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ho mnh hi v kiu lai ha trong Ha hc ni cht?

Cho mnh hi v kiu lai ha trong Ha hc ni cht? Cc bn gip mnh cch xc nh kiu lai ha ca cc nguyn t C trong hp cht hu c, v d nguyn t C trong phn t benzen l lai ha sp2 nhng ko r v sao li nh vy, thy mnh tng by m qun mt cch xc nh, hnh nh l = s lk pi + s e cha lin kt g ri suy ra. Ni chung l nh bn no bit ch li gip, cm n cc bn nhiu! Bi ny thuc chng trnh 11 nhng lin quan ti kin thc lp 10, mnh tng t cu hi ni nhng cha ai tr li, mong c ai trn Yahoo hiu r ch gip mnh!

cch y 2 nm Bo co vi phm

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Cu tr li hay nht - Do ngi c bnh chn


Kiu lai ha trong ha hc. OBITAN LAI HA Khi nim obitan lai ha rt quan trng trong ho hc hu c, n l s tng tc ca cc obitan to thnh cc obitan mi c mc xen ph cao hn. Cc obitan ny gi l obitan lai ha, l obitan nguyn t c tnh cht khc vi cc obitan s, p, d, v f. Cc obitan lai ha c th xem nh l hn hp ca hai hay nhiu obian n gin khng lai ha vi t l khc nhau. Obitan lai ha ch c trong cc nguyn t trong phn t,khng c trong cc nguyn t ring r. Nguyn t C cps cu hnh e: 1s2 2s2 2p2 trng thi c bn c 2 e t do. Khi tham gia phn ng, C trng thi kch thch v c cu hnh e : 1s2 2s1 2p3 c 4 e t do, nhng obitan s v p c nng lng gn ging nhau nn c kh nng trn ln vi nhau to thnh obitan mi,khc v hnh dng v nng lng vi obitan ban u gi l obian lai ha sp. Cc obitan 2s v 2p c kh nng t hp khc nhau to ra cc dng lai ha khc nhau l sp, sp2, sp3. * Lai ha sp3: c s t hp ca obitan 2s vi 3 obitan 2p s to thnh 4 obitan lai ha gi l lai ha sp3. Mi obitan ny c 1/4 bn cht l s v 3/4 bn cht l p nn obitan ny c cu trc hnh s 8 khng u. Cnh ln l phn trc c mt e ln tham gia vo to thnh lin kt vi cc obitan khc,v cnh nh c mt e bng 0 , khng tham gia lin kt. Cc obitan lai ha sp3 tng tc vi cc obitan s hay p hay vi sp3 khc to thnh lin kt n sigma (lin kt v phn lin kt). VD nh phn t CH4 l kiu lai ha sp3 v nh hng di gc 109,5 (gc t din). * Lai ha sp2: Nguyn t C y c s tng tc ca obitan 2s v 2 obitan 2p to thnh ba obitan lai ha gi l obitan lai ha sp2, c hnh dng tng t nh sp3 nhng ba obitan sp2 c nh hng trong mt phng di gc 120 , cc obitan ny cng to thnh lin kt sigma vi cc obitan khc. Hai obian sp2 ca hai C tng tc to thnh lin kit sigma C-C. Obitan sp2 c 1/3 bn cht l s v 2/3 bn cht l p. Mi nguyn t C lai ha sp2 cn mt obian p thun khit nm thng gc vi mt phng ca 3 obian sp2. Hai obitan p ca hai C lai ha sp2 xen ph bn vi nhau to nn lin kt pi hay obitan phn t MO pi. (iu ny gii thch cho s sut hin lin kt pi trong anken). Mt e ca pi tp trung trn v di mt phng ca khung sigma. Mt phng i qua nhn cng l mt phng nt ca h pi, trong o xc sut tm thy e bng 0. * Lai ha sp: l lai ha do s tng tc ca obitan 2s vi 1 obitan 2p.. Obitan lai ha sp ny cha 1/2 bn cht s v 1/2 bn cht p, nm trn ng thng i qua nhn C. Mi nguyn t C cn c hai obitan p thun khit nm thng gc vi nhau v vi hai trc obitan sp. S xen ph ca cc obitan p ca hai nguyn t C lai ha sp to nn hai lin kt pi hay l hai MO pi nm thng gc vi nhau i qua trc lin kt sigma CC. S lai ha cng l thay i m in ca C Csp3 c m in l 2,1 Csp2=2,8 cn Csp=3,5 * Gii thch v cng thc ca benzen theo quan im hin i (Thuyt MOH thuyt MO ca Huckel) Mi nguyn t C c 3 obitan lai ha sp2 v 1 obitan p thun khit c trc vung gc vi 3 obitan lai ha. Mi nguyn t C s dng 3 obitan lai ha to 3 lin kt sigma (2 lin kt vi 2 C cnh n v mt lin kt vi H). Su obitan p thun khit cn li ca 6 C s lin kt vi nhau to thnh h lin hp pi chung cho c vng thm. Nh vy phn t thm nu n l vng kn, phng ca nhng nguyn t c obitan pi thun khit trong h pi v c s eletron trong h l 4n+2 (vi n nguyn ) trong trng hp ny benzen c n=6.

xc nh kiu lai ha th ngi ta thng phi xc nh s khng gian ca nguyn t -s khng gian = s phn t lin kt + s cp e khng lin kt ca phn t (nu ch cn 1 e khng lin kt th xem nh l 1 khng gian lun) -trong phn t hu c, mi loi lin kt l 1 khng gian v khng c e no l khng lin kt nn s khng gian = s lin kt n + s lin kt i + s lin kt ba => tnh c s khng gian th phi vit cng thc cu to ra VD: i vi benzen, mi phn t C c 1 lk n C-C, 1 lin kt n C-H, 1 lin kt i C=C => s khng gian = 3 t s khng gian => kiu lai ha: s khng gian = s Obitan nn benzen c kiu lai ha l sp2 v lai ha sp2 l: 1 obitan s + 2 obitan p --> 3 obitan sp2 (hc trong sch lp 10 ri) c g khng hiu th hi li nha

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cch y 2 nm Bo co vi phm

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proton i vi C th vic xc nh kiu lai ha rt n gin, khng cn dng ti lng t: Vit CT electron; Bn ch vic m xem c bao nhiu nhm nh c xung quanh nguyn t C. Nhm nh c c hiu l 1 nguyn t (mang lin kt n, i, hay ba u l 1 nhm C ht, v ch xt lin kt sigma, cn lin kt pi gm cc AO thun khit khng lai ha), hay 1 i e t do lp ngoi cng (ch lp ngoi cng m thi). V d, trong CH4 C c 4 nhm nh c l 4 nguyn t H, trong H-CN C c 2 nhm nh c l 1 H v 1N, trong SO2 S c 3 nhm nh c l 2O v 1 cp e t do. 2 nhm nh c: sp cu trc thng 3 nhm nh c: sp2 tam gic phng 4 nhm nh c: sp3 t din u Lu : cch ny ch dng cho phn lp s, p. Xc nh theo lng t, xt c cc lai ha lin quan n phn lp d, tuy nh