# Diﬀerentiation Formulas

The following table provides the diﬀerentiation formulas for common functions. The ﬁrst six rows correspond to general rules (such as the addition rule or the product rule) whereas the remaining rows contain the formulas for speciﬁc functions.

F (x) Addition Linearity Product Rule Quotient Rule Chain Rule f (x) ± g(x) af (x) f (x)g(x)
f (x) g(x)

F (x) f (x) ± g (x) af (x) f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x)
f (x)g(x)−f (x)g (x) (g(x))2

f (g(x)) f −1 (x)

f (g(x)) · g (x)
1 f (f −1 (x))

Basic functions

xn ex ax ln x

for any real n

nxn−1 ex (ln a)ax
1 x

(a > 0)

Trig functions

sin x cos x tan x arctan x = tan−1 x arcsin x = sin−1 x

cos x − sin x
1 cos2 x = 1 1+x2 √ 1 1−x2

1 + tan2 x

Hyperbolic Trig sinh x cosh x tanh x sinh−1 x tanh−1 x

cosh x sinh x
1 cosh2 x √ 1 1+x2 1 1−x2

Linearity Substitution Integration by parts af (x) + bg(x) dx = a f (w(x))w (x) dx = f (x) dx + b f (w) dw u (x)v(x) dx g(x) dx u(x)v (x) dx = u(x)v(x) − Basic Functions xn dx = xn+1 +C n+1 1 eax dx = ex + C a 1 dx = ln |x| + C x ax +C ax dx = ln a Trigonometric functions sin x dx = − cos x + C 1 dx = tan x + C cos2 x cot x dx = ln | sin x| + C cos x dx = sin x + C tan x dx = − ln | cos x| + C Hyperbolic Trig functions sinh x dx = cosh x + C tanh x dx = ln(cosh x) + C cosh x dx = sinh x + C coth x dx = ln | sinh x| + C Functions with a2 ± x2 dx x = sin−1 +C 2 a −x 1 dx x+a = ln +C 2 − x2 a 2a x−a x dx √ = cosh−1 +C a x2 − a2 √ a2 a2 x 1 dx = tan−1 +C 2 +x a a √ x dx = sinh−1 +C a x2 + a2 Inverse Functions ln x dx = x ln x − x + C arctan x = x arctan x − 1 ln(1 + x2 ) + C 2 arcsin x dx = x arcsin x + 1 − x2 + C .Integration Formulas The following list provides some of the rules for ﬁnding integrals and a few of the common antiderivatives of functions.