A comparative study of “missing mass” correction methods for response spectrum method of seismic analysis

Technical Note: A comparative study of "missing mass" correction methods for response spectrum method of seismic analysis
Authors: M. Dhileep P. R. Bose
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Royal University of Bhutan, Rinchending, Phuentsholing, Bhutan Department of Civil Engineering, Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi-42, India

Published in: · Journal Computers and Structures archive Volume 86 Issue 21-22, November, 2008
Pergamon Press, Inc. Elmsford, NY, USA table of contents doi>10.1016/j.compstruc.2008.04.003

The techniques that have been developed to account for the effect of ''missing mass'' contained in the uncalculated high frequency modes for the response spectrum method of seismic analysis, viz, static correction method, mode acceleration method and residual mode method are reviewed in detail. The rationale for using these methods is examined and the merits and demerits are discussed. The methods are compared, with the help of numerical examples by evaluating the response of structures for El Centro (1940) earthquake. ''Missing mass'' correction using residual mode method is found to be superior to other methods for the seismic analysis of structures using response spectrum method.
It has been illustrated in the past that a modal synthesis gives incorrect modal properties and seismic response of nonclassically damped coupled systems when all the modes of uncoupled primary and secondary systems are not included. The effect of missing mass contained in the truncated high frequency modes can be represented using residual modal vectors. This paper illustrates two possibilities in which the residual modal matrix may contain redundant vectors leading to a breakdown of the originally proposed method. First, secondary systems with a support inclined to the primary system orthogonal connecting degrees of freedom can have residual vectors that are scalar multiple of each other (parallel). Second, the number of residual and nonrigid modal vectors can be more than the total number of secondary system modes (equal to the number of secondary system degrees of freedom) in multiply connected simple secondary systems. A solution is presented to identify and eliminate both these types of redundant vectors using an alternative form of Gram-Schmidt’s orthogonalization.

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