This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
For most of OUI Combining ecurity has become an important element in much design. the government identifies a target for its threat and the Levelof protection needed. With every project. To keep the glazing in the frame. they're heav- . vice presrdent. Weidlinger Associates. of Wisnewski Blair & Associates ttd. The anchors into the precast are not your typical bolts. It is important to understand the basicprinciples of what you are protecting the building from. and Stephen F. vice president. They may not have the"snap mullions in place on the outer end. On all of our projects. The resulting blast pressure that loads the windows is transferred from the glass to the window frame into the skin of the building. The glazing is typically made up of a laminated inner lite. we use some form of paneltzed punch windows to address the blast requirements most cost-effectively. Blair. These loads are absorbed by the structure to which the buildingskin is attached. Va. The higher the level of protection. On most of our buildings. we still manage to use aluminum frames. the typical air space and normal outer lite.Secure Design with Aesthetics AGGl Can you explain how you work to combine design a11d security? Blain Essentially we work with our blast and structural engineers. although they are deeper and with thicker walls. projects. the beefier the conneccions are at the windows and at the attachments of the skin to the structure. about today's need to combine design and security particularly in government or governmentoccupied buildings. Alexandria. but the glazing is set so it is a matter of lifting it in place and anchoring it into the exterior wall system (which most of the time is precast concrete facade). For higher blast loads. lead designer. senior project manager.G recently spoke with Luther C.. the windows are factory glazed unitized systems and come to the site glass-in-frame to be installed. these frames will be reinforced with steel. AG. it usually is attached with structural silicone. Ours.
TIle only place we somewhat deviate from that. In one case we used flat seamed lead-coated copper panels and in other cases we've used Alucobond.eration- Luther Blair the se. the costs-how would )'OU characterize the design challenges. As I said. the windows are two times the cost of the wall system. Not in a ribbon window configuration.. or about the same? Blain Most government buildings want to be LEED certified. Most government buildings have a requirement to dictate a pretty large floor-to-floor height because of either raised floor or allowing an extra zone in the plenum for communications. give an estimate percentage. AGG: How would you characterize the gLazing products available co you7 Blair: One of the biggest issues is that the government requires proof that it works.? Blair: Yes it is. we'll often use clear to compensate for the color that occurs because of the thickness of the glass. The challenge to the design team is to make it look like a normal building while accommodating these much beefier connections. reconcile at! this? Stephen Ours Blair: It's difficult.ou've used the steel plate versus concrete? OUI'S: Where you're going to skin the building in something other than a concrete finish.1. Our clients want the building to look like normal class A office buildings which have a lot of glass. the profiles of the window frame are still 2. or something like that. and we still try to incorporate an air space. the costs are pretty equal to glass. which looks like a normal system. Again. In the case of our last project..s it safe to assume that the cost of the glazing is highe. Blain If you do less. There's always pressure in the design to LIse less glass because of the cost: The equivalent of a precast ~all section to meet the same blast criteria. With any system other than precast concrete. Because the glass is so thick. )'01£ AGG: Would AGG: Because of these special glazings. but in terms of literally pounds of glass.and heavier. we actually took a precast continued on page 18 July/ August/September 2007 www. I know that I'm going to do some form of punched opening window building with a precast concrete facade.curity needs. in terms of exposed square footage on the outside the answer is yes.5 or 3 inches. And at 40 percent of the exterior bay. for the outside lite we'll still use Y4-inchtempered and that's where we'll try to get our low-E coating or any coloration. So we can only use systems that are field-tested. the building looks like a pill box. It's just the same challenges as designing any building. Our goal is LEED silver on most buildings. We've done areas wbeI. more. it is over concrete. Ours: When you ask if we ate using the same amount of glass. You're really talking higher than normal floor-tofloor heights.e we've not used precast concrete and you get into heavy steel plates or metal panel and the cost becomes astronomical. and now we're over $100 a square foot.ou've said the)' want the building to look h/(e a norrryal building and yet there are all these other factors? When you go about designing a bui!ding. sa)' rhat ). you're getting the same size windows as on a normal spec office building. You don't have all the same choices. how do you. The inner lite does all the work. which means that daylight penetration is a credit you want to get.wise of how much more the glazing is than if it didn't have to be so secure? Blair: We used to say that windows were $65 to $75 a square foot. a limited palette to work with. AGG: Can )'ou give an)' specific example of where ). AGG: Could )'01. however. because as ). You have limited choices. sometimes 12 inches on center around the entire perimeter frame 01' a big heavy plate with 40 bolts over a 1-foot section. We still have a lfz-inch airspace so it's an insulating glass assembly. is when we get to some of the forced entry glass and the ballistics glass that has a lot of polvcarbonate in it bemuse it becomes extremely thick and heavy. so it's 30 to 40 percent higher. unless you're using some exotic wall system. We generally get a minimum thickness for the concrete facade and where we need design. On most of our projects.ier. however. But often even in the case of Alucobond. It's just that they are heavier and deeper frame sections and the connection into the exterior wall is heavy duty. we are using a lot more because it is much thicker.ou're using less glass. then we just make it thicker. while it is thicker. we are using a punched window and we are trying to make it as big as we possibly can so that we get maximum light penetration. Then it's a matter of taking advantage of that as a medium and articulating that. Ours: The criteria in a lot of the design programs that we get are no more than 40 percent glazing per structural bay but we're pretty much at that number. coming up with a unique look.glassguides. A lot higher. In blast configurations. i. because it becomes extremely difficult to get the window forces anchored in such a way that they can transfer the forces back to the structure. AGG: Taking aU these /aaors into consid. There are certain things that you know you have to do.com 17 .
the forced entry resistance requirements. those tend to be an engineered response. we use a performance specification. Therefore. they are thicker. You might have a forced entry requirement and on the other hand you're trying to get LEED points so you need a certain Rvalue or shading coefficients. It breaks and becomes debris. you may find that when you get the details on your bullet-proof.nothmg. Wisnewski Blair & Associates Ltd. It falls back on us to double check their documentation of the results. inch. whether it's fully tempered or heatstrengthened-all this is a response to what the design pressures.. is to work with the client and tenant to figure out what compromises are acceptable to them and then get a glazing system that is the best fit of what is available. because there are different pressures to which the building may be exposed. planning. engineering. it's almost inevitably two lites laminated to a very heavy interlayer and how thick the lites are and how heavy the interlayer is and what the glass is. Real test data is critical. Having certifiable. Also. And they won't necessarily be compatible with each other. there still have [0 be a real test. stamped and sealed test data is absolutely essential. when it is open it doesn't give you the egress width you need. If you start the design. Since its formatien in 1976. depending on what forces it has to resist. Part of our task during the design process. but it's expendable in an event. We spend more time on the doors and Combining > The Firm Headquartered in Alexandria. the ballistic resistance requirements' and then it's up to the glazing contractor and its suppliers to come up with the glazing assembly that meets all this criteria. control systems. and it's sort of a technical one. If you are going to use something that hasn't been tested. Blair: Even if it's calculated to meet it. There are always technical solutions to this-door openers. There will be a certain standard level of forced entry resistance that you've got to provide. to being custom-made. which various suppliers already have. the program requiremerits for different pieces will be somewhat in conflict with each other. things like that. AGG: Are ~he1"ean1 ocher special challenges that we haven't touched on that you think are importane? Ours: You're using this heavy material and heavy framing systems and one of the technical challenges is you've met the blast and force resistance and now you have to design a door that meets ADA requirements. That's always a challenge. because these doors require thick components.glass. (WBA) is an architeetural firm of 55 professionals. continued on page 20 Architects' Guide to Glass & Metal 18 www.com . This means there are seven or eight glazing assemblies that have tested to that.700 pounds. AGG: Glazing suppliers make the point that the products needed to meet security requirements are actttatLy available as opposed. and facilities management in both the public and private secters. The inner lite does all the work. There are window assemblies available that will meet the forced entry and ballistics requireme urs. Va. In recent years. It forms one side of the air space. and that's what we tend to install in the building. the firm has provided professional services on a wide range of facilities fer a broad and diverse client base.. But in blast. Instead of saying we want a specific product.. then the manufacturer has to be willing to foot the costs or somehow get in the costs and have the timing in the schedule to build a full-scale mock-up. 10 and behold. And we have to allow enough space for these things to work correctly and meet codes in the final assembly. we say 'here are the blast pressures. It dees. Usually. Ours: A lot of times. So those tend not to be pre-engineered because you're talking about expensive glass and they use a finish that will meet those specific requirements. for example. with particular expertise in providing fully integrated architecture. Is rhis what you've found? Ours: There are framing systems available for the windows. We tend to oversize some of those openings because we never know at that point in the design of the project what the final product is going to look like in terms of its thickness and configuration. for a vauiety of facilities and complexes. Which means that you've got this monster door that may weigh 1. The outer lite is V. that have already been tested that will meet certain performance requirements. WBA has become increasingly involved in security design.Secure Design with Aesthetics continued from page 17 panel and a window from the job and shipped it to New Mexico to be blown up to prove it really worked. including anti-terrorism/force protection design. the blast pressures are on the building. and you leave an opening that is wide enough for a standard egress door. interior design. forcedentry and blast-resistance door. coordinate with the laboratory and have it blown up or attacked to prove that it meets the criteria. but you have to design it so that someone in a wheelchair can open it and get in and out of the building without the door closing on them and crushing them. Blain The hardest part is when the window system gets around the entrances and you transition into a glazing storefront system and the doors .
..that design? .com/infocenter . It's one of the most time-consuming areas in the whole design of the project.~~. It's a delicate balance of trying to come up with the best compromise from all the different programmatic code and forced entry standards that apply to the building. there always seems to be some sort of compromise. sures. call 877-668-3784 or visit our web sij:e at www. independent certification and follow-up testing Secure Design with Aesthetics continued from page 18 . Demand only the best! Look for SGCe certification.glass. Blain You have "blast pressures.org.Safety Glazing Certification .1 and the Consumer Product Safety Commission's standard CPSC 16 CPR 1201.Council Just think of US as the Sherlock Holmes of the glazing industry Searching for the highest quality safety glazing products? Take a look in the SGCC Certified Products Directory. visil www.sgcc. For more information. Our all the facton chat go into . AG 20 www. licensees meet or exceed-stringent ANSI 297. physical forced entry and attack pressures. Yes. You'll find a list of the industry's leading fabricators. for safety glaZing fabricators. If you put glass on the inside of it you have an element that when it's attacked pieces will spall and become projectiles. which leads you to a combination of glass and polycarbonate. I don't think there has been a good solution in the industry yet for the ballistic-blast situation. AGG: Reconciling Combining II§. There are pluses and minuses to all the alternatives.'5 safety glazing certification council For a free copy of the SGCC Certified Products Directory.com Architects' Guide to Glass & Metal . I !IE. We're the largest organization that provides 3rd-party.glassguides. ballistic pres. polvcarbonate is great in stopping bullets but it scratches. Ours.hardware.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.