is not used very often since text files have a very small amount of redundant data. Given the proliferation of digital images, especially on the network, and given the large amount of redundant bits present in the digital representation of an image, images are the most popular cover objects for steganography.This paper will focus on hiding information in images in the next sections. The term protocol steganography refers to the techniques of embedding information within message and network control protocol used in network transmission. In the layers of the OSI network model there exist covert channels where steganography can be used. An example of where information can be hidden is in the header of a TCP/IP packet in some fields that are either optional or are never used.
2. Concept of Image Files 200
green and blue. The data can hide with in the image by changing the image content i. No1. so being able to evaluate characteristics of an image using watermark detection is a clear advantage. as a watermark is simply a highly robust steganography marking. On depending this technique.The number of bits in a color scheme. it is not necessarily perceptible to a human eye that the image has been changed. and the stegoimage output. in this scheme the algorithm blindly changes colors but ideally a scheme should first analyze the image and work on the areas identified as where changes should be. This numeric representation forms a grid and the individual points are referred to as pixels.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENGINEERING RESEARCH. there can be 256 different quantities of red. the cover is typically degraded or marked in such a way that it is easy to tell that it has been changed. meaning that there are 8 bits used to describe the color of each pixel. 2010 © Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN 09764259 In the system requirement . There are many methods that can measure the likelihood of a watermark on a digital image and these processes can also be applied to a steganography images.e. by this technique we can hide a large volume of data inside the image. by changing the color of the pixels. This analysis scheme will also have the difficulty of any information that is used must also be available after the message is embedded. green and blue. adding up to more than 16million combinations. It is so easy for a computer to notice these changes are because these techniques do not look for any features of the cover that can suggest areas that are less noticeable when changed. it is possible to measure the stegoimage for any marking that may indicate it has been tampered with. thus in one given pixel. refers to the number of bits used for each pixel. The smallest bit depth in current color schemes is 8. Related Work in the Field Of Image Steganography There are lots of techniques available that implement steganography on a variety of different electronic mediums. we are using the technique depend on the digital image as digital images often have a large amount of redundant data and this is what steganography uses to hide the message. Monochrome and grayscale images use 8 bits for each pixel and are able to display 256 different colors or shades of gray. DINDIGUL Volume 1.Digital color images are typically stored in 24bit files and use the RGB color model.an image is a collection of numbers that constitute different light intensities in different areas of the image. called the bit depth. The previous techniques are: · F 5 Algorithm · LSB Coding · Palettes Modification 201 . Most of the images consist of a rectangular map of the image’ pixel known as the bits where each pixel is located and its color. Not surprisingly the larger amount of colors that can be displayed. and each primary color is represented by 8 bits. the security of stegoimages depend s entirely on their ability to go unnoticed. These pixels are displayed horizontally row by row. Once implemented. resulting in more than 16 million colors. also known as true color. 3. but to a computer simple statistical analysis can pinpoint a changed image from original one. all color variations for the pixels of 24 bit image are derived from three primary colors: red. the larger the file size.
data is converted into the bytes that are each character in message is converted into its ASCII equivalent. suppose our original pixel as bits: (r7 r6 r5 r4 r3 r2 r1 r0. No1. We can only alter the original pixel color value by 7. green. retrieve message and decryption. It uses the first pixel (at spot 0) to hide the length of message (number of character). in image steganography it works by changing a few pixel color value; now we will use selected pixel value to represent characters instead of a color value. and these value often range from 0255. which will be difficult for hackers to decrypt.1. Each pixel typically has three numbers associated with it. Because ASCII value for “a” is 97 and binary equivalent is 01100001. b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0) In addition. which then converted into bytes. The LSB of each 8bit byte has been co opted to hide a text message. Current Work 4.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENGINEERING RESEARCH. DINDIGUL Volume 1. F 5 algorithm.in order to hide the message. hide message. This can be done by passing a secret key. the message is then encrypted and then embeds each bit into the LSB position of each pixel position. g7 g6 g5 g4 g3 g2 g1 g0.Suppose we only change the last three bits these are the bits that determine the “one place”. Our approach is different from the previously used technique i.e. Moreover if message is password protected.1. one each for red.1. our character (bytes) has some bits: 202 . and data is first converted into byte format and stored in a byte array. the retriever has to enter the correct password for viewing the message. and blue intensities.2 Message Embedding In Digital Image Hiding image involves embedding the message in to the digital image. for an example if we are taking the character “a” in the message then “a”= 01100001 is stored in byte array.i. · Loading and saving bitmap files · Bit manipulation operations This will make message more secure as well as lower distortion rate.1. 2010 © Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN 09764259 4. DCT. Algorithm Description 5. 5. 5.e.1 At Sender Side 5. For the same purpose we have four techniques i. A secret key can be used for encryption of message to be hidden.e. in this paper we will discuss two operations in image steganography. then while retrieving message. encryption. the “two place” and the “fours place”. Text to Byte Conversion This involves converting the message to be hidden into a cipher text. Our Approach As discussed earlier that an image is the combination of several pixels and each pixel has three color numbers so we can say that there are millions of numbers in an image. patless modification. It provides security by converting it into a cipher text.
in a BMP image for hiding the data there is the need of very large cover image. Retrieve Message In this section we will discuss the retrieving the message from the image independent of the file format. 5. Decoding in same manner as the reversal of encoding process i.101) is almost the same value as the old pixel of (225.101) Here we can notice that the new pixel of (227. Then we can place three of these character bits in the lowest red pixel.01100100) “a” = 01100001(ASCII value 97) New pixel = (11100011. But here the input message is converted in digital image into byte before embedding it in digital image. No1. 96. which then stored in byte array.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENGINEERING RESEARCH. then we can obtain: Originl pixel = (11100001. byte array obtained by the process of retrieving message is now converted into text/message by reading oneone byte to get each character in the message i. 203 . since they use lossless compression. The read data will be in bytes format. 01100101) New pixel = (227.2 Byte to Text Conversion: In this section. This process can be done by reading the embedded data from the file. prevent from vulnerability.100.100) with character “a”. 6.e.1. b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 c1 c0). and the last two in the lowest blue pixel as follows. After every pixel gives the message character’s ASCII value. once a message has been retrieved it has to be converted in to the original message.1 Message Security: As LSB techniques uses BMP images. first pixel value gives number of character in the message.2 At Receiver Side 5.100. (r7 r6 r5 r4 r3 c7 c6 c5. 5. three more in the lowest green pixel.2. Benefits to Approach: 6. 2010 © Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN 09764259 (c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 c0). This can be done by extract the pixels of output image in one array. If we take an example of pixel (225. 01100000. original hidden message. DINDIGUL Volume 1.e.100). So there will not be noticeable color difference in the image. 96. So the approach is secure.2.01100100. g7 g6 g5 g4 g3 c4 c3 c2.
“Steganography and steganalysis: An Overview”. Fridrich.net/stegno/tools 3. we believe that steganography will continue to grow in importance as a protection mechanism. Silman.e. 11800. Image steganography has many legitimate uses as it can be used by hackers to send viruses and Trojans to compromise machines.liacs. SANS Institute.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENGINEERING RESEARCH. Moreland. J. Then the message is encrypted and then embeds each bit into the LSB position of each pixel position. Guillermito. Current electronic steganographic methods are not as necessarily secure due to the size of the data they hide and the lack of concern for the content of the message cover.pdf 4. Hence reduces the distortion rate that is look of original image..Steganography: A Few Tools to Discover Hidden Data. M.R. One of the other main uses for image steganography is for the transportation of high level or topsecret documents between international governments also it allows for copyright protection on digital files using the message as a digital watermark.J.www. RGB instead of only in green byte. No1. and surveillance. Mohammad Ali Bani Younes 1and Aman Jantan 2. 2006 http://guillermito2. School of Computer Sciences.nl/home/tmoerl/privtech.As it involves the conversion of message into the digital image. References 1. F 5 algorithm implementation: 2009. Leiden Institute Of Advanced Computing Science. In order to hide the message. “Steganography and steganalysis”. DINDIGUL Volume 1. A also describe the benefits from the approach like the security of message increases and distortion rate has reduced. University Sains Malaysia. This paper has investigated whether taking the image as the cover into account increases the security of the message by creating cross platform self evaluating tool. Image steganography allows for some morallyconscious people to safely whistle blow on internal actions.Du.2 Reduce Distortion Rate Images are the most popular cover objects for steganography. it is first converted into byte format and then stored in byte array. So in conclusion. Proposed approach involves change in LSB of each pixel byte i. Result and conclusion As the result we can find the out come of the paper is to create across platform that can effectively hide a message inside a digital image file.2001 5. as more emphasis is placed on the areas of copyright protection. Malaysia 204 . 2007 2. privacy protection. 2010 © Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN 09764259 6. Long: Steganalysis In Color Images. T. As there are many application of image steganography like it allows for two parties to communicate secretly and covertly. 7. Taking the cover into account is likely to increase the security of the message by hiding it in a less obvious location. 8. Binghamton.. Penang.
1523. R."AENG International Journal of Computer Science. Vol. DINDIGUL Volume 1. 1.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENGINEERING RESEARCH. Jantan. "Image encryption Using BlockBased Transformation Algorithm. N. M. Issue. October 2003. Kharrazi. 35. 205 . No1. MAB. & Memon. “Image steganography and steganalysis: Concepts And Practice”. 2010 © Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN 09764259 6. A. Younes. pp. Chandramouli. Proceedings of the 2ndInternational Workshop on Digital Watermarking. 7.. 2008..
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