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SEMINAR REPORT Submitted by ALEXANDER P J in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING of
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING MODEL ENGINEERING COLLEGE
COCHIN 682 021 AUGUST 2011
MODEL ENGINEERING COLLEGE THRIKKAKARA, KOCHI-21 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the seminar report entitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................... Submitted by ..................................................... is a bonafide account of the work done by him/her under our supervision Ms. Dr. Mini M G Head of Department Ms. Sheeba P S Seminar coordinator Ms. Sumitha Seminar guide
2 Implementation 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO: TITLE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES 1 INTRODUCTION 1.4 EZW coding algoithm 4 5 6 RESULTS CONCLUSION REFERENCES 11 12 14 14 15 17 18 20 5 6 7 8 PAGE NO: i ii iii iv 1 1 2 .1 Need for image compression 1.1 Concept of Zero-Tree 3.2 Principles behind compression 2 IMAGE COMPRESSION 2.1 Quantization 2.2 Error Matrices 2.3 Significance Test 3.3 Coding schemes for wavelet co-efficients 3 EZW CODING 3.
LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO: 1.2 Different scanning patterns for scanning wavelet coefficients 3.0 3.4 EZW Algorithm LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO: TABLE NAME PAGE NO: 1 2 Multi-media Data Threshold Comparison 18 18 .1 FIGURE NAME Three level octave band decomposition of Saturn image Spectral decomposition and ordering Quad Tree Structure Block diagram of transfer based coder PAGE NO: The relation between wavelet coefficients in sub bands as quad tree 3.3 Example of decomposition to three resolution for an 8*8 matrix 3.1 1.2 2.0 3.
Mini M G. Ms. Seminar coordinator Ms. Sumitha Mathew for her help. I also thank my parents and my classmates for their encouragement and support. Suresh Kumar P. . Head of the Electronics Department Dr. without the help of whom this seminar would never have taken shape. Sheeba P S. Selection grade lecturer of Electronics Department and the college management for their help and support. By this I thank all the staff of our college for rendering valuable help and support in preparing this seminar. for the support in the preparation and presentation of this seminar. I also thank wholeheartedly my Seminar Guide. guidance and scholarly tips towards the successful completion of this seminar. I would also like to thank GOD for blessing the completion of this seminar. in the first place express my sincere gratitude to the Principal of our college Dr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I.
EZW is computationally very fast and among the best image compression algorithm known today. Compression Ratio (CR) and Peak-Signal-to-Noise (PSNR) is determined for different threshold values ranging from 6 to 60 for decomposition level 8. A large number of experimental results are shown that this method saves a lot of bits in transmission. This paper aims to determine the best threshold to compress the still image at a particular decomposition level by using Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet encoder. Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) algorithm is a simple yet powerful algorithm having the property that the bits in the stream are generated in the order of their importance. further enhances the compression performance. Image compression can improve the performance of the digital systems by reducing time and cost in image storage and transmission without significant reduction of the image quality. This paper proposes a technique for image compression which uses the Wavelet-based Image Coding. For image compression it is desirable that the selection of transform should reduce the size of resultant data set as compared to source data set. .ABSTRACT Image compression is very important for efficient transmission and storage of images.
Redundancy removes redundancy from the signal source and irrelevancy omits pixel values which are not noticeable by human eye. As a result. 12 bits/pixel nearly contains 360 x 10⁶ bits . The wavelet based coding divides the image into different subbands. (ii) a 24 x 36 mm negative photograph scanned at 12 x 10⁻⁶mm:3000 x 2000 pixels/color. The wavelet filters are so designed that the coefficients in each sub-band are almost uncorrelated with each other. Firstly. and 3 colors approximately consists of 6 x 10⁶ bits. 8 bits/pixel. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT)  become a cutting edge technology in image data compression. TV quality. For example. It reduces the number of bits needed to represent an image by removing the spatial and spectral redundancies. (iii) a 14 x 17 inch radiograph scanned at 70 x 10⁻⁶mm: 5000 x 6000 pixels. The two fundamental principles used in image compression are redundancy and irrelevancy. The basic objective of image compression is to find an image representation in which pixels are less correlated. some bits are reduced producing an output bit stream. These sub-bands can then be successively quantized using different quantizers to give better compression. and 3 colors nearly contains 144 x 10⁶ bits. Image compression is typically comprised of three basic steps. The basic objective of image compression is to find an image representation in which pixels are less correlated.1 NEED FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION : The need for image compression becomes apparent when number of bits per image are computed resulting from typical sampling rates and quantization methods. the image is transformed into wavelet coefficients which are then quantized in a quantizer and finally threshold which makes the coefficient smaller than a chosen threshold value (zero) obtained from the quantizer.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Wavelet based image compression techniques are increasingly used for image compression. color video image which has 512 x 512 pixels/color. 8 bits/pixel. 1. the amount of storage required for given images is : (i) a low resolution.
Image compression research aims at reducing the number of bits needed to represent an image by removing the spatial and spectral redundancies as much as possible. In many different .1. The foremost task then is to find less correlated representation of the Image.In general three types of redundancy can be identified • Spatial Redundancy or correlation between neighboring pixel. Two fundamental components of compression are redundancy and irrelevancy reduction.2 Principles behind Compression A Common characteristic of most images is that the neighboring pixels are correlated and therefore contain redundant information. • Spectral redundancy or correlation between different color planes or spectral bands • Temporal redundancy or correlation between adjacent frames in a sequence of images (in video applications).Irrelevancy reduction omits parts of the signal that will not be noticed by the signal receiver namely Human Visual System(HVS). Redundancy reduction aims at removing duplication from the signal source(image/video).
The information contained in images must. Wavelet-based coding  provides substantial improvements in picture quality at higher compression ratios. wavelet based compression algorithms are the suitable candidates for the new JPEG-2000 standard .fields. One of the most successful applications of wavelet methods is transform-based image compression (also called coding). have been developed and implemented. The overlapping nature of the wavelet transform alleviates blocking artifacts. Furthermore. Over the past few years. The fundamental goal of image compression is to reduce the bit rate for transmission or storage while maintaining an acceptable fidelity or image quality. Such a coder operates by transforming the data to remove redundancy. With wavelets. and finally entropy coding the quantizer output. the multiresolution transform domain means that wavelet compression methods degrade much more gracefully than block-DCT methods as the compression ratio increases. With . be compressed by extracting only visible elements. Because of the many advantages. a variety of powerful and sophisticated waveletbased schemes for image compression. large smooth areas of an image may be represented with very few bits. therefore. Since a wavelet basis consists of functions with both short support (for high frequencies) and long support (for low frequencies). whichare then encoded. digitized images are replacing conventional analog images as photograph or x-rays. while the multiresolution character of the wavelet decomposition leads to superior energy compaction and perceptual quality of the decompressed image. as discussed later. then quantizing the transform coefficients (a lossy step). a compression rate of up to 1:300 is achievable . wavelet compression methods have produced superior objective and subjective results . The loss of information is introduced by the quantization stage which intentionally rejects less relevant parts of the image information. Wavelet compression allows the integration of various compression techniques into one algorithm. Because of their superior energy compaction properties and correspondence with the human visual system. The quantity of data involved is thus reduced substantially. and detail added where it is needed . The volume of data required to describe such images greatly slow transmission and makes storage prohibitively costly.
Compression with Reversible Embedded Wavelet (CREW) . In many cases.lossless compression. Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) .The Section 5 discusses about the unique features and the demerits of various coding schemes. Space – Frequency Quantization (SFQ) . the original image is recovered exactly after decompression. which is usually difficult to perceive. Lossy compression is also acceptable in fast transmission of still images over the Internet . This is lossy compression. Embedded Predictive Wavelet Image Coder (EPWIC) . Wavelet Difference Reduction (WDR). Unfortunately. Much higher compression ratios can be obtained if some error. it is not necessary or even desirable that there be error-free reproduction of the original image. These include Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW) . is allowed between the decompressed image and the original image. In such a case. a variety of novel and sophisticated wavelet-based image coding schemes have been developed. A few of these algorithms are briefly discussed here. This list is by no means exhaustive and many more such innovative techniques are being developed. the small amount of error introduced by lossy compression may be acceptable. it is rarely possible to obtain error-free compression at a rate beyond 2:1 . In Section 2. The Section 6 concludes the paper . Over the past few years. The Section 3 gives an outline of the common features of the various wavelet based coding schemes. and Stack. with images of natural scenes. Adaptively Scanned Wavelet Difference Reduction (ASWDR)  . The salient and unique features of these schemes are summarized in Section 4. Set-Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) . the preliminaries about wavelet transform of an image are discussed along with the performance metrics.Run (SR) . Set Partitioned Embedded block coder (SPECK) .
Separating the smooth variations and details of the image can be done in many ways. the image is filtered along the x-dimension using low pass and . . . an image can be analyzed by passing it through an analysis filter bank followed by a decimation operation. and the high frequency components (the edges which give the detail) add upon them to refine the image. is commonly used in image compression. Hence. The low pass filter. The low frequency components (smooth variations) constitute the base of an image. The high pass filter. The output of the filtering operations is then decimated by two. . As in the case of sub band coding.  are being used in a number of different applications. extracts the detail information of the signal. which corresponds to an averaging operation. One such way is the decomposition of the image using a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) . thereby giving a detailed image. When a signal passes through these filters. The practical implementation of wavelet compression schemes is very similar to that of sub band coding schemes .Chapter 2 IMAGE CODING Most natural images have smooth colour variations. . the signal is decomposed using filter banks. which consists of a low pass and a high pass filter at each decomposition stage. which corresponds to a differencing operation. the smooth variations are demanding more importance than the details. A two-dimensional transform can be accomplished by performing two separate onedimensional transforms. with the fine details being represented as sharp edges in between the smooth variations. First. In a discrete wavelet transform. This analysis filter bank. Technically. it is split into two bands. Wavelets . extracts the coarse information of the signal. the smooth variations in colour can be termed as low frequency variations and the sharp variations as high frequency variations.
the image has been split into four bands denoted by LL. Low pass filtered coefficients are stored on the left part of the matrix and high pass filtered on the right. 1. it is followed by filtering the subimage along the y-dimension and decimated by two. preferably small. . the total size of the transformed image is same as the original image. Finally.This is depicted in Fig. The reconstruction of the image can be carried out by reversing the above procedure and it is repeated until the image is fully reconstructed. The LL band is again subject to the same procedure. The quantizer is a function whose set of output values are discrete and usually finite. this is a process of approximation and a good quantizer is one which represents the original signal with minimum loss or distortion. Because of decimation. and HH.high pass analysis filters and decimated by two. This process of filtering the image is called pyramidal decomposition of image . Then. The input to a quantizer is the original data and the output is always one among a finite number of levels. HL. Obviously.1 Quantization Quantization .  refers to the process of approximating the continuous set of values in the image data with a finite. after one level of decomposition. LH. 2. set of values.
2 Error Metrics Two of the error metrics used to compare the various image compression techniques are the Mean Square Error (MSE) and the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). and processed to give the output. wavelet coding schemes are especially suitable for applications where scalability and tolerable degradation are important . Here. So. In addition. This clubbing of data and treating them as a single unit. they are better matched to the Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics. but at the cost of increased computational complexity . Because of their inherent multiresolution nature . 2. and the 'noise' is the error in reconstruction. Logically. In scalar quantization. The MSE is the cumulative squared error between the compressed and the original image. can be recognized as a better one. a higher value of PSNR is good because it means that the ratio of Signal to Noise is higher. this translates to a high value of PSNR. a compression scheme having a lower MSE (and a high PSNR). increases the optimality of the vector quantizer. whereas PSNR is a measure of the peak error. Wavelet-based coding is more robust under transmission and decoding errors. and also facilitates progressive transmission of images . each input symbol is treated in producing the output while in vector quantization the input symbols are clubbed together in groups called vectors. and as seen from the inverse relation between the MSE and PSNR. the 'signal' is the original image. The mathematical formulae for the two are Error E = Original image – Reconstructed image MSE = E / (SIZE OF IMAGE) A lower value for MSE means lesser error.There are two types of quantization: scalar quantization and vector quantization.
Among these principles is the partial ordering of magnitude coefficients with a set-partitioning sorting algorithm. All of these scalar quantized schemes employ some kind of significance testing of sets or groups of pixels. provided an even better performance than the improved version of EZW. called the SPIHT . and exploitation of self-similarity across different scales of an image wavelet transform. Shapiro was the first to introduce such a technique with his EZW  algorithm.3 Coding Schemes for Wavelet Coefficients Image coding utilizing scalar quantization on hierarchical structures of transformed images has been a very effective and computationally simple technique. Said & Pearlman  successively improved the EZW algorithm by extending this coding scheme. The common features for the wavelet based schemes are briefly discussed here. These significance testing schemes are based on some very simple principles which allow them to exhibit excellent performance. in which the set is tested to determine whether the maximum magnitude in it is above a certain threshold. bit plane transmission in decreasing bit plane order. and succeeded in presenting a different implementation based on a setpartitioning sorting algorithm. The four descendants each also have four descendants in the next higher subband and we see a quad-tree  .2. This new coding scheme. Different variants of this technique have appeared in the literatures which provide an improvement over the initial work. A coefficient in a low subband can be thought of as having four descendants in the next higher subband. After wavelet transforming an image we can represent it using trees because of the sub-sampling that is performed in the transform. The results of these significance tests determine the path taken by the coder to code the source samples.
A better approach is to use a threshold and only signal to the decoder if the values are larger or smaller than the threshold. source sample aggregates) increases as the coding efficiency of the source increases . a single coded file can used to decode the image at various rates less than or equal to the coded rate. This way a lot of bits aspent on the coefficient values.. i. this ensures that the transmission is progressive. Progressive transmission  refers to the transmission of information in decreasing order of its information content. Fig. This feature seems in conflict with the well-known tenets of information theory that the computational complexity of a stationary source (i. In other words.emerge: every root has four leafs. An interesting thing to note in these schemes is that all of them have relatively low computational complexity. Such a transmission scheme makes it possible for the bit stream to be embedded. If we adopt bit-plane coding .y) denotes the coefficient. considering the fact that their performance is comparable to the bestknown image coding algorithms . to give the best reconstruction possible with the particular coding scheme.e.e.) means the maximum coefficient value in the image and (x.  then our initial threshold t0 will be : Here MAX(. 2 shows the quad tree structure. A very direct approach is to simply transmit the values of the coefficients in decreasing order. it can reconstruct already quite a lot. the coefficients with the highest magnitudes are transmitted first. An important characteristic that this class of coders possesses is the property of progressive transmission and embedded nature. . but this is not very efficient. These coding schemes seem to have provided a breathing space in the world of simultaneously increasing efficiency and computational complexity.. If the threshold is also transmitted to the decoder. Since all of these coding schemes transmit bits in decreasing bit plane order.
have become the basis for serious consideration for future image compression standards . along with others such as embedded coding and progressive transmission. fast and efficient image coders. and in fact.With these desirable features of excellent performance and low complexity. these scalar quantized significance testing schemes have recently become very popular in the search for practical.
The EZW encoder was originally designed to operate on images (2D-signals) but it can also be used on other dimensional signals.Chapter 3 EZW ENCODING One of the most successful applications of wavelet methods is transform-based image compression(also called coding).and finally entropy coding the quantizer output. Using an embedded coding algorithm. This means that when more bits are added to the stream.such a coder is shown in the Fig. The EZW algorithm is based on four key concepts: 1) A discrete wavelet transform or hierarchical sub band decomposition 2) Prediction of the absence of significant formation across scales by exploiting the selfsimilarity inherent in images . since wavelet basis consists of functions with both short support(for high frequencies)and long support(for low frequencies). a property similar to JPEG encoded images. Because of the superior energy compaction properties and correspondence with human visual system. the decoded image will contain more detail. wavelet compression methods have produced superior objective and subjective results. an encoder can terminate the encoding at any point thereby allowing a target rate or target accuracy to be met exactly. and details are added where it is needed.large smooth areas of an image may be represented with very few bits. It is based on progressive encoding to compress an image into a bit stream with increasing accuracy .3 operates by transforming data to remove redundancy. then quantizing the transform coefficients( a lossy step).
When all the wavelet coefficients have been visited the threshold is lowered and the image is scanned again to add more detail to the already encoded image. if it is smaller it is left for the next pass. For every pass a threshold is chosen against which all the wavelet coefficients are measured. This shows that progressive encoding is a very natural choice for compressing wavelet transformed images.1 Concept of Zero-tree A wavelet transform transforms a signal from the time domain to the joint time-scale domain. A coefficient in a lower sub band can be thought of as having four descendants in the next higher sub band as shown in Fig. in several passes.2. since the higher sub bands only add detail[9. When the signal is an image then the position in time is better expressed as the position in space.e. with every root having four leafs. To compress the transformed signal not only the coefficient values. the wavelet coefficients are two-dimensional. which gives a quad-tree.1 The four descendants each also have four descendants in the next higher sub band. on average.7]. be smaller in the higher sub bands than in the lower sub bands. but also their position in time has to be coded.3) Entropy-coded successive approximation quantization 4) Universal lossless data compression which is achieved via entropy encoding[6. When an image is wavelet transformed the energy in the sub bands decreases as the scale decreases (low scale means high resolution). If a wavelet coefficient is larger than the threshold it is encoded and removed from the image. After wavelet transforming an image it can be represented using trees because of the sub sampling that is performed in the transform. This process is repeated until all the wavelet coefficients have been encoded. 2. 3. Large wavelet coefficients are more important than small wavelet coefficients. so the wavelet coefficients will. Natural images in general have a low pass spectrum.10]. The EZW encoder is based on two important observations: 1. These two observations are exploited by encoding the wavelet coefficients in decreasing order. A zero tree is defined as a quad-tree of which all nodes are equal to or smaller than the root and the root is smaller than the threshold against which the wavelet coefficients are currently being . i.
Fig 3. In a zero tree all the coefficients in a quad tree are smaller than the threshold if the root is smaller than this threshold. and scans sub bands HLN. Under this case the whole tree can be coded with a single zero tree (T) symbol . denoted as LLN. LHN.1. For an N scale transform. A scanning of the coefficient is performed in such a way that no child node is scanned before its parent. The tree is coded with a single symbol and reconstructed by the decoder as a quadtree filled with zeroes. The two such scanning patterns for a three-scale pyramid can be seen in Fig.1 The relation between wavelet coefficients in sub bands as quad tree Fig 3. the scan begins at the lowest frequency sub band.measured. and HHN.2 Different scanning patterns for scanning wavelet coefficients . Note that each coefficient within a given sub band is scanned before any coefficient in the next sub band. The EZW encoder codes the zero tree based on the observation that wavelet coefficients decrease with scale. 3. at which point it moves on to scale N-1 etc.
Given a threshold level T to determine whether a coefficient is significant.3.3 Example of decomposition to three resolution for an 8*8 matrix 3. 2. i. which is more accurate and produces standard results. A zero tree root is encoded with a special symbol indicating that the insignificance of the coefficient at finer scales is completely predictable. .e. The significant list S contains the amplitude values of the significant coefficients. Fig. 3. we have used Mortan scan. it is not predictably insignificant from the discovery of a zero tree root at a coarser scale at the same threshold. An element of a zero tree for threshold T is a zero tree root if it is not the descendants of a previously found zero tree root for threshold T.2 Implementation Coding the wavelet coefficients is performed by determining two lists of coefficients: 1.. In our implemented method.3 Significance test : The wavelet transform coefficients are scanned for the path as shown in the fig below. a coefficient x is said to be an element of a zero tree for threshold T if itself and all of its descendents are insignificant with respect to T. The significance map can be efficiently represented as a string of symbols from a 3-symbol alphabet which is then entropy encoded. The dominant list D contains information concerning significance of coefficients.
3.Fig.4 EZW coding algorithm: .4 EZW Algorithm 3.
N. N (significance and positive): if the absolute value of the coefficient is higher than the threshold T and is negative. 1. T). Z. In the dominant list since the probability of occurrence of the symbol T is more when compared to others. by comparing with the actual threshold. 3. The insignificant coefficients of the last sub bands. which do not accept descendants and are not themselves descendants of a zero tree. Table 2: Threshold Comparison . T (zerotree): if the value of the coefficient is lower than the threshold T and has only insignificant descendants 4.Each coefficient is assigned a significance symbols (P. 2. P (significance and positive): if the absolute value of the coefficient is higher than the threshold T and is positive. are also considered to be zero tree. The dominant list and the significance list are shown below: D: P N Z T P T T T T Z T T T T T T T P T T S: 1 0 1 0 5. this symbol should be coded with the less number of bits. Z (isolated zero): if the absolute value of the coefficient is lower than the threshold T and has one or more significant descendants.
For decoding from the encoded bit stream the dominant list symbols are found and from these symbols the pixels values of the image are predicted. Z and T we use the binary bits as follows: P is encoded as 1110 N is encoded as 110 Z is encoded as 10 since the probability of occurrence is less when compared to T. Here we used 11111 to indicate the end of the bit stream. T is encoded as 0 (since the probability of occurrence is more when compared to other bits) Then we insert a separator bits i.6.e. N. a separator is appended to the end of the encoded bit stream to indicate the end of the stream. For eg: In our algorithm to encode the symbols P. After encoding all the symbols with binary digits. a stream of 1‟s. .
tif‟ having size 256 x 256 (65. By choosing suitable threshold value compression ratio as high as 8 can be achieved. original image is applied to the compression program. The different statistical values of the image Lena.Chapter 4 RESULT Firstly. . Compression Ratio (CR) and Peak-Signalto-Noise Ratio (PSNR) are obtained for the original and reconstructed images. it can be concluded that EZW encoding gives excellent results. Thus.tif for Various Thresholds are summarized in the table. by which EZW decoded image is obtained. In the experiment the original image „Lena. To reconstruct compressed image. compressed image is applied to decompression program.536 Bytes). EZW encoded image is obtained.
The curves of CR Vs PSNR and THR Vs PSNR have been calculated and depicted in the fig 4. In which Image encoded using EZW algorithm for 8 level decomposition gives better BPP and PSNR values. (b) & (c) respectively. .1 (a).
Chapter 5 CONCLUTION In this paper the Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet coding scheme was implemented. The algorithm is tested on different images. and it is seen that the results obtained by Image encoded using EZW algorithm is better than other methods. The effect of using different Wavelet transforms. using different block sizes and different bit rates were studied. This approach utilizes zero tree structure of wavelet coefficients at decomposition level 8 is very effectively. which results in higher compression ratio and better PSNR. .
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