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The 2,000 year old Sanskrit drama tradition Kutiyattam, performed in Kerala, southern India, strictly follows the Nātya Shastra.. Guru Nātyāchārya Māni Mādhava Chākyār as Ravana in Bhasa's play Abhiṣeka NatakaThe Natya Shastra (Sanskrit: Nātyaśāstra नाट शास) is an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts, encompassing theatre, dance and music. It was written at an uncertain date in classical India and is traditionally attributed to the Sage Bharata.The Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope. While it primarily deals with stagecraft, it has come to influence music, classical Indian dance, and literature as well. It covers stage design, music, dance, makeup, and virtually every other aspect of stagecraft. It is very important to the history of Indian classical music because it is the only text which gives such detail about the music and instruments of the period. Thus, an argument can be made that the Natya Shastra is the foundation of the fine arts in India. The most authoritative commentary on the Natya Shastra is Abhinavabharati by Abhinava Gupta. Contents 1 Date and authorship
• o 1.1 Title and setting 2 Performance Art Theory
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2.1 Rasa 3 Music 4 Impact 5 List of chapters 6 See also 7 References 8 Other books and references
9 External links Date and authorship
The text, which now contains 6000 slokas, is attributed to the muni (sage) Bharata and is believed to have been written during the period between 200 BC and 200 AD. The Natya Shastra is based upon the much older Gandharva Veda (appendix to Sama Veda) which contained 36000 slokas . Unfortunately there are no surviving copies of the Natya Veda. Though many scholars believe most slokas were transmitted only through the oral tradition, there are scholars who believe that it may have been written by various authors at different times. The document is difficult to date and Bharata's historicity has also been doubted, some authors suggesting that it may be the work of several persons. However, Kapila Vatsyayan has argued that based on the unity of the text, and the many instances of coherent reference of later chapters from earlier text, the composition is likely that of a single person. Whether his/her name really was Bharata is open to question: near the end of the text we have the verse: "Since he alone is the leader of the performance, taking on many roles, he is called Bharata" (35.91), indicating that Bharata may be a generic name. It has been suggested that Bharata is an acronym for the three syllables: bha for bhāva (mood), rā for rāga (melodic framework), and ta for tāla (rhythm). However, in traditional usage Bharata has been iconified as muni or sage, and the work is strongly associated with this personage.
Title and setting
Written in Sanskrit, the text consists of 6,000 sutras, or verse stanzas, incorporated in 36 chapters. Some passages are composed in a prose form. The title can be loosely translated as A compendium of Theatre or a A Manual of Dramatic Arts. Nātya, or nāṭaka means Dramatic Arts. In contemporary usage, this word does not include dance or music, but etymologically the root naṭ refers to "dance". The discourse is set in a frame where a number of munis approach Bharata, asking him about nāṭyaveda (lit. nāṭya=drama,performance; veda=knowledge). The answer to this question comprises the rest of the book, which is thus loosely a dialogue. Bharata says that all this knowledge is due to Brahma. At one point he mentions that he has a hundred "sons" who will spread this knowledge, which suggests that Bharata may have had a number of disciples whom he trained. The creation by Brahma of natyaveda is associated with an egalitarian myth called the fifth veda: since the four vedas, also created by Brahma, were not to be studied by women and lower castes, he created this fifth veda, the art of drama, to be practiced by everyone.
Rasa Main article: Rasa (aesthetics)
. to a detailed analysis of musical scales and movements (murchhanas). by means of internal emotions.Performance Art Theory
Classical Indian dance: the inheritor of the Natya Shastra The Natya Shastra ranges widely in scope. etc. The principles for stage design are laid down in some detail. ear. and their impacts on the viewer. acting. leading to a broad theory of aesthetics (rasas). Four kinds of abhinaya (acting. Individual chapters deal with aspects such as makeup. that by speech (vAchika). to the structure of the stage or mandapa. etc. and the highest mode. eyebrows. A large section deals with meanings conveyed by the performance (bhavas) get particular emphasis. that by costumes and makeup (AhArya). (sAttvika). or histrionics) are described . directing. expressed through minute movements of the lips. costume. Bharata describes 15 types of drama ranging from one to ten acts. to an analysis of dance forms that considers several categories of body movements.that by body part motions (angika). from issues of literary construction.
the note is ever-present and unchanging. and the rasas (emotional responses) that they inspire in the audience. It is considered the defining treatise of Indian Classical Music until the 13th century. disgust. defining note of the scale or grama. heroism. 2. The first principle states that there exists a fundamental note in the musical scale which is Avinashi (अिवनाशी) and Avilopi (अिवलोपी) that is. The word Shadja (षडज) means 'giving birth to six'. For example. Establishment of Shadja as the first.
After the Samaveda that dealt with ritual utterances of the Vedas. terror and comedy. Each rasa experienced by the audience is associated with a specific bhava portrayed on stage. the placement of other notes in the scale is determined. Principle of Consonance: Consists of two principles: a. the imitations of emotions that the actors perform. anger. While much of the discussion of music in the Natyashastra focuses on musical instruments. awe. and that plays should mix different rasas but be dominated by one. actors and musician work together to portray the bhava called rati (love). the playwright. pity.
."Yakshagana artists expressing emotions on stage" The Nātyashāstra delineates a detailed theory of drama comparable to the Poetics of Aristotle. He argues that there are eight principal rasas: love. Bharata refers to bhavas. and refers to the fact that once this note (often referred to as "sa" and notated S) is fixed. when the stream bifurcated into Hindustani classical music in North India and Pakistan. the Natyashastra is the first major text that deals with music at length. and Carnatic classical music in South India. it also emphasizes several theoretical aspects that remained fundamental to Indian music: 1. in order for the audience to experience srngara (the 'erotic' rasa).
Natyashastra remained an important text in the fine arts for many centuries. It also deals with the rasas and bhavas that may be evoked by music. thus compositions emphasizing the notes gandhara or rishabha are said to be related to tragedy (karuna rasa) whereas rishabha is to be emphasized for evoking heroism (vIra rasa). The Natyashastra also suggests several aspects of musical performance. Jatis are elaborated in greater detail in the text Dattilam.
List of chapters
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Origin of drama Description of the playhouse Puja (offering) to the Gods of the stage Description of the karana dance Preliminaries of a play
. composed around the same time as the Natyashastra. as seen in the seminal work Hindustani Sangeetha Padhathi by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande from the early 20th century.corresponding to 4-3-2-4-4-3-2 totalling 22 srutis in a Saptak). The analysis of body forms and movements also influenced sculpture and the other arts in subsequent centuries. The Natyashastra also suggest the notion of musical modes or jatis which are the origin of the notion of the modern melodic structures known as ragas. in addition to Bengali films such as The Apu Trilogy. states that there exists a natural consonance between notes. Many commentaries have expanded the scope of the Natya Shastra. Ga. Bharata Muni while explaining Shadja grama and Madhyam grama in chapter 28 and 30 of Bharat Natya Shastra expounded the Sarana Chatushtai – the only experiment according to Bharata to obtain the correct physical configuration of Śruti Swara arrangement to Shadja Grama notes on any musical instrument (Sa. often treated as law. particularly Bollywood. Pa. so much so that it is sometimes referred to as the fifth veda. Much of the terminology and structure of Indian classical music and Indian classical dance were defined by it. work that unifies the raga structure in music). Ma. The second principle. the next best between Shadja and Pancham. This is the only known correct interpretation of the Bharata Muni's Sarana Chatushtai after Bharata Muni himself and probably Sharang Dev. The theory of rasa described in the text has also been a major influence on modern Indian cinema. most importantly we may include Matanga's Brihaddesi (5th-7th c. Re. instrumental and orchestral compositions.b.). which itself has had a major influence on world cinema. Their role in invoking emotions are emphasized. the best between Shadja and Tar Shadja. To prove the utility of srutis in music. Dha. Ni Sa. Abhinavagupta's Abhinavabharati (which unifies some of the divergent structures that had emerged in the intervening years. The structures of music outlined in the Natya Shastra retain their influence even today. 3. and outlines a theory of artistic analysis) and Sharngadeva's Sangita Ratnakara (13th c. particularly its application to vocal. Sarana Chatushtai in recent centuries has been demonstrated and proven by Avinash Balkrishna Patwardhan in the year 1998 on flute as well as on sitar (this has also helped him develop a methodology for producing perfectly tuned flutes for different thatas).
^ Manmohan Ghosh. New Delhi.Introduction to Indian Classical Music . http://www. Manomohan (2002). Natyasastra. "Glimpses of Natyashastra". course notes. ^ a b c Bharata: The Natyasastra (1996). Nātyakalpadrumam. 6.p.The Origin
.hss. ^ a b Dr. Sahitya Akademi. See introduction p. (1950).. xxvi for discussion of dates 5.iitb.htm.p. ISBN 81-7080-076-5 page = 2. Natyashastra.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Sentiments (rasas) Emotional and other states Gestures of minor limbs Gestures of hands Gestures of other limbs Cari movements Different gaits Zones and local usages Rules of prosody Metrical patterns Diction of a play Rules on the use of languages Modes of address and intonation Ten kinds of play Limbs of the segments Styles Costumes and make-up Harmonious performance Dealings with courtezans Varied performances Success in dramatic performances Instrumental music Stringed instruments Time measure Dhruva songs Covered instruments Types of character Distribution of roles Descent of drama on the Earth Indian classical dance Navarasa Nātyakalpadrumam Sanskrit Literature Natya Yoga
1. Sangeet Natak Akademi.in/courses/HS450/notes2. ^ Māni Mādhava Chākyār (1996).6 2. Asiatic Society.ac. Kapila Vatsyayan.6 4. ed.. 3. Asawari Bhat. IIT Mumbai. New Delhi. ^ Ghosh. ^ Musical Nirvana .
Culture of India
From Wikipedia.500 years old and its theme is heavily influenced by the Puranas.4 Namaste o 2. which were formed during the Indus Valley Civilization and evolved further during the Vedic age. One the eight major Indian classical dances.India. is Published by Sri Satguru Publications/Indian Books Centre. ^ Matthew Jones (January 2010).Delhi. music. 1975 Brahaspati. New Delhi.7. Rasa and Indian Cinema: Misconceptions. pp.2 Family o 2. dance. Visual Anthropology 23 (1): 33–43 9. Bharat ka Sangeet Siddhant.5 Festivals 3 Cuisine 4 Clothing 5 Literature
. Cambridge University Press. Darius (2000). rise and decline of Buddhism. The culture of India has been shaped not only by its long history.Complete English Translation. European colonization and the rise of Indian nationalism. Dr. The Cinema of Satyajit Ray: Between Tradition and Modernity. religions. Marathi) (1909-1932). architecture and its customs differ from place to place within the country. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. unique geography and diverse demography. invasions from Central Asia. search A Kathakali performer as Krishna. K C Dev. ^ Cooper. Kathakali is more than 1. The languages. the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation. ISBN 0521629802 + Natya Sastra. Meanings and Millionaire". Sangeet Natak Academi. the Golden age. Khairagarh Edition.in Raga Nrtya Series.
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1 Religion 2 Society o 2. Nātyakalpadrumam. Māni Mādhava. but nevertheless possess a commonality.
Other books and references
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Nanyadev.1 Overview o 2. 1–4. The culture of India is an amalgamation of diverse sub-cultures spread all over the country and traditions that are several millennia old.3 Animals o 2. 8. Chākyār. but also by its ancient heritages. "Bollywood. ^ Hindustani Sangeetha Padhathi (4 volumes. Sangeet Karyalaya (1990 reprint). Bharat Bhashya.
1 Television o 9. He also mentions that from an early age. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third.1 Painting o 7. children are reminded of their roles and places in society.
According to Eugene M. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and functional role in determining their life. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. India. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of most of its people.2 Dance o 6.•
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5. Sikhism.3 Architecture 8 Recreation and sports 9 Popular media o 9.2 Cinema 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links
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Close-up of a statue depicting Maitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh.2 Sculpture o 7.1 Music o 6.1 History 5. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other people. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. Zoroastrianism.4 billion followers altogether. Makar. Jainism and especially Buddhism are influential not only in India but across the world. Dharmic religions.3 Drama and theater 7 Visual arts o 7. Christianity. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life. Jainism and Sikhism. Buddhism. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. are a major form of world religions next to the Abrahamic ones.2 Poetry 5. with around 1.3 Epics 6 Performing arts o 6. Today. also known as Indian religions. South Asia is the birthplace of Dharmic religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Several differences
. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Dharmic religions such as Hinduism.and fourth-largest religions respectively.
 During the nationalist movement. Arranged marriages have the tradition in Indian society for centuries.such as religion divide the culture. social standing) and their castes and the astrological compatibility of the couples' horoscopes. the marriage is thought to be for life. However. such as the traditional 'kurta -pyjama' and the 'Gandhi topi'. the children’s spouses and their offspring. India for ages has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. According to UNICEF’s “State of the World’s Children-2009” report. and Women in India A bride during a traditional Punjabi Hindu wedding ceremony. The elder-most. Strict social taboos have governed these groups for thousands of years. height. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. with 56% in rural areas. Indian names are based on a variety of systems and naming conventions. In recent years. Even today. It’s a system under which even extended members of a family like one’s parents. whereas other family members abide by it. Arranged marriage in India. Names are also influenced by religion and caste and may come from religion or epics." Although child marriage was outlawed in 1860.
. Egalitarian behaviour and social service were promoted while nonessential spending was disliked and spending money for ‘showing off’ was deemed a vice. Arranged matches were made after taking into account factors such as age. personal values and tastes. This image continues in politics with many politicians wearing simple looking / traditionally rural clothes. The patriarch often resolves family issues. In India. In rural areas & sometimes in urban areas as well. pretentious behaviour was something to be avoided. India has low levels of occupational and geographic mobility. for some modernists. it is common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof. etc. a far more powerful division is the traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations. it is continued to be practiced in some rural parts of India. 47% of India's women aged 20–24 were married before the legal age of 18. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: "Opinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while. The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. live together. overwhelming majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members. India's population speaks a wide variety of languages. usually the male member is the head in the joint Indian family system who makes all important decisions and rules. Important family relations extend as far as gotra. and the divorce rate is extremely low — 1. The Nuclear family is becoming central to Indian culture.
Main articles: Hindu joint family. Among developing countries. children. they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. which vary from region to region. particularly in cities. Family plays a big role in the Indian culture. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth. the backgrounds of their families (wealth. with the consent of the bride and groom. The report also showed that 40% of the world's child marriages occur in India.1% compared with about 50% in the United States. People choose same occupations as their parents and rarely move geographically in the country.
In yoga. Due to weak enforcement of laws protecting them.Woman's role in the society is often to perform household works and pro bono community work.Although women and men are equal before the law and the trend toward gender equality has been noticeable. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namas): to bow.
Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kapaleeshwarar temple in Chennai See also: Wildlife of India. This low rate of participation has ideological and historical reasons. mother goddess and bringer of good fortune and wealth. The gesture can also be performed wordlessly or calling on another god E. Grihshobha and Woman's Era'. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. For this reason. However. the cow is regarded as a symbol of ahimsa (non-violence). reverential salutation. In many families." as spoken by both the yoga instructor and yoga students. Dipawali. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than namaste but both express deep respect.: "Jai shri Krishna" and carry the same meaning. is very popular among Indian women. and Cattle in religion The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. Jains and Buddhists. it means "I bow to you". Popular and influential woman's magazines include Femina. When spoken to another person. Women and women's issues appear only 7-14% of the time in news programs. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales. namaste is said to mean "The light in me honors the light in you. In Hinduism. is celebrated by Hindus across India by lighting diyas and making rangolis. women and men still occupy distinct functions in Indian society. Taken literally. They still lag behind men in terms of income and job status. Namaskar or Namaskaram or Vannakam is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. the same hands folded gesture is made usually wordlessly upon departure. a festival of lights. cows are revered in Hindu culture and feeding a cow is that is seen as an act of worship. women do not own any property in their own names. Animal husbandry in India. it is commonly accompanied by a slight bow made with hands pressed together.
. Traditional Hindu art. the girls and women face nutritional discrimination within the family. 'Savvy. in front of the chest. obeisance. and do not get a share of parental property. women continue to have little access to land and property. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. In most Indian families. such as Rangoli (or Kolam). especially rural ones. Common name for wilderness in India is Jungle which was adopted by the British colonialists to the English language. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling.g. and respect and (te): "to you". In Indian and Nepali culture. and are anaemic and malnourished. palms touching and fingers pointed upwards.
such as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus. South. goat.
. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Indian cuisine can be split into five categories: North. The spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. Food is an important part of Indian culture. such as the Persians. Despite this diversity. Ganesh Chaturthi. are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. Several harvest festivals. Certain festivals in India are celebrated by multiple religions.Festivals
Main article: Festivals in India India. which originated in India. fish. many traditional Indian dishes also include chicken. Notable examples include Diwali which celebrated by Hindus. East. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. enjoy widespread popularity. Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. and are used to enhance the flavor of a dish and create unique flavors and aromas. reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically diverse subcontinent. and other meats. such Eid ul-Fitr. Indian tandoori dishes. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. some unifying threads emerge."Nuakhai" are also fairly popular. Mughals. lamb. Adding colors to the culture of India. In addition. The multiple families of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many spices and herbs. Durga puja. and European colonists. The three national holidays in India. the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti. such as Sankranthi. being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Navratri Diwali. Holi. the Dree Festival is one of the tribal festivals of India celebrated by the Apatanis of the Ziro valley of Arunachal Pradesh. Pongal and Onam. Islamic festivals. across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "panAsian" dish. Sikhs and Jains and Buddh Purnima which is celebrated by Buddhists and Hindus. The popularity of curry.
Main article: Cuisine of India A variety of Indian curries and vegetable dishes. Indian cuisine varies from region to region. Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. Generally. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia. Historically. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. which is the easternmost state of this country. such as chicken tikka made with Indian ingredients.West Indian and North-eastern India. are celebrated by Muslims across India. the Independence Day. Eid al-Adha and Ramadan. playing a role in everyday life as well as in festivals.
Some of the most important authors from India are Rabindranath Tagore. In southern India the men wear long. Both are often gaily patterned. Qurratulain Hyder and Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai and others have received critical acclaim. Delhi is considered to be India's fashion capital. Traditional Indian clothing for women are the saris and also Ghaghra Cholis (Lehengas). Little girls wear a pavada. A bindi is also worn by some as their third eye. In the medieval period. Nirmal Verma. A pavada is a long skirt worn under a blouse. and Pune are all places for people who like to shop. tshirts. Muhammad Iqbal. Mumbai. literature in Kannada and Telugu appears in the 9th and 10th and 11th centuries respectively. traditional clothes are the Dhoti/pancha/veshti or Kurta. Dupatta. Kurta. Mahasweta Devi. Michael Madhusudan Dutt. Sherwani. Indo-western clothing is the fusion of Western and Subcontinental fashion. but now it has become a part of women's fashion.
Main article: Indian literature Rabindranath Tagore. and various dialects of Hindi. Amrita Pritam. Churidar. Agyeya. In contemporary India. Classical Tamil literature succeeded well in the first few centuries of the first millennium CE . Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Traditionally. Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'. Ahmedabad. Marathi. Bengali. Chennai. Women wear a sari. Devaki Nandan Khatri became well known. Gamchha. Subramania Barathi Kuvempu. This is draped over a simple or fancy blouse. traditional clothing mostly will be worn. Delhi. men wear shirts. The earliest works of Indian literature were orally transmitted. Vaikom Muhammad Basheer. Tamil literature begins with the sangam literature a collection of sacred hymns dating to the period 10000BC–1200 BCE . housing the annual Fashion weeks. Over the dhoti. followed by the first Malayalam works in the 12th century. For men. Munshi Premchand. among the writers who have received critical acclaim are: Girish Karnad. Asia's first Nobel laureate. Indira Goswami. It sees what the others eyes can't and protect your brain from the outside and the sun. The Tamil epics tolkappiyam and thirukural appeared towards the end of the first millennium BCE. During this time. a long sheet of colourful cloth with patterns. and Urdu began to appear as well.
. literature in the Tamil. In some village parts of India. white sheets of cloth called dhoti in English and in Tamil. Bindi is part of the women's make-up. This is worn by young ladies and woman. or anything else. Kamleshwar. Mundum Neriyathum. Maasti Venkatesh Ayengar. uttariya are among
A girl from Tripura sports a bindi while preparing to take part in a traditional dance festival. the red bindi (or sindhur) was worn only by the married Hindu women.
Main article: Indian poetry Illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra.In contemporary Indian literature. pop. S. as well as the epics of ancient times. as well as prose compositions. India has strong traditions of poetry ever since the Rigveda. poetry has served as an important non-violent tool of nationalism during the Indian freedom movement. Poetry is often closely related to musical traditions. and about 1. Malaysia and Indonesia. Kuvempu and K. Gujarati. and classical music. it has a history
. five in Bengali. three each in and Marathi. these are the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship and the Jnanpith Award.8 million words in total. Civaka Cintamani. Other regional variations of them as well as unrelated epics include the Tamil Kamba Ramayanam. Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam. some of their versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts. in Kannada. Main article: Music of India The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious. long prose passages. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa.000 verses. With more than 74. Urdu and Oriya. In modern times. Narasimhaswamy in modern times and poets such as Basava (vachanas) . Manimegalai.
Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala. there are five epics in the classical Tamil language are Silappadhikaram. In addition. Kundalakesi. It is noted for the use of several Raga. It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. the Mahābhārata is one of the longest epic poems in the world. melodic modes.
The Ramayana and Mahabharata are the oldest preserved and still well-known epics of India. there are two major literary awards. Valaiyapathi. Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada. folk. Two examples of poetry from Tagore's Gitanjali serve as the national anthems of both India and Bangladesh. A famous modern example of this tradition can be found in such figures as Rabindranath Tagore. six in Hindi. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic Śrauta sacrifices. Torave Ramayana by Kumara Valmiki and Karnata Bharata Katha Manjari by Kumaravyasa. the Pampa Bharata by Adikavi Pampa. and much of poetry can be attributed to religious movements. Kabir and Purandaradasa (padas and devaranamas) in medieval times. Writers and philosophers were often also skilled poets. four in Malayalam.
the chhau of Jharkhand and Orissa. Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance. kathak of Uttar Pradesh. the bihu of Assam. have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music. initiated by the likes of Gubbi Veeranna. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñānaśākuntala. It strictly follows the Natya Shastra. Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" (Karnataka sangeeta pitamaha). Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays. Vikramorvaśīya and Mālavikāgnimitra. Kalarippayattu or Kalari for short is considered one of the world's oldest martial arts. like Buddhism. It remains instrumental to the religious inspiration. Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. There have been many great proud. Group Theater is also thriving in the cities. manipuri of Manipur. Khwaja Ahmad
. Bhasa's Swapnavāsavadatta and Pancharātra. only about 1000 are known today.spanning millennia and it was developed over several eras.
Main article: Indian dance Odissi dancer in front of the Konark Sun Temple. Other later martial arts are Gatka. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat. It is preserved in texts such as the Mallapurana. Eight dance forms. and eventually developing into Kung-fu. there is a rich tradition of puppet theater in rural India. Pehlwani and Malla-yuddha. going back to at least the second century BCE. revived the age old drama tradition from extinction. odissi of the state of Orissa and the sattriya of Assam. kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. However. Nātyāchārya (late) Padma Shri Māni Mādhava Chākyār. the ghoomar of Rajasthan. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu. cultural expression and pure entertainment.  He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475. He was known for mastery of Rasa Abhinaya. Harsha's Nagananda in Kutiyattam form The tradition of folk theater is popular in most linguistic regions of India. (It is mentioned in Patanjali's commentary on Panini).
Drama and theater
Natyacarya Mani Madhava Chakyar as Ravana in Bhasa's Abhiṣeka Nataka Kutiyattam one of the oldest surviving drama tradition of the world. Kalari and other later formed martial arts have been assumed by some to have traveled to China. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab. One of the oldest surviving theatre tradition of the world is the 2000 year old Kutiyattam of Kerala. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala. The natak of Bhasa are very popular in this art form. Dance. and Drama. Utpal Dutt. following those of Bhasa.the unrivaled maestro of this art form and Abhinaya. many with narrative forms and mythological elements. In addition.000 songs in the Kannada language.
schist. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of pre-historic times. Madhubani painting. Buddhist or Jain. Raza. Rajput painting. and Jainism developed further. These recent artists have acquired international recognition. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. M. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian art where global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. K. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. as Hinduism. The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization. V. Cave paintings from Ajanta. Ancient texts outline theories of darragh and anecdotal accounts suggesting that it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. Among the present day artists. Buddhism. Tanjore painting. display a very strong blend of Indian and Classical Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman influence. Ninasam and Prithvi Theatre. or clay.
Main article: Sculpture in India Hindu sculptures at the famous Khajuraho temple in Madhya Pradesh. Atul Dodiya. Bagh.Venkatappa are some modern painters. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia.
. S. Jehangir Art Gallery. Raja Ravi Varma is one the classical painters from medieval India. Mysore painting. Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. while Nandalal Bose. in stucco. Bose Krishnamacnahri. Subbanna and still maintained by groups like Nandikar. A freshly made coloured flour design (Rangoli) is still a common sight outside the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. F. Mumbai. Sculptures produced in the northwest. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu. Later. During the Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling.
Main article: Indian art
Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves. Jamini Roy and B. Geeta Vadhera. H.Abbas. some of which go back to the Stone Age. Some huge shrines. Husain.
Feng Shui is more commonly used throughout the world. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple. Borobudur and other Buddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. architecture. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of IndoSaracenic style. but they contain certain similarities.Architecture
Main article: Indian architecture The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. Konark. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600-1900 BCE) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. Brihadeeswara Temple. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur. and mixing of several other styles. due to the spread of Buddhism. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. temple spire or sikhara.
. The central spire is also sometimes called a vimanam. and the various modern urban developments of India like Chandigarh. such as the exact directions in which various objects. Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. constantly absorbing new ideas. are to be placed. one of the largest private residences in the world. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. through the house. Akshardham in Delhi the largest Hindu temple in the world. and ergonomics. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. During the period of the Maurya and Gupta empires and their successors. and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. are notable. several Buddhist architectural complexes. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. The Victoria Memorial or the Victoria Terminus are notable examples. rooms. The southern temple gate. Thanjavur. Mumbai's Nariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. Angkor Wat. Qutub Minar. and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. influencing town planning.
Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. Gol Gumbaz. It is unclear which system is older. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. materials. such as European Gothic. it differs in the details. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. Taj Mahal. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam. The traditional system of Vaastu Shastra serves as India's version of Feng Shui. the Sun Temple. Contemporary Indian architecture is more cosmopolitan. Later on. (also called life-force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese). Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. have become famous symbols of Asian culture. and the Buddha stupa (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Bhattiprolu. etc. Fatehpur Sikri. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana. the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated.
Although field hockey is India's official national sport. The modern eastern martial arts originated as ancient games and martial arts in India. In 1991. with the New Delhi Asian games. television programming had reached saturation. and dice. Games of strength and speed flourished in India. Though there was a single channel. the government liberated its markets. The Ramayana and Mahabharat were some among the popular television series produced. horsemanship. weight lifting. Playing cards. and it is believed by some that these games were transmitted to foreign countries. wrestling. Snakes and Ladders. Chess was invented in India. archery. Carrom. Polo is also popular. In ancient India stones were used for weights. football (soccer) and especially cricket. cricket is by far the most popular sport not only in India. Traditional indigenous sports include kabaddi and gilli-danda. India saw the colour version of TV. which was government owned. By the late 1980s more and more people started to own television sets. thriving recreationally and professionally. Both channels were broadcasted terrestrially. marbles. Badminton are popular.Recreation and sports
Main article: Sports in India See also: kabaddi and Indian chess The annual snake boat race is performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta. Cricket has even been used recently as a forum for diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan. Today. This channel was known as DD 2 later DD Metro.
Main article: Television in India See also: List of Indian television stations Indian television started off in 1959 in New Delhi with tests for educational telecasts. 1982 saw revolution in TV programming in India. which are played in most parts of the country. that year. and has thousands of programmes in all the states of
. Ancient Indians competed in chariot racing. Indian silver screen is a huge industry by itself. swimming and running races. Since then. Indian small screen programming started off in the mid 1970s. opening them up to cable television. there has been a spurt in the number of channels available. hunting. In the area of recreation and sports India had evolved a number of games. A few games introduced during the British Raj have grown quite popular in India: field hockey. where they were further adapted and modernized. military tactics. Indoor and outdoor games like Chess. At that time there was only one national channel Doordarshan. The two nations' cricket teams face off annually and such contests are quite impassioned on both sides. but the entire subcontinent. Hence the government opened up another channel which had part national programming and part regional.
scholars believe that a living theatre tradition must have existed in India at an earlier date. unarguably the most comprehensive documentations of ancient Indian life. Tamil. also found their way into these narratives. Though some do conjecture that Alexander the Great. Girish Kasaravalli.
Main article: Cinema of India Shooting of a Bollywood dance number. may have taken
. Guru Dutt. perhaps as part of their religious celebrations.etc. India has produced many critically acclaimed cinema-makers like K. Marathi. Punjabi and Telugu) constitute the broader Indian film industry. a collection of stories dealing with the life and exploits of Krishna. Hrishikesh Mukherjee. Although these texts do refer to a class of performers who may have been actors. no clear-cut references to a theatrical tradition exists. Iyer. Bollywood is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based film industry in India. including stations such as Cartoon Network. and even men of all kinds. V. Kannada.Jagdaman Grewal. With the opening up of the economy in the recent years and consequent exposure to world cinema. whose interest in the theatre was well-known. Written between 1000 BC and 100 BC. although a few texts are composed in short. The Puranas. And though rituals of the Vedic tradition have the potential of developing into theatre. dating from approximately 1500-1000 BC yields no trace either. G. In addition. once again. changing the revenue patterns. (See Indian film directors). K. The small screen has produced numerous celebrities of their own kind some even attaining national fame for themselves. gauging from the sophistication of those fragments.
The emergence of sankrit drama It's difficult to determine the precise origins of Sanskrit drama. Vishwanath. A search of the Vedas. Shekhar Kapoor. Dance and music seems to have been their mainstay. Bollywood and the other major cinematic hubs (in Bengali. an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Ritwik Ghatak. Malayalam. although the Indus Valley people left behind an enormous wealth of archaeological evidence. However. and MTV India. TV soaps are extremely popular with housewives as well as working women. they give no signs of any theatrical activity.India. multiplexes have mushroomed in most cities. elementary dialogue. audience tastes have been changing.Vishwanath. Bapu . Fragments of the earliest known plays have been traced to the 1st century AD. Some small time actors have made it big in Bollywood. whose output is considered to be the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced and number of tickets sold. Could the Sanskrit dramatists have been inspired by Greek theatre? That's a question that seems to have puzzled many scholars. it's a dead end. Adoor Gopalakrishnan. Shankar Nag. The Ramayana and The Mahabharata The compositions of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana changed things. have inspired numerous dramatic compositions. Girish Karnad. Satyajit Ray. these Hindu magnum opus'. Indian TV now has many of the same channels as Western TV. once again. Nickelodeon. Unfortunately.
grammar. Bharata's narrative at the opening of the text reveals certain characteristics of Sanskrit drama: 1. dramaturgical texts (surviving on palm leaf manuscripts) and descriptions through other sources for information. The earliest references to what may have been the seeds of Sanskrit drama were by Patanjali in The Mahabhasya. the guidelines for critique that Bharata developed are said to have influenced dramatic criticism till today. music. poetic compositions. coupled with the existence of dramatic rituals. It takes into account every aspect of theatrical relevance. through Pantomime. Characteristics of Sanskrit Drama Bharata's Natyashastra is the most important source for establishing the characteristics of Sanskrit drama (natya. The Natyashastra. It's difficult to put an exact date to it. shastra. and scholars believe it may have been written anywhere between 200 BC to 200 AD. Natya or theatre is not specifically mentioned. epic stories which were later interpreted in dramatic form. steps and moves from it. the audience. meaning drama or theatre. It is composed of sacred material. make-up.all we have are plays.e. Unlike the Greek and Roman theatre. almost establishes the fact that it was this time that Sanskrit drama came into being. 3.troupes along with him on his campaigns in north-east India in 327 BC. dramatic competitions. but there is a mention made to people who recite and sing (natas). dance for instance has taken its language of gestures. costumes. Theatre is said to have been the inspiration of Brahma as a means to distract people from their sensual pursuits. it's wider than Aristotle's Poetics. The Natyashastra Bharata's Natyashastra (roughly translated as the "science of drama") laid down the foundation for classical Sanskrit drama. dance. its authorship has been attributed to sage Bharata. recitation and ritual language is a must. Patanjali states that action may be determined in several ways. The mythological origin of theatre is related in the Natyashastra (The Birth of Theatre. music. It is performed by members of the highest rank in the caste system. It is meant for an audience that is well-versed in the performance tradition. but due to the unevenness in writing styles. 2. In order to emphasize a point. formation of theatre companies. 4. Unfortunately. Chapter 1). Both forms have derived a great deal from the guidelines laid down by this text. there are no surviving Indian theatre structures . The Natyashastra almost entirely shapes our understanding of music in ancient India. some critics believe it to be the work of several hands. actor communities and ritual observances. It requires special knowledge and skill to execute.
. properties.. we have no physical evidence to substantiate these performances. as well as a great deal of dance. In terms of its scope. Recitation. In addition to that. to name a few. understanding of dance. a generic term referring to any authoritative text). whose ancient ruins leave behind some tangible evidence. including theatre architecture. his text on grammar written in 140 BC. Song and Dance. Apart from its relevance to the theatre. i. This evidence. and author Bharata figures prominently in its origin. nothing conclusive has emerged. Traditionally. A complete 5. Its date of publication hasn't yet been agreed on. and currently lies between 200 BC and AD 200. play construction. priests.
attributed to playwright Sudraka who. The Natyashastra is much broader in scope than the other surviving masterpieces of ancient theatre. the daughter of a heavenly nymph and sage. in order to maintain a dramatic integrity. One of the earliest writers. dramatic competitions and the community of actors. Asvaghosa. unarguably one of the greatest playwrights of his time. wrote about Buddhist teachings and followed the rules laid down by the Natyashastra. or The Vision of Vasavadatta. The Little Clay Cart. The play's unique storyline. He also made up his own tales. But more than all these. The Latter History of Rama. it's for his undisputed classic Abhijnanasakuntala. Sakuntala and the Ring of Recognition. music. as well as other semi-historical tales. costumes. Vasantsena. a great number of plays were written. Covering all aspects of drama.10th Century AD) From the 1st century to the 10th century AD. the dramatic poem Meghduta and the epic poems Kamarasambhava and Raghuvamsa were written by him. scholars have not been able to locate any more of his writing. Perhaps one of the most popular works of classical Indian theatre is Mrcchakatika. Mahabharata and Puranas. the story of King Dusyanta's love.to educate as well as entertain. way ahead of his times. in a nutshell. Charudatta. With Sakuntala. Training is a hereditary process descending directly from God. It must be performed on consecrated ground. is the one author whose work has survived in abundance -. a faithful courtesan. and passed
down from father to son. 8. for which he is best remembered today.13 plays. dance. 7. Bhasa.6. who probably wrote between the 4th and 5th century. properties (props). is among his best known works. and considering the brilliance of this one work. stage architecture. including Aristotle's Poetics. Kalidasa took liberties with the epic story (which can be found in the Mahabharata) to suit his needs. it is possible to form a rough picture of ancient Indian theatre. a mathematician. Although Bhasa's work follows the rules from the Natyashastra. the high point of Sanskrit drama. make-up. Swapnavasavadatta. A mention of classical playwrights would never be complete without a look at Kalidasa. The outstanding results. Placed around the AD 700. only proves that he was a man of the theatre. and a jealous royal Samstanaka. probably a member of a north Indian king's court. although few have survived. the organization of theatre companies. his Uttarramacharita. as critics assert. the audience. Attempts to place him chronologically remain vague . Blending both the serious and humourous. Plays Malavikagnimitra and Vikramorvasiya. Among the major playwrights of later Sanskrit drama. (see The birth of theatre) Classical Playrights (1st -. So far. is a triangle of sorts -.some say he may have been a court poet during the time of Chandragupta II of Ujjain in the mid-5th century AD. Bhavabhuti stands out above the others. it remains one of the most popular staged pieces of classical Indian drama. Bhasa composed plays from the Ramayana. even ritual practices. including acting. It serves a dual purpose -. marriage. knowledgeable in love and skilled in the training of elephants". separation and reunion with Sakuntala. he often violates them. it seems almost impossible that he hasn't written anything else. whose work (in fragmented form) came to the attention of scholars early this century. is among the best known
. describes himself as "a king. in the preface to the play.involving a hapless brahmin. His adherence to classical rules without sacrificing his artistic integrity is what Kalidasa is best remembered for.
Sanskrit drama was fading from the scenario. the language of the courts and temples. In areas where Islam became the state religion. Then. Adapting incidents from the epic Ramayana. it takes considerable creative liberties with the text. Few later artists would be able to make use of them without strangling their creativity. abandon Sanskrit and perform in the regional languages of the rural areas in order to cater to the tastes of the less sophisticated villagers? The references to jugglers. Some believe it was the successive invasions of Mohammed of Gazni that weakened the kingdoms of north India and. major political changes took place in India that went on to influence its cultural growth. Only in south India did a form of Sanskrit drama manage to survive . very little work worth critical attention was produced. therefore. the emphasis on lyrics and poetry (as opposed to dramatic dialogue) was becoming apparent and later playwrights like Bhavabhuti only consolidated this practice. given the performers' will to survive. For instance.it was too elite. The Mughal invasions that were taking place from the 10th century eventually led to their consolidation of power and the formation of the Great Mughal empire of the 15th century. The Decline of Sankrit Theatre What could have wiped it out? Scholars blame several forces. acrobats. had begun to be replaced by various regional literary traditions that were fast emerging in rural areas. once patronized by the courts of the Hindu kings. then take to the road. Very little is known about this dark period in Sanskrit drama. theatre declined because the religion did not condone it.plays of Sanskrit drama. both internal and external.Koothiyattam in Kerala. Sanskrit. It may also have been the exclusivity of Sanskrit theatre that weakened its ability to survive -. did the actors. storytellers and singers in various texts of the time lead us to believe that this was entirely possible. Kalidasa and Bhavabhuti. Other changes in the creative process may have contributed to it in some way. leaning more towards lengthy poetic expressions that the later Sanskrit dramatists favoured. Perhaps it was the Natyashastra's stringent rules that ultimately did it in. Post the 10th century. Between the 10th and 15th centuries. particularly in north India. Sudraka. Slowly.
. While there were many other Sanskrit dramatists who wrote up to the 10th century. As early as Bhasa and Kalidasa. their way of life. none measured up to the success of Bhasa.