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OLOPADE, Bosede Comfort B.ScEcons(okada),M.ScEcons(okada),PhD(inview)Econ.Anthr.(okad a)
A term paper submitted to the Department of sociology and Anthropology, College of Arts and Social Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada in partial fulfillment to the award of PhD in Economic Anthropology.
Globalization has recently become one of the terms frequently used in sociology, culture but especially in economy. Given the emergent sociopolitical and economic transformation as well as technological advancement in communication, information, transportation, process seems irreversible. For these reason, the literature is replete with studies on globalization particularly on areas relating to culture with respect to families, socio-political and the economic implication for different economics like Nigeria. To the develop nations of the world, globalization remains an irreversible process irrespective of the knowledge, expertise and more importantly, the willingness of potential players(lapalile,2001).The developing countries like Nigeria have a contrary view informed by their gradual less of relevance in modern day global economy(obasanjo,2000;Adeyemi;2000)
Globalization which is referred to as the technological advancement where impact on national economies is positive and undisputed has witnessed a series of changes that can best be described as an “earthquake that shuddered through the Nigerian family”. This advancement which could also be referred to as ‘changes’ which include a very large increase in non- marital child bearing and cohabitation, higher ages at first marriage and higher rate of divorce and separation- have had a direct and profound impact on the well-being of the Nigerian families. In the early years, 98%of all children lived with both parents, now, more than half of all the children are now expected to spend at least some part of their childhood in a single parent family (Grossberd, 2003).
The impact of globalization on the Nigerian family structure have caused a grate deal, perhaps, all, a higher incidence of other social problems, globalization in Nigeria involve one fundamental project; that the opening of economies of all countries freely and widely to the global market and it’s forces…..seen in this way, globalization is primarily not an impersonal process driven by laws factors of development-such as technology operating outside human control and agency, it is a conscious programme of reconstructing international economy and political reaction in the live with a particular set of interest and vision.
But one might ask whether the Nigerian family problems where caused by globalization…At a time when the country strive to liberate it self from the expansive power of post-colonial government and the politicization of society brought about them, the real need of the day is economic freedom. The economic situation is so bad in Nigeria that young are afraid to raise a family, and are trekking through vast and the dangerous Sahara desert and struggling aver heavily guarded barbed wires to look for a better opportunity in the western states and the Europe’s, but unfortunately, many died on this pilgrimage of freedom.
Looking at Africa as a whole, globalization can hardly be blamed for the fact that only 10% of Africa’s trade takes place among African countries themselves. With 750million people living on the continent (Fridah m.m 2008), the potential for the expansion of the must be enormous. Very little trade must be allowed in the poorest of continent where tariffs are almost as high as 50% and where highways robbers dressed as custom officials block free exchange etc.Further more, the views are not coordinated regarding the definition of globalization or the determination whether it’s effects the on national economics and the families are positive or negative. Its impact is particularly disputable regarding less developed nations such as the developing transition economies.
This introductory review of globalization phenomenon opens numerous questions of which we shall attempt to the major ones. Does globalization annihilate specific features of sovereignty of individual national economies? What may be considered so global in the globalization of families?, and does affects smaller, insufficiently developed economies?.
The phenomenon of globalization is a multi-dimensional and multifaceted process that encompasses political, economic, social and cultural dimensions that have been explained in different terms and content. Viewed from a general perspective, the notion of globalization is broad and diverse. Due to its multi-variant nature, globalization does not lend itself to easy conceptualization, and like other content iv social science, it is not amendable to a single simple and straight jacket definition, which perhaps explains its various connotations by scholarship of different
persuasions as westernization
Hence therefore, no unanimity of opinion on what constitutes globalization neither is there a consensuses concerning the extent of its advancement as a concept on families, On the issues of marriage,(Roberta s.2006) quotes “globalization has made ceremonies a confluence of culture rather than being a clash of cultures”. One can say here that the marriage ideals professed in the western world such as love, devotion, life long partnership are also at the heart of Nigerian marriages. But in the west, the common place of divorce and unromantic prenuptial agreements that led many to forgo wedded bliss, or to view it with unhealthy cynicism.
Marriages are view as being global, they are replete with ceremony and symbolism, marriages are seen as a process of globalization, the ever accelerating movement of goods, services, capital, people and information around the world. Loved ones come together not through the historical power disparity of colonialism but through simple human contact and eventual, love, in marriages, connection is made with the whole community.
Globalization has some negative connotations but an increased understanding of other culture is also a part of globalization. It is an opportunity for the west to view foreign traditions with fresh eyes and humbly accept that they can learn much more from each other.
Theoretical frame work:
Globalization, its impact on:
1. Nigerian family: The analysis provided different perspectives from Nigeria on globalization, International trade, Culture, Economic
Development, the role of Women on families and human right. Seen in this way, globalization is primarily not an impersonal process driven by laws and factors of development- such as technology- operating outside human control and agency, rather national economic and political relations inline with particular sets of interest: that is to say, globalization which in essence brings in large companies, such as MNT (multinational companies). Which are examples of large textiles company came in and brought their finished goods at much cheaper prices than our own manufacturing sectors, thereby forcing other local industries to close in Nigeria, the clothing sector had a big hit with closure of local textiles, hence, retrenchment of hundreds workers. These workers were family breadwinners with children in schools and houses to pay rent for.
Because of the tight labour market, most of them are frustrated and disillusioned with no work and money. The importation of cheap selling of second-hand cloths from Europe has forced many women out their business, women who are involved in the manufacturing of local bags and shoes were negatively affected when this bags and shoes are produced en masse in Japan and sold to Nigeria and their surrounding countries at allow prices.
Looking also at issues of Rice, our women are also affected because of free market entry and trade barriers, people or families now costumes foreign rice instead of local rice, agriculture is affected, rural-urban migration and poverty increases day and night due to globalization. Massive unemployment is a common phenomenon in Nigeria. In the process of globalization, its major economy is the philosophy of neoliberal economy, that is to say that state intervention in the economic life of people; however, well intension is “counter productive” and therefore undesirable. The social and economic consequences of globalization have been the retrenchment of workers and consequently, massive unemployment, reduction in government spending on social infrastructure etc.
For women, as stated above, the impact of liberalization and the integration of national economy, “into the global economy” have been “complex and equally contradictory”. Instructively, while the fact that neoliberal economic policies, especially the structural adjustment policy
(SAP), in developing nation have not achieved the envisaged economic empowerment of the generality of the people, is a copiously documented and almost over researched issues by scholars, globalization is not meant to work that way, it was to mean the extension of the entire world of freedom, of liberty.
Within families there are rights, duties, and responsibilities of each member of the other members, established either by formal covenant, as in a marriage, or by natural ties, as in the relationship of parent to children. The family is a small community, and it can exert and maintain it self far better within a context of slighter larger, but still small communities than within the very large and absolute community called the state.
When families exist in small communities, such as villages, there are addition rights and duties establish by custom and tradition binding the families to one another. Other kinds of small community, such as communities of faith, also know such ties and ethnic group and feel them as well. The smallest community, the family, can be at home in somewhat larger community of village or the town. It is harder in the rather larger community of than the nation. In the process of globalization, as the size of a “community” approaches infinite, or at least, as the Nigerian population has just done, when it passes the number of 120million (census, 2006) it becomes so tiny on the scale of the world which is invisible. The size of little ‘particular independences” approaches zero and there ability to survive and live meaningfully, disappears.
What we are saying here is that, whatever real benefits globalization may confer, the concept and the process are inimical to the health of the family. Big fish eat little fish, and a fish big enough to cover the globe is big enough to devour all the little fishes of the world. Ideally, the family is a source of identity, of self. This, the smallest intermediate structure, is clearly most at home in small communities, where such things as family names and maiden names can identity and create associations. Within the larger community of the state, the individual ceases to be identified as a member of such-and-such a family, as so-and so’s daughter, son, or husband, and is recognized only by a number, in the political arena.Globalisation is the concept or ideal that tell us not that small is
beautiful, but that small is pitiful and out of date and hence, the nation replaces the family. 2. Impact on Culture:
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