The political background The scientific background The biographies of Ibn al-Nafis The literary output of Ibnal-Nafis Ibn al-Nafls's theological novel al-Risiila al-Kamiliyya The manuscripts





36 38
75 77 78 79 80 8I
82 82


Excursus A Excursus B Excursus C Excursus D Excursus E Excursus F Excursus G Excursus H

List of Abbreviations Biographies r, Biography of Ibn al-Nafis by Safadl 2. Extract from the biography of Ibn al-Nafis by 'Umari 3. Extract from the biography of Baybars by Ibn Taghribirdi Extract from the biography of Kalawun by Ibn Taghribirdi 'I'ext of al-Risiila al-Kiimiliyya fil-Sira al-Nabawiyya by Ibn al-Nafis





AIEO BSOAS Buh! .Annales Bulletin F. Buhl, Leipzig de l'Institut d'Etudes Orientales (Algiers) of the School of Oriental and African Studies Das. Leben Muhammads, transl, H. H. Schaeder, 1930


Guillaume I;IKh lAU

Ibn Sa'd Ibn Taghribirdi JAOS Jeffery Kitab al-Bad' ual-Tartkh Luciani Manhal al-$aJf (Wiet) RSO Shadhariii Stieglecker

The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 4 vols. and Supplement, Leiden and London 1913-38; The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, Leiden and London 1960 ff. C. Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur», 2 vols., Leiden !943-9; Supplementbiinde, 3 vols., Leiden 1937-42 A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad (rransl. of the Sira of Ibn Iahak), O.U.P. 195.5 Hajji Khalifa, Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum, ed, and trans!' G. Fluegel, 7 vols., Leipzig 1835-58 Ibn AbI Usaybia, 'Uyiin al·Anbil' fi Tabahat at. Atibbti', ed. E. Muller, text 1. ii, Caito 1499/1882, introduction and indexes, Konigsberg 1884 Kitdb al-Tabaka: al-Kabir, ed. E. Sachau and others, Leiden 1905 ff. Nujiim, al-Nujiim. al-Zdhira, vii, Cairo 1357/1938 Journal of the American Oriental Society A. Jeffery, A Reader on Islam, Hague I962 By Mutahhar ibn Tahir al-Makdisr, Ed. and transl.Cl, Huart, 6 vols., Paris 1899 ff. J.-D. Luciani, El-Irchad. par Imam el-Harametn, cdite et traduit, Paris I938 G. Wiet, Let Biographies du Manhal al-Sdfi (of Ibn Taghribirdi), Cairo 1932 Rivista degli Studi Orientali Ibn al-Tmad, Shadhardt al-Dhahab, 8 vols., Cairo 1351 H. Stieglecker, Die Glaubenslehren des Islam, Paderborn 1962 Ibn Kayyim aI-Jawziyya, Ztid al-Ma'adfi Hady Khayr al" 'Lbad, 4 vols., Cairo 1347/1928 Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft




'ALA' AL-DIN 'ALl' [BN ABI L-I:IARAM,calledforshortIbnalNafis, born and educated in Syria, but later chief physician in Cairo, is an outstanding figure in the Arab medical world of the 7th(r 3th century. He is well known in the history of Arab medicine as a compiler of and commentator on the works of Hippocrates, Galen, and Ibn Sina (Avicenna), and has recently won fame on the discovery of his description of the lesser circulation of blood in the human body, three centuries before Servetus and Colombo, who probably knew the theory of their predecessor through the intermediary of Andrea Alpago, physician and Orientalist, M. Meyerhof published the texts in question, with a German translation, commentary, and biography of the author, in I93Y An old biography of Ibn al-Nafis edited and translated there mentions a small book of his with the title Kitiib Fiidil ibn Niiti~, which it states to be a counterpart to Ibn Sina's philosophical tale of Hayy ibn Ya~?iin. Professor H. Ritter of Istanbul kindly informed us that the treatise in question, which was thought to have perished, is preserved in a manuscript in Istanbul and is identical with the same author's al-Risiila al-Kamiliyya fil-Sira al-Nabawiyya, a copy of which was known to exist in the Egyptian Library at Cairo. We are very much indebted to Professor Ritter for a photograph of the Istanbul manuscript. Having in the meantime published two studies on philosophical, and especially Greek, learning among medical men in Egypt in the Middle Ages, the first on the famous controversy between the Muslim Ibn Ridwan of Cairo and the Christian Ibn Butlan of Baghdad, both reputed practitioners of the 5th/lIth century," and the second on a polemic of the celebrated Jewish theologian, philosopher, and physician, Musil ibn Maymun (Maimonides, A.D. II35-1204), against the Greek physician Galen who, a thousand years before him, had See below, p. I I n. 'I. See J. Schacht and M. Meyerhof, The Medico-Philosophical Controversy between Ibn Butlan Of Baghdad and Ibn Ridsoan of Cairo, Cairo 1937 (The Egyptian University, The Faculty of Arts, Publication no. 13).



» Around his realm sp'rang up petty kingdoms under his sons and relatives. 315-48. and from about 617 /I220 to face the evergrowing danger of the Mongols or Tartars (Tatar).. see H. in Aleppo. art.N afis is to describe the same discovery with regard to the main tenets of Islamic religion. brother and successor of the celebrated f. Edward Pocock the Younger (1648-1727). Z On the events preceding the battle. The Caliphate. the reign of Baybars see S. Palestine. followed by his biography according to the best available sources. Mesopotamia. 'It was but the lull before the fatal storm. Sauvaget. v] : (May 1937). al-Malik al-'Adil Sayf al-Din Abu Bakr. tall and blue-eyed but with a white spot in one of his eyes so that. 251-4. from whom he took hIS surname. northern I See J. ii. Setton (ed. At the beginning of that century.eak caliphs of Baghdad had to defend their limited possessions against the shahs of Khwarizm. Egypt and Syria were under the vigorous rule of the Ayyilbid. On his religious policy.story of the last Prophet.n the throne of Egypt and Syria. etc." we now return to the treatise of Ibn al-Nafis.s This remarkable man was originally a slave from the Turkish people of the Kipchak in south Russia.. Baybars came. Laoust. who defeated them in the battle of 'Ayn Jali1U' Immediately afterwards Kutuz was murdered by his general. (with a Latin translation). we therefore found it appropriate to give a short survey of the historical and scientific background of the author's period. temporarily occupied Damascus. ~h~y immediately proceeded westward.A. . and we will consider the main events of the 7th/13th century. see lVI. the same. L l1l~aSIOn~ del Tartari in Siria nel 1260 nei ricordi di un testirnune oculare '. It appeared that it was a counterpart not to Ibn Slna's. 387-423. while the Crusaders continued to hold the Syro-Palestinian coast. chapter xx in K. Crusa_des. or exposed there immediately after his birth. Oxford 1671. into t~e possession of this last. Baybars al-Bundukdari. see J. . reprinted. ibid. 1. that of Ibn al. IV (1935). He was then bought by the Mamluk em~r 'Ala' aI-Din Aydekin al-Bundukdari. who later set him free and started him on his I Sir William Muir. the buyer returned him. and threatened the boundaries of the Syro-Egyptian realm. The heirs of Saladdin we~e contending bitterly among themselves. 'Maimonides versus Galen'.. Oxford 16743 On Egypt and Syria under the Avyubids. 58-72. its Rise. etc. and schools and libraries were patronized. Weir. If Ibn Tufayl'saim is to show the discovery of philosophical and mystical truths by an individual created by spontaneous generation on a desert island. ".Cambndge 1954. in Bulletin Of the Faculty of Arts oj the University of Egypt. Its fourth and last part deals. Schacht and M. and Naples 1959. when he was sold for the modest sum of 800 dirham in Damascus. Les Schismes dans l'Lslam. called aI-Malik al-Zahir (658 /1260-676/I277). and the subsequent fate of his community. and the Mamluks (648/1250-922/1517). For a recent ~~. ~s the Arab historians call them. . Philadelphia 1962. known as Ibn Tufayl (d. Meyerhof. the Ayyubids (564/II69-648/1250).2 INTRODUCTION THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND attacked the cosmogony of the Old Testament. who first printed Ibn Tufayl's book in 1671. who succeeded hi~ o. 180 f. Ibn al-Nafis lived from 607/1210 to 687/ 1288. ·Philosophus Autodidactus. Decline. . 589. . on Kalawun. during the first half of the century there was comparative peace in Baghdad. 581/ 1185). 2 E. swept away the small Ayyubid kingdoms.1aJaI_1l-Dln a (Saladdin).2 gave it the name of Philosophus Autodidactus. as well as some remarks on his literary output. J On the Arabic sources." Having conquered the whole of inner Asia and south Russia. An Account ()f the Oriental Philosophy. Introduction Ii l'histoire de l'Orient musulman.M. on the Mamluks. M. reprinted in his Aneddoti i! soaghi. The w. the Ayyubids in Egypt were superseded by the Mamlnks. Paris 1961. the Mongols at last besieged.353-76. A History oj the Crusades. When part of the property of this emir was confiscated by the Ayyubid sultan ai-Malik al-Siilih. the life. THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND 3 EGYPT. and Fall. A History of the. and Syria-with parts of Arabia-were nearly always united under the rule of the Fiitimid caliphs (356/969567/II7I). took. Ziyada.). Pocock. bearing the same title. of the Hispano-Moorish philosopher Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Malik. R Gibb. . for the biography of Baybars and of his successor Kalawun. with the condition of the sultanate of Egypt and Syria under the powerful Mamluk ruler Baybars al-Bundukdan. and sacked Baghdad. so we are entitled to call Ibn al-Nafis's treatise Theologus Autodidactus. 11!. Harna. Cairo 1939. in Orientalia.count of.. learning flourished. III EI'. Nevertheless. see G. chapter xxii. without mentioning names. Runciman. see H . LeVI Della Vida. ibid. new and revised edition by CL Cahen. Lewis. H. which had been recruited from slaves. and Yemen. al-Musta'sirn. the generals of the army. where the last Caliph. Paris 1965. Here they were stopped by the third Mamluk sultan. Edinburgh 1924. On the battle itself. Hims (Emesa). found his death in 656/1258.!:Iayy ibn Ya~J2'i'in but to the philosophical novel. ' 'Ayn Djaluc'. from the east.. Milar. Kutuz. About the middle of the century. new and revised edition by T. see B.

whilst his generals extended his dominion westwards over Libya and southwards over Nubia. d. i. and even for the former master of this last. and connected Cairo and Damascus. Ayalon. Excursus A. 35). and of other countries to be conquered. History of the Arabs. who promptly annihilated him. 197-224)' a See R. the emir Aydekin. In his numerous campaigns against the Crusaders he broke the backbone of the power of the Franks in Palestine and Syria and conquered the fortresses of the dreaded Assassins. art. 'Berke'. ix). I Three times he defeated the Mongols in Syria and Mesopotamia..-hist. ZU<r Vorgeschichte des 'abbtisidischen Schein-Chalifats von Cairo (Abh. of course. of Castille (see P. 389. . 343-76). and allied himself with this prince against Hulagii and his successor Abaka. together with the glory he brought to Islam. See R. i. Arabica. Marsh 4Z4 (Bodleian i. 0). dug canals. MS. Aleppo. and later by al-Malik al-Salih. who took on the throne name of al-Malik al-Mansur and ruled from 678/1279 to 689/1290. He was the real founder of Mamluk power. In I See VV. the Mongols of Persia adopted Islam under their new ruler. the two capitals of his realm. the pagan Mongol IlKhans of Persia. para. Baybars sent him at the head of an insufficient force against the Mongols. He had distinguished himself in the wars of Baybars before he ascended the throne of Egypt and Syria. to be transferred to the Suppl.80 on the superior armies of the Mongol Il-Khan Abaka who had received help from Crusaders and Christian Armenians and Georgians. originally a Turkish slave from Kipchak. constructed fortresses. and prepared the extinction of Frankish rule in the Near East. His romance and that of 'Antar remain to the present day more popular in the Arab Orient than the Arabian Nights. D. school. and constructed many fine buildings. purchased for no less than 1. '(sirat) Baybars'. Phil. but a superior organizer who rebuilt the navy. Boyle. 'the Sage'. who gave. Kalawun then reduced the Crusaders' castles in Syria. 2 The foundation of this Mansur] hospital is described in detail by Shafi' ibn 'All al-'Asl~alani (d. He WaS not only a military leader of indomitable courage. which was now permanently conquered for Egypt. The sultan then appointed to the caliphate another pretended member of the 'Abbasid family. 807/1405). every proof of docility. a brother of Abaka.4 INTRODUCTION THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND 5 military career. 12Jv ff. legendary history it looms even higher than that of Saladdin. the khan of the Golden Horde in south Russia. ii. this last invested him with the government of Egypt. For reasons of political expediency. La Berberis orientale sous les Hafsides. in MEilanges Gaudefroy-Demombynes. Klasse.1935-45. 76. . Baybars was acclaimed sultan after he had murdered his predecessor. his treacherous behaviour to his sovereigns and rivals. bridges. Kalawun. .s Ibn al-Nafis must have witnessed the building of this hospital. Paret. p. combined to make his name a rival to that of Harlin al-Rashid. One of the rare humane traits in the character of this sultan is the respect which he always kept for his former master. in EP. (GAL". of Syria. London 193'7. and ruled from 658/1260 to 676/1277. improved harbours. and hospital in Cairo. 766). 'Un traite entre Byzance et Egvpte au XIII" siecle et les relations diplomatiques de Michel VIII Paleologue avec les Sultans Musulmans Baibars et Qala'uri'. 'His religious orthodoxy and zeal. completed in 683/1284. His first great deed was to inflict a heavy defeat near Hims in 679/17. Cairo . Deutsch en Akad. 'Studies on the Transfer of the 'Abbasid Caliphate from Bagdad to Cairo'. al-Fadl al-Ma'thUr min Sirai al-Sultdn al-Mali]: al-Mansic«. 46f. The sultan Kalawun died two years after Ibn al-Nafis. and religious buildings. in El>. he recognized as caliph an alleged member of the 'Abbasid family who had escaped the blood-bath of Baghdad. and with the Byzantine emperor (see M. Martinez Montavez. xxvii (I 96Z) . important parts 'of which still exist. Wiss. Hitti.. A. Baybars also exchanged embassies with Klng Manfred of Sicily (see below. After two years of inefficient government under two young sons of Baybars. Berlin 1950. Beirut 1939. with King Alfonso X. Hartmann. I P. 730/1330). like that ruler.> When the caliph showed pretensions to independence. 9-II. and the merciless taxation he imposed on his subjects. to which he bequeathed his house and his library. Brunsc-hvig. viii. R. art. K. also by Ibn al-Furat (d. and Baalbeck. 1947. he was the only Mamluk in whose line the succession continued. He renovated on a grand scale the citadels of Damascus.Paris I 940. Having risen to ever higher positions. Shortly after. 4I-59. d. he was followed on the throne by his general. A worthy successor ~f Baybars in energy and organizing power." His great qualities to a certain degree outweighed his brutal cruelty. after both had become his subjects.Barthold and J. C. 676. though not without interruptions. Canard. he was. to the fifth generation. ed. by a swift postal service taking a week or less. who was the first great Mongol ruler to convert himself to Islam. Zurayk. 'Relaciones de Alfonso de Castilla con el Sultan mameluco Baybars y sus succsores'. Tarikh. destroyed the town of Tripoli. v ii (1960). x:. K. Several of his architectural monuments have survived in Egypt and Syria. The most famous of these is the combination of tomb-mosque.Al-Andalus. He exchanged embassies with Berke. fols.000 gold dinars by the Mamluk emir Aksunkur. who took the name of Ahmad.

see M. Sauvaget. 130<). For lite plan of a small typical hospital which was founded in 745/1344 and has remained unaltered.l'epoque islamique. Paris 1962" ii. Sauvaget. al-Bidaya toal-Nihdya. Z35. in the time of Saladdin. Sunni and Shi'a Muslims and unbelievers. A. Though highly esteemed by all. with extensive quotations from his poetry. See also E. of the family of the Atabegs of Mosul. philosophers. " " . Jews. or Saladdin. in his short obituary notice denigrates even his undoubted intelligence and. Samaritans. album. h Beyrouth 1948. Beirut 1953. Conscious paltcy had perhaps a share III creating and spreading this kind of senti~~nt ~1llong t~e m~s~es. including the last Ayyilbid ruler of Damascus. Damasous 1357/1939. The tension which nevertheless existed b~tween Islamic and Hellenistic thought is exemplified in the person of the blind philosopher and ~~et alHasan ibn Muhammad ibn Naja. Massignon. and founded a well-equipped hospital which was called after him the Nuri Hospital (al-bimaristan alnuri). i. according to the report of an eyewitness. Beyr. the Aware?' and added: 'Allah is right and Ibn Sina is wrong. 2 Anti-Christian propaganda in the Mamluk emprre ser~ed purposes ~f internal rather than of external politics. sch~ols (:nadrasa) in which there was given occasional instruction In phIlosophy. Perlrnann. and Precis de droit d'Ibn Quddma.e be~n thought that medicine. medicine and science also. Fawdt al-Wajaydt. while He is the Subtile. 501. gives him a lengthy... see L. he was regarded as irreligious. After a long series of hospitals created by former princes. Cuiro 19Z8. including the speCIalIsts . 843-61.-ya Caito "'39 Trmte de droit public d Ibn Taimiva. see J. It might hav. established himself in Damascus in 549/1I54. Urban Life in Syria under the Early Mamluhs. 662-77. Heyrouth 1933. 77411373).6 INTRODUCTION II. a}~I:Iasan Ibn Muhammad. the somewhat later Hanbali sympathizer. plate Ixi.'Ala' al-Ma' sur les doctri~es sOcia_le: et 't' B . BSOAS"x (1940-2). purely laudatory biography from which every mention of his alleged lack of religious faith is omitted. Ib~ al-N~fls himself we shall see was one of these.. I two powerful rulers of the 6th/12th century founded two great new hospitals in the two capitals of the SyroEgyptian realm. Pads 1941. Ibn Kathir (d. 665/IZ68). There were religious scholars who took an interest in philosophy and medicine. The hostility of some sectors of Islamic orthodox~. i. po l~ .awjatayn. art. The Turkish prince Nur aI-DIn Mahmud ibn Zengi. 'S8ff. See also E. Laoust. and over several centuries continued to attract 7932-9. Histoire des bimaristans (h6pitaux) J. section F. I See Ahmad Issa Bey. I4: 'Doth He not know those whom He hath created. Both establishments gained great fame in the world of Islam. but on his deathbed. and ~edical men wh_o were active in the field of religious scholarship . RSO. partly in corinexion with mosques and madrasas.Yunlni (d. Calf 0 1351-8/ . Hydera~ad ]374/1954. comparing him to the sceptical and pessimistic poet Abul. II f. in "'f!.' Whereas the Hanbali biographer. 'Masdjid". fo!. Kawtharl.1I~ Islamic relIgIOUS sciences as a rule held aloof. Strauss. and others.out 1950.incieh. . and of the Hanbali school in particula:. 764/1362). the legend of the caliph 'l!m~r s hav~ng ordered the destruction of the library of Alexandna. On some inter. 'L'inquisition dans I'eta: mamlouk. Notes on AntiChristian Propaganda in the Mamluk Empire'. Tiirikh al·Bimiiristaniit fi l-Tsldm. xxv (1950). It is in this literature that there had appear~d rec~ntly. quoted sura Ixvii. Les Perles choisies d'Ibn ach-Chihna. towards t~e 'sciences of the ancients" was but one aspect of the Intellectu~l life of the 6th/12th and the 7th/13th century._ s.. cit.2 His Kurdish general. Strauss. three years after becoming master of Egypt. al-Malik al-Nasir ~alal:t al-Din Yiisuf ibn Ayyub. Tao'''I. It was intended as an example of how a good Muslim ought to behave towards t~e 'sciences of the ancients'. Ibn Kathir. Dhayl]}lir'at al-Zamdn.ques d e. who died in Damas~us in 660/1262. Alep. See N.v. 'sciences of the ancients' for people of all persuasions who came to his house. where Ibn al-Nafis received his training and was later a teacher. See J.4.C. xiii. founded a hospital in Cairo which was called the Na~irI Hospital (albimaristan al-na#ri). Oriental 1539 of the Bntlsh Museum. as one of the 'sciences of the ancients and theref?re essentially non-Islamic. Pedersen. e. in Etudes d'Ortentalisme deaiees rlla memoire de Leci-Pronencal. On this hospital. 726/13Z6). Kutubi (d. Christians. II~Z~~e Abu Shama (d. On hospitals and medical teaching. would have suffered from the revulsion of popular sentiment which was one of th. curses both. Islamic controversies of the period. Cairo I366/1947 216 (to be corrected after the MS. ed. see J Oh8. lac.2 but educated people.g. 168f. We will now speak of the medical learning and of the hospitals in Damascus and Cairo. Dhayl al-R. on hospitals in Syria from the 6th/14th to the 8th/14th century. /'.e effects ?f the Crusa~es and inspired a number of literary productions hostile to the ~hnstians. aI-Malik al-Nasir. followed his example and in S67/1I7I. new and revised Arabic edition. all the the_ological. in the introductions to his Es. Yfinini. THE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND TI-IE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND 7 WE do not intend to discuss here all the scientific institutions of the period in question. known as al-'Izz al-Irbili.3 He held reading sessions on the I H. We shall see how hlg~ly the educated Muslims in the Ayyilbid and the Mamluk period regarded the medical profession.

2 were his colleagues. 299-30I.Tilmidh. the son of an oculist. ii. '75-81. E. for Damascus. On account of the close links between Egypt and Syria under the Ayyilbids and the Mamli:iks. Cairo 12991 1882. Thereupon the sultan appointed him Chief Physician of Egypt and Syria. and he could not find words enough to express his admiration of the useful collaboration of these three practitioners. the a Syria. a converted Christian who became a favourite of Saladdin. --------------- . At the same time. where his now very old teacher. 126 n. he was attached to the Nuri Hospital. during his lectures. long-lived like Ibn al. During his lectures he used to have with him. 3 IAU. 5 IAU. there was a continuous two-way traffic of teachers and students between the great hospitals of the two capitals.: 'This is Medicine l' He was a great lover of books. the most prominent of whom was the Christian Amin al-Dawla Hibat Allah Ibn al. and accompanied him from Syria to Egypt. He became the personal physician of the sultan al-Malik al. He was a devoted student of Galen's works. al-Malik al-Kamil Muhammad. Dakhwar never ceased to give instruction to his pupils. and his successor in Syria was his other son. probably on account of the growing political disorder. he confirmed Dakhwar in his office. and when one of the disciples read. and had many pupils. in their turn educating medical practitioners. in his house or at the hospital. and died in 587/1191.' Notwithstanding his numerous occupations.Tilmidh and teacher of numerous medical men. called Dakhwar ji he enjoyed the highest reputation and influenced the majority of the prominent physicians of Syria and Egypt. Meyerhof. and increased the reputation of the medical school there. of the eyes) were actually treated in this kind of hospital. collected a great library. ii.6 Both had 1 J. Three years later the sultan died. Konigsberg 1884 (referred to hereafter as IAU). i. a remarkable passage about the theory or practice of the treatment of some disease or other.e. I. where they were appointed to the Niir! Hospital. and his son continued his work. IAU.----------------"~-------==---- . was at first an oculist himself. ed. Ibn Abi Usaybi'a (d. 213 f. ii. IAU. IAU.3 He was Chief Physician (ra'is al-atibba'). When the son of the sultan. who was himself an oculist and the private physician of an emir in Syria.s Other doctors later left Baghdad. And they vanished away like a dream.8 INTRODUCTION THE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND 9 numerous patients and medical scholars. Several of these disciples left Baghdad after the death of the master and came to Damascus. and he became a rich man. a year before his death. He founded this model institution in 371/98 I. and afterwards studied medicine with Ibn al-Matran. besides medical books.Tilmldh.:4 vols. 668/1270). Chapters 14 and 15. the powerful Buwayhid sultan and viceroy of the caliph in the 4th/roth century. has pointed out that only the insane and patients' suffering from certain special diseases (e. who died in 560/1165 at the age of 95. treat of the physicians of Egypt and of been disciples of Ibn al. He died in 631/12. Tmran ibn Sadaka.s and Ibn al-Matran. Ibn Abi Usaybi'a was their disciple. Suppl. a foundation of 'Adud al-Dawla. Dakhwar was born in Damascus. Numerous princes and important persons consulted him. and an eminent Jewish physician. art.33.> The stimulus to this revival of medical learning in Syria and Egypt in the 7thj r jth century came in the last resort from the great 'Adudj Hospital in Baghdad. The Syro-Egyptian school of medicine in the 7th/13th century reached its zenith with Muhadhdhib al-Din 'Abd al-Rahim ibn 'Ali. Sauvaget. in BP. al-Malik al-Mu'azzam Sharaf al-Din 'isa. Muller. and formed a considerable library. 243. later on himself sultan of Egypt. 3 '4 6 See M. was attacked by the disease" Dakhwar treated him with great devotion and saved his life. ii. Alep.1.Ginfin fi l-Tibb. The most eminent among them was Radi al-Din al-Rahbl. the brother of Saladdin. Generations of skilled medica Imen practised in it. the principal medical officer. r92~20I. of whom we will mention only Fakhr al-Din al-Maridini who died in 594/1198 after successful work as a teacher. Ibn Abi Usaybi'a gives the biographies of some twenty distinguished representatives of the medical school of Damascus. It inspired him to write the verses: Then passed away those years and their team. ii. the other patients came to consult the doctors and receive medicines which they took at home. where he witnessed the terrible plague of 6IZ/IZ16.g.. copied with hIS own hand numerous medical and philosophical works.'Adi! Sayf al-Din. at the end of vol. Dakhwar would exclaim . 'Ibn al-T'ilmidh'. Radi al-Din al-Rahbi. of Baghdad. He instructed them in Greek medicine and philosophy and read with them Ibn Sina's enormous medical encyclopedia al-J. a 'Uyun al-Anbd' fi TabaZ"'it al-Atibbti". introduction and indexes. I We know the names and activities of many of the practitioners and teachers attached to these benevolent institutions from the historian of Arab medicine.

Suppl. it is impossible to believe that Ibn Abi Usaybi'a should not have known of Ibn al-Nafis. the copy 8 M Ma'iirif 'Amma (formerly 99 M Tarikh). the famous grammarian. cf. The three oldest biographies are in part based on information given by a pupil of Ibn al-Nafis in philosophy.3 and the other the biographical dictionary. Muhammad b.Book of Plants') of Abu Hanifa al-Dtnawari. 'Un nouveau mauuscrit des Masalik al-Absar d'Ibn Fadl-Allah lIt-'Umar!'. was still in existence in 820/1417.. and know of the existence of a few I Two well-known dictionaries. ii. travelled through North Africa and Egypt.. ii. Fihris Makhtl'tat Ddr al-Kutub al-. 4 GALS. 133 f. and he died childless in 628/1230. ii. as a pious foundation (wakJ) for the benefit of a medical school which he had founded. v. by Yusuf al-'Ishsh. al-Daris fi Tarihk al-Madaris. G. J. One is the Masalik al-Ab!iir fi Mamalil: al-Amsar of Ibn Fadl Allah al-'UmarI (d. GALl. appointed by Dakhwar himself.1 and the . EI". 764/1363). 'Tbnal-Nafis et Son Theologus Aiuodidactus'. and linguist. Histoire de la medecine arabe •. performed the pilgrimage to the Holy Places of Arabia. having left his house in Damascus. lVI. The first director of this school. the Madrasa al-Dakhwariyya. i. vi (Tarikh). al-Ddris [i Ttil'ikh al-Maddris.a'). Suppl..iihiriyya. 'Ibn al-Nafis'. I46 f.iihiriyya Library in Damascus (cf. Fihris al-Kutub al.. 282/895. Athir al-Din Abu Hayyan Muhammad ibn Yiisuf al-Andalusi. 1954. ii.ii. 344.s collating the text with the photostaticcopy. THE BIOGRAPHIES OF IBN AL NAFls others... 'A Miniature in an Autogl"ftpb of Shihabal-D in Ibn Fadlallah al-'UmarI'. ii. .475-8. for the work of "Umari. and became himself a lecturer at several institutions. D. I33..3. Geschichte der arabischen Arzte und Naiurforscher. 'A proposito de Ibn Hayyan.'Arabiyya. in Quellen und Swdiet!. S. 187.. Da"Yal-Kutub al-Misriyya. ii. L. 'All b. is drastically abbreviated at the end but finishes with a short notice on Ibn al-Nafis which is fulsomely laudatory in general terms but lacks all biographical details.1 The biographical notices of Ibn al-Nafis in European works are mostly recent and derived from the sources with which we shall now have to deal. part 8. i.. 175f. 899 f. xiii (195I) . are not necessarily contradictory. 3 The two relations of the foundation of the school.ii. 135. they occur in the voluminous works of two scholars of encyclopedic learning.preservedinthe . 'Ibn an-Nafis und seine Theorie des Lungenkreisluufa'. v.. 149 f. are nearly identical. xvi (r934J. Suppl. But whereas he devotes the last part of his work to the biographies of his contemporaries in Egypt and in Syria arid paints a vivid picture of the intense intellectual life there in the 7th/13th century. 325~45· 3 GAL". III WE have come across no fewer than eighteen biographies or obituary notices of Ibn al-Nafis. Schacht. BSOAS. Fihrist al-Kutub al-'Arabiyya al-Ma1:tiu?a bil-Kutubkhdna al-Khidiluiyya.935). ii. Al-Andalus. xxii (1. Sartori. • The manuscript 'dmm 4883(1) of the Z.v. d. idem. Wustenfeld. Barcelona I956. index s. This notice is not by Ibn Abi Usaybia because its author speaks of Ibn al-Nafis at a certain distance in time (his writings are 'authoritative in the opinion of sound scholars in most countries'. Paris 1876. took lessons from Ibn alNafis. '. 306).856-67. Deverdun. This scholar was born in Granada in 654/1256. 'Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati '. the authors died in 393/Io03 and in 395/1005 respectively. 649. The two men were near contemporaries. both of them pupils of Abu Hayyan ai-Andalusi. of neither work has been printed as yet. ii. Glazer. he does not give the biography of Ibn al-Nafis and does not mention his name even incidentally+ This strange silence must be the result of personal enmity or professional jealousy or both.. r GAL". Meyerhof.i This school. zur Geschichte der N aturzcisseuschajten und der Mediein.207-9. 1. I77f. which are also among the oldest.lJ:las (whom he later succeeded). He died in Cairo in 745/1345. 2 A famous and many-sided author.7 ff. 37-88. Introduction to the History of Science. Suppl . Gottingen 1840. 2 The two most detailed biographies of Ibn al-Nafis. GAL. iv (Berlin I 933). we have us_edmanuscripts. Resumen del estado actual delas estudios . 395-42. Rice. makbula 'ind al-muba~~i~in ii ahthar al-hily. art. Several of Dakhwar's disciples gained a high reputation. Suppl. z GAL'. 100zo . and although they may never have met. when part of it was repaired. the Mujmal of Ibn Faris. F.. E. in lAD. of Khalil ibn Aybak al-Safadt (d. and settled down in Cairo. abridged versions in Bulletin de I'Tnstitut d'Egypte. a late copy. I35£. and in Isis. 33-46. Yusuf. xi (I946). together with the revenues of his estates and other donations. . but he knows several works of his which are not mentioned by the other biographers. the historian of Arab medicine mentioned before.. . Damascus I366/I947. Garda Gomez. in Homenaje a Miilds-Valticrosa.. art. son of his old teacher Radi al-Dm. and another was Ibn al-Nafis. One of his most eminent pupils was Ibn Abi Usaybi'a.> At the end of his life he became partly paralysed of by stroke. G. ii. 244 f. I099-IIOI. Nu 'aymi. III. Baltimore I93I. Yusuf h.Waft bilWafayat. and in Nu 'aymi. 27ff. 749/1349). Cf.E(itiib alNabiit (. S. Suppl. Fortunately there are other sources for the biography of Ibn al-Nafis.. in EP. Hesperis. cf. was Sharaf al-Din al-Rahbi.10 INTRODUCTION THE BIOGRAPHIES OF IBN AL-NAFIS II $i~a/:l of jawhari. 39 ff. 12. where he studied with the grammarian Ibn alNal. Leclerc. al. i.4 As the relevant part. theologian. of the Egyptian Library in Cairo.

He did not marry. and notes (a)-(x) in the text refer to the paragraphs of the excursus.' and for the work of Safadi. 378. p. in which no one equalled or approached him in ready knowledge and thorough investigation.v . who valued it highly and encouraged the reading of Galen's works. -I The two manuscripts of 'Umari which w\. I learned from him. in the Arabic part of this publication. slender. iii). pp.> As Safadi.s I studied quite a part of this book al-Hiddya of Ibn Sina under part 5. 75 ff. and this in contrast with our Professor "Imad al-Din al-Nabulusi. IS). ii. vi. is better than that of 'U marl in both manuscripts at our disposal. C. He made a fair copy of eighty of them. see IAU. among them al-Rahbi. 5. ed. they are now a bequest to the Manstrri Hospital in Cairo. IO).riyya. with any wine in my body. as it is claimed. the most learned doctor. He composed 'The Comprehensive Book on Medicine' (Kitab al-Shdmil fil-TiM). Someone who saw him composing" Cf. Suppl. no. such as Abu Nasr (al-Farabi) and Ibn Sina. the manuscript Oriental 6587 in the library of the British Museum. cit.rizi. :<:4.? The learned Athir al-Dln Abu Hayyan+ gave me the following information: He grew up in Damascus and there occupied himself with medicine under Muhadhdhib al-Din al-Dakhwar. 'Ala' al-Din had been entrusted with the teaching of religious law at the Masrnriyya School in Cairo. and I have never seen a marble hall save in this house. nos. a Commentary on the J:Ctiniin of Ibn Sina in a number of volumes. 80. rhetoric.'! He built himself a house in Cairo and had it paved with marble. 'Ali ibn Abil-Haram: he is the excellent imam. Al-Dakhwar was an excellent scholar and had many pupils. p. no." and he bequeathed his house and his books to the Mansnrl Hospital. In this science he had studied only the Unmildhaj ('Specimen') of Zamakhsharl. 6587. b Ibn J>:ac)I a'IaB bakk. Or. and others on medicine. and Abu Hayyiin occurs not only in Safadi but also in Dhahabi (see bulow. Fluegel. even its hall. I and '2. his illness would be likely to be cured thereby. we have taken the former as the basis of our edition and translation. He also wrote 'The Well-Arranged Book on Opthalmology' (Kitah al-Muhadhdhab fil-Kul. 20v-Zlv). who is known as a compiler. British Museum. But as the text of Safadi. Anawati. References to the persons mentioned in these two texts will be found in Excursus A. could not even procure the few drops which he needed for making a theriac. I told me that he used to write from memory without consulting a book while composing. aI-WaH bilWafayat (MS. I:Ill. 478. Cairo 1950. of wine so strictly that his court physician. 34-50. i. Gabrieli for a copy of this text from the photograph of the manuscript. See GAP. and he explained it in the best possible way. 'Ala' ai-Din ibn al-Nafis al-Kurashi al-Dimashki. in the manuscript of the British Museum. traditions.t I. see above. Essai de bibliographie atncinienne.12 INTRODUCTION THE BIOGRAPHIES OF IBN AL-NAFIS 13 same library (2568 Tiirikh. of course. but in these sciences he did not stand in the front rank. 2 A grammatical compendium of one of the most celebrated Arab philologists. ii. He also wrote on the principles of jurisprudence and on applied law. Biography of Ibn al-Nafis according to$afadi. this school had been founded by the eunuch Shams al-Khawass [sic] Masriir. on Arabic language. 14363) is wrong when he calls it a work on medicine. p. By him and by our Professor "lrnad al-Din al-Nabulusi' the physicians in Egypt and Cairo were formed.' In this science he leaned exclusively towards the method of the earlier authors. 5 The hospital founded by al-Malik al-Mansur Kalawun in 683!l284. . s. too. • The two texts are printed as . in the Fondazione Caetani in Rome.. and give a supplement from 'Umari's text. i. He was an elder of very tall stature with an oval face. Khitat (Buliil.iVIi. so I was told by one of his friends. one of Saladdin's . 3 The Almohade prince al-Mamiur (S80/II84-S9S/II99) enforced the prohibition. (In grammar) he prepared a book in two volumes in which he put forward causes (for grammatical reactions) different from those the specialists give.jji Khalifa (Lexicon.under the Shaykh Baha' al-Din Ibn alNahhas. and other subjects. vol. He worked hard into his old age and wrote outstanding works and excellent books. He also knew logic and wrote a compendium on this subject and a commentary on the Hiddya of Ibn Sina on logic." and Shams aI-DIn al-Kulli. Ddr al-Kutub al-. Fihris. which contains the fifth part of the work." and yet he dared to write about that science. • He may." 'Ala al-Din was a unique leader in the science of medicine. have had concubines. That the name of Ibn Abi U~aybi'a did slip in emphasizes how confidently the mention of Ibn al-Nafls by Ibn Abi U saybi 'a could be expected 11m! bow strange his omission is. o According to MaJ. 2 We are indebted to Professor F. he only took part in them. 507-13. Abu Ja'far ibn al-Ghazziil. IDe. G. something of medical science. EI'. but this is obviously a mistake (see above. who died in 538/1 "44." and it was reported I See G." He loathed the style of Galen and described it as weak and profuse with nothing in it. and of polite manners. below. I was told that during the illness of which he died some of his medical friends advised him to tale some wine because. died fifteen years after 'Umari. it is probable that he copied the biography from his older contemporary. have consulted have Ibn Abi Usaybia instead of Abu Hayyan.introductory matters. the Most High. But he refused to take anything of it and said: 'I will not meet Allah. of a manuscript of the library of Aya Sofya in Istanbul. the plan of which shows that it was to consist of three hundred volumes.c 1270). and was averse to the method of al-Afdal al-Khunaji/ and of al-Athir al-Abhart.

62). " Originally One of the gates of the great F:i. told me the following: When al.~imid palace in Cairo (Sejer Nameh. Thus they continued until dawn." recited to me the following verses which he composed himself and in which he lamented 'Ala: al-Dm Ibn al-Nafis (metre kamil): 'Many a one asked: Is there still a learned or an excellent man. Another informant told me: The Master 'Ala' aI-Din once went to the public bath which is situated at Bab al-Zuhuma. Khitat (Billa]. and when the pen became blunt and used up. i. Algiers '949-52. Being the psychological part Of Kitilb al:'6htfa O. writing like a torrent in spate.~?an of Ibn Sina and which he called the Book of Fddil ibn Na.-H. the cadi Jamal al-Din said: '0 Master 'Ala' al-Din. they began a learned discussion and courtiers.'ula) died with him. M. Ghani-zade. pointed out th~ logical c~nelusions.). Abi1 I8]:1al. Prague 1956). by J. Ch.14 INTRODUCTION that he explained the Tanbih' from the beginning to the chapter on sahwz in an excellent manner. ed.10. Afterwards he returned to the bath and finished his ablutions. Pareja. xv). Avic~nna's De Anima. and later the nurne of a gateway of the central town (Makrizi. xiii. today. pen. May Allah the Most High have mercy on him! Al-Safi Abu l-Fath ibn Yuhanna ibn Sallb ibn Murj! ibn Mawhub.18. by G. and wrote down a treatise on the pulse from beginning to end. Jamal al-Drr. I was told by al-Sadid al-Durnyati.ti(~.' I copy the following from a biography of his. the religious laws. I should not have written them. Suppl . On Avicenna and his Shifd' in general. he was a great leader. beginning on a Sunday. ii. 435)." preacher at the mosque of Amir Husayn in Cairo. I that would be better than commenting on the J:Caniin. the resurrection of the body. Hakes. A. Psychologie d'Ib» Sind d'apres son ceuure as-Sifil'.D. [ A well-known treatise of Islamic religious law.' in Cairo. Bousquet.'Ala' Ibn al-Nafis wanted to write. I know of problems and subtleties and rules. i. French transl.. he turnod his face towards the wall and began to compose without consulting a book.UP. Ibn Wa~it. [ Avicenna's great philosophical treatise. Schefer. or words to that effect.'Ala' high qualities (al. mathemanes and astronomy. French transl. ed.' The same [al-Sadid al-Durnyatr] said further: I told him: 'Sir. 15 passed from one science to another. while fire was burning in my heart: Stop! At the death of al. and died on the morning of Friday. I was told by the Master Najm al-Din al-Safadi! (may Allah the Most High have mercy on him l): The Professor Baha' al-Dm Ibn a1Nahhas'" used to say: 'In grammar I am not satisfied with anyone's style in Cairo except that of 'Ala' al-Dm Ibn al-Nafis'. Relation du Voyage de Nassiri Khosrau.of the pregnant woman. . physics." who was one of his pupils: One night he and the cadi. and the transitoriness of the world. Islamologie. TI-lE BIOGRAPHIES OF IBN AL-NAFfs . and explained the medical difficulties. he went out to the dressing-room (maslakh) of the bath.Khalili Bazaar still bears the name of H drat Bab al-Zuhuma.' By this he meant that he did not understand those passages because the style of the Chief (Ibn Sina) in the Shl!a' is difficult. there are several recent editions of other sections. ~.i. Duris. comprising logic. When they had ended the last evening prayer. No one had previously written such a commentary because the utmost all previous commentators had done was to content themselves with the explanation of the general part (the liulliyyat).44 (text). because people are in need of it. 3 Corresponding to 17 December. When they came to an end. It is reported that he once said: 'If I did not know that my works would last for ten thousand years after me. 484-6.}. IS. And-by my Jife!he has produced something wonderful. as far as the pulse . whereas the cadi Jamal al-Din became excited. In it he defends the system of Islam and the Muslims' doctrines on the missions of Prophets.' End of the report of Athir al-Din. 129 (transl. the author of which I do 110t know: He wrote a commentary on the [::tiniin in twenty volumes in whi~h he elucidate~ the scientific problems.881. the Christian.' He replied: 'I have still got some passages in the Sh1/a' which need putting right. by the celebrated jurist. 986 f. (Bibliotheque de la Faculte de Droit de I'Universite d'Alger. xi. Berlin 1341/(19z3). He was ill for six days. Iz88. but you possess treasures of learning. i.. the physician of Cairo. a lane near the Khan al. and the veins of his neck swelled. no. 476/ 1083). the Master 'Alii' alDin co~versed with self-control and without becoming heated. according to the Shafi T school.' ~llt the responsibility for this must be borne by those who have re~ate~ It. if you were to write a commentary on the Shz/a' of Ibn Sina. • Unmindfulness during ritual prayer. .'Ala'? Then I answered. The foundation of the Madrasa al·llIasJ'liriyya in Damascus was also attributed to him (Nu'aymi. i. 455).> Whilst he was in the middle of washing himself. and paper. his voice grew loud. See F. the soundness of his intelligence. I have seen a small book of his which he opposed to the Treatise of Hayy ibn Ya.To sum up. i. and his capability in the intellectual sciences. M. he threw it away and took another one so as not to lose time in pen-cutting. 1. Suppl.'ulii) left after al.o were together whilst I was sleeping in their company. 1959. 669 f. 592. ~~hman (ed. Or a man with a share of high qualities (al. asked for ink. and many excellent men said: He IS a second Ibn Stna. 1270). they laid ready-cut (reed) pens before him. Paris . See GAL'. J'lcyrouth 1957~63.: Ibrahim ibn 'AU al-Shirazi (d. his eves went red. and theology (GAL·. 815. . The learned imam. and this proves his competence. 21St Dhul-Ka'da 687. During all this. the Master Hurhfin aI-Din Ibrahim al-Rashidl. i-iv.

Mahmud al-Kashghari. no. and the Persian dictionaries). These are the two most important biographies of Ibn al-Nafis.. part 8. i." told me the following: Ibn al-Nafis possessed an enormous knowledge of (theoretical) medicine and had mastered its branches and principles. and died in Cairo in 748/1348. Ibn al-Nahhas. Leiden 1894. There exists in Syria a dish called tii!mdk. if Ibn al-Nafis is praised by his admirers as a second Avicenna. as well as the Chief Physician. and On most of them he wrote two commentaries. the Secretary. and so on. i. I have got a ganglion myself. you had better go and sit in a butcher's shop. He also commented on all the books of the excellent Hippocrates. Egyptian Library 8 111 Ma'arif formerly 99 M Tartkh. including those 1U the dialect of the Mamluks: see. Zajaczkowski.INTRODUCTION THE BIOGRAPHIES OF IBN AL-NAl"iS 17 and in that part medicine is rarely discussed. and in places still do. Livre des directives et remarques. for example our Professor Abu l-Fath alYa'murl. the range and depth of his general culture are impressive. I. The modern term is 'ukda (knot). Lexicon.> Sharaf al-Din Ibn $aghlr." told me the following: I complained to Ibn al-Nafis of a ganglion" on my wrist. 3· Still older but shorter than the two preceding biographies of Ibn al-Nafis is that in the Tiirikh al-Isldm (. above. pp. Houtsma. A. and this is what encouraged the (medical) public to study that book. Diwdn Lughd: al-Turk. dictated) most of his works from memory. and esteemed the style of Hippocrates. i. ii. Istanbul 193I.. tutmdj. 656). The persons were seated according to their rank. 20. 13. ii.' Thereupon I asked him: 'And how shall I treat it?' He replied: 'By Allah. where the biography of Ibn al-Nafis occurs on fo!' 17oT. 377. which is impossible. Suppl. bestowed upon it (see below.History of Islam') of the historian and traditionist.g. at least in the treatise which forms the subject of this book. related by 'Umart.' Our professor. for instance. cf. tatumah. probably a mistake of the anonymous biographer for Ibn Sina. e. while Ibn al-Nafis was still alive. '. z [Sic].." Amin al-Dawla Ibn al-Kuff. a kind of noodle 8?Up. It is. he did not prescribe a remedy as long as he could prescribe a diet. They give us many details about his personality and his manner of living and working. The study of those of his books which have corne down to us confirms much of this information. 279 ofthe Bodleian Library (Catalogus. I I n. Moreover. 'u~~til. 34 f. Muhadhdhib al-Din Ibn Abi Hulayka. noodle soup (tutrniij)3 for sufferers from vapours" carobs and parched chick-peas for sufferers from diarrhoea.3 We have used the manuscript Laud Or. Th. He told me: 'By Allah.. a kind of meat ragout (see Lane. collating the text with two manuscripts of the British I Doctors in the medieval tradition used to.> He used to refer students only to the Kdniln. Goichon. 57-60. Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Dhahabi. into tabaha]. the criticism of Abu l-Fath al-Ya'rnuri. turkisch-arabisches Glossar. 53 (the three last Items contain further references). and he did not prescribe a compound remedy as long as he could content himself with a simple drug. tutmaj) of Turkish tutmac. no." and Abul-Futnh al-Iskandari. a detailed and a concise one.he never departed from the method to which he was accustomed. that he must have written down (or. does not seem to deserve the prai. choosing for everyone r Avicenna's main work on logic (GAL2. Warsaw '938. because he rarely quotes any previous author. J 3 Meverhof in his previous publications on Ibn al-Nafis (see above. 592f. syrup. 8151Z2 c . Suppl. A. but as long as you are with me. also in "Umari. Ein. 45-47. hold their consultations in druggists' stores. please prescribe sugar. the diet which agreed with and corresponded to his usual food. Kitiib al-Ldrtik li-listin al-Atrdl« (a work of Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi). Istanbul I333. 119'). Several of his disciples.). But he had not so much insight into (practical) treatment. means a shackle or tether.plchaks. Abu l-Thana' al-Halabi. s. until the druggist and syrup-merchant in whose shop he held his consultations' told him: 'If you intend to go on making prescriptions of this kind. Badr aI-Din Hasan. 70 which his professor in grammar. On the other hand his style. and remedies only.v. 816f. but no record of the course of his life. Beyrouth and Paris 1951). z The Arabic term in the text. 20. 2)." 2. He used to prescribe dishes of wheaten flour (1!arn~iyya) for sufferers from ulcers. medically it probably means a ganglion or some other affection of the articulation hindering free movement. p.' And after that he did not speak to me any more about this matter. Nevertheless. as we shall see presently. Manuel arabe de !a langue des Turcs et des Ki.qand the great physicians. The word occurs in numerous Turkish-Arabic glossaries. i. a kind of bread soup (information given by the late Ahmad Zaki Pasha). French transl. I do not know myself how to treat it.-M. Supplement to the biography of Ibn al-Nafis from Masalik al-Abssr (MS. p." alSadld.' Abul-Fadl Ibn Knshak. 108. the arabicized form (also written tutmdj. however.if.' He knew the kulliyyat of the Kdniin by heart. by A. h~d proposed to correct the reading of the manuscript. s GAL'. shows that notwithstanding his modern ideas on treatment he was a learned theorist rather than a practical physician. To seek his company in his house came a number of emirs. M. To his prominent pupils belonged the Chief Physician. He was always ready to give information by day or by Caferoglu. When he had made prescriptions. 'Umari. who was born in Damascus in 673/1274. He commented also on the Ishdrdt.

187v. and left no one like him behind. A short obituary notice. Baybars al-Mansuri. Baypars Tarihi. Shall' ibn 'Ali. 274 f. The office of Chief Physician (ra'is al-atibba'. ... The first half of Dhahabi's biography. p. Arabe 1703. Ibn al-Furat. rio. He died on 218t Dhul-Kada (687)." in Cairo in 684/I285' It is quoted in full by Ibn alFur1it. trans!' M.. London.J.. and as it is clear from the implications of the Theologus Autodidactus I Dhahabi's short extract from his own work. iv.' it is likely that he was appointed by this sultan. iii. 1641 (Or. NuwayrI. paragraph p. Cairo 1357/1938. Kitdb Duwal al-Lsldm. 53) and Supplement (Rieu). 28. British Museum. 244. almost completely derived from the three preceding ones. 77.. 23325. Calcutta 19ID. 207. . vii. see E. viii. Istanbul 194'.N afis must have been near eighty years old when the three sons of Abu Hulayka were appointed in 684/1285.18 INTRODUCTION THE BIOGRAPHIES OF IBN AL-NAFIS 19 Museum: Catalogus.. The inclusion of Ibn al-Nafis in this biographical compendium ofthe Shafi'i scholars of religious law shows the reputation which he had gained in the subject. in Abdul Aziz al-Khowayter.178£. '34.. his (landed) property. a See Ibn Shaddad. As Ibn al. the prince of physicians in his time. Ibn Kadi Ba'labakk (see Excursus A. and his books to the Mansur! Hospital. that he was the personal physician of Baybars. ult. al-Biddya scal-Nihdya. There are several mistakes to be corrected in the printed text. 5 Tarihh..£. Manuel de genealogie et de chronologie. SOAS. Ibn Taghribirdi. 30 and table H. 1540). de Zambaur.H.'Abd Allah ibn As'ad al-Y1ifi'i (d. Paris. ii. 22-25. 94r• v (quoting Ibn 'Abd al-Z. Hyderabad '364-5.phical works on Shall'! scholars by Ibn al-Mulakkin (d. Z The other short biographies or obituary notices of Ibn al-Nafis of which we know. 193'-194'. Kitab al-Suluk. however. 144'. vii.i Shuhba (d. Hyderabad 1339. They occur in the following works: 4.. Fatih4367. He left a vast fortune and bequeathed his house. p. 1960. Arabe '707. and did not need to consult a book because he was thoroughly familiar with the subject. Paris. Nihayat al-Arab. Subki reports that he was considered unequalled in medicine since Avicenna. Ibn al-Nafis occurs also in the biogn. Sultan Baybars died in Damascus in 676. and surgeons. 85-88. Dhayl 11. MS. 468 (Or. 24. 8041'401) and by Ibn I5. Cairo 1324. II).. ii. Suppl.madal-Mu'!'afIarI. xiii. . in Dhahabi. it is natural to assume that they were his (direct or indirect) successors. below. I Dhahabi mentions the important fact that Ibn al-Nafis became Chief Physician of Egypt. the famous philologist Muhammad ibn Mukarram Ibn Manziir. so it is not surprising that Ibn al-Nafis is not mentioned in the various reports on his last illness and death. 687) and his age (about 80). 25. contains some additional details. with one exception (below. al- 5. on the return journey from one of his military expeditions. and even regarded as stronger than Avicenna in (practical) treatment. contains a brief mention of the death of Ibn al-Nafis in 687 (and ed. The second half of this biography reproduces a written communication from Abu Hayyan al-Andalusl. al-Nujiari al-Zrihir a. particularly concerning the date of the death of Ibn al-Nafis (A.5 and we see from it that the appointment \~as not merely honorific but conferred disciplinary powers over the physicians. al-Rawl/. which corresponds to about the first half of the information given by Safadi and 'Umari on the authority of this scholar. MS. is the abstract) was an important appointment. 87" v. 851/1448. Sereft. no. one of whom was to have precedence.1i"'at al-Zamdn.ahir). i/2. and of later historians: Dhahabi. p . A very competent. as will appear from the following extract. Zubdat al-Fikra.3 I See below.?and the letter of appointment of three sons of Abu 1:-1ulayka. He studied under the Shaykh Muhadhdhib al-Din al-Dakhwar and became excellent in (theoretical medical) art and (practical) treatment .t was drafted by one of the secretaries of state. the physician. MS. for the: date. He became the Chief Physician of Egypt (wa-ntahat ilayhi ri' dsat altibb bil-Diyiir al-Mi~riyya). oculists.ddin Yaltkaya. MS. ii. paragraph c. ii. 75) Was appointed by an 'open decree' (manshilr) of the governor of Damascus in 635/1238. 6). Husn al-Mandhib alSariyya (an extract from Ibn 'Abd al-Zdhir). Ibn Kathir. Ibn 'Abd al-~ahir. 771(1370). Hyderabad '380/1960. Mir'at Janan.. See IAU. • GAL'. etc. '77. Arabe '578. 'Ali ibn Abil-Haram. below. ii. "2. MS. Taj al-Din al-Subki (d. more than eighty years old. 143). 129. A critical edition. '75. 14f. there can be no doubt that Ibn al-Nafis held this appointment. Yunini. called Kitdb Duzoal al-Isldm. below. This is Muhadhdhib al-Dln. 'All ibn 'Abdal-Rai)hnibnAl. 3 According to the catalogue of the Oriental Public Library at Bankipore. Dhayl Mufarrij alKurid: li-bn Wa~il. In view of Dhahabi's explicit statement. on whom see Excursus A. Hanover '927. of which the expression ri'iisai al-tibb.S. Tabaka: al-Shafi'iyya alKubra. 635 f. the most learned 'Ala' al-Dln Ibn al-Nafis al-Kurashi al-Dimashki. Paris. Add. Tarihh. Mukrizl. He used to dictate his works from memory. are. 768/I367). 34. concise biographical notice which contains all the essential data.. iv. unpublished thesis.

Asnawi (d.] 10. the information that Ibn al-Nafis composed a commentary on the famous 'Questions on Medicine' (lVlasii'iljilribb) of the celebrated physician and translator Hunayn ibn Ishak (see below. IS. lfusn al-MuflacJara. MSS. p. and Asnawi (whose mistakes do not recur here). Mujiz. a copy of 773. 14. al-Bidaya soal-Nihaya. A biographical notice derived from Subki. M. 733 S of the British Museum (C atalogus. Teheran 1304-6. 779/1377). Mahmiid ibn Ahmad al-'Ayni ( Shuhba (d. Ibn Kathlr (d. 3 I 5). MS. Beirut 1939. 13). 644) and Add. 3039 (Rieu.iit al-Fukaha' al-Shaji'iyya. 313. 819). and other representatives of the Sciences of the Ancients): a short notice. Mifta/:tal-Sa'iida. A very short obituary notice in which Ibn al-Nafis is called Chief Physician (ra'is al-atibbii'). He also gives wrongly as the date of his death the 2Sth (instead of the z rst) Dhul-Ka'da 687 (see above. Kitab al-Sulak li-Ma'rifat Duwal alMuZuk. and the Kitdb al. 25). 16. A short obituary notice. Cairo I299. An obituary notice with quotations from Dhahabi. apart from data derived from Abu Hayyan. Ibn Taghribirdi (d. vii. ii. i. rabaf!. an alternative title of Dhahabi's Kitab Duwal al-Islam. A short notice. Reproduces the notice of Subki. and mentioning his office as a Chief Physician with a slightly different wording (wa-ntahat ilayhi ri'iisat fannih fi zamiinih). Mustafa Ziada. both of 843. Makrizi (d. the 'J'abal:-at al-Shafi'iyya of Asnawi. There is a big lacuna in the biographies of the year 687 (see p. 401 f. He is certainly mistaken when he asserts that Ibn al-Nafis lived in the Mansuriyya School (which itself is a mistake for the Masruriyya School) in Cairo and that he died in his lodgings there. 851/1448). [Ibn al-Furat (d. Supplement. MS. Costi K. i. fol. Cairo 1357/I938. 14)· 7. 'Il:-d al-Juman. Ibn Habib (d. i. Cairo 1351-8/ 1932-9. p. Ibn I)_a<. This biography . p. whereas his disciple Abu Hayyan describes the luxurious house which he built for himseif (above. 383 (index by G. Wiet. under the year 687. 968/1S60). THE BIOGRAPHIES OF IBN AL-NAFis 21 6. Cairo. 8. the sources of which are ~ot apparent and which in its formulation differs somewhat from its predecessors. 'Epitome' (of Avicenna's J:Canun). Tarikh. 772/1370).20 INTRODUCTION I2. 13. 75 n. Cairo 1939. the title of his work. 24). al-Manhal al-Siifi. 131.has been transformed into a description of his works in general as being concise. ed. carelessly compiled. i/3. 18. 313 (section on Philosophers. We are indebted to Professor H. 'Abd al-Kadir ibn Muhammad al-Nu'aymi (d. Nafis ibn 'Iwad (below. MS. Dhahabi. Cairo 1351. p. ii. contains some additional information most if not all of which is erroneous. 494f. Tiirihl: III3. 927/1521). 3037 of the British Museum (Rieu. 2). 11. derived from Dhahabi and Ibn Kathir. Tadhkirat al-Nabih fi Ayyam al-Man~ur wa-Banih. 1089/1679). 1328/I91O. and this accounts no doubt fd'r the absence of a biographical notice of Ibn al-Nafis. Shadhariit al-Dhahab. 84S/I4+2). quotes this notice at the beginning of his commentary. Subki. 269. 874/1469).'Tbar. 370) of the British Museum. viii. Ibn al-Tmad (d. Ritter for a copy of the biography of Ibn al-Nafis in the manuscript Besir Aga 457. This short biographical notice. Tashkopruzade (d. 643). Or. p. in the second. 377: a notice derived from the first half of the biography by Dhahabi. Add. iii. Durrai al-Aslak fi Dawlat al-Airiik. Les Biographies du Manhal al-Safi. 9. 9II/1SOS). vol. Physicians. JaHil aI-Din al-Suyiiti (d. Muhammad Bakir al-Khwansari (d. 855/I451). 1313/1895). both under the year 687. 774(1373). 746. MS. Supplement. a Or. v. This biography alone contains. 'J'abal:-lit l-Shiifi'iyya. 14) are quoted. = vol. 145 f. Cairo 1932): a biography derived from Abu Hayyan. Zurayk. ed. 7356 (Catalogus. two short obituary notices. 807/I405). the verses of Ibn Mawhtib (above. Damascus 1370/195I. al-Dan's fi Tarikh al-Madaris. RawcJat alJannat. quoting the verses of Ibn Mawhub: al-Nuium al-Ziihira. Hyderabad 17. The commentator of the Miljiz of Ibn al-Nafis. The author attributes to Ibn al-Nafls a book called al-$afl on applied law and on the principles of jurisprudence which is not mentioned in the other sources. Marsh 591 of the Bodleian Library (Catalogus.

IKh. 88. THE LITERARY OUTPUT OF IBN AL-NAFIS FOR a review of the works of Ibn al-Nafls we are limited to the indications in his biographies and in the bibliographical compendium of I:Eijji . IV. mentioned in "Umari's and Safadr's biographies (above. p. It was quoted by several later authors.). § 37.> According to the catalogue. Geschichte der Augenheilhunde im Mittelalter. 'The Comprehensive Book on the Art of Medicine' (I. volume 43 was completed in the year 641/1243-4. and in Suppl. efficacious. 'The Choice of Foodstuffs'. in the Lane Medical Library.22 INTRODUCTION THE LITERARY OUTPUT OF IBN AL-NAFIS 23 occurs in a section devoted to non-Shiite authors. vi (1960)..Kl.e. as appears from the context of the catalogue. Suppl. accompanied by a simple. Revue de l'Institut des Mcnuscrits Ambes. Cairo. manuscript Pocock 290. I GAL'.. dietetics (GAL. Ibn al-Nafis is also mentioned in the Dustiir al-L'ldm Li-Ma'drif al-A'ldm of Muhammad Ibn 'Azam (d. • Catalogus.> and to the existing manuscripts. 10. Manuel de geneaiogie et de chronologie. the Egyptian.z of Ibn al-Nafis. vii. Risala fi Manaji' . 173.: 2. during the lifetime of Ibn al-Nafis. which makes the identification certain.t which are anonymous and have therefore been of uncertain attribution so far. 10 n. Pocock 248 (of 687/1288) and 290-2 of the Bodleian Library. 5 See N. GAL. 'Ali ibn Abil-Hasan alI>.:!Kh. 257 f. it was dedicated to a certain Husam aI-Din Khalil. 4). followed by a number. the author quotes Safadi's biography in full and adds two lines on the Mftji. GAL'. refer to the entries in the paragraphs devoted to Ibn al-Nafls in GAL'. (Referred to hereafter as l. Suppl. Apart from the two partial copies. 96. in his 'Umda al-Kuhliyya. I According to Ahlwardt. Stanford. Leipzig 1908. The form of the name of the author. no. 899 f. 41). 2 Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum..2. ii. California. is a printing mistake for ibn Abil-Haram. i. Heer. 3· Al-Mukhtiir min al-Aghdhiya. no. 6224.s It appears that these volumes. MS. Z Fihrist al-Kutub al. 15). It is a comprehensive but not very original record of the whole knowledge of the Arabs in ophthalmology. ed. together with the substance and quintessence of their arguments and opinions. 42nd. 'Treatise on the Functions of the Organs of Man'. SuppZ. by Sadaka ibn Ibrahim al-Shadhill. exhaustive. Considerations of the functions of the organs play an important part in the Theologus Auiodidactus (see below. 4. Leipzig 1835-58. 'i. e. IV.'Arabiyya.. ii.m-ashi. 203-10 (with three plates). 81. and transl. p.) 3 The references to GAL and GAL. Stanford University. 'The Treatise on the Pulse'. i. on al-A'da' al-Insaniyya. are in the handwriting of the author.l. 7397. majami'209(3) of the Egyptian Library. 171. 89rlr486. the typically cursive hand of a scholar. GAL.) and in the Tdrihh' of Yiisin ibn Khayr Allah aI-'Umar! (wrote after 1226/181 I. p. 15). who lived in the second half of the 8th/14th century. Suppl. in this section. and satisfactory explanation'. 649. ii.alifa. J. 7 vols. 'The Well-Arranged Book on Ophthalmology' (GAL. de Zambaur.g. ii. and 43rd of the original division of the work. Suppl. I). AI-Kitab al-Muhadhdhab jil-Kuly. We will begin with his works on medicine. 235. Suppl. which quotes the expanded form of the title of this treatise which describes its contents in detail. G. an'd 97 folios respectively. this encyclopedia of medicine was to have consisted of three hundred volumes. 3 E. 12). 'Thaliithat Mujalladat min Kitab al-Shamil li-bn al-Nafis '. etc.s and the manuscript was completed in 672/1273. Fluegel. According to the bio&"raphicalnotice on Ibn al-Nafis in the manuscript 'iimm 4883(r) cf the Zahiriyya Library in Damascus (see above. eighty of which were completed by the author. of 94.22 f. catalogue Berlin. Kitab al-Shamil fil-Sina'o. does not seem to have been preserved. The title Amir al-Mu'minin which the catalogue gives to this person is certainly a mistake and perhaps a misreading of the manuscript. Hirschberg.e They certainly do not give an even approximately complete list of the output of such a profuse writer as Ibn al-Nafis. there have recently become known three volumes.). i.! This uninterrupted series of biographical or obituary notices of Ibn al-Nafis shows the high regard in which he has always been held in the tradition of medieval Islamic scholarship. and volumes 42 and 43 partly coincide with the I. presumably a prince of the dynasty of the Hazaraspids in Luristan in the first half of the 7th/13th century. (not mentioned in GAL or in GAL. 781 f. no. al-Tibbiyya. 5. According to AbuHayyan. 539 and 536-8. no.. no. thiswork of Ibn al-Nafis contained an account of 'the different schools-of thought of the scholars and the various beliefs ofthe groups of sages in the several sciences and (systems of) philosophy. But the manuscripts do not seem to contain anything of the kind. the 33rd. Ibn al-Nafis. § 37..

adequate (MS. Rabat. no. Congres International des Orientaliates). i. p. 3 Possibly the physician. no. 6. Abr Nahrain. i. Mus. no. and written two commentaries. (publiee it I'occasion du XXII. Akad. 386. It exists in numerous manuscripts and was printed or lithographed in India alone six times or more between 1828 and 1906. after that on simple drugs (al-adwiya al-mufrada). 225.. reference to a manuscript in Meyerhof's' collection ought to be deleted. ibid." 10. also quoted by both. a detailed and a concise one. i. xl (I966). 240f. Akhisar. I). It exists in numerous manuscripts (GAL and Su/ppl. Ritter and "walzer.. 824. 7. A"abiscke Uberseteungen griechischer Arzte in Stambuler Bibliotheken (Sitzungsber. and among the works of Ibn al-Nafis it has met with the greatest success in the Oriental medical world. the most reputed of which is that by Nafis ibn 'I wad al-Kirmani (completed 841 11437). (I:IKh. 13 below. M. on the De Natura Hominis of Hippocrates. the anonymous biographer. I934. this makes the arrangement of the subject-matter much more logical. alMa'rifa).{((im7n' : (a) references to a Commentary on the Kulliyyat of the f!:anun (Subki's biography. xxvi). I H. Wiss.. no. 9354. and that he placed the section on pharmacology (a~rabadhin). in any case. Rosenthal. Istanbul I95'.. the manuscript in question contains no. Cf. 853/1449). no. Miijiz al-Jianiin. 836). Suppl. apart from general references to the 'Commentary on the . A Commentary on Hippocrates' Aphorisms (Fu~ul). i (r959-60). Or. They were presumably of the same size as the autograph volumes of the Kittib al-Shamil (see above. Brit. 288. GAV. Suppl.1iniln of Ibn Sina in a number of vclumes. 251-3. quoted by 'Umarl and by Safadl. asserts (above. Phi1.2 on Hippocrates' Prognostics (Takdima. 6224). Aw~af270' 421). Yahuda in London in 1933. 'Some observations On the 1111. A Commentary II.-hist. i. p.. ~ This is the expression of Abu Hayyan as quoted by 'Umari and Safadi (nhove. I:IKh. 4 In the introduction of his Commentary on the Aphorisms Ibn al-Nafis says that the previous copies of his work-i. mentioned in Safadi's biography (above. as his anonymous biographer. Preuss. Abu I-Fa~1. S. no . of which there exist several manuscripts (I:IKh. i. Iz88)'. Ritter and R. 3454. no. 68-72. 808. Klasse. Laurentiana 229. an extract from all parts of the K. those taken down by students in the course of his lectures-differed according to the different interests ofthe students. 497. erroneously calls it an extract from his commentary the Kulliyytit of the K:d11U11. which was lithographed in India for the last time as recently as 1328/1910. Young. I:l:Kh.' It is a concise manual of the whole of medicine. GAL and Suppl. I2I42. I6 n. 13399. 435. the fifth section of the original. A Commentary on the !:. it was also translated into Turkish and into Hebrew. Abu l-Fadl Ibn Kushak. which is the second section of the original. A Commentary on the Masa'il fil-Tibb.) of Arabic as a scientific language as exemplified in the Mujiz al-Qdnio: of llin al-Nafis (d. no. in Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 2 Une Liste des manuscrits choisis parmi les bibliotheques de Manisa. Meyerhof saw a manuscript in the possession of Professor A. says 'twenty volumes' (above.) The individual sections of the commentary. also Florence. 'Questions on Medicine'. continued to exist more or less independently of one another. 5). 9354).24 INTRODUCTION THE LITERARY OUTPUT OF IBN AL-NAFls 25 More numerous and important are Ibn al-Nafis's commentaries on medical works of the Greek and Islamic periods. u). ii. iv. 825 f. and that he will now give the (complete) text which he considers . no.3 It is unlikely that Ibn al-Nafis should have commented on all the books of Hippocrates. no. J. L. iv. 'Epitome of the Jianun' (of Ibn Sina). 9082. particularly useful for the practitioner.. p. however. it is possible that the existence of different texts like these might have contributed to the statement of the anonymous biographer. p. 598. 12). 4. of Hunayn ibn Ishak (GAU. also Aya Sofya 3644. Berlin (Ahlwardt). A Commentary sa). 597 j Suppl.. no..e. it was the subject of a series of commentaries and super-commentaries. on most of them. the personal physician of the Timurid ruler Ulugh Beg (d. 9. 497. this copy had at the end an iJiiza (licence to teach the text) written by Ibn al-Nafis himself for a physician. exceptthat he collected the passages relating to anatomy from the first three sections and commented on them in a separate section which he placed after the first section (the kulliyyat) of the original work. t Ilil . IS). 16)..aniln but omitting anatomy and physiology.1 and Manisa 1814).s Ibn al-Nafis says in the introduction that he followed the arrangement of the subject-matter in the¥aniln. where the ! '. nothing of all this has survived. See also F. 8_ A Commentary on Hippocrates' Epidemics (GAL. and therefore we find. needs several additions and corrrections. 12. Walzer. (GAL2. vi.

and 19· a commentary on the Fusiis. 254).s 13. 2.. a Commentary on Ibn Sina's main work on logic. Another part ofIbn al-Nafis's literary activity is concerned with philosophy. errs when he calls it a work on medicine. is probably not by him because 'he loathed the style of Galen'. Aoicenne libellus de rem oven dis nocumentis. Servetus and Colombo'. r965. no. JA. (c) the separate existence of a Latin translation of the Commentary on the Fifth Section of the Kaniln. This excursus shows the same kind of original reasoning as the Theologus Autodidactus. p. I77-98 (p. Wiet. Venice I547. r65-286.mductionand Turkish translation. I~IKh.3660). d'Alverny. in a miscella~y beginning with. IS. and this is probably identical with his Kitab al-WUI'aykat or with his own commentary on it which exists in the manuscript Hunt 469 of the Bodleian Library ( GAL. L Sabra. 478. i. with an ILlI:.IKh. iv. 3639) results from an erroneous interpretation of the statement of Abij Hayyan that Ibn I I. xxii (1957). three hundred years before it was reformulated in Europe by Michael Servetus. 907I. without any details). an anthology. no. This is a summary of the contents of the Organon and the Rhetoric of Aristotle.46). xvi (r958). . r956. and by his contemporaries. 14363. 8). I. iv. had 'interpreted rhe arguments of the theologians and the analogies (l. 'Ibn al-Nafis et la circulation pulmoriaire '. by the famous philologist $a'id ibn al-Hasan al-Raba'i al-Baghdadj (d. 3391950). I95 n. 2 For a list of these manuscripts see Al-Andalus. Florence I955. al-Ishariit. mentioned by Abu Hayyan (above. 13).1 17· Abij Hayyan mentions further a Compendium (mukhta~ar) on logic (ibid. mentioned above. Suppl. no. 165. 424.). who most probably knew of the work of the Arab physician in translation. p. and the author says at the beginning that it is a commentary on his own Kitiib al.i 14.. II n. 6273).Iayyan speaks somewhat critically (above. Meyerhof. tentatively attributed to Ibn al-Nafis. p. • Alfarabi ( from the point of view of logic. tn' regimine sanitatis . 317-36. G. no. the text 1>11 pp.uper quintum Canonem Avicenne. 16). a See. Ab Andrea Alpago ex arabico in laiinum versa. J. studi in onore di Bruno Nardi..The treatise in question was edited.Wuray~iit. The section summarizing the Analytica Priora includes a discussion of the legal proofs admitted in Islamic law and of the limited value of the reasoning by analogy (~iyi. by MIle Mubahat Turker in Dil Tarih (. ii. A.42.'ol1rajya Faltultesi Dergisi (University of Ankara). 4I7 /1026.26 INTRODUCTION and the separate existence of this section In manuscripts (e. Suppl. in Medioevo e Rinnscimento. 'Ibn ai-Nafis. and the attribution of the work to Ibn al-Nafis on the title-page is no doubt correct. xxii (1957). M. and I Ebenefis philosophi expositio . Islamic religious sciences are represented 20. 22I n. in his Kitdb al-J>. i.eiyasat) of the jurists "" logical syllogisms in accordance with the doctrines of the ancients' (cf.-T. 433. i3). 1 (d) the existence of the Commentary on Avicenna's Anatomy as a separate book. "I. cf. 'The Path of Eloquence' (I:IKh. a Commentary on the Hidiiya. in JAOS. who developed and elaborated his ideas in the light of their observations. Schacht. To this group of writings belong: In the fields of grammar and rhetoric we have: 18.g. in addition to the writings of M. no. p. p. Al-Andalus. quae accidunt. although it does not show the usual characteristics of a commentary.). another work of Ibn Sina on logic. Berlin (Ahlwardt).iyas al-$aghir. THE LITERARY OUTPUT OF IBN AL-NAFIS 27 16. 95-roo. Realdo Colombo and Joan de Valverde.» But he knew Galen's Anatomy very well. a book called rari~ al-Fasiiha. 'Avicenrie et les rnedecins de Venise". no. (b) the separate existence of a Commentary on the' Section on Simple Drugs' (Shar~ jV[ufmdat al-Kaniln) in manuscripts of the Library of Aya Sofya (nos. An anonymous Commentary on Galen's Anatomy (GAL. as he made extensive use of it in explaining the Anatomy of Ibn Sina. • See above. 5b). IS. by: a Commentary on the Tanbib of Shirazl. GAL. 7973. vi. no. against the erroneous theories of Galen and Avicenna. and it is doubtful whether it is identical with the 'book in two volumes' on grammar of which Abu. a treatise of Islamic religious law-unless its mention in Subki's biographical notice 011 Ibn al-Nafis (and in I:IKh. mentioned by the anonymous biographer (above.> In this work Ibn al-Nafls sets out his theory of the lesser or pulmonary circulation of the blood through heart and lungs.. 13. 3659. This Commentary on the Anatomy of Ibn Sina exists in numerous manuscripts. 244-86.

of Hayy Ibn 'Yaqssan London 1929. reflections) are related in the book. as Najm al-Din al-Safadi asserts. I. But whereas the Hayy ibn Ya~~an of Ibn Sina (and likewise of Ibn Tufayl] is the person whose teachings (or. no.. This c.'38 f. 19z8. '9~2. A Mukhtasa» fi 'Ilm U~ftl al-Hadith. iii. Philosophy and Theology under the Alrnohads'.BflHil~ 1284. Amo~g. Suppl. One day a visitor in search of solit~ude and retirement arrives on the island and. no. II. i. also called the Book of Farjil ibn Niiti~ or. the titles of five items which have not survived. 346). of which we have found no other trace. in the case of Ibn Tufayl. London 1708' this translation wa~ revised. '04-6). . called Hayy ibn Ya~~an by Ibn SIna (and by Ibn Tufayl). Ibn al-Nafis himself in the present treatise (below. Cambndge '958. p. nos.d. as a sm~ll baby is adopted and brought up by a gazelle~ and growmg up discovers. the Theologus Autodidactus. 26. § 28 (ed.' perhaps Najm al-Din was a prey to the common error by which the book of Ibn Tufayl was attributed to Ibn Sina.: Idem. and Fadil ibn Natik by Ibn al-Nafis. The parallel between Ibn Sina's book> and the treatise of Ibn al-Nafis is very slight. no.-M. both of which bear the title of Risiilat Hayy ibn Ya1Jz. Vajda. Yakzan'. apparently on astronomy." Paris '96$. We cite: several points of detail III . in Ibn Khaldun (d. 432. '46. 85-87. The Histor.z. l:es Schismes dans I Is/an. . Ibn Tufa:yl wa-Ristilatuh .. 'Notes philologiques eI. See also J. Antonio Pastor. al-Risala al-Kamiliyya fil-Sira al-Nabasoiyya'The Treatise relating to Kamil on the Life-History of the Prophet'. 326 f. the biographical notice in the manuscript 'dmm 4883(I) of the Z.the story of spontaneous generation. Islamic Philosophy and Theology. 32. Watford '9~0. add to the blbhogroaphy: A."t~bl[she~ in the life of Hai ebn Yokdhan. Goichon. finally.r The main idea of hath treatises is the same' a human being originated by spontaneous generation on an unin~abited ~sland comes to know by his own reasoning the natural.-M.2 Much closer is the relationship between Ibn al-Nafis and Ibn Tufayl. but Hayy is unable to convert the people from a perf~nctor'y performance of the outward duties of their religion to his hlghe~ Id:as.. S. in (With bibliography). phllos?phlcal.). no. 14)· 21. 'Hayy b. at the end. '4 . the description of the wor lung of the sense organs. Supplement TfJ. Laoust. Abd al-Halirn Mahmud. above. vii (1960). M_ontgo~1ery Watt. art. exists in a manuscript copy in the Egyptian Library (GAL. 6296. G. Historic de la Literatura ardbigo-espahola \COleCCI6n Labo~). xxix/3-xxxI3 (1373/1954- out . it is quite I For a few other.. Falsafat. for example. and theological truths.ahiriyya Library mentions. &'7. 43.elr lives m contempla~ion of the mystical truths. Muluuldima. art.. p. H. 26. Paris 1964. S of the Arabic text) refers to a book of his. 'Compendium on the Principles of the Science of Tradition'.ean"'.1ammad Saghir Hasan al-Ma'sumi. IBN AL-NAFIs'S AL-RISALA THEOLOGICAL AL-KAMILIYYA NOVEL THERE are two precedents to the work of Ibn al-Nafis in Arabic literature. 593. .onfusion exists. . 21~-20. in Aetas del Primer Congreso ~e !£studws Arabes e Isldmicos. arriving finally at the deepest truths of mysticism. nos.. among them a book on triplets and a treatise on children's ailments. '3. the many parallels in particulars. Whereas this feature proves that Ibn alN afis was aware of the works of his two predecessors. the philosophical allegories of the great Ibn Sina (Avicenna. section v. 428/1°37) and of the Andalusian physician and philosopher. Goiehon.. in short. the Fadil ibn Naril~ of Ibn al-Nafis plays only the part of a quite superfluous transmitter of the tale of the hero. in Arabica. ' . p. C01:bm. the whole body of essential human knowledge. WIth an introduction. • See GAL'. i. items see GAL and Suppl. d. 808/1406). ff. The subject of :hls book could not possibly have occurred to any but. Cairo (n. • J See GAL". having taught Hayy Ibn Yakzan to speak.7-33.: A. D. cit. W . r:r:oge:her they set out for the island of the visitor where the king is hIS friend. Pearson. by A. 5071 f' : idem. Gonzalez Palencia.6. who is called Kamil. 602 L: Suppl. ?o both return to the desert island and spend the rest of of Ibn Sina. II. which forms the subject of the present publication ( Islamic philosopher. it does not go beyond the fact that both authors introduce the figure of a narrator.L marge du "Recit de Hayy Ibn Yaq. finds that the teachings of his own revealed religion are symbols of Hayy's mystical insights. p. the idea of the helplessness of [ Above. Mul. In the story of Ibn Tufayl.IBN INTRODUCTION AL·NAFis's THEOLOGICAL NOVEL 29 al-Nafis explained the first chapters of this work in his lectures at the Masruriyya School in Cairo (above. Majallat al-Majma' ai-t Ilmi al-i Arabi. r02-7 (pp.e de la philosophic islamique. Fulton. i. p. Edin'burgh 1962. Hayy Ibn Yalq:an. 'Risalat Hayy ibn Yalg:an ma'a sharhiha li-bn Sina'.2 sr 13741'955). 3. Ibn Tufayl (d. no. The Idea of Robinson Crusoe. Madrid '964. and the same is true of the treatise of Ibn al-Nafis. through observation and logical deduction. A. i. 9)· 22. I. doubtful Dr not identified. The first English translation made from the Arabic IS by SImon Ockley (r678-r720). 83' f. The Improoement of Human Reason I. Index Islamicus I906-I955. 14)·' V.56-I960. HLstmr. 58r!I18s).~f the question that he should have written his book in opposlt!On to the !reatise of Hayy ibn Yaf:. There is.

but m Ibn al-Nafls only to acquaint him with the existence of a human society outside his island. 3. then that of the meteorological phenomena.' his feeling the obligation to conform to the commands of the Supreme Being. be no doubt in the mind of the reader that Islam is meant.5. The arrival of visitors from the outside world has a different function in each story. therefore Ibn Tufayl has to ~rovlde for his upbringing by a gazelle. and finally. but also the periodical development ~f prophecy. from whom . and it forms the. Ibn Tufayl applies it to religious duties. 3 See below. Ibn Tufayl.mlll~als with primitive instruments. Vajda. in addressing the common people. This fact only adds to the significance of the diverge?~es . especially for preparing food. p. whereas Ibn al-Nafis can dispense with that.the hero accepts food and learns the inhabited country. and passun. On the other hand. essentially.' Stadia Islamica. but as it is the religion of the last of the prophets there 1'1111. by the same reasoning in both books.:hlch we observe between the works and which show the ongmahty. Ibn Tufayl menti?ns an alternative theory to account for the origin of the hero. 74f. Thus the hero of Ibn al-Nafis discovers for himself not only the duties of man in worship and social relations. ~is visit to. . this has no ~arallel in. the subsequent I'ate of the community of this Prophet. the life-history of the last Prophet. that is to say. the work of. '9-33· • Cf. The community of believers which the hero 1)1' Ibn 'I'ufayl encounters follows the doctrine of some ancient Prophet. introduction to Le LIVte de Mohammed Ibn T'oumert. of fire. against normal. 43 f. most interesting part of the book of Ibn al-Nafis. m Ibn al-Naf_Is he learns this only from his visitors. after he had been confronted by the problems posed by human society (although there are parallels in details). I. the reason why the Divine Law. but Ibn al-Nafis applies it to points of theology and the description of the future life. the r Cf. In this context Ibn al-Nafis elaborates. In the book of Ibn Tufayl. p. see below. Algiers 1903. and the end of this world with the signs preceding it. of the thought of Ibn al-Nafis.and complete the results of the hero's independent reasoning. prove beyond any dou~t that Ibn al-Nafis knew the work of Ibn Tufayl and composed hIS own treatise with it in view. appa~:nt1y ta~en fro~ a popular tale. an~ also the ado~tion of clothl~g as well as other practical inventions. orthodox Islamic doctnne: rn the assumption of spontaneous generation. The word Islam escapes the author once. including the idea that man by his acts can assimilate himself to the Supreme Being. to us.' In two r~spects ~oth ?ooks go. In Ibn Tufayl the hero finds out for himself the use. it is the visitor who communicates to the hero the positive rules of Religious Law concerning ritual and social life. it serves in Ibn Tufayl to confirm . .Ibn al-Nafls is not explicit on the religion in question. from which he goes on to draw conclusions by solitary thinking. makes use of allegories. Ibn al.. the general parallelism between the two books. he had been put mto a h~tle Ark d confided to the waves by his mother. their confirmation by comparison with the existing religion being left to the reader. .3 All these coincidences and. All this has no parallel in the work of Ibn Tufayl. Goldziher. he develops the philosophical reflections of the hero in much less detail than Ibn Tufayl. Ibn al-Nafis makes it part of his speculations on the doctrines likely to be taught by the prophets. then that of the celestial bodies. he is the only one of the two authors to speak. as of the doctrine of the Last Things. whereas in the treatise of Ibn al-Nafis he IS genera:ed as a vouth of 10-12 years of age.! 'I'he hero's visit to an inhabited part of the world is an integral whul"c his fiction of abstract reasoning breaks down. truths by independent reasoning.N afis. xxiv (1966). 'La Connaissanee naturelle de Dieu selon al-Gal':lI?' critiquee par les Mu'tazilites. to the kno:vle~ge of the Creator and of His attributes . Whereas Ibn Tufayl makes his hero arrive at his insight into the nature of the soul by his own unaided reasoning. which is lacking in Ibn Tufayl. as we have just seen. the arrival of a stranger (or of strangers) on the island. makes 111m start hl~ care:r as a newborn baby. with its highlight in the chapters on conl impcrary history. r~mediately after birth. his proceeding from the observat~on of the animals to that of the plants. still more. of which.30 INTRODUCTION IBN' AL-NAFIS'S THEOLOGICAL NOVEL 3! individual man as compared with the animals which are provided with natural covering and weapons. As regards the allegorical explanation of the contents of revelation. who feared for h1Ssafety. the linking of certai~ ages of the hero with the achievement of certain stages of reasonmg. a:ld in the assump:ion that man may arrive at the knowledge of relJglOus. that life becomes civilized only in human society. the hero's arriving a~ the knowledge of anatomy by dissecting the bodies of dead . and there ate some other instances . and he does not touch at all the reasonings which lead to mysticism. idea. G. whereas in the work of Ibn al-Nafis the hero deduces them by reasoning. according to it.

they had taken Baghdad in 656/I258 but were checked in their progress by the Egyptian Mamltik sultans of Turkish origin.' they have left t~elr Impr~nt on the sciences of Islam. themselves closely connected. and they began to adopt Islam themselves. in the tale of Ibn al-Nafis. L. Leiden I913.5 although the only 1 This remains true. In these chapters he describes how the followers of the last prophet are punished for their sins by being conquered by infidels coming from the north-eastern countries. Die grammatischen Streztjragen.' It also fitted in with the theological idea of aslah. A. 'al-Insan al-learni!" in EJ!. On the other hand. have no parallel in Ibn al-Nafis.nd of t~e idea. lxxix CI92S). however the final purpose of Ibn Tufayls treatise is interpreted. London 195Z. no doubt. This last detail.. art. Ibn al-Nafis uses the term aslah. H. i. the historical incidents in the life of the Prophet. H.32 INTRODUCTION IBN AL-NAFIS'S THEOLOGICAL NOVEL 33 element of the treatise of Ibn Tufayl. The concept and the term were introduced into Islam by the th~~logical school of the Mu'tazila and taken over.69. This brings us to the fundamental difference in the tendency of both works: Ibn Tufayl wants to establish the fundamental accord between traditional religion."hat. 816122 D .k of Ib~ Tufayl. an intellectual tour de force. and the final return of the hero with his compamon to hIS Island. This clearly refers to a time when the Mongols had attacked and overrun the eastern and central parts of the world of Islam. Lehre vom vollkommenen Menschen'. Aljarab!us. and philosophical mysticism. cf. 'L'Horrtme parfait en Is~am et son ong:nahte esc~ato[ogique'. 287-314. 330 (Melanges de la Faculte Orientale. religious. The attitudes of Ibn Tufayl and ?f Ibn al-Nafis are rypical of two distinct but complementary currents of Islamic thought. xv (1948). by Islamic orthodoxy. Compendtum Legum Platona. 78 f. p. 'Die islamische. inspired above all by Galen's book De Usu Partium. philosophical. " 4 See for example G. 43 n. so that the final result is the spread of this religion farther than before. Weil. extra~t from Pl~to's La·z~s. There. it is true. no. theologian. 2 See below. 'The Perfect One'.IslaI.:. For the ancient Arabian bac~gro. cannot be s~parated from each other in the mind and in the literary production of Ibn al-Nafis. which had been developed by the Muslims before the works of Galen became known to them. I_n the first place. soon forgotten in its implications. and philosopher. writing here as an Islamic theologian.' Ibn al-Naf~s.Illc religious sciences.v. although it has nothing to do with true Platonic tradition (MSS. but it is pertinent to observe that the reasoning which Ibn al-Nafis uses in this book is essentially the same as that which led him to his theory of the pulmonary circulation of the blood. Ibn al-Nafis does homage to the Islamic idea of the Perfect~Man. both of whom were . zn the Bodleian Library. 194). Ibn Tufayl emphasizes the state of perfection which his hero reaches in the end. LU. 12). no. see H. the essential part played by the visitor in the boo. 1. Sch~eder. appears already in Ibn Tufayl. Massignon. xiii.' The conclusions at which Ibn al-Nafis makes his hero arrive are naturally enough. The Theologus Autodidactus is. The influences of Greek and of Islamic thought. the reasonableness of the main tenets of . reserved for the elite. and historical sciences of the Muslims. which seeks to show the usefulness of all the organs. A. and how the invaders themselves begin to adopt the religion of the Last Prophet. It remains to be seen whether the sultan to whom Ibn al-Nafis refers was Baybars (658/126067611277) or Kalawun (678/I279-689/I290).. how a complete victory of the infidels is prevented by a mighty sultan who is able to stem their advance because he comes from a country adjoining theirs. which is not mentioned explicitly but whose techmcal terms are freely used. Escurial 883(8). 'that which is most right and proper'. Gabrieli. r92-2068. Ouseley 95. alInstin al-Kamilfil-Isltim. individual features which may be traced back to that concept are the hero's abnormal bodily size and his outstanding intelligence. Finally. Cairo 1950. Eranos-Jahrbuch. 3 See Excursus C. below. ZDMG. at the same time claiming pre-eminence for this last. he uses abstract reasoning of a teleological kind. in a so~e. physician. This book was greatly appreciated in the Middle Ages. F. fit for the masses. <42Z. Lammen" Mo'awio 1'"." but also the appropriateness of. Golius . those generally accepted in the natural. S See'R. and even the grammar of classical Arabic was represented by some of its masters as a system of c~gent cor:elusions drawn from undeniable principles. 7~. Ethe~ Catalogu~ of Persian M$S. The most original parts of Ibn al-Nafis's account of the reasonings of his hero are the chapters relating to contemporary history (sections 4-8 of the Fourth Part of his work). In order to express this idea of appropriateness. Nichoison. intends to prove not only. pp. contains in its third part numerous sections on subjects where the doctrines of philosophy are shown to agree :'11th those of Islamicreligion. Abd al~RaDman Badawi." By adopting for his hero the name of Kamil. both in the Islamic East and in the Christian West because its thesis fitted in perfectly with the concepts of the wisdom and providence of the Creator. rrutagated form. and of the history and the actual situation of the Muhammadan community. but only an episode. z An anonymous treatise which presents itself as .

in the Arabic part of this publication. Section 7. although the sources are silent on this." whereas Kalawun is remembered for his clemency. etc. 335f.34 INTRODUCTION IBN AL-NAFlS'S THEOLOGICAL NOVEL 35 his contemporaries. obviously first-hand. that he should mention Abraham. whom Baybars fought no less strenuously than the Mongols. 51). 'the prophet'. 409. Mecca and the Ka'ba on p. and elsewhere. as well as the Banu Hashim. The question is settled by Part IV. Section 8. Jacob. nevertheless the word Islam escapes him on p. . Ibn al-Nafis gives a detailed description. and Jesus. but it must be that of Berke. The term al-nabi. Ibn al-Nafis. In his commentary on the Anatomy of Ibn SIna. generosity. . which took place under Kalawun. nos. loyalty." Instead of ta budda an. printed as introductory matters. p. and Yemen in connexion with the Last Things on p. Ishmael.. 18) and inbiiza with bi (p. in the first context. which are much more restricted. i. whereas the suitability of their temperaments is admitted. 47). I I and further on). There is also a discrepancy between the heading of Part IV. and his abolition of excessive taxation. refrains from pointing out himself the concordance between the results of the reasoning of his hero and the actual facts. Suppl. This gives us a detail for the biography of the author which is unfortunately almost completely lacking in concrete facts. the Jews. 'necessarily'. and the actual contents of this chapter. GAU. 4 See above. 45. exists between p. too. 574f. presents several peculiar features. of the physical features and the personal tastes of this sultan. MS. where the sultan is described as brownish-red (abmar ila l-sumra) of complexion." It is interesting to note that Ibn al-Nafls does not mention. he always says ta buddaua-an+ he says min kharij for 'from outside' (P. fo!' 73"· • We must. 14£.1 and he is described as cruel and exacting heavy taxes from his subjects in order to finance his armies. the Christians. his justice. 3 See below. among the adversaries of Islam. 3 and 4. the Franks. 53)· As regards the general plan of the work. he construes dakhala with ila (p. As an extreme example of prolixity. and so profuse and repetitious that we I Ibrahim Ibn Wasif Shah (wrote about the end of the 7thf13th century [sic]). discount the official propaganda in Ibn Shaddad (d. although this last is generally much better. following the Istanbul copy against the Cairo manuscript.. pp.7) and ilafawf:. but leaves that to the reader. and the Zoroastrians. whereas the complexion of Kalawun was light (durn).iyiima for resurrection. it is true. i. I I n. 5 See above. designates not only Muhammad but generically each one in the series of prophets.3 it is also inconsistent. 25731) of the British Museum.. clemency. To his lexicographical peculiarities belong the use of sa'iira instead of za'iirra. the people of the north-west are eliminated from playing a certain part on account of their small number and their dispersal on islands. his style in the present treatise does not deserve a similarly favourable judgement. apart from other minor facts of this kind. 51. (GAL'. given his premisses. 'iIlnature'. of course. 51. and. contenting ourselves with a summary of the rest. and good deeds in genera\. 46). he forms the plural hasanun of bas an used as an adjective (p. and the word f:. though not in the result. Mongol ruler of Persia. for 'upwards' (p. 42. in addition. Baypars Tarihi. 682/1284). in connexion with the genealogy of the Last Prophet on pp. 67 f. The conversion to Islam of some infidels therefore cannot be the conversion of Ahmad. 14· have translated in full only a few sections. in the place of which he usually uses ma'iid. pp. 38). as mentioned above. which praises his justice. in the second context. on the contrary. there is no reason to suppose the accidental omission of the second half of this chapter from the unique [ The p'lge references in this and in the following paragraph ate to the Arabic text. i. 1496 (Add.. however (p. thus before the death of sultan Baybars. the Fourth Part has been deliberately omitted) is dated 673/1274. A positive contradiction in the argument. it is inelegant and clumsy. a unique portrait of the sultan Baybars by the hand of his physician. who had become a Muslim not later than 651 I I 253 and with whom Baybars was in diplomatic relations from 660/1262 onwards. and of barafw for 'inspiring fear' (p." Whatever may have been the quality of his style in grammar. Jawahir al-Buhiir. 4 f. on p. Golden Horde.' This is materially confirmed by the fact that the Cairo manuscript of the Theologus Autodidacius (from which. Now these are exactly the characteristics which are mentioned of Baybars. 42 and p. 133 ff. khan of the. we may quote latifa jiddan kathiran jiddan (p. Ibn al-Nafis uses the ordinary construction throughout. His language. 6. 2 Therefore we have retained this construction on p. 16. The Professor Baha' al-Din Ibn al-Nahhjis is reported to have said: 'In grammar I am not satisfied with anyone's style in Cairo exceptthat of 'Ala' aI-Din Ibn al-Nafis. which can only be explained by the assumption that Ibn al-Nafis was his personal physician.). the unsuitability of their temperaments is alleged as a reason. arid the extracts from the biographies of the two sultans in Ibn Taghribirdi's Manhal al-Sdfi.

Rissla ii Takasounm-i Insan al-Kamii [stel. but we must acknowledge ali oversight o~ the pan of the author. notes] and 2.s contemporaries. informs us that he had only then reached the end of his full manly vigour. formerly in the Library of 'Ashir Efendi> now pre' of the instances where the author forgets his fiction that IGimil is an isolated thinker ·out of touch with historical facts (see above. 23. irrelevant variants of the Istanbul copy. p. It IS all the more regrettable that. no. 21. we have therefore been unable to settle the text definitely in a few places.INTRODUCTION THE MANUSCRIPTS manuscript in which it exists.> 'He defends the system of Islam and the Muslims' doctrines on the missions of Prop?ets. 32. to whom we are indebted for a photograph of this manuscript. 9. 46r. we not only had to rely. v. Fihris al-Kutub al-l Arabiyya. copyist's errors of no importance in the Cairo manuscript." Notwithstanding this. we only ran ~h~ risk of omitting a few. is no doubt more logical than the plural 'ibddih. Istanbul 1306. Here. 30. for the illegible passages. we read in fact in the short preamble of the author that the book is to consist of ~our parts. 900. probably by one of his disciples..s The Istanbul copy is manuscript 461 of the Mustafa Efendi collection.' VI. we may subscribe to the Judgement of N ajm al. Although not an autograph. and this proves his competence. but this last reading is nevertheless to be retained as. other than that of the author as appears from six errors common to them (not counting those which could have happened independently). though known by the ~oPYlst to exist. on a modern copy. two of which are identical. Z2. but p. nos. but in the description of the contents of the parts wh~ch follows. and dated 673/1274 at the end of the third treatise (fol. Ritter. And here we WIll fimsh_the book' (Arabic text. I Contrary to the first impression. 2 I. the bOO~lS called: af~er a notice in a late hand on fol. come through the period of puberty. 27r~4~r.' are writ~en in a neat ~ut very cursive scholar's hand. 77r).4 Fihrist 3 served in the Si. As to note 2: the singular 'abdih. and at the end the scribe uses a formula which shows that he breaks off deliberately. but in general had to content ourselves with one late and faulty manuscript. and his.referring to a later period. _ . capability in the intellectual sciences.« a collection of four treatises the first three of which. al-Kutub al. § 37. the manu~ scnpt wa~ wr. p. there are only seven places. the reading of the Cairo manuscript is preferable to the Istanbul variant at p. rr. And-s-by my life l=-he has produced somethlr:g. is written in the pleasing hand of a professional scribe. 14. according to p. the fourth. kindly had the pages in question copied out for us once again. 32v of the Istanbul manuscript). THE MANUSCRIPTS 37 ONL y two manuscripts of the Theologus Autodidactus are known. therebY.. p..:a bil-Kutubkhdna al-Khidiwiyya. GAL" correction) • . owing to the ink's having affected the paper all around it. ' See above. a copy which we were able to correct from the Cairo manuscript in a number of places. and 37 of the Istanbul manuscript are more or less illegible. 47.s The Cairo copy exists in the manuscript 209 maidmi' of the Egyptian Library. p. the resurrection of the body. As to note t : Kamil having. 35). 10. 8. all by Ibn al-Nafis. the soundness of his intelligence. one should be inclined to prefer the reading fara~ to /Jarab.'Arabiyya al-l\1abjiu. almost completely lacking punctuation. § 37.entenng mature' age. as regards the fourth section (starting on fol.ltt~n dunng. where the Istanbul copy presents a better text. and having subsequently gained a number of new rmpressions. and the translto.Istanbul. Once or twice Ibn al-Nafis lapses from his assumed part as the recorder of the report of Fadil ibn Natik on the reasonings of Ksmil . In the first three sections. and SUjJpl. i. won?erful. 2. but is much -less correct than the older manuscript. 7 D~ite.6. This copy unfortunatelycontains only the first thre~ parts Cfann) o. VI1. 649.ileymaniye Library. he refers to another book'of his ow~ ~nd comm~nts on hi. Apart from the omission of a few single words and some. 26.nness of the world. the fourth part is not mentioned. of much later date than the preceding one.Din al-Safadi. an~ 4 of. 43. one in Cairo and one in . the Theologus Autodidactus is the second treatise oc~upying fo~s. having been omitted on purpose. ZOL : ~os. 28.-! Kutubkhalle-i 'ulshir Efendi. 257£. I Nevertheless both copies go back to a common original. the religious laws. Parts of fols.the list in Section IV. '·0 and '4 (needs . This manuscript. i. Ddral-Kuiub al-Misriyya. pp.f the book. no. the lifetime of Ibn al-Nafis. of the Arabic text. Professor H. 36). above.

I have arranged it in four parts: the first part (fann) explaining how this man called Kamil came to be formed and how he came to know the (natural) sciences and the missions of the prophets. When this clay had become hot. every part was similar in temperament to the temperament of an organ. and out of their whole the body of aman. THE FIRST PART On how this man called Kamil came to beformed and how he came to know the (natural) sciences and the missions of the prophets It consists of three sections. Their consistency became viscous and capable of having organs formed from them. says: After the Praise of Allah and the Blessing on the Best of the Prophets and Messengers. mizaj) very near to equilibrium. others were similar in temperament to that of human nerves. the fourth on how he came to know the happenings which will take place after the death of the Last of the Prophets-may the Blessings of Allah be on him and on them all. and fruits. others cold and dry. ed. Therefore He created out of those parts the organs of a man. With this flood became mixed a great quantity of clay of various nature. similar to the temperament of the human brain. trees. uicinna. Therefore these (=) parts were prepared to be transformed into the organs of a man. similar to the temperament of the human heart.THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 39 TRANSLA TION The numbers in the margin refer to the pages of the Arabic text. the Merciful.' Allah in His generosity does not withhold his right from anyone who deserves it. 'Ali ibn Abil-Haram al-Kurashf. the medical practitioner. Says Fa9il ibn Nati~: There happened to be a big flood on an island of moderate climate and rich in herbs. the second on how he came to know the life-story of the Prophet. A part of this flood entered a cave situated on the slope of a mountain and filled it. the third on how he came to know the ordinances of religious Law. it afterwards brought to the opening of this cave still more clay and herbs which closed it. and on his Family and Companions. This passage follows entirely the ideas of the Greek philosophers and phy- . there. and grants to everyone who is prepared f01"something that for which he is prepared. they had by then been saturated with the clay contained in them. endeavouring to omit verbosity. Then this flood receded and this cave remained full of its contents.all the organs. others were hot and moist. De Temperamentis Ub'ri III. the Compassionate. Therefore some of them were hot and dry. similar to the temperament of the human liver. and explaining the points as far as possible 'ltnd in a manner concordant with the size of this book. This happened in spring. Leipzig 1904. Helmreich. and when summer came the contents of the cave became hot and fermented. (I say): My intention in this treatise is to relate what Fadil ibn Nati~ transmitted from the man called Karnil concerning the life-story of the Prophet and the ordinances of religious Law in a concise manner. because the kinds of clay over which the flood had streamed were different. Muhammad. To sum up: those parts contained something similar to the temperaments of . The First Section: on how the mall called Kamil came to be (i) formed. others cold and moist. Because the movement of the flood-water was strong. and its consistency was capable of having this organ formed out of it. abstaining from obscurity. and others to that of human flesh. and they did not cease to boil on account of the heat generated in them until they became mixed and achieved a mixture (temperament. the most detailed record of-them is found in Galen. who is in need of Allah's help and whom may Allah pardon. their single parts were differentiated because the kinds of clay with which they had been mixed were different. similar to the temperament of human bones. had evaporated from I THE ON THE TREATISE RELATING TO KAMIL PROPHET LIFE-HISTORY by IBN OF THE AL-NAFIS ('I"") IN the name of Allah. and other parts were similar in temperament to the aforementioned parts.

partly containing information supplied by the present authors). this man had to have a very big body. which then penetrates from there into the vessel which rises from the attracting part (moJdhab) of the liver. and is distributed within the branches of this vessel. and when he removed them he did not perceive it. the visible things disappeared from him. so that it penetrates into the hollow of the lung -------- - . ate from the fruits which had fallen from the trees. and similar things which he found.97-134 (particularly 121 n. its material contents the yolk and the white of the egg. Kraus. splinters of reeds. so human spirit became formed out of them. until it is discharged into the organs from the pores of 'I hcse branches. I952. this man found the matter from which he fed during his stay in the cave in plenty and abundance. Likewise. and that perceiving them is a function of these parts. perceived their taste. Rahman. This occurred repeatedly and he knew that these parts are the organs for these perceptions. Firstly. When the so-called Kamil emerged from the cave.· Ibn Hayyan (Memoires de I'Lnstitut d'Egypte. 3. like a youth of ten or twelve years in his movements and his perception. as it is connected with the anus. and at the same Ih&air is attracted from t e lugg. those from which the chicken feeds during its formation. and that the food is fermented in it. 45). This man was different from a man formed in the womb in several respects. following Galen. So he came to know the functions of these organs. he noticed the space. in Its turn. in contrast with the particles of sperm from which the organs of the foetus are formed in the womb. its right ventricle j'ull of blood. the murmur of the river. When palatable things entered his mouth. this man did not cease to creep and crawl until he emerged. (v) lie also observed the heart within the thorax. and in the liver are transformed into a mixture (humour. He did this with his nails. when he left the cave. and his perception and his movements vigorous. and that this ventricle contracts so that the spint penetrates by the arteries into the organs. the formation of this man resembled that of the chicken in the egg. see P. For this reason he was. and that the refuse of the food is rejected from the intestine. When he closed his eyes. of the winds. I hen expands again. He saw that he could observe this in others. ) The Second Section: on how the so-called Kamil came to acquire sciences and wisdom. the parts similar to the temperaments of the organs those parts from which the chicken is formed. he smelled the flowers and plants. because the part from which each organ of his body was formed had to be voluminous. Likewise he saw that his hands were there for seizing and his feet for walking and so on. the light. some of the clay filling the entrance of the cave had crumbled and fallen down. ](lbi. unlike the man who is formed in the womb.P. and the trees of that island. attracts the II i I' from outsiCIe. (note). some of which were refined and air like and similar in temperament to that of the human spirit (ruM. so he began to split open the abdomens of animals of which he could get hold and which he found dead. and to palpable things when they came into contact with his skin. and in this manner the formation of a man was completed.U. Thirdly. therefore it was easily pierced by the movement of this man. and he wondered very much about it. and felt the heat and cold of the air. with sharpedged stones. khalt). and that the intestine is connected with the farthest part of the stomach. Cairo 1942. and when it was pierced. when he stopped his ears with his fingers. and when he opened them he perceived them again. In this manner he became acquainted with many functions of the external limbs.. The coming out of this man from the cave resembled the hatching of a chicken from the egg. as the cave resembled the shell of the egg. and the whistling I According to the Arab physicians. O. I Therefore he was able to remain in the cave until his organs became strong. the roar of the sea. w ich. and he desired to know the functions of the organs in the interior of the abdomen and the thorax. The same happened to his nose concerning smells. its left ventncle tull of spirit. and he equally found the air which gave the spirit (rub) to his heart in plenty. he perceived their taste. so that the s irlt returns to it. and the other parts similar in their temperaments to the aforementioned parts. 2 For the idea of spontaneous generation in the history of Islamic thought.> ( .40 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFls THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIs 41 it many vapours. 24. wishing to get out of the cave. It happened that when he moved his hands and feet. Secondly. the sounds disappeared. heard the voices of the birds. In this way he observed the stomach. and that the food enters it through the channel which runs to it from the mouth. 7I. He saw that the pure parts of the food penetrate into the bloodvessels which are connected with the stomach and the intestines and then penetrate into the concavity of the liver. F. Avice1ma's Psychology. and when he opened them afterwards he perceived them again. the vital spirit is created from a mixture of air and refined blood.

because then this mode of existence would never ] This is the teleological conception of the universe expressed by Aristotle in philosophy and by Galen in medicine. whereas others are within a cover. so he knew that those things are the functions of those organs. nd this bappens when a th0~1~ IS m--C. and his reasoning power excellent. 'Xv(1962). see J. as for instance the bean. and the wolf. showing as they do a soundly and judiciously arranged existence. and snow. Vajda.and this is caused by theCoi'ltraction and exp~orax. be it shell-like. Cairo University. Gibb. and this is what we call contingent. Schacht and lVI. i. He then reflected whether those beings. Besides this he used to observe the conditions of the animals and saw that some of them are courageous. The same concept is discussed by Maimonides in his Medical Aphorisms (lnll. Budapest 1948. From this h~rstoodthat all par1SOf the animals and plants exist for certain purposes and uses. and that this is in order to noufisfi the kernerorthe seed. He observed the grapes and found that the seed of a single grape is double. moreover that the pulp of the~e has vessels in which the nourishmenttlOWSTrom its Ease. Ignace GoldIIJ£her Memorial Volume. and he reflected about thunder and lightning and the like. and some many seeds. how a vessel-like shoot comes forth which sucks the matter from the soil.). He had observed that many bodies exist sometimes and' do not exist at other times. and some conglomerated.:Eipe. until much of the conditions of the animals became clear to him. . and likewise the seed of all fruits. 'The Argument from Design'. such as the apricot and the almond.~ted. such as the pomegranate and the pumpkin.' Then the part of ~ air whic IS warm is expelled to the _Q!W. his intellect strong. as for instance the fig. as we have explained in another book. Further he saw that on every grape and even on every fruit there is a skin which preserves the position and form of itsParts and preve~ its humillity fro::r: beinK easily eva. He continually inquired into every single organ until he became acquainted with a great part of the science of anatomy.ide. on Philosophy and Cosmogony'. such as the lion.s By then he had passed the time of puberty.42 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS THEOLOGUS A UTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 43 from the nose and mouth by the larynx and the wind.for example.Tibb). 'La Finalirc de la urcation de l'homme selon un theologien juif du IX' siecle'. He also observed the leaves of the plants and saw that from the base of the leaf to its tip there extends a thing like an axis from which threads radiate to both sides. and th~een these vessels there is hUmidIty fillmg up the interstices.E. their respective positions. and similar things. Then he passed on to the celestial bodies and observed their movements. and that nothing of them is superfluous and useless. and he saw that others are timid and fly from those who try to devour or catch them. He understood that this is for the purpose that one of the two parts may accomplish the generation in case a mishap befall the other. aggressive. I49-62. V/I (I939). and some in more than one cover. M -8 5. 53-88 (esp. and observed how the plant grows from the seed. 36 and elsewhere). how this sprout shoots off perpendicularly and emerges from the soil. ~ We have not been able to find any other reference to this book of Ibn al- Nuris. He further observed the fruits. Afterwards he began to think about the plants. as for instance the acorn. such as the citron and the nut. and if they subsist by something else. I Then he passed on from the plants and observed the conditions of meteorological phenomena such as rain. moreover that some fruits are single. the leopard. 70f. and he understood that neither the existence nor the non-existence of these bodies was (logically) absurd.:'sti fil. He saw how the pulp of the seed swells when matter from the soil comes into contact with it. and what its qualities may be. r>cc. Oriens. and carnivorous. how this effects the splitting up of the husk. 'Maimonides against If"len. H. and this happens when the lun is extended. and he desired to know it. cold. be it a husk. A. subsist by themselves or through something else which brings them into existence. Meyerhof. be it a membrane. as for instance the nut and the almond. what it may be that brings them into existence. G. and saw that some of them: are openly exposed. and their revolutions and the like. R. I Ibn al-Nafis does not mention here his discovery of the lesser circulation of the blood in the heart and lung. The con~~tion and eX1?ansionof the lung IS provoked by its being moved by the diaphragm and the muscles of'fhe thorax. moreover that some fruits have one seed. It found easy acceptance in Islam because the Koran expressed a similar idea in general terms (sura lxxv. in which the nourishment penetrates all parts of the leaf and by which the leaves are supported. such as the bunch of grapes. he saw that the existence or non-existence of something contingent cannot come about by itself. Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts. a discovery which he probably made after the completion of the present book. his face had become covered with down.ntraction. In this manner respiration and voice are effected.I"'Z M. as for instance the grain of wheat.

because the animals have no speech at all. Luciani. H. 13z-45· . and He must necessarily take the greatest care of everything. ship in which was a great number of merchants and other people. therefore man can live well only if he is with a community who keep between them a law by which all disputes are settled. for otherwise everything would not be in its best possible condition. he desired to know what are the claims of the Creator on His servants. for ! See Excursus B. and he cannot be somebody whom most men are notable to perceive. Wensinck. Die Glaubenslehren des Islam. for otherwise His action ( 9) would not be exact. on the problem of whether the agent which determines the existence of the contingent things is (itself) contingent or not. So they took him to a city near to that island. in need of concluding contracts such as sale. and so on ad infinitum. and he reflected whether it was convenient that the Creator should be worshipped and obeyed. The size of his body caused them fear. these contracts leading to disputes as everyone thinks that his claims are true and (\ \) his obligations non-existent. The Third Section: on how the so-called Kamil came to know the existence of prophets. He was astonished at that because he thought that there existed no other country but this island. dried meat (t.44 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIs 45 be lacking from it. therefore it must corne from another thing. 1 This is one of the classical arguments. and put on their clothes and it gave him enormous pleasure. They endeavoured to teach him their language and he learned much of it. whilst his mind had become refined as he approached full manly vigour. and what is different from the sum of contingent things is (itself) not contingent. and so on. was lacking a natural weapon (\ • ) and needed artificial food and artificial clothes. This is possible only if that law is met with obedience and acceptance. of Muslim theology for the existence of God." He must necessarily know everything. and he desired to travel with them.caused to that ship by the strong winds. ' So he knew that man. Then he became friendly with them. (a saying attributed to the .D. Its passengers walked about the island in order to get firewood and to collect fruits. therefore the things cannot dispense with a cause of their existence which is different from them. others sewed clothes and so on. Paderbom 1964. This person cannot be a being other than a man. M. and this is the case only if it is believed to come forth from Allah. Cambridge I932.adid).. and takes care of everything. and this is the case only if it emanates from a person whom they regard as truthful when he informs them that it comes from Allah. he is. 274f. MW. '4 f. below. See also A..~uraysh who used to eat sliced. He remembered how miserable his life had been because he was always naked in cold and heat. Paris 1938. §§ 4'-59. When the so-called Kamil had reached in his knowledge the degree described by us. edite et rraduit. still less could they transmit a law. Therefore it became obvious to Kamil that these existing things must have a cause for their existence which is necessarily existing.. 77 f. Kamil saw them and avoided them at first. (he saw that) if it is contingent its existence must equally come from another cause. Cf. xlvii (~957). E/clrchad par Imam el-Harametn. They threw him some bread and food which they had with them. others made bread.1't·(lphet). and their sum would still be contingent. He ate of the food of the inhabitants. they covered him with clothes. They informed him of the condition of their cities and what was eaten in them.' Then he reflected and told himself: As man is in need of all this in order to live well. J. 4. so that he could be with a community some members of which sowed. Fakhry. knows everything. They stayed there for some time in order to repair the damage . pp. hire. and he continued to think about this for some time. therefore the things cannot dispense with a cause for their existence which (itself) is not contingent. 'The Classical Islamic Arguments for the Existence of God'. 36£. II. Therefore these beings must necessarily have a cause for their existence which is necessarily existent. Stieglecker. therefore it must be absolute. .or a jinn. then went ever nearer to them with caution until they saw him. because he. Ibn Sa'd. he ate their food and was pleased with them. J. and this is Allah. such as an angel. Then it happened that the winds threw upon that island a. and which was the method of knowing the worship concordant with His Majesty. others ploughed. Moreover. they caned him but he flew from them. The Muslim Creed.: 'I am not an angel but the son of a woman from I. and had to confine himself to natural foodstuffs and the animals always attacked and bit him. others transported things. no doubt. for otherwise causes and caused things would accumulate ad infinitum. and when he ate it he found it very good because he had never eaten prepared food before. could not live well if he was alone. but that man was in need of being social. ill..

and said. and arts and crafts.4 Then he reflected on the beneficial role of this prophet. Stieglecker. Cf. Paris I945. for example. before and after his call to prophecy. and the eternal subsistence :either in pleasu~e or in Hell'. language. thirdly. Kamil for this reason believed that the purpose of prophecy cannot be realized by one prophet. the inhabitants of the Sudan and of the Slavonic countries. he uses the classical argument Df the Muslims for the veracity of the Prophet. the return after death. without having b~en preceded by other prophets who had brought most of (all) that near to the understanding of man. he must be distinguished by a quality on account of which the majority and others regard him as truthful when he informs them that what he brings them comes from Allah. and realize His perfect ~ower. Mu:iiz. and desire to know His qualities and attributes. he makes known to mankind the majesty and the other attributes of Allah. most savage tribes. the existence of this prophet is necessary (wajib). and that this implied the existence of one or more individuals. B. Therefore Karnil knew that the good life of man becomes complete only through the existence of this prophet. in order that their accep~ tance be easier and opposition to them less strong. Srieglecker. and trustworthy in what he relates from Him. and the. MIchel and M.e. Stieglecker. namely the transmission of All~h's law to men. For lists of miracles relating to l'vfuhammad. and this is what is called a miracle. This is the case when he is distinguished by a quality which one knows he would not have if he were not in relation with Allah. Although the author avoids the slightly different term. I7 f. he transmits to mankind Allah's law. II2ff. that man could not have acquired the sciences. M. until the law which IS needed is completed. pp. Cairo 1317.§ 278. Had not men in our time become acquainted with the precepts of the law. Ibn al-Nafis anticipates the reasoning of Muhammad Abduh. if He did not omit to create pubic hair and similar things which are only of little benefit. Asin PaiaciDs.dlre~tlOn. nor a power in a body. by his own unaided efforts. IS III no. secondly. for example. see. i. below. Then.3 for it is unthinkable that Allah should have omitted to create this prophet although he is of general benefit.46 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFiS 47 then the majority would not be able to hear the law from him. As this transmitter is a man. and cannot be pointed at..' Therefore this person must perform miracles by which the soul knows that what he brings is not a lie and not vain. Luciani. 96ff. going beyond the simple chronological ~equence of the prophets.succeed in acquiring a science or craft which thev had not been taught. the prophets. z Ibn Hazm (d. see. of Islamic theology. 4 See Excursus C. Therefore it becomes easy for them to believe the prophets who bring them this teaching later on. of s?mething which is no body. but is truth from Allah.> and other things which are included III those beneficial functions. i. A person who has this quality is a prophet. 4561. as many admit only with difficulty the ~x~stence. Firstly. Every time another prop~let comes. mu'jixa. §§ 25S~6z. For the orthodox theory of miracles. These things are accepted only with difficulty by the na:ures of many people. they would at once disapprove of it and disbelieve the prophets. Then Karnil reflected . and his existence is a great good for man and of general benefit.qualitie. 78 f. Kitdb al-Ftsal. It IS not difficult for them to believe the description of the hf~ to co~e . who had been taught all that by Allah.' and many can imagine only WIth.sand majesty of Allah. I. therefore this person must necessarily be a man. Then. 3 With this idea of development.and the eternal happiness and unhappiness which it (1 r') bnngs With It. Therefore Kamil understood that the creation of this prophet was necessary (ia budda m£nhu). 2 Allusion to sura Iii. difficulty the circumstances of the prophetic missions and sen~mgs. 161-4· ' 3 Cf.064) went even further and declared. according to orthodox Muslim ~octnne. transl. AbenhdJtam de Cordoba. many can acknowledge only with difficulty the resurrection. and ( \ r) found it threefold. Then he reflected and said. he makes known the resurrection and the happiness and unhappiness which are prepared for them in the world to come. 1927. and accustomed to its doctrines. §§ 64-66. Cheikh Mohammed Abdou. ill. see Ibn Sa'd." Allah knows this and therefore. be very much deterred from him and would strongly declare him to be a liar. but that there must be several 1 By this the author alludes to the attributes of Allah. bedouins had never succeeded and would never . it becomes easy for them to accept what the later prophets reveal in this respect. Abdel Razik. z7b~6. 7 -73. he found this reasoning confirmed by the fact that the deaf-mute from birth. Therefore it is fitting that at ~rst some prophets should reveal that part of these things which I~ most easily accepted and most urgently needed for the preserva~ tion and the good life of mankind. as we have stated before. when men know t~e . such as medicine and astronomy. II4-IS· . when men have come to know Allah to some degree.s He who appears first reveals those things which are n~ar to the understanding. because of His care. As the acceptance of these things is difficult men would if the prophet revealed them at once. ~e g~ves something more than his predecessor.

2 as these had to be Jews or Christians. but he ought to come from the noblest of townspeople. Therefore the prophet who is the Seal of the Prophets must be the most excellent of the prophets altogether. last one must know all that his predecessors brought. He lias chosen the Harm Hash~m. and then the people of that period are suddenly swept away.e. the Ka'ba was originally built by Adam and reconstructed by Abraham and Ishmael. he cannot come from the desert. and~He has chosen me among t e J3ai'i"U""Hashim: See also Zad al-Ma'air. He must in any case be more excellent than the others.: 'The Prophet said: Among the children of Abraham. to under this name in the Arabic text a few lines before. For this reason.48 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFl:S THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 49 prophets of whom the first bring the (doctrines) which prepare men for the understanding of those (doctrines) which the later prophets bring.. (Summary) As this prophet has to be the most excellent and learned prophet. Therefore he ought not to belong to the descendants of Ya'kub (J~b) or a1-'1~. 2S.t IS ff. so that he should not (I 0) be considered an apostate by his former co-religionists when he comes forth with his own doctrine.) of its inhabitants is not well developed. in the first place. Likewise it is appropriate that every successive prophet should be more excellent than his predecessors. who is the Seal of the Prophets. i. Now had he died in Mecca. He has chosen I. this 1S effected. Ibn Sa'd. amol$ e I~uraysh. (1~) THE SECOND PART (Summary) As this prophet must be the most excellent of all the prophets. by the coming of a prophet who among his people holds a place similar to that of the prophet who had come in the very beginning. ill. Ka'ba.:uraysh. 3 According to one version of the Muslim tradition. among the children ofIsmu II. ll. A. ill.Kmana. The Second Section: on the birthplace of this prophet who is the Seal of the Prophets. He tim chosen the1l'aml KinTna. be itby a general deluge or by a general plague or by something similar. as if no prophets had ever been sent before their time. I This is the generally accepted Muslim doctrine.g. It was perhaps his inclination to cryptic language which led the author into this confusion. 15. 2 ff. then. The oldest sanctuary is the Ka'ba . In this manner it is not necessary that every prophet should be more excellent than his predecessors. Wensinck. The Pint Section: on the genealogy of this prophet who is the Seal of the Prophets. tR On how Kiimil came to know the life-story oj the Prophet Our discourse in this part comprises ten sections. especially as he is the last of the prophets. and must be able to reveal all that his predecessors had revealed. with the exception of the last prophet. as the visit to his tomb contributes to maintaining interest in his doctrine. alt. from the point of view of religion. He ought not to come from a miserable town but from a town the inhabitants of which enjoy all urban facilities. is the usual Arabic name for Esau.. in EI. On the other hand this prophet ought not to die in his birthplace. it is desirable for him to be of the noblest stock ossiblein order that pe. because prophecy comes to an end after him. possessing a sanctuary worshipped from olden times. because it may happen that a prophet 'coming at any time may nearly approach the degree of him by whom the beneficial role of prophecy is to be completed. among tne BanG. ~ or rather 'I~ii. Allah has chosen Isma 'Il .pren. See Ibn Sa'd. Therefore the prophet who is the Seal of the Prophets must be the most excellent of them' and must fulfil better than any other of them the requirements of prophecy. 2. Everyone of the later prophets must repeat what his predecessor brought and add to it until the beneficial function of prophecy is completed with the last prophet. so that the people who appear after them are. as these are the noblest among the descendants of Isma'Il. 815122 E . and in particular a Hashimite. but he ought to be a descendant of Isrna'Il (Ishmael).' therefore this prophet should be born in Mecca. but only provided no change has taken place in mankind which makes the opposite necessary. and especially a town which is renowned from the point of view of religion. especially to one who is held in equally high esteem by all religions. and that is Ibrahim (Abraham). the visit to his (1 V) tomb would be considered a simple appendix to the visit to the I See. e.:~y respect im and adopt his doctrine. Therefore he must teach everything which is necessary for the completion of the beneficial role of prophecy. J. This prophet must not have belonged first to another religious community. Therefore the. thus this prophet must be weaker than his immediate predecessor. The noblest possible genealogy is that going back to the great prophets. but it is evident from the context that the author really means Jesus whose Arabic name is 'ha and who is referred. as the intellect (I. it is necessary to repeat the gradual preparation of men towards an easy acceptance of the truth..

Mutahhar ibn Tahir . as this would diminish his rank. Buhl.. should die first. F. Das Leben Muhammads. (Summary) As the temperament of this prophet is well balanced.222. as the influence of education on the character is' weaker and requires a longer time than modification by nursing. but it is appropriate that some of his desires should be weak. experienced a number of material blessings so that she was o lOll th to part with him.. not long after) he was born (see Ibn Sa'd. ~ 'MaIlY traditions about the frugality of the life of the Prophet are related. 17. nursing by several Women is harmful. e. 8.! This is Yathrib (Medina). '5'/768). Ibn Sad. This is assured when his nursing is a blessing to the nurse. as this would have meant changing the best possible place for another one. The Third Section: on what the upbringing of this prophet. generally known. Kitob al-Bad' uiai-Torihh.> and that finally after the death of his mother he should be brought up by his near male relatives such as his grandfather and uncles.1 Makdis«. the 'farewell pilgrimage' of the Prophet in the year 10/632. Furthermore. . but warned by Gabriel. . for ~xample. so that the different climate should act as a balancing factor.' From this (the number of the conspirators) the meanness of his enemies becomes evident. H. i/I...50 THEOLOGUS A UTODIDAGTUS OF IBN AL-NAFls THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 51 Ka'ba (and not an independent religious ceremo. ~k. Ibn Sa'd. with reference to Galen's concept of the balanced temperament. Guillaume. sl z. H. Guillaume. YlI.." S9 as to satisfy everyone. and for this one educator is not sufficient. '955. The death of the father of the Prophet is said to have happened before (or. . the Prophet escaped and went to Medina. ill. and hIS rehgI~us law would come to nothing. for example. no. Muhammad at Mecca. I.. Guillaume. Also. 165v-sv (GALl. See. ~ This refers to' the famous ly. Huhl. he should be of the most balanced temperament and character. ill. and the superiority of the prophet and the help of Allah who informed him of the plans made against his life. and it is most proper that he should become the ruler of this town. Leipzig '930. The Life of Muhammad (transl. his first upbringing should be.father of the Prophet is said to have died on a trade Journey in Medina..). for example. The mother of the prophet can live longer than his father. his desires ought to be balanced.i as eating little . that the Prophet was nursed in the eounery during his first two years by a woman of the Banu Sa'd ibn Bakr.. and for the whole of the 1~I·l·iodf nursing. Guillaume. then his mother. see also the following note. I that furthermore he should be suckled by another woman outside Mecca. Buhl. J4.:adition informs us that the Prophet. Watt. one from each clan." For the temperament of each person is near to that of his parents. lVI. O:U. of the Sira of ibn Ishiik. such as the desire for focd.dlat al-Tdj fi Sifat al-Nabi. no. 11. but as a consequence of a conspiracy of a great number of infidels to kill him. so that his character might become balanced by imitation of the educator. Tradition relates that the heathen Kuraysh decided to have the Prophet killed by a group of young men.. it is most fitting that it should be the town In which hIS father had died.I1ed Halima. 340-3. i/z. and to this belongs suckling. that another woman called T'huwayba. Ibn Sad. 4SI. 61f. On the character of the Prophet 111 general. nccording to another tradition.!'.n occasioned by any material consideration or have happened of hIS own free will. See. §§737 if. Cairo. should be. ISO. for example. 67 fl. 649-SZ. Ibn Sa'd. But we are told. i.' As to the town to which the Prophet should transfer his residence and in . Stieglecker. Afterwards this prophet ough~ to . L 88r. 'Ii. 116). for example. 74ft See also Zad al-Ma'ad.ny). lil f. Therefore it is appropriate that his father . an extract of which is preserved in the manuscript 59 majdmi' of the Egyptian Llbmr. both entrtes I·doL" to the same manuscript). in contrast with educators. Zdd al-Ivl a'iid. His desires in general should be of medium strength.. who is the Seal of the Prophets. 79. The Fourth Section: on the desires of this prophet. . so that retaliation by his relatives should be impossible. liy l hn Sa'd. care of first by his grandfather 'Abd al-Muttalib. J 'The. not by banishment or defeat in battle. 73 it. 70-73. so he must ha:e been fo~ce~ . d.ijjat al-soada'.. fols. See. '92.:hich he sh~uld die. The transfer of his residence cannot have bee. because the influence of mothers on their male children is weaker than that of fathers. W. 4 The balanced character of the Prophet is mentioned. (Summary) As this prophet is to be the last of the prophets. 3. A.recapture Mecca. in order to be able to perform the duty of pilgrimage and to prescribe this duty to his adherents. nursed him for the first few days. and that of his mother when he was six years old (Ibn Sa'd. therefore something must happen which makes it more balanced. Suppl. v. by 1/1'. Therefore his tomb ought to be situated in another place. Also he should be brought up from the beginning not by his father but by others. 73. 89 ff. Baghdadi (d. See.. by 'Abd al-Latlf ibn Yusuf HI. II There is a tradition. transl. for all this. 19.t~e tomb and the prophet himself would be forgotten. see. was IlIlIl". i. Schaedel'. his uncle Abu Tiilib. 108 ff.P. and when he died in his 1111'11. too. § II. ~Ifreed slave of one of the Prophet's uncles. too. after the death of his mother. 6Z9/l23I) in his Ma/:. II 'r. This nurse should be very devoted to him in order that her milk should agree with him. outside Mecca. 73. ruiJIaume. Oxford '953.. who immediately after taking him.

but he must not live on to a limit at which there appear in him senility and lack of judgement. so that he derives from it a perfect pleasure. al-Jam. Asin Palacios. Islamic parallels to the saying. this prophet is necessarily in a very near relationship to Allah and perfectly immersed in His worship. (Summary) In the outward appearance of this prophet there cannot have been anything calling for disapproval.. 279/892. because it gives the most direct access to Allah. iv. Zdd al-)Wa'a<l. 218/834). for such people (1'1') ate disregarded and considered to be of evil omen. Stieglecker. and 'A 'lsha reportedly did not know a person who suffered more from pains than the I'Hlphet.' And as to the desire for acts of worship. he cannot have been exceedingly short.) has devoted a special section to the sexual potency of the Prophet. he partook of two and abstained from one. and of eloquent tongue. 8im. for such people are considered to be of weak intelligence. on which see. because those who are afflicted by them are considered unfit to be spoken to (or: to address others).' The Sixth Section: on the condition of this prophet as regards illness and length of life. nor can he be crippled nor blind in one eye or both.v. and for sexual intercourse.52 THEOLOGUS. altogether he had concluded marriage thirteen times but had not consummated it in two cases : he had also had three concubines. 364 f. so that he may be invested with his prophetic mission. Wensinck. and those cold diseases which are not hated and detested. But hot diseases such as fevers.JIDACTUS.. For lists of the wives of the Prophet. (Summary) There are some diseases which cannot happen to this prophet. § 57 (Bab milja' fil-sabr 'alai-bala'v. see. because these are the qualities of people of balanced temperament. while eating much is the characteristic of gluttons. §§ 752 ff. .! The Fifth Section: on the outward appearance of this prophet.ilmHteneth'. nor his jaws (exceedingly) big. Other desires should be strong. neither exceedingly fat nor exceedingly thin. of good and strong digestion. Kitiib ai-Bad' wal-Tii. AUTOJ. 'Tirmidhi (d. Gottingen 1859. let alone to convey the message and the religious law of Allah.' 2 Ibn Sa'd (i/2. Y. IIHhl. as.) devotes to the Prophet's liking for women and perfumes. he partook of women and perfumes and abstained from food. J. .§§ 815-I7. chap. As the desire of this prophet for sexual intercourse is strong. ed. For the same reason his abdomen cannot have been exceedingly fat. Muhammad. and to the action of mild remedies. see also M. for worship. On the afflictions suffered by the 1'1'llphet. for such people are despised. As to the desire for sexual intercourse. 96 f. for l. 'Whom the Lord loveth He . Prophets are said to be the persons most afflicted in this world. r f. Leiden 1927.rikh. (that is) because its strength is appreciated in men as a sign of virility. whereas people of bad smell are detested. and this is the mature age (huhula). 'The Prophet of Allah used to like of this world three thinga: perfumes. A. Z6-29. i/2. II2f. 8-'5. Ibn Sa'd. be of medium colour. I All this agrees with the traditional picture of the Prophet. nor his face exceedingly long. v. r zoff. 1001-5. nor can there have been in his body any defect. smiling and cheerful. such as madness and epilepsy. nor leprosy (judham). II 11(!ndbook oj Early Muhammadan Tradition. The form of worship which provides this most is ritual prayer (. Kiidb at-Bad' tual-Tdrikh..~aliit). II I I I I II I I . ii. the Prophet had nme Wives when he died. because people avoid coming into contact with a sufferer from it. F. of acute senses and intelligence.unt of which people are disregarded and avoided. and food. see Ibn Hishiim (d. for example. I comes from a lack of balance. women.' As to the desire for perfumes. Therefore he must die after having reached maturity but before old age has got a hold on him.. nor exceedingly tall. " There are. but his diseases must be short and easily healed. nor his fingers exceedingly short. 74f.""trlple. This prophet must even have many diseases.). OF IBNAL-NAFIS TH'EOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFis 53 (r I) is the characteristic of saints. s." As to the length of life of this prophet. 3 According to the most widely held opinion. he quotes the classical tradition. and my consolation is prayer (. Stieglecker. he must reach the limit in which to develop fully his intelligence. His limbs cannot have been anything but harmonious because the opposite quality: In the section which Ibn Sad (i/2. such as coryza (zukam) and catarrh (nazla). (that is) because their use makes an agreeable impression on those with whom a man comes into contact so that they think highly of him. Abenhasam de Cordoba. Neither can he have white leprosy (bara~'). as people of balanced temperaments respond equally well to (r t") external infections (waridat).'. nor his neck exceedingly thick.well as the following. may well happen to him. but he must have harmonious limbs. There cannot' have been in his face or limbs a deformity or an illness on acco. and as it is unthinkable that he should desire persons other than women-because this is a characteristic of bad and dissolute menhe must have taken a number of wives and have-had frequent intercourse with them. 34 (Kitdb til ~lIhd). to which only one-sided temperaments are strongly resistant.alrit)'. 'Of this world I have come to like women and perfumes. Wustenfeld. 193'. such as the desires for perfumes.

1 On the several names of the Prophet. Luciani. from hl~ Coptic concubine Miiriya. . Zabala und Zubala. §§ 661-90. v. and that of his grandfather. 23. i/I. The names Kalb and 'T'hawr are actually attested. . i. Buhl. Jeffery. 81-3. and Umrn Kulthiim. 'Abd al-Muttalib. see. Sulaym. His daughters. i. "934. too. Iii. (Summary) As this prophet was already highly esteemed when he received his prophetic mission.t The Seventh Section: on the children of this prophet. 13. but he. and although we have not been able to find any bearer of the name Zibla. When the prophetic vocation carne to him. and only later on. his name ought not to have an overbearing meaning. on the contrary. called Ibrahim.) preservation of his law. too. 142-5. 126f. . and he would have been considered impolite had he not done so. 297-302. ill. or 'Ubayd. the Prophet had four daughters. 64-67. Mlicglecker. or Kalb ('dog'). Khadlja. . xvii. for exampiu. Zad alMa'od. it would have been lack of perfection if he had been childless. is regarded as the greatest miracle and the final proof'of the veracity of the Prophet. when his adherents were more numerous. 85 ff. This has always been the thesis of Muslim orthodoxy. the oldest tradition is unanimous only with regavd to one. ill. is well known. On all thill. Guillaume. Fatima. the dictionaries mention other derivatives of the same root. and as his temperament was well balanced he had to have both sons and daughters. al-Kasim. Kitab at-Bad' uial-Tdrikh.t 01 Abraham and Ishmael. the Prophet died at the age of sixty-three. xxviii. 90. The differentiation between common people . (Summary) In order not to be inferior to the other prophets who had Scriptures revealed to them.P. On account of the especially strong need for the (r. see Ibn Sa'd. 'I The First Section: on the attributes prophet. for example. 348. this prophet ought to have a Scripture. Rome 1915.54 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFis THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFiS 55 and this happens in persons of balanced temperament sixty-second or sixty-third year. x. 64f. Guillaume. fl. 25. about the The Ninth Section: on the name of this prophet. if they did. 386. the name of the Prophet's father was 'Abd Allah.111i1 kind. 38. zo f. as his dignity would have suffered had he addressed the king in the appropriate reverent manner. According to most traditions. his mission could not have been to a king. it was particularly important that his book should be remembered. Rukayya.» The Tenth Section: on the Scripture of this prophet. or of calling them after animals. Isf . Beitrage sur semitischen Sprachscissenschajt. at the age of sixty or sixty-five. ill. ii/z. died at a tender age. Onomasticon Arabicum. according to others. but this was impossible since he was the Last Prophet. U.] 8 ff. traditions further agree that the Prophet had a son. obligations which this prophet of Allah taught by this . such as Zibla ('manure'). to be done in the beginning by mild and peaceful means. Ibn Sa'd. His sons ought not to survive him because. Therefore the style of this book had to be most perfectly eloquent+ THE THIRD PART (Summary) As this prophet had frequent sexual intercourse. Gabrieli.. As to his sons from Khadija. who died before the prophetic vocation of Muhammad. as proper names. 83. Strassburg '904. Th. The Summa Philosophiae of Al-Shahrastdni. of whom only Fatima survived him. Noldeke. such as that of Moses to Pharaoh. such as Humayd. without distinction. he was about forty vears old. by force and with the sword. 88. i. o. I i I On how Kiimil came to know the religious practice of the Prophet Our discourse in this part comprises two chapters.! His propaganda had. and the fact that the Koran defies imitation. Zaynab. ll. . 73 f. 2 The custom of the Arabs of giving their sons disagreeable names. see. Caetani and G. (Summary) His name and that of his father and grandfather! could not be a name referring to something despicable. " The whole of this section corresponds to orthodox doctrine . Wl\(I)1 Ibrahim had died: 'Had he lived he would have become a righteous OI1e (#d. • From his first wife. 34). L. the message of Muhammad. Th. in COllt"11~1 with the missions of the former prophets.). Therefore his mission had to be to the whole of mankind.2 neither could it be a diminutive form.. 120f.. Ibn al-Nafis does not seem to have realized the inconclusive characror "l his argument. . 16-20. but also to the reported saying of the Prophet. was addressed to the whole of D.> 1ne Eighth Section: on the manner in which this prophet would call for adherents. a claim already put forward in the Holy Book itself (sura H. could live long. On the other hand. such as Shahanshah (Persian: 'King of Kings'). they ought to become prophets. 3 According to the doctrine of Islam. xi. Cf.IUI) and a prophet' (Ibn Sa'd. See Luciani. Chapter One: on the doctrinal Imposes.. The remark of Ibn al-Nafis about the reason :(1"1 the early death of the Prophet's sons refers not only to cases such as tha. as was the case of former prophets whose sons succeeded them. or Thawr ('OX'). ZI!d ai-Ma'ad. See. Ibn Se 'd.. see Ibn Sa'd.s [ By Muslim tradition. 49.

> and other qualities which ( r v) are in keeping with Allah's majesty. and. the so-called Kamil had come near to the end of his full manly vigour. But that to which man refers when Iw says 'I' is not so. that would be quite different. but ought to introduce in his speech allegories and allusions sufficient to make the select ones understand all the details. But if he were told: 'If you do those things. ] Sura xlii. Still. and if they made a (special) study to understand them they would become confused and bewildered. moreover. II. (Summary) This prophet must necessarily mention the life to come and explain it in detail. like a piece of wood. Therefore the prophet ought to mention these things only in a general. (The prophet) cannot represent the future life as purely corporeal either. and that there is no God but Him.2). because it remains constantly the same. and have splendid sexual intercourse. Then Kamil reflected on the nature of this future life and how it would be. such as complete power and perfect might. and that there is nothing like Him. that He is not a body and cannot be perceived by the senses. and the whole future life would be meaningless. . as everyone knows. 30. you will be transferred to a place where you will eat ap~ petizing meals. but continually will praise and glorify. and the harmony of them all would be destroyed. . He concluded that he ought to teach men that they had a Creator. where there are streams of wine. and it is an essentiul part of the conclusion of the treatise of Ibn 'Tufayl (see above. and will not even be recompensed for that nor brought to another condition'. whereas the body and its parts are not so.! that He is the hearing and knowing one . because both the body and its parts are continuously in dissolution and reconstruction. The problem. and he told himself: There is no doubt that man is composed of body and soul. He cannot have represented the life to corne as spiritual because the intellects of most people fall short of appreciating spiritual pleasures and pains.s ('amma) and learned specialists (khii~. of the literal @I allegorical explanation of the text of the Koran and of the sayings of the Propln-u. The Second Section: on the teaching of the Seal of the Prophets concerning the life to come.56 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS THEOLOGUS AUTODIDA(:TUS OF IBN AL-NAFIs 57 Fadil ibn Natil~ says: When. honey. J. and neither happiness nor unhappiness. therefore Allah will transfer you to a world where you will neither eat nor drink. Therefore this prophet must represent future life as composed of body and soul. z Passim in the Koran. nor have sexual intercourse. and their study would prevent them from seeking their livelihood and following their occupations. pp. Stieglecker. but the soul is that to which ant refers when one says '1'. and not in an explicit. §§ 1470-6. I '. therefore he would have neither pleasure nor pain. Should the prophet explain these and similar things they would be as it were meaningless for those who did not make a (special) study to understand them. through the whole history of Muslim dogmatics. that He must be obeyed and worshipped. and unII voidably in constant change. that He is not in any direction and that one cannot point at Him with a sign perceptible by the senses. in his lifetime. At the same time this prophet would not make it clear that there is behind all that something which he had concealed. he ought not to omit any essential part of the details. and he would not oblige men (to believe) something of which they could not easily become aware and which they could imagine only with difficulty: for instance if he told them that Allah is neither inside nor outside the world. nor be clothed.'IHI author follows a middle course. you have abstained from forbidden pleasures and have acted with justice towards men. he ought not to make it clear that there is a detailed explanation. . 1111 '" I. (Translation) If a common man were told: 'You have performed the worship properly. because the body without the soul is without feeling. and that this Creator is possessed of splendour and majesty in an infinite degree. (1' 9) und likewise the parts of the body. he reflected on the attributes of the Creator which this prophet ought to teach. This would be contrary to the primary aim of the prophetic mission. the body is this thing which can be perceived. detailed manner. because everyone knows with inevitable certainty (bil(i(ll'ura) that it remains the same from the beginning to the end of his life.a) is generally made. whereas the general public r ernains confined to as much of their outward meaning as they are able to understand. then this common man would prefer to miss that happiness. because this is the most difficult part (" A) of a prophet's teaching which cannot be omitted from the doctrine of this Last Prophet. already alluded to in the preceding section. Cf. because the body of man as an infant is different from his body as an old man. nor sleep. and so forth'. That to which one refers in this case cannot be the body or its parts.

therefore they are not manifold earlier than the genesis of this matter. meaning the extremity of the spine. In this way the resurrection takes place. If this is S01 it cannot exist before the existence of the mixed matter from which the body of man comes forth. they are driven on (20) until.' These skins replace each other during the sojourn in Hell. 56: '. and therefore the body never becomes non-existent again.. §§ 1344~55. ' . and at that time it experiences pleasure or pain.. this soul generates again another body from the matter from which this (nucleus of) matter is fed.v. and if the soul were a body or had bodily qualities these notions could. and not as the soul subsists. and this is absurd. . and to sura xxii.) dent on it would have one single and individual soul (in common). and the existence of this matter is a prerequisite for the existence of the soul of man. This matter which is the coccpc is imperishable (too). The soul of man is imperishable. dhanab. So it is. This matter is called coccyx. material and perceptible by the senses.: 'And the day when the ('l\omies of Allah are gathered unto the fire. J. Therefore the soul must be something different from the body. Now. when IllOY come to . It could not be manifold because the individuals of each species are differentiated on account of the matter from which they are dependent. ' 'Adhab alT~llbr'. and their skins (too). absurd that this matter should perish as long as the soul of man subsists. as it were. the body is generated from it. but as the soul of man possesses no matter it is Wensinck. an organ which is declared by traditions to be the nucleus of the creation of the human body and of its resuscitation as well. . (22) and you could not hide yourselves lest your hearing and-your 4\y '8 and your skins should testify against you. whereas accidents subsist only by substances . these are the pleasures and pain in the tomb. 19 ff. because.' Then when the time for resurrection (ma'ad) comes. 349. (21) and they say to their skins: Why have you restiJled against us? They reply: Allah. Who gives speech to everything. This matter is generated from sperm and similar things. and this is a contradiction. because everything which takes place in a body or in a power within a body is subject to that. Therefore the soul must be a substance. i:ltteglecker. among the things which take place within the soul of man are the perceptions and the notions. because otherwise the soul would be independent of it in its existence and its existence would not be dependent on it. will be melted. J.' It is absurd that this should become lost as long I The Arabic term is 'ajb al-dhanab. if it were single.skins.bjectto decomposition in common with therest of the body. 'the root of the tail'. s. T'ritton. After that the soul never ceases to feed. This body is the same as the first body inasmuch as this (nucleus of) matter in it is the same. We will exchange them for fresh. A. Therefore the soul of man must be free of corporeal matter. The body subsists by itself. S.:xample. attracting other matter to it and transforming it into something similar to it. if it existed before that matter. art. otherwise it would be a body or in a body. be it in the pleasure (of Paradise)-this is evident-or in Hell. it could be neither one nor manifold. 20: 'Whereby that which is in their IllIlIIus.. no doubt. ~\). Therefore it remains after the death and decomposition of the body. necessarily become divided and there could be no individual notion at all. The body is. for . their hearing and their eyes and their skins testify against them II~ 'to what they used to do. all the manifold bodies depen(1"'. • This is an allusion to the wording of sura xli. see. and therefrom grows a body a second time. and it must be free from corporeal matter. As often Ilil their skins are well done. J effery. Therefore the soul of man can exist only after the existence of matter mixed in a manner corresponding to (the nature of) man. . and when the soul becomes attached to it and then begins to feed anti to produce the organs. but it is impossible for him to be unconscious of his soul. because every time this hellfire burns. A.' One of the traditional explanations II I' these passages is that 'skins' here means 'bodies'. so that they III!I)' taste the torment'. and the soul is the same. etc. such as the heart. t) . the brain. and it is imperishable because everything that is perishable has a matter in which it may sometimes subsist and sometimes be absent. Cf.the new ly produced parts in this body. which is pure substance because it is impossible that it should be an accident. and the notions acquired by everyone of them would be acquired by the whole. in consequence. that (nucleus of) matter and are therefore called skins. which is absurd. and the soul with which it remains continues to be perceiving and noticing. in E12. and if it were so. Wensinck and A. which is the thing to which he refers when he says 'I'. These bodies surround. and could not possibly subsist at all. the soul stirs again and feeds this (nucleus of) matter by. has given li~ speech •. It could not be single because. r:oncordance et indices de la tradition musulmane. " A current feature in Muslim d~gmatics.' Also to sura iv. the things taking place in it would have a position and a form and could be divided. but not so the soul.S8 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIs THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 59 Another argument is that man may often be unconscious ofhis body and its parts.

as in the case of way. such as the profession of fa!t~. Therefore this prophet should encourage it.. provision should be made for separation. .shIp. or a join! bodily and financial obligation such as pilgrimage. but in a way which guarantees a numerous progeny. As polyandry leads to uncertainty of paternity. or about the abandonment of the possession of useful goods. and are therefore pre~cribed ~nce. Examples of these different kinds of remembering are fastI~g. and his doctrine should be often remembered. a It ought to be remembered that Kamil has Seen human society on another island. such as worship. Second Section: on the transactions prescribes. so that there can be no doubt about paternity. It 1S therefore surprrsmg that he should define ~alat here as mere movements of the body. and faith must be permanent. he ought to make marriage a public contract. a y. but not polygamy. 3 See Excursus B. ~ The author has. had every reason to provide for his doctrine's being remembered until the end of time. and for all these cases he ought to establish a just procedure. as in the case of manumission. He ought to make the share in the. below. Some of these obligations are very exacting and should therefore be prescribed once in a lifetime only. either by necessity.d. therefore reminds man more directly of Allah and His Prophet. especially as their temperaments may differ in such a manner that they can have no children from their union. Therefore everything which prevents the individual from being useful to the community should be prohibited. because the males. etc. Others are very easy to accomplish and may therefore be fulfilled several times every day. because it has as a consequence making heirs of those who ought not to inherit. The First Section: on the duties concerning worship which this prophet prescribes. and relatives. although mote easily able to earn. this remembrance being prescribed either directly or in connexion with another thing.2 or (r r ) bodily abstentions such as fasting. too. pimping. or actlOn~ of the body only. Normal intercourse should happen in a way that leaves no doubt about paternity. such as fasting and the alms-tax. and provision for spouses. p. Therefore. sexual intercourse is necessary in order to produce most of the human beings.ear: But the belief in (the truth of) the profession of faith IS faith Itself.if their transactions are just. I either words only. he reflected that this prophet.vpp. therefore he ought to prohibit male and female homosexuality. or financial obligations such a~ th~ alms-tax. (rr) The. If nothing IS allowed which leads to the neglect of common utility or contentrnent with laziness. He ought to show them a way which they might follow to avoid disputes. which this prophet (Summary) Society and intercourse of mankind can come to perf~ction ~nly . ritual prayer and pilgrimage. Others stand between the two extremes. such as usury. the prophet ought to prohibit it. for in human society everyone must fulfil a useful part. ." r The traditional five main duties or 'pillars' of Islam. being the Last Prophet. his function. emphasized the spiritual significance of ~aldt above. and precluding from inheritance those who have a right to it. slaves. alms-tax. such as ritual prayer (~aliit). whereas this might well happen if either of them were married to another partner. As a man and wife may find life together impossible. 77 f. (Summary) As there are so many human beings. if nobody is harmed. . and this. ." and as spontaneous generation can happen only by exception. all of which nullify the production of useful work. (Summary) When Karnil had reached nearly forty years of age. except those who are prevented by illness. as in the case of sale or lease. The power to pronounce a separation should be given to (\'"Q ) [ Similar reasonings are often found in the works on the religious law of Islam.. Individual prayer (du~d') does not figure among the official main duties of the religious law of Islam. then independently or as part of the duty of wor. Chapter Two: on the practical obligations which this prophet imposes. 52. or by choice. inheritance: of the males bigger than that of the females. He ought to assure this by prescribing that he. although this might multiply the progeny. Therefore the religious system of this prophet ought to be b~sed on fi~e things. . therefore the prophet should prohibit adultery and fornication. and the profession of faith. or about the permanent setting up of useful goods. be it about the transfer of useful goods. as in the case of inheritance. . have ('" f) to provide for their wives. and if directly. and this should be done by the calling of witnesses.' The Third Section: on the rules which the prophet ought to introduce with respect to domestic economy (tadbir al-manzil). an.60 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS THEOLOGUS AUTOD!DACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 6r .

z This reflects not the original but the later political organization of the Muslim world. But the wife should not be completely denied the right to divorce. but those who are nearer to truth he should oblige only to pay poll-tax.» The Prophet ought to forbid everything which is conducive to a bad state of the soul. Had the prophet designated any single person from among his companions as his successor. theft. if the husband is unable to provide for her. Cairo manuscript. but restrained only by a major force which everyone obeys. there must. and he would have been held responsible for the errors of this :caliph. except for the assumption that it is the wife's duty to run the household. On how Kami! came to know the events which were going to happen after the death of the Last Prophet Ol~r discourse in this part comprises ten sections. (Summary) Since some men are inclined to WIckedness and not restrained by their knowledge alone that the divine law has forbidden something. reflects actual practice. such as a king. be after him a successor (caliph). I The Fourth Section: on the punishments ought to introduce. of material goods. usurpation. and this at all times in order to preserve his religion. and of intelligence.preceding item reflect actual practice in later times. therefore he ought to prescribe something like blood-money in this case.death. I Furthermore. in order to extend the call to his religion to all mankind. 4 Here ends the. such as providing for the soldiers who protect the country.62. This reflects the distinction. his message could not have reached all men. but the kings should not be left to their whims as they are often inclined to tyranny. The First Section: on how Kamil came to know the struggle for the caliphate between the companions of this prophet after his . for the imams and muezzins. and therefore he should come from among his companions in the period immediately following this prophet's death. (Summary) As the Last Prophet came forth on his mission only (rv) after his fortieth year and died at something more than sixty. As slaves are under the guardianship of their masters who provide for them. and therefore there should be a ruler over them who is the caliph. this would have given rise to jealousy among his other followers. Relatives who are in need ought to be provided for by their wealthy relatives. This caliph must necessarily be highly esteemed by the people. made by Islamic law between two classes of infidels: the heathens and the followers of former revealed religions. and so on. Therefore he ought to prescribe retaliation for deliberate murder. and should lay down for everyone of these and' other crimes a punishment deterring the people from it.> The produce of this tax taken from the infidels. for adultery and fornication as well as for drinking wine. and women to manage the household. and drunkenness. Therefore he should prohibit murder. as well as the alms-tax taken from believers. because drunkenness I All this corresponds to the rules of the religious law of Islam. and leaving it completely unpunished would mean that blood could be shed with impunity. who at the same time incurs financial obligations by marriage. this. the masters should have the right to demand service of them to the degree of their 'ability. and should introduce a treatment of his opponents in accordance with the (degree of) badness of their belief. those who are strongly opposed to his divine law should be ordered to be killed. there should be in every town a king or his representative. 3 This and the . for instance. therefore that prophet could not designate his presumptive (1'" A) This is the classical rational justification of the Koranic prohibition of wine. So for every mischief the appropriate punishment should be fixed. and the wife to stay in the house of the husband. whereas the two following items are taken from the relevant passages of the Koran. the man should have to provide for the wife. and that is the man.s THE FOURTH PART . he should devote to purposes which are useful to the community. he should be intent on raising the prestige of his religion. for travellers. however.i The punishment indicated for theft would be something like cutting off the hand. TI-lEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS TFlEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 63 the more reasonable partner. As there can be no other prophet after him.s for the poor and the needy. As men are better able to earnmoney. 3 This reflects the categories of Islamic law. which the prophet makes reason cease and is a source of mischief. I Z . but in the case of accidental manslaughter retaliation would be unjust.

L Goldziher. and were hostile to one another. (r' ~) (Summary) As this prophet had prohibited the drinking of wine. 276/889). even amounting to a fight. Muhammad's) corr. in ZDlVlG.e. and also their Ibn Kutayba (d. an increase of homosexuality in his community. because' jealousy is a noble and praiseworthy quality. for the caliphate among his companions. the third caliph. there must needs arise a struggle. apart from its being indispensable as a remedy for preserving health and fighting (~ • ) many diseasesr. 3 ra'y. every attention had to be paid to preserving his words and his acts. expressed in a tradition declaring t~at 'differences of opinion in my (i. more or less conclusive. a technical term much discussed during the systematrc elaboration of Islamic religious law.s The Third Section: on how Kamil carne to know the sins which had to be committed in the community of this prophet. e. see. cf.indicat. '104/820).> and his holy book. iii/I. 2 The Traditions. though not correspondir. (Summary) It was unavoidable that every claimant to the caliphate should gather around himself a faction which was fervently biased in his favour and opposed to his adversaries. and the Shiites who claimed that the Prophet had expressly desi~nated 'Ali as his successor. 638/1240).s As the natures of men are different. Umm. presence of strangers. and by Ibn 'Arabi (d. but somewhat later. had prevailed in Islam long . 3I n.secondly. in his Futtl'pit al-IYIakkzyya (ef. 13· 5 The. 126-8. to writing down T'raditions in the early period of Islam. Ibn Sa'd. the institution of temporary marriage (milt 'a). by Ghazall (d. (Summary) It was inevitable that those sins should be punished. p. 16. by Shafi'i (d. while there were still suitable candidates. of course. an admirer of Ghazalj. vii.wal) or his acts (af'al). as this would have led to the victory of the infidels and the disappearance of his religious law.ladith. 50S/IIII) in the introduction of his Ihyri". 85 n. Kitab Ta'wil Muhhtalij al-l. 815122 F . therefore there would be need for the science of tradition (l. There are ~lany. 595/ 1198. 3 There was a theoretical objection. the rise of many opinions concerning the religion of this prophet was inevitable. two consequences were inevitable: firstly. and this would necessitate the composition of many books some considerable time after the death of the prophet. author ignores. and this could be done only by the scholars of his community who drew their knowledge not from revelation like the prophets.. and to provide for material advantages for the inhabitants of these academies. so that men should not think lightly of transgressing the prescriptions of this prophet nor omit to repent." As men are inclined to love power. not immediately after his death. for example. designation by the Prophet of Abu 'Bakr as his successor. see above. gegen die Batinijja-Sehte. because many people were unable to marry at all or to take their wives with them when travelling. Streitschrift des Gazal. This punishment could I The author alludes to the creation of pious foundations for the benefit of the professors and students of some particular doctrine 'Orother. there still existed in practice a great deal of keen cornpetrtron between the several schools of religious law.' As this prophet was the last of the prophets. so that there were many partisanships and fights. the followers of each head of a school (imam) had to compose many books and to build colleges (madiiris) and places which were reserved for the adherents of that particular doctrine. 4 Personally.g to the facts.. It is remarkable that the author explicitly acknowledges the element of professional jealousy entering Into tha t compctrtion.•g.the Sunnis. adherents. and the appearance of women in public in the. reports on the model behaviour of the Prophet.before the author's trme. Goldziher. Ibn al-Nafts objected to the use of wine as a remedy. but from thought and personal opiniori. 2). admitted by the Shiites. and everyone out of his love of authority and originality. in 35/6 S6.adith) and for the science of interpretation (ta/sir) and other religious sciences. S Although the conciliatory view. whom the author follows of course.64 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFis THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 65 successor explicitly.s The Fourth Section: on how Kamil came to know the punishment 'which was to befall the community of this prophet on account of their sins. and even uses the technical term icaka]. Th~refore the community of this prophet had to become divided Into sects which differed with regard to the principles and details of his religion. 250 (Kitab Jima' aZ-'Ilm). Z The Second Section: on how Kamil came to know the struggle and fight after the death of this prophet. 3)..mumty are a concession (from Allah)'.had to try his best to make his view prev~i~. by Averroes (d. . xli (1887). because the soul strongly desires it. 4 The ambition of the specialists in religious law has often been described and castigated.! In order to gain I This is one of the main points of contention between..ions in Sunni traditions for the indirect. the transgression of the prohibition of wine. Therefore provision had to be made for the law of this prophet to be remembered.. are often arranged according to whether they refer to his words (a(. . Leiden 19I?. 2 The fight for the caliphate started with the assassination of 'Uthman.

VU. and big buttocks. so they would not have strength enough to shed the blood of this community. juwayni. they should feel inclined to adopt this religion and to be counted among its adherents. on the contrary. They must have broad chests and big heads. See Excursus E. pp. Helsingfors Ina. cf. especially those in which the sins mentioned above have become prevalent. that is to say. moreover. H. Formerly those people had not been in need of a big army. for the same reason their noses are inclined to be flat. pp. they should abstain from provoking a change of religion there. (t r ) because it is a quality of courageous beings. see above. and Tacitus. I These infidels cannot occupy the whole of the countries of Islam. Tullgren . 9-II. and this is possible only if the sultan of that country is I The author clearly describes the Mongols. from open plains because townspeople are less courageous. strong of heart. it would be necessary that their people should go into battle and defend themselves against them. Histoire des Mongols. as this would prove the violent wrath of Allah against this community and be in contradiction with the dignity of this prophet. d'Ohsson. transl. if they live on the outskirts of the inhabited world. therefore the army of these border countries had to become much stronger than before. After occupying them. these are indispensable prerequisites for a successful fight against those powerful and numerous infidels. This requires two things: firstly a big army. too. because the inhabitants there are few and distributed over islands. That their eyes are narrow comes from the excessive moisture of their brains. Those infidels must come. i. and that would be contrary to the aim of this punishment. Nordens historie i middelalderen etter arabiske hilder. and not only their original countries but the countries of other infidels which they might conquer should be added to the area of this religion. and merciless on account of the cold. i. because they themselves have no religion. The idea goes back to classical antiquity. the additional amount must be taken from the possessions of its inhabitants by force. Oslo I954. This condition is fulfilled if the message of the prophet has not yet reached those infidels. 80f. and therefore this religion should spread even without the help of military power. because this would lead to the destruction of this religion. C. J. The size of their buttocks is due to the fact that they ride horses from childhood. this also 1 See Excursus D. Therefore this punishment could only be by bloodshed. Z separated by many seas. p. narrow eyes. 4). xxi-xxiii).66 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFlS THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFiS 67 not be a catastrophe. 3 ft. I I (~'I"') (~i) . and they are the countries which are near to them. as can be observed in the lion. therefore they are divided and cannot unite sufficiently to overcome the people of this community. because in this case their success would be regarded as the success of their religion. their upper limbs must be big because heat is prevalent inside their bodies on account of the intense cold of their climate. Idrisi. ~ On the opinions of the Arab geographers concerning the islands of the north. 79. see O. and this had to be done by way of attack from infidels. As this expenditure cannot be covered by the ordinary revenue of the country. Pliny the Elder. as there are many horses in those regions and they transport themselves often on horseback. Birkeland. (Summary) Once the countries which (originally) were far from those conquered by the infidels had become as it were their neighbours. as internal political strife within the community would not have provoked penitence and reform. because the people there are courageous. points out the advantages which accrued to Islam from the Mongol invasion (Tarikh-i Jahan-Guslui. but only some. and therefore their lower limbs must be somewhat slender. La Finiande et les autres pays baitiques orientaux (Giographie. far from the civilization of the temperate zone. Butthey could not come from the north-west. They could not live in the utmost southern parts because the people there are weak of heart on account of the great heat. 13-16. below. and is found in Pomponius Mela. i. and secondly a courageous sultan. M. generated by the lack of its dissolution on account of the cold. • For the historical facts alluded to in this section. Therefore they must come from the northernmost parts. The Fifth Section: on how Kamil came to know the condition of the infidels who had to punish this community.> The Sixth Section: on how. Therefore these infidels should occupy the northern countries (of the religion of the Last Prophet). (Summary) These infidels should not belong to any religious community. below. such as being swallowed up by the earth or being destroyed by a deluge. Tallgren-Tuulio and A. I This at the same time would give believers who took part in the struggle the opportunity of gaining religious merit. slender lower limbs.Kamil came to know the condition of the countries which those infidels could not conquer. This implies a much greater expenditure on it.

(h) . in addition.> feel well in winter and when sleeping in a cool place. pp. He must make much swift movement and hate rest. See Excursus G. I This confiscation. thefts and other crimes I The army in Egypt. xxiv (1937). hate the cold. because the infidels have occupied the greater part of the territory of the community of this prophet and have. as no one would lend himself to it voluntarily. vii (r 942. as the people of the north-west are weak and their character is not in agreement with the afore-mentioned qualities. and although liking to cover himself heavily must expose his feet to the cool air.s Therefore he must order many punishments such as cutting off limbs. He cannot be bald unless he uses a medicine which causes this. also serves as a means of purifying the inhabitants. below. and the drain on the treasury considerable (Ibn Taghribirdi. His complexion must be brownish-red. his army. and of the unavailing protests of religious scholars. Therefore he must be very courageous. was quadrupled in size by Baybars. Most of his children would be sons. p. loving movement. otherwise he could not be very courageous. His temperament must incline to heat. 9) had consisted of IO. He must blink rarely with his eyelids and have no hair on his back. Z The blue colour of the eyes of sultan Baybars is actually mentioned in the sources. and his means. vii. especially in the sun. in El. (Summary) This sultan must doubtless be very much inferior to those infidels as regards his country. although liking to breathe cold air. His body cannot be too small either. His body must not be very big. s. therefore. 3 The historian Dhahabi. His sleep cannot be very deep or long. I95). His appetite for food would not be very strong. which under al-Malik al-Kamil Muhammad (see above. The annals of Baybars (and of his predecessor Kutuz) are punctuated by reports of illegal exactions (illegal from the point of view of Islamic religious law). not very dark eyes. He must be stout-hearted.> and not too narrow a nose. 85). as in this case his spirits would expand and disagree with the heat of his heart and his character.68 THEOLOGUS A UTODlDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS THEOLOGUS AUTODlDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 69 obeyed implicitly. but from the people of the open country. He would mostly I The author alludes to the Turks from whom the Mamluks were recruited. This in its turn produces an increase in thefts and a bad state of affairs. extract printed on p. If this sultan were not so very courageous as to confront. on the contrary. on account of the heat of his temperament. For the same reason the sultan must come from the country of those infidels or from a country near to them. says of him: 'He deserved to be king. their equipment was much more elaborate. because then he would have little determination and be of no firm resolution and would be unfit to rule the country and to fight the infidels. and especially from the north-east. idem. though naturally admiring Baybars as a great champion of Islam. only he had a streak of cruelty in him. therefore he must come from the north.. and like to wrap himself in many covers. whilst serving to defend that country. crucifying (~alb). His body must be compact and solid. and the resources of livelihood are restricted. the smoky vapours which rise in his body are not easily dissolved. vii. a big skull. 8r f. thick. Heffening. p. and his hair not very scarce but. and be cruel and merciless. below. and nailing (tasmir). a broad chest. quoted by Ibn 'Taghribirdi (Nujian.' Therefore he must have narrow eyes.4 and this accords with the fact that. Tririkh. 131-50). an evil and threatening one. nay. he must like sweating. in Der Islam. slender legs.OOO horsemen. 3 This refers to the medicinal property of the dishes and not to the temperature at which they are served. singlehanded. deserving such punishments are prevalent in this country. control over other countries. Nujiim. and his sexual intercourse not very frequent. 82. he would often rouse himself suddenly from his sleep and often have frightening dreams. must like cold and heavy food and hate eating very hot dishes . the number of poor persons is increased. the last year of the life of Baybars (Ibn al-Furat. Therefore he must be of a harsh character. as stated previously. alManhal al-86fi.» The Seventh Section: on how Kamil came to know the condition of the sultan of the country who protects this community which adjoins the empire of those infidels. because he comes from a very cold country. and acknowledged as courageous by his people. 2 This description fits the condition of Egypt and Syria under Baybars. -' of the Arabic part of this publication). 178. Two of the more notorious episodes are the confiscatiori of the gardens of the people of Damascus in 666/1268 which led to the temporary banishment of the famous Shafi'i scholar Nawawi (see W. but rather on his chest and abdomen though it be very little.' 4 See Excursus F. which will be the case if heroic deeds are known of him. broad shoulders. This has the consequence that the country is impoverished. a whole army in battle. he could not oppose the infidels and prevent them from occupying his country.).v. but only their being deprived of part of their possessions. and the imposition of taxes in breach of a formal promise given to the same Nawawi in 676/1277. Therefore this sultan cannot come from townspeople who have not got such a hard character. because their sins are not so considerable as to necessitate their being killed.

until it becomes nil. Cairo '939. are obviously derived from his observations as personal physician of Baybars. but not be much inclined to tasteless dishes. even if it is not in the equinox. op. must enjoy the confidence of this sultan. as his shadow deputy.70 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFiS THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS 71 II I I enjoy sour dishes and sometimes prefer sweets. 166 rll" the year 673/1275. see Ibn Taghribirdi. 5 wazir. cit. and he would like fruit. and least harmful to the inhabitants. • The author refers perhaps to the arrangements which Baybars made for the feeding of the poor dur. so that the movement of the planets (including sun and moon) from west to east becomes apparent. they were frequent in the reign of Kalawun. Then he observed that the lateral deviation of the sun is continually decreasing. therefore he has to move to their country often in order to impress them with his might. however.) Whereas the qualities mentioned by the author are not lificribed to al-Malik aI-Sa'id in the contemporary sources. This minister. (4) there will be no difference between the seasons. i/3. must coincide with those of the highest sphere. and power. He r All these details. Therefore he must be of a balanced character and possess as much clemency and compassion as impetuosity and force. for the year 665/r267. <\I3 f. Baybars had two viziers in succession. 'vizier'. therefore the sun is bound to rise one day in the west. a lateral deviation to the north and south. See Ibn Taghribirdi. and the movements of the highest sphere will not be transmitted any more to the lowest sphere. e. and I On his numerous absences from Cairo. This is why Ibn Taghribirdi (op..s This king differs from the other kings in that he is busy fighting those infidels. Baybars appointed various Mamluk ~mirs as his deputies (see. whereas Makrlzi iKitdb al8ul171>. whereas the real power was to be held by one of the emirs.' The Ninth Section: on how Kamil came to know what was going to happen in the upper world after the death of the Last Prophet. of Allah.must be patient in collecting the taxes needed for the upkeep of the army in a way compatible with the religious law. as the latitude of the moon is constant. 'gavel" nor'. to 1I1·IVhdil< al-Sa·rd. and this deputy of his must also be very courageous and interested in good administration because he often has to run the country by himself. cit. as a pious wish. . (i v) (Summary) As the king must be famous among his people for his energy. and it would be easy to purge him. 'This necessitates many absences from his capital. for which Ibn al-Nafjs does not adduce any a priori reasoning. 138 for the year 664/ !~66) can say that Baybars appointed al-Malik al-Sa'id his deputy in Egypt. they were certainly ubaent from the Marnluk emirs appointed as the sultan's deputies. can speak of a Mamluk euiir as the deputy of the sultan in Egypt. Ibn Taghribirdi. The poles of the different spheres cannot be identical. as in this case the movement of the highest sphere would not be transmitted to the lower spheres. (Summary) Kamil observed the movement of the sun. of the subjects. Therefore he must treat them outwardly in the best possible manner. From 664/Iz66 onwards. must inspire fear and be obeyed. (See also Ibn Taghribirdi.' The Eighth Section: on how Kamil came to know the condition of the assistants of the above-mentioned king whose (territory) borders on (that of) the infidels. 166 for the year 673/1275). he appointed his son. op. so that the sun is moving in the largest circle. too. with the army and the vizier under his command.g. referring to the same the famine of the year 66z/ 1264. (2) the poles of the second sphere. The daily east-western movement must be produced by the highest sphere. in addition to its daily movement from east to west. he must necessarily keep them in fear and fright. cit" 179. too. (3) the days and nights will be of equal length in all countries. has. only the night preceding the rise of the sun in the west will be longer. 3 The choice of their deputy was always a matter of concern for the Mamluk sultans. • This implies that this was not the case of the sultan himself. and it is at hlll~t possible that the description of the author applies. and of the army. below the highest one. He must also keep very closely to the prescriptions of the religious law and therefore must be knowledgeable concerning them. Nujiim. because it would not agree with the functions attributed to a deputy who in the same context is called lpikim and Vitili. who was to be his ephemeral successor with the title of al-Malik al-Sa'Id. and they on their part must obey his orders.vii. and found that the sun. Frequent absences on campaigns Were not peculiar to the reign of Haybars . This is not to be taken literally (unless the author amalgamated. and whom he had appointed sultan in his own lifetime. two different offices). cit.! Therefore he. and to fight those who are within his reach. 14' f. He would be subject to frequent fits of nausea. together with the moon and the other planets. This has several consequences: (I) the lateral deviation of the moon from the sun must become much greater. impetuosity.s so that they may not be transgressed in his country which would lead to deserved killing and conquest by the infidels. which possesses a very quick movement and makes all the lower spheres partake in it. and of his helpers and neighbours among the kings of the community of the prophet. II4 for the year 658/ t260. therefore he needs a man to replace him. 550). op.

(Summary) In consequence of the diminution and disappearance of the lateral deviation of the sun. Fruit and crops will become very scarce. too. Therefore they will become lustful and lecherous as they cannot find enough men to satisfy them. When the lateral deviation of the sun is nearly or completely eliminated. I and the (surface covered by) soil will be reduced because a great part of it will evaporate and go up. so that most localities will deviate very much from equilibrium. When the lateral deviation of the sun becomes nil. Their characters will also become widely different as the natures of their climates will be widely different. so that the soil in the regions near the poles will become very heavy in comparison. Therefore the inhabitants of those two climates will be forced to emigrate. to the north. 8z f. the first climate and the adjoining regions will become exceedingly hot. and bloodshed. and evil deeds and litigation will prevail. Before that. the intelligence of those people will become bad. Then the last day will arrive. and their looks ugly. and there will be much female homosexuality. there must be many earthquakes and subsidences (of the soil) on account of the winds and smoke in the interior of the earth. the mountains and will collapse and become flat. and the temperaments of animals and plants will become corrupt. 83. Therefore the hidden treasures of the earth will become manifest. as it will flow near to the equator on account of the subsidence there. it will constantly remain in the zenith on the equator. and those of the seventh climate. robbery. and (the tribes) Ya'juj and I On this "Beast of the Earth'. and those of any appreciable latitude intensely cold. Consequently many trees will become dry. and in consequence of this the soil there will lose many of its earthy and watery parts and its substance will be very much reduced. The countries near to the equator will therefore become intensely hot. below. troubles. the heat in the regions near the equator will become very intense and there will be many fires. and they will be little inclined to science and wisdom. and terrific lightning. p. thunderstorms. and A. see Excursus H. especially in those countries which are cavernous and sulphurous. their hearts will become weak. who arethe Sudanese. and they will often die suddenly. Therefore there may possibly appear a man who is able to speak to his fellow men but has the external appearance of (a composite of) beasts. too. and women will be in the majority. and this will cause many wars. the bad people will be to the fore and the good people in the background. and prices will rise. who are the Turks. in the hot regions on account of the diminution of matter inside the earth. those of the first climate.7z THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIs 73 the regions far from the equator will become exceedingly cold. 'Dabba' in EP. Then a fire will start in Yemen and spread over all the regions near the equator. so that the smoke and winds cannot find a way out. the Tatars. . and water will become very scarce. the means of livelihood will be restricted. For this reason there will be many thefts. and there will be many frightening signs in the air. There will be much smoke and this will produce unhealthy winds. The regions of balanced climate will be few. I On account of the many wars many men will be killed. Abel. fruit and crops will be very scarce. and those near it intensely hot. and will evaporate by the power of the heat. and both conditions will make health and life impossible. On account of the difference in the temperaments of men their appearance will be different. this will make the climate unsuitable for the human temperament. See Excursus H. below. When the absence of a lateral deviation of the sun has continued for some time. As bad temperaments produce bad intelligence. nrt. because the surface of the earth becomes thick and excessively solid. On account of the abundant smoke the air will become hazy and opaque. the deviation from equilibrium will become excessive. and the seventh climate and the adjoining regions exceedingly cold. the Russians. and similar things which happen in times of drought and dearth. The characters of men will change. So their characters and relationships will become bad. and waylaying. sciences will therefore become very rare.' The Tenth Section: on how Kamil came to know what was going to happen in the lower world after the death of the Last Prophet. pp. because the cold which retains it for the purpose of ripening is lacking. and crimes and troubles will become prevalent. In the very hot regions this will be because the heat is moving the earthy parts upwards. Therefore great parts of the surface of the earth will break down. and in the very cold regions. Therefore the temperaments of men in most countries will become evil and bad. and in the cold regions because the heat which attracts matter and makes it ripen is lacking.

and the z is not pointed in any other old manuscript. p.tanf. so that it becomes mixed with dust. with their kings. He was a distinguished practitioner. contnining the general principles (kulliyyat) of medicine. as we mentioned. after Rukhkh. EXCURSUS (for pp. the human soul is attached. to which. a village near Damascus (Ya~ut. (e) The name of this 'Son of the Cadi of Baalbeck' was Badr al-Din alMuzaffar. (b) This is Sharaf aI-DIn al-Rahbi. 25v and 49') in the contemporary manuscript mentioned in the preceding note. Herewith we conclude the book. 1 On the tribes Ya'juj and Ma'juj (Gog and Magog). See lAU. and as fermentation takes place on account of the heat of the sun. Cf. 263. no. 147. but this is unknown to the works on geography which we have been able to consult.' to the south.Thana' al- . that he finally knew it by heart and received the surname al-Kulli. his Companions. Gregorius Abul-Faraj. Then the soul is able to feed that small part which is the coccyx. the earth will return to its first condition and the air become fit again for animal life. But such a village is not known. The manuscript of fAU in the .(iimus. Muhammad.?ahiriyya Library in Damascus (above. prices will rise and fortunes become small as is bound to happen when people are crowded together. Wiet. but they will conquer part of those zones and there. his father was a HispanoMoorish Muslim who came to Damascus and settled there. Las Biographies. and states that Karash is a place near Damascus.) He lived. p. was appointed Chief Physician and professor at the Madrasa al-Dakhsudriyya in 637/U39. the first director of the medical school founded by Dakhwar (above. and mounts. Barhebraeus.:aniln. 83. F. p. The word is also expressly vocalized with a damma twice (fols. 193) explicitly states that his family came from Rahba. who derives the name from a village al-Karsh in Egypt. (tI) according to the parallel text in "Umarf. When this movement becomes appreciable. Tarlkh Mukhta~ar al-Duuial. seeking help from Allah alone and praising his Best Prophet. 10 n. and not Hazm. ed. R. ed . too. Paris 1927. :444f.. (d) His name was Muhammad ibn Ibrahim. Geographisches Worter~ buch. and Ibn al-Nafis was born not in Egypt but in Syria. May Allah bless our Lord Muhammad and his Family and give them peace. and from this complete human bodies come into being and are resuscitated as they were before. ii. 153 f. for instance the commentator Nans ibn "Iwad al-Kirrnani (9th/15th century}. this was Abul. ii. his Family. and supplied with running water. but lAU (ii. as those fixed points continue their very slow movement from the north to the south. a quarter of Nisabur in Eastern Persia. where there existed a village al-Kurashiyya near Damascus (Yakut. and Ibn al-Tmad (Shadhariii al-Dhahab.. year 63I) asserts that it should be al-Rukhkhi. and his Elect ones. Topographic historique de la Syrie. v. $alil. armies.> and so this clay becomes an aliment for (that) exceedingly fine matter. End of the Treatise relating to Kamil on the Life-History of the Prophet. §§ 1363-5. As there will be many rains in winter and the earth will become full (of water). 59. from 575/1179 to 675/1276. 4) vocalizes al-Karashi. Wustenfcld. 1984). Therefore the inhabitants of the near temperate zones which lie between both will fight and try to repel them. 480. 36).74 THEOLOGUS AUTODIDACTUS OF IBN AL-NAFIS (C 1") Ma'juj. Wortcrbuch. below. is the form of the name explicitly stated (with full vocalization and ihmiil sign) in the photographic copy of the parallel biography of "Umari. Beyrouth 1890. enlarged. p. The nisba al-Rahbl is corrupt both in Safadr and in "Umari (as well as in some other sources). This is the rising of the dead=-praise be to Allah the Powerful and All-Knowing. 763). according to the Manhal al-$iif'i of Ibn Taghribirdi (G. After the lateral deviation of the sun has become nil another deviation must come into existence. Dussaud. (See lAU. 57). 2 Above. The proper name Haram is mentioned in Firuzabadi's !. see Excursus H. :459-63. and Stieglecker. p. this mixture becomes capable of being the base of the formation of bodies of men and other animals. Several authors vocalize the nisba al-Karshi. He acquired such an intimate knowledge of the first part of Ibn Stna's I. iv. 12-[7) A (a) 'All ibn Abil-Ha-am. especially not in the copy of three of Ibn al-Nafts's works which was written during the lifetime of the author (see above. and at his own expense had the Nurl Hospital in Damascus rebuilt. 10). ii.






Halabi ; see on him below, paragraph x. A similar story is related by Burhan al-Din Ibrahim al-Rashidi, below, paragraph k. (j) M<;!alaI-Din Muhammad ibn Niimwar ibn 'Abd al-Malik al-Khunaji (sometimes spelt al-Khawinji), of Persian origin, was a cadi in Cairo, where he died rn 646/1249. See GAL', i, 607; S'Uppl. i. 838. (g) Athi'r ai-Din al-Mufaddal ibn "Umar al-Abhari (sometimes speltalAbahri) was a philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician at the court of the ruler of Mosul, where he died in 663/1265. He is the author of a much famed 'Introduction' (lsaghujf, after the work of Porphyry) to logic. See GAV, i. 608-IO; Suppl. i. 839-4+
(h) Baha' al-Din Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Nahhas was a Syrian philologist who came to Cairo, where he was appointed professor at the Mansuriyya School. He died in 698/1299. See GAV, i, 363; Suppl.1. 527; see also above, p. 1 I.

Bani Ayyub (ed. Jamal al-Din al-Shayyal, 3 vols., Cairo 1953-60). See GAL', i. 393; Suppl. i. 555; G ..Levi Della Vida, in Orientalia, IV (1935), 356; Shadhariit,v. 438 f. (p) A son of a distinguished disciple of al-Dakhwar, Rashid aI-DIn Abu Hulayka, On the father, see IAU, Ii. 123-30; Ibn al-Furat, Tiirikh, vii. H2; on the son, see ibid. viii. 22-25.
(q) A hitherto unknown

physician. (above, para-

(r) He is. the previously mentioned Ibn ~a<;li Ba'Iabakk graph c).

ibn 'Ali: ibn Muhammad al-Nabulusi, d. 7II/13II, is mentioned by Ibn al-Tmad (Shadharat, vi. 27 f.) as a pious traditionist but not as a medical man.
(j) We have been unable to find another reference to this person. (h) A many-sided Shafi'! scholar, successor of Athir al-Dln Abu Hayyan in one of his teaching posts, whose full name was Burhan al-Din Ibrahim ibn Lajin ibn 'Abd Allah al-Rashidi; he died in Cairo in 749/1349. See Shadhardi, vi. r 58; Manhal at-$tifi (Wiet), no. 88.

(i) 'Trnad aI-DIn Muhammad

(s) Abul-Faraj ibn Ya'kub ibn Ishak ibn al-Kuff, a Christian from Karak, was also a disciple of Ibn Abr Usaybi'a, who devoted to him the last biography in his 'work (IAU, ii. 2.73f.) He lived from 630/1233 to 685/ 1286. He composed a treatise on surgery, al-'Umdafil-Jiriil;w, which has been printed (Hyderabad 1356, '2 vols.). Cf. GAL", 1. 649; Suppl. i. 899. (t) Heis al-Sadid al-Dumyati, as explicitly stated in "Umari ; see above, paragraph n, (11) Not mentioned in "Umari ; see above, p. 24 n. 3. calls him AbulFaraj al-Iskandarl, and adds Abul-Faraj Ibn Saghir to the list of the disciples-an obvious mistake. ('ou) His full name was Fath aI-DIn Abul-Fath Muhammad ibn Muharnmad ibn Ab! Bakr al-Ya'rnuri ; he was a traditionist and man of letters, belonging to a reputed family of scholars; born in Seville, he settled in 01111'0and died there in 734ir334. See Taj al-Dln al-Subki, TabaJy_at al8hlifi'iyya, vi. 29-31; Manhal al-Safi (Wiet), no. 2387. al-Din Mahmud ibn Salman al-Hanball, of Damascus, historian, poet, and man of letters; he was an official in Cairo and in Dom3scus, and died in Damascus in 725/1325. See GAO, ii. 54; Suppl. 1.I,42f.
(11'1) Shihab (v) An otherwise unknown Egyptian physician. "Urnart



Friday-preacher in $afad in Palestine; he died there in 7'23/1223, more than eighty years old. See Shadhar/it, vi. 6r; Manhal aI-$af; (Wier), no. 918.
(m) See above, paragraph h.

(l) Najm al-Din Hasan ibn Muhammad al-$afadi,


at the couru of the Mamluk sultan al-Malik al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Kalawun (693/1293-741/1341, with interruptions), According to the Manhai al-$a/'i (Wiet), no. I054, he died in 740/1339, but according to $afadii, who knew him personally, in 743/1342, very old. See B. R. Sanguinetti, 'Notices biographiques de quelques medecins, tirees d'un ouvrage arabu d'Assafady' [i.e. his Waff bil- Wafaytit] , JA, 5th series, tome ix (1857), 392-443 (pp. 4rof.). ibn Salim ibn Wa§il al-Hamawi. He taught Shafi'1 law, philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy in his home town, Hama in Syria. In 659/1'261 Sultan Baybars ser,ll him as an ambassador to the court of King Manfred of Sicily, where he stayed some considerable time. (See F. Gabrieli, 'Le Ambascerie ell Baibars a Manfredi', in Studi Medievali in onere di Antonino de Stefano, Palermo 1956, 219-25.) After his return he became chief cadi and pre» fessor in Hama, where he died in 697/1298. He is best known as an his. torian of the Ayyub id sultanate and author of Mufarri] al-Kuriib [t AkhMt
(0) His full name was Jamal aI-Din Muhammad

(n) A Jewish physician who became one of the practitioners

(for p. 45 n. I)


II note in Biehr Fares, "Mahdrirn ul-Af;laq' (in Rendiconti della R. Ir'f,udemiaNazionale dei Lineei, Scienze Morali, series 6, vol. xiii, Rome III1H, 420 n. 4; reprinted in the same author's lVlabtil;ith "Arabiyya, , ulro 1939, 48 n. 47), our attention was drawn to a treatise preserved in j hu munuscript 1353 tasaunouf of the Egyptian Library in Cairo (a second "IIPY, 994 tasaunvuf, is copied from this very manuscript but adds a 1I101\lse introduction), which contains a close parallel to this passage (see nil' ttllct in the Arabic part of this publication, p. I " note}. The title of lil, treatise in question is given at the beginning of manuscript 1353 as t 'Nib 'Mahiirim al-Ahhlii~ wal-Siyiisa, 'Book on the Eminent Virtues and


EXCURSUS on the Conduct of Policy',





and at the end with the following addition: ioal-Zuhd zoa-ma ashbah dhtilik, 'and on Abstemiousness and Kindred Subjects'. Its attribution to al-Tustari (i.e. Shams aI-DIn Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn "Uthman al-Tustari al-Madani, d. 785/1383; see Ibn Hajar al-'Aslj:alanI, al-Durar al-Kdmina, iii. 338; Shadharat, vi. z88 f.) seems to be erroneous, as Tustarf's Kitiib alAkhltj,~ is quoted at the beginning; in any case, the treatise must be earlier than 858/145·4, the date of MS. 1353. The whole reasoning that civilized life is possible only in an organized society built on collaboration, where everyone has his specified task to perform, and which is governed by a religious law (shari'a) which protects the individual and at the same time assigns to him his duty, is based on Greek thought. AI-Fiirabi (d. 339(950), in discussing his Model State, stressed the necessity of society, ill which alone the individual could attain physical and moral satisfaction. 'By his very nature man is not equipped to attain all that is necessary for his heeds without the help of others .... If man is ever to achieve the perfection of his nature, he must belong to a society (qawm) and co-operate with his fellow men' ial-Madina al-Fddila, ed. Dieterici, 53). In another treatise ai-Farabi argues that not only man but certain species of the animal and vegetable kingdoms cannot sustain life without living together in groups (jamii' a; Kitab al-Siyasat al-madaniyya, Hyderabad I346, 38f.), A contemporary of Ibn al-Nafis, Nasir al-Dm al-Tus! (d. 67z/1274), in his Akhlii1!-i Ndsiri expresses similar reasoning (A. K. S. Lambton, Islamic Society in Persia, London 1954,3 n. I). Ibn Khaldun (d. 808/1406) calls man 'social by nature' (madanf bil-tab"). The social function of the prophets is again emphasized by Muhammad 'Abduh.

to suppose of Allah (Umm, vii. 272., ll. 16,2.4). In his opinion, too, that man can come to know of the existence of Allah unaided Ibn al-Naffs follows the opinion of the Maturidls against that of the Ashans. On the Islamic doctrine of aslah, see W. M. Watt, in EJz, s.v.; L. Massignon,Al-Hallaj, ii, Paris 1922, 617; M. Asln Palacios, Abenluizam de Cordoba, iv, 1931, 62-89; L. Gardet, La Mesure de notre liberte, Tunis 1946, 4S~48; G. Vajda, 'La Finalite' (above, p. 43 n. I), 72 ff.; and on the modernist theologian Muhammad "Abduh, B. Michel and M. Abdel Razik, Cheikh Mohammed Abdou, Paris 19Z5, 3741; C. C. Adams, Islam and Modernism in Egypt, London 1933, l40. For a detailed discussion of a/lab, wiijib, and related concepts from the point of view of the Mu'razila, see I$,ac;H "Abd al-jabbar (d. AlS/I02S), al-Mughni, xiv, Cairo 1385/1965, 7-180.



'an Allah 'it is reasonable


(forp. 66 n, r)


(for p. 46 n.l)


Whereas the school of the Mu'tazila considers that realizing the 'most proper' thing (a~lab) is necessarily incumbent upon Allah (see 1. Goldziher, Vorlesungen fiber den Islam, Heidelberg 1910, 105; znd ed., Heidelberg 1925, 99; Luciani, 255~65; Al-Shahrastanl, The Summa Philosophiae, ed. and transl. A. Guillaume, O.D.P. 1934, 405-10; Albert N. Nader, Le System» Philosophique des Mutasila, Beyrouth 1956, 77 f., 81; Stieglecker, §§ 213, 217), orthodox doctrine makes a point of differentiating between the two, and denies that Allah Can be properly bound to do anything; but whereas the school of the Asharls affirms that both contingencies are completely equal in the sight of Allah, that of the Maturidjs recognizes that the aslah corresponds to divine wisdom, and can therefore be termed, in a certain sense, wiijib (necessary). Ibn al-Naffs was brought by the whole trend of his argument to adopt the Maturidi opinion, which is that followed by the Hanaf i school of religious law, although he himself belonged to the Shrtfi'I school which generally followed the Ash'ari doctrine. Shilfi'l himself did not hesitate to use the expression kdna

Sura vi. 65 reads: 'Say: He is the one who is able to send punishment upon you from above or from beneath your feet, or to bewilder you with (dissension of) parties and make you taste the violence one of another.' Punishment from above is generally interpreted as destruction by stones falling from the sky or by a deluge, punishment from below as being swallowed up by the earth. Although the verse is, on the face of it, addressed to unbelievers, it has given rise to a group of traditions which make it apply to the community of Muslims, too. One well-known version makes the Prophet say: 'I asked Allah not to send upon my community punishment from above or from beneath their feet, and he granted me that; then I asked Him not to subject them to violence between themselves, but he refused me that, and Gabriel informed me that my community would perish by the sword.' This group of traditions and the commentators of the Koran regard bloodshed caused by civil war as less serious than natural catastrophes. (See, e.g., Tabarl, Tafsir, ad loc., and for further variants of the traditions, Wensinck, Concordance, s.v, ba's and "adhab, where, however, several references are wrong.) Both Ibn al-Nafls and his contemporary, the historian juwayni (d. 68r/ I z 83) in his Tiirzkh-i Jahiin~ Gusha (ed, M. M. Qazwini, Leyden and London 1912; trans!' J. A. Boyle, Manchester 1958), applied this tradition, by giving it a new interpretation, to the bloodshed which accompanied the invasion of the Mongols. Juwayni, too, intends to show that the devastation of many Islamic countries by the Mongols was a necessary evil (i. 8 ff.; transl, i. I r ff.}; in connexion with this, he quotes the tradition, in the version translated above, from Zamakhshari's commentary on the Koran (i, I'2.; trans!' i. 17), and relates that Chingis Khan reputedly described himself in a speech as 'the scourge of God sent to men as a punishment for their sins' (i. 81; trans!' i. 105). (See also the summary, still useful, in C. d'Ohsson, Histoire des Mongols, Hague and Amsterdam l834, i, xxi+xxiv.)




(for p. 67 n. I)


The Mongols (or Tatars) were more or less identified with the Turks by the Muslim authors of the middle ages; see D. Ayalon, 'The EuropeanAsiatic Steppe; a major reservoir of power for the Islamic world', in Trudy XXV Mezhdunarodnogo Kongressa Vostokovedov, Moscow 1963, ii, 47-52. This was also done by Ibn al-Nafis (see above, p. 69), and by Juwayni (TarI/~h-iJahan-Gushii, i. II, transl. i. 16; d'Ohsson, Histoire des Mongols, i, xxiii). One of the rare exceptions is the physician and scientist 'Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi (d. 629/r2,31), quoted by Dhahabi in his Tiirikh at-Islam (year 605/1208-9; see J. von Somogyi, 'Ein arabischer Bericht tiber die Tataren', Der Islam, xxiv (1937), 105-30), but Dhahabi himself, in his short extract called Kitab Dusoal al-Islam, makes no such distinction (on Dhahabi, see above, pp. 17 f.). The most detailed reference to the Turks in ancient Arabic literature occurs in Jal;i~ (d. 255/868), Risala f'i Mana~ib al- Turk, in G. van Vloten, Tria opuscula auctore ... al-Djahiss, Leiden I903, 47 ff.: it contains praise of the warlike character and ability of the Turks, but no physical description. There is a description of the small eyes and the broad faces of Turks in the Kdmil of Mubarrad (d. 2,85/898; ed. W. Wright, Leipzig 1874 ff., 361, 1.5), in a saying attributed to 'Ali ibn 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas: 'This power will, by Allah, certainly stay with my descendants until they are ruled by their slaves, (persons) with small eyes and broad faces, whose faces are like doubly-covered shields.' A similar description of the Turks in a comparable context was put into the mouth of the Prophet; this version is secondary to the preceding one, although it is attested considerably earlier in collections of traditions, starting with the Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241/855), v. 348 f. (cf. A. J. Wensinck, A Handbook oj Early Muhammadan Tradition, Leiden 19<:7,s.v. Turks). Masudi (d. 345/956) writes in the Muriij al-Dhahab (ed. C. Barbier de Meynard, iv, Paris 1864, 32,f.): 'The uniform character which is noticeable in the appearance of the Turks comes from the uniformly cold character of the climate of their country; therefore their appearance is uniform and similar .... Because cold is prevalent among the Turks and the heat is insufficient to absorb the moisture of their bodies, the Turks become very fat and soft in their bodies, similar to women in many of their characteristics. Their desire for intercourse is weak and they have few children, because their temperament is cold and moisture is prevalent in them. The weakness of their lust comes also from the frequency of their riding horses. In their women, too, the plumpness and moisture of (the temperament of) their bodies weakens the power of attracting the sperm into their genitals. Their red complexion comes from the cold, as we have mentioned, because if persistent cold is applied to a white complexion it becomes red, witness the tips of the fingers, the lips, and the nose, which become red if severe cold is applied to them.' (On the relation of climate and body with regard to heat and cold, see also

J. Schacht and M. Meyerhof, The Medico-philosophical Controversy between Ibn Butlan of Baghdad and Ibn Ridwan of Cairo, Cairo 1937,95.) A detailed physical description of the Tatars by a contemporary of Ibn al-Nafrs is found in U. Monneret de Villard, Il libro della peregrinazione nelle parti d'Oriente di Frate Ricaldo da Montecroce (dated 1289-90), Rome 1948, 41; , "habent magnas et latas facies et oculos parvos, quasi fissuras quasdam per transversum in media facie, et parvam barbarn, ita quod multi eorum similes sunt simie, et maxime series." ... Temono il gran freddo, che ritengono provocato da uomini. E allora se incontrano persone ben coperte di pellicie, ne spogliano, accusandole di essere state loro a provocarlo con le loro coperture ed i panni superflui. Stimano l'ubbriachezza ed il vomito che questa procura come un onore che e dato dal ban.' See also 1. Goldziher, Muhammedanische Studien, Halle 1889-90, i. 2,70 f.; ii. 127 n. 2,; E. Mainz, 'Die Turken in der klassischen arabischen Literatur', Der Islam, xxi (1933), 2,79-85.

(for p. 68 n. 4)


Cruel methods of execution were commonplace during the Mamluk. period, and Baybars is commonly credited with having introduced them. They are considered strictly forbidden (I:zaram) by the Muslim scholars, e.g. by Ibrahim aJ-Bajiiri (d. 1276/1860) in his Hdshiya on the Fatb alKarib of Ibn al-Kasim al-Ghazzi (d. 9I8/ISI2) (Kitab al-hudiid, Fasl fi al;kiim al-bugluit ; quoted by C. Snouck Hurgronje, Verspreide Geschriften, ii, Bonn and Leipzig 1923, 198). The usual method of execution was tasosi], 'cutting into half' at the waist, sometimes accompanied by nailing to a wooden contraption in the form of a St. Andrew's cross, which was also used as an independent method of putting to death. (See W. M. Brinner, A Chronicle oj Damascus I389-I397 by ... ibn Sasrd, University of California Press I963, i (trans1.), 12 n. 77; for descriptions of executions, see pp. 83f., I39-42, 158, 293-5.) The traveller Ibn Fadlan (310/922; GAL', i. 261) describes iasosi] as a mode of execution customary among the Oghuz and the Bulgars of the Volga (see M. Canard, in AIEO, xvi (1958), 106 n. 238). It so happens that toust; is not prominently reported in the annals of the reign of Baybars, but nailing (tasmir) is. Nuwayrl (d. 732/r332) in the :<18th part of his Nihdyat at-Arab Ii Funiin. al-Adab, among the events of the year 665/1266-7, devotes a special section to the executions by tasmir which were carried out in Cairo (MS. Paris, Arabe I578, 36'), among them that of a Mamluk who pretended to be a prophet, and of an administrator who had become too powerful, together with his Christian associate. Abu Shilma (d. 665/1267) in his Dhayl al-Rauidataytt (ed. Kawthari, Cairo 1366/X947, 221 f.) describes in detail the execution by tasmir, in 661/1262.,
81~122 G

88. Histoire des Mongols. mountains collapsing and seas drying up. with a section on the end of the world and the bloody events which will accompany the resurrection. Ibn Khaldiin (d. it is true. wars.284. and they provide a natural conclusion for the treatise. BCtli'il::: 1. Stieglecker. of course. concludes his Kitab al-Bidiiya. MaydanI. P. Les Gouverneurs de Damas sous les Mamlouks et Ies premiers Ottomans.. Another method of execution was by 'splitting lengthwise' (shaM)· This was the way in which a former favourite eunuch was put to death (Nuwayri. ed.. which starts with the creation of the world and is essentially a history of Islam. cit.v. his wife and accomplice. to the Islamic hadd punishments for theft and highway robbery.:rizi(d. the Turks. in part go back to the Koran. d'Ohsson. and traditionist Ibn Kathir (d.not under Baybars. A Dictionary of Islam. finally torrential rains and the reconstitution of the human bodies.znd ed . 55v). who had enticed his victims to him. 253). 520. for the resurrection. on the contrary. For the Muslim these events are. L The naturalistic explanation of seemingly supernatural events which Ibn al-Nafis provides is in no way incompatible with Islamic orthodoxy. §§ 161.and bloodshed. 64 11. op. 95 (al-Malp'ima alJ:[a. EXCURSUS (for p. 16. The woman had part of her nose cut off and was released. 69 n. 7?. r) H EXCURSUS (for p. The tasmir of a group of mass murderers and robbers in 662/I264 is reported by Mal. had been strangled and hung in a sack from the contraption to which he was nailed. finally. trans!' i. ed. 'Account of the First and Last Things'. Freytag. H. Concerning that event. but under Kalawun. s. I composed the following verses: . too. (On Husam al-Din Lajin alMansrrri. jurist. prevalence of evil. year 658/1260 (ed. it fits in with the thesis of Islamic theology which denies the existence of 'laws of nature' (d. ed. There was. which the author seeks to derive by reasoning a priori. of course. real in the same sense in which events of past history are real.Amthtil. because they are very valiant'. thanks to their strong and virile natures (Kitab al-i Ibar. The Islamic ideas of the Last Things. a saying applied by Juwayni to the Mongols (Ttirf. see H. he remained alive on the wooden contraption during two nights and one day and was strangled on the second day. Damascus X952.. i. In the generation of Ibn al-Nafis it is expressed in a celebrated passage of Abii Shama in the Dhayl al-Rauidatayn. in Arabica. starting with the coccyx. xxiii). MalJafnat. fire spreading from Yemen. i/3. Perhaps the best account of these ideas in English is still that in T. In Syria he destroyed and scattered them. 'Resurrection'. and there came to them From Egypt a Turk. Hughes. ii (1955).) in his Kitdb ai-Suliik. cf. troubles. The Tatars conquered the lands. unmindful of his life. London I896. 252. r) G The respect which the Muslims of Arabic language felt for the Turks from an early period onwards is attested by an alleged saying of the Prophet: 'Leave the Turks alone as long as they leave you alone. . i. BuW.82 EXCURSUS F of a robber and murderer. burning to death. Prominent among them are the sun rising in the west.n. Laoust. I I From a different angle. the appearance of the talking 'Beast of the Earth' and of the tribes Ya'juj and Ma'juj (Gog and Magog) from the north. who was found drinking wine with a Muslim woman. uial-Nihdya. cf. 371). presumably because it was regarded as lacking in sufficient immediate interest. 774/1373). The historian.rwiniyya) . Muhammad 'Abdu.) Cutting off limbs and crucifying belong. 6. the earth giving up its treasures. Kawtharl. This was the punishment awarded to the Christian secretary Badr ibn al-Nafis.' The idea of fighting like with like is expressed in Arabic Gushti. II. v. smoke and winds.·i. To everything there is a bane of its own kind. 5U. i. 845/1442. 208): 'his remarkable that the Tatars were broken and destroyed by their own kinsmen. This last section has not been included in the printed edition. by the governor Husam al-Din in Damascus in 687/12. Harnadhanr. 808/1406) is of the opinion that the Turkish Mamluks were the saviours of Islam.: 1284. Laoust.


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