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First couple chapters Epistemology - how you know what you know - rationalist epistemology o based on what else

has happened, reasoning - empiricist epistemology o observation o natural sciences, use of statistics Ontology - worldview? - Things that exist in the world - Classification - Materialist ontology o Opposite of constructivist, assume - Constructivist o Reality is what you make of it o Relativism Logic correct reasoning valid argument form A) all cars are red B) Eric has a car C) Erics car is red

Empiricism - 1) Knowledge comes from experience o direct sensory experience - 2) science is the highest form of knowledge - 3) Objectivity - 4) what cannot be observed is not scientific - 5) any value judgment to be avoided - 6) -------- truth objective Positivism - application of empiricism to social sciences - one scientific method - quantitatve vs. theory-making o emphasis on hard data - science is the highest form of knowledge - social engineering social sciences promote social progress ISSUES w/ Empiricism and positivism - objectivity vs. subjectivity

theory: frowned upon - not possible o is speculative concept, associations / relations explanation / prediction differences in ways that scientists observe reality context is absent objects of social sciences: o will power o autonomy o moral beings

Kuhn Objectivity value judgment and theory choice Historical epistemology Critique of positivism ** Characteristics of good scientific theory - accurate, consequences deducible from a theory should be in demonstrated agreement with the results of exisiting experiments and observations - consistent.. with other currently accepted theories - broad scope - simple, bringing order to confused phenomena - fruitful of new research findings -factors relevant to choice in science and outside science - differences due to functions of personality o some scientists prefer originality and take risks o some prefer comprehensive, unified theories to precise and detailed problem solutions why scientists neglect subjective elements that they grant regulary into acual theory o few claimed to possess either a complete or an entirely wellarticulated list of criteria

Algorithms of individuals Choices scientists make between competing theories depend not only on shared criteria (objective) but also on idiosyncratic factors dependent on individual biography and personality