ICT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER NETWORK 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – Interim report

Wireless Technology and Technology & Spectrum Working Group ICT KTN Wireless Spectrum working group publication
800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 1

About the ICT Knowledge Transfer Network (ICT KTN) The ICT KTN is an organisation established by an industry-led group of leading players, with funding from the Technology Strategy Board. We seek to bring competitive advantage to the UK by promoting collaboration and knowledge sharing between the users and providers of ICT, and helping to drive innovation in the sector. If you are involved in ICT, and have not yet registered as member of the ICT KTN and/or the Wireless Technology and Spectrum working group please visit our web page and register as a member. To join the working group you will have to first register as KTN member. KTN Membership, register for free: www.ictktn.org.uk For further information on the Wireless Technology and Spectrum working group please visit https://ktn.innovateuk.org/web/spectrum. If you would like to get actively involved in this community please join group, membership is free. ICT KTN, Russell Square House, 10–12 Russell Square, London WC1B 5EE Email: info@ictktn.org.uk Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7331 2056 Contact points for positioning paper: Stuart Revell, ICT KTN stuart.revell@ictktn.org.uk David Barker, Quintel Solutions david.barker@quintelsolutions.com Terry Wells, Virgin Media terry.wells@virginmedia.co.uk Brian Copsey, Copsey Communications bc@copsey-comms.com John Burns, AEGIS John.Burns@aegis-systems.co.uk The opinions and views expressed within this positioning paper have been reviewed by the members of the ICT Knowledge Transfer Network Wireless Technology & Spectrum working group. The views and opinions do not necessarily reflect those of the individual members of the ICT KTN or the Working Group or the organisations that the members represent. Andrew Lillywhite, Sennheiser ALillywhite@sennheiser.co.uk Mark Waddell, BBC R&D mark.waddell@bbc.co.uk Steve Hope, Docobo stephen.hope@docobo.co.uk Clive Harding, Malvern Consulting crharding@theiet.org

ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 2

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1 2 3 3.1 4 5 5.1 6 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.3.6 7.4 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4

Contents
Contents ................................................................................................................ 2 Abbreviations and definitions................................................................................. 4 Introduction............................................................................................................ 6 Purpose of this paper ............................................................................................ 7 Executive summary ............................................................................................... 8 Background (Spectrum)....................................................................................... 10 800MHz compatibility issues ............................................................................... 12 Digital Television services ................................................................................... 14 DTT Receiver Selectivity Characteristics............................................................. 15 LTE-800 Interference into Digital Television (DTT) ............................................. 17 LTE-800 BS Interference into DTT Ch60 – N+1 offset.................................. 17 LTE-800 UE Interference into DTT– N+9 offset ............................................ 17 Interference resulting from „out of band‟ emissions ....................................... 18 Interference Discussion – Possible solutions ................................................ 20 On-Channel Repeaters ................................................................................. 21 DTT & Cellular Cooperative Network Evolution Proposal ............................. 22 Shared DTT Broadcast and Cellular Topology.............................................. 23 Recommended DTT tests for trial test bed .......................................................... 25 Hybrid Fibre Cable (HFC) Networks .................................................................... 26 800MHz spectrum usage and impact to Cable & STB industry ........................... 26 LTE Interference into Cable and DVB-C/DOCSIS CPE....................................... 27 Set Top Box - LTE Interference testing ......................................................... 27 Cable Modem – LTE Interference Testing .................................................... 30 In- Home Cabling – LTE Interference Testing ............................................... 30 Summary of LTE Interference with Cable systems ....................................... 31 Cable Interference - Possible mitigation and solutions ........................................ 32 Restrict cable transmissions to below 790 MHz. ........................................... 32 Reduce QAM rates to make the system more robust: .................................. 32 Increase HFC signal level ............................................................................. 33 Increase immunity of CPE ............................................................................ 33 Home Cabling improvements ........................................................................ 33 Pilot Tone...................................................................................................... 33 Cable Summary ................................................................................................... 33 Recommended Cable and DVB-C/DOCSIS CPE tests for trial test bed.............. 34 Interference scenarios .................................................................................. 34 Testing Procedure......................................................................................... 34 Communal Antenna Systems .............................................................................. 35 Communal Antennas – Systems and Topologies ................................................ 35 Communal Antenna Interference Issues ............................................................. 37 Communal Antenna Customer base ................................................................... 37 Communal Antenna Interference Assessment .................................................... 38
ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 2

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Innovation to solve the problems ......................................................................... 38 Recommended Communal Antenna tests for trial test bed ................................. 39 Applications above 862 MHz - Short Range Devices .......................................... 40 863MHz-865MHz testing (Copsey Communications) .......................................... 41 863MHz – 865MHz test set up and results .......................................................... 42 863MHz-865MHz test conclusions ...................................................................... 45 Recommended tests for trial test bed .................................................................. 45 PMSE 470-790MHz ............................................................................................. 47 PMSE Interference .............................................................................................. 47 Recommended PMSE tests for trial test bed ....................................................... 48 Conclusions and recommendations .................................................................... 48

Table of Figures
Figure 1: Evolution of Spectrum allocations up to 3GHz from 1970 to 2010 ................. 10 Figure 2 Cellular spectrum below 1 GHz in different ITU Regions (source: Aegis) ....... 11 Figure 3 Frequency plan for LTE-800 deployment ....................................................... 14 Figure 4 DTG C/I performance targets for DTT receivers and mean performance for 7 receivers........................................................................................................................ 15 Figure 5 Performance variation for DTT CH60 for different LTE traffic conditions......... 16 Figure 6 LTE-800 Base station (BS) interference to DTT CH60 .................................... 17 Figure 7 LTE handset (UE) interference to DTT CH57-60 ............................................ 18 Figure 8 LTE base station OOB causing interference to DTT CH60 ............................. 19 Figure 9 Benefits of repeating DTT from Cellular Base Stations ................................... 22 Figure 10 British scenario set top box,representative system outlet and cabling .......... 27 Figure 11 LTE-radiated European scenarios, STBs 1 to 21 .......................................... 29 Figure 12 LTE-Radiated European Scenario, CM 1 - 9 ................................................. 30 Figure 13 Test 24, LTE-radiated 25m coaxial cables .................................................... 31 Figure 14 863MHz to 870MHz Spectrum usage ........................................................... 40 Figure 15 excerpt from presentation “MFCN base station emission limits for different 800 MHz licensees”, UK Ofcom. ................................................................................... 42 Figure 16 Test environment and arrangement of equipment ......................................... 43 Figure 17 Maximising wireless opportunities through Government & Industry collaboration .................................................................................................................. 49

ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 3

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Abbreviations and definitions
Abbreviation 3D TV 3GPP BS C/I CATV CAGR CENELEC CEPT Ch COFDM COGNEA CPE DAB DCKTN Dig Div (DD) DOCSIS DSO DTG DTT DTV DVB-C DVB-T DVB-T2 DVD ECC ECMA ECN EDGE EIRP ERP ETSI FCC FM FTTC GI GMSK GPRS GPS GSM GSMA HD Definition Three Dimensional Television 3rd Generation Partnership Project Base Station Carrier to Interference (Ratio) Cable Television Compound Annual Growth Rate European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations Channel (Allocated frequency slot) Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Cognitive Networking Alliance Customer Premise Equipment Digital Audio Broadcast Digital Communications Knowledge Transfer Network Digital Dividend 800MHz Spectrum (790-860 MHz) Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification Digital Switchover Digital Television Group Digital Terrestrial Television Digital Television Digital Video Broadcasting – Cable Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial (2nd generation) Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc Electronic Communications Committee Standards body for Information and Communication Technology and Consumer Electronics Electronic Communication Networks Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Effective Radiated Power or Equivalent Radiated Power European Telecommunications Standards Institute Federal Communications Commission (US Regulator) Frequency Modulation Fibre To The Curb Guard Interval Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying General packet radio service Global Positioning System Global System for Mobile communications Global System for Mobile communications Association High Definition

ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 4

HDTT HDMI HFC HSPDA HSPA+ ICT IEM IF IMT IoT IPTV IRS LBT LNB LTE MATV MFCN MBMS MER MIMO NTP OFDM PCB PMSE QAM QoS R&D R&TTE RF RFID RS SAB SAP SIM SMATV SNR SRD STB TACS TETRA TETRA 2 TRP UE UHF UMTS UMTS r99 WSD xDSL High Definition Television High-Definition Multimedia Interface Hybrid Fibre Cable High-Speed Downlink Packet Access Evolved High-Speed Packet Access Information and Communication Technologies In Ear Monitor Intermediate frequency International Mobile Telecommunications Internet of Things Internet Protocol television Integrated Reception Systems Listen Before Talk Low Noise Block (converter) 3GPP Long Term Evolution Master Antennae Television Mobile Fixed Communications Network Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Modulation Error Rate or Modulation Error Ratio Multiple-input and multiple-output antenna configurations Network Termination Point Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Printed Circuit Board Programme making and special events Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality of Service Research and Development Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive Radio Frequency Radio Frequency Identification (RFID tag) Reed Solomon Services Ancillary to Broadcast Services Ancillary to Programme making Subscriber Identity Module (SIM Card) Satellite Master Antennae Television Signal to Noise Ratio Short Range Device Set Top Box Total Access Communication System TErrestrial Trunked RAdio TErrestrial Trunked RAdio (2nd generation) Total Radiated Power User equipment Ultra High Frequency Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS Release '99 higher speed data transmission in 3GPP networks White Space Device Digital Subscriber Line ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 5 .

The ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum working group believes „Wireless Technology‟ is the key enabler for several markets and is seen as the critical element for future development of these segments. which requires dedicated. The broadcast spectrum has traditionally been used solely for TV broadcast and low power radio microphones for programme making and special events (PMSE). cleared spectrum. Wireless is becoming all pervasive and critical for future development in areas such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • Future Mobile Internet Digital Media & Content Energy & Environment Public Safety & Emergency Services Health Assisted Living Smart Grids / Metering Intelligent Transport Automation M2M and IoT applications Future of the internet eCommerce. The existing applications for the UHF broadcast band are given below: ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 6 . New applications targeting the spectrum include LTE.3 Introduction Wireless technology has already reached a level where it is embedded in our daily work. This spectrum includes cleared and interleaved space between 470 MHz and 862 MHz. Payment technologies and Banking The terrestrial broadcast spectrum released by the switch from analogue to digital TV transmission is known as the digital dividend (DD) and will become available for new applications from 2012. The demand for services is now reaching beyond the traditional broadcast. Reallocation of broadcast spectrum to provide these new services requires careful coordination with existing users to prevent interference. Potential issues need to be identified at an early stage. social and leisure activities. as fixing these problems retrospectively will become increasingly expensive as the new services are deployed. The band has many desirable propagation characteristics which can enable enhanced broadband communications services to a wider population. mobile cellular applications and local area network connectivity.

identified in this paper. in-ear monitors) The challenges and opportunities this represents. e.g. ICT KTN members and as vehicle to stimulate discussion with industry. therefore providing the UK eco-system an excellent opportunity to lead in development and deployment of world leading wireless technology and services. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 7 .Existing services: 1) Broadcast Television – Digital TV (470-862MHz) 2) Communal Antenna Systems (distribution of terrestrial broadcast to multiple dwellings) 3) Cable Television and home media consumer platforms 15-862MHz 4) Short Range Devices (Adjacent band 863-870MHz.1 Purpose of this paper The purpose of this paper is to provide the basis for discussion amongst all interested stakeholders as to how a deeper collaboration regarding the 800MHz spectrum interference and co-existence challenges. social alarms) 5) PMSE applications (e.g. can be solved through further R&D activity / investment. academia and government bodies. 3. provides the UK with some significant opportunities for our R&D community to address locally and benefit through global exploitation. The document and associated presentations shall be used at appropriate Knowledge Transfer events to inform the wider industry. wireless microphones.

when interference occurs. It must also be noted that 5 to 6 million households are flats and potentially served through communal antenna systems. The executive summary is intended to provide an overall summary with the supporting sections providing more detailed information for the reader to use if required. section 5.1 provides a good overview of how potential issues interact with different services and users of the spectrum. this document will look at each of the potential issues and suggest some solutions and areas for further exploration and/or analysis between existing digital television services in the 470 to 790MHz band (including communal and conventional antenna systems). with Ofcom statistics showing that DTT is used in between 80 and 90% of the 27. It is vitally important that the information is known and publicly available before the auction of the new 800MHz spectrum proceeds. PMSE services in the bands below 790MHz and new applications for LTE based cellular services targeted at the cleared Analogue TV bands from 791MHz to 862MHz. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 8 . Short Range Devices (SRD) in the 863 to 870MHz band. have predominately been derived from simulation and modelling and a minor adjustment of a variable can make a large impact to the population or households that could be impacted.2 million households either for the primary set or on a secondary set. The technical assumptions used. detailing what mitigations strategies and plans need to be prepared and declared ahead of the event.4 Executive summary The Ofcom consultation on 800MHz interference and co-existences challenges has created a big debate on the actual levels that could be experienced and who solves this. The vertical axis represents the users or service being provided and the horizontal axis represents the potential interferers. Getting agreement across multiple stakeholders of what the real model variables should be is very difficult to do. Table 1 below is a summary of the issues detailed in this document. The potential DTT problems are particularly acute in the UK where a successful broadcast industry makes extensive use of the services. replicate and manage such interference issues. Each box summarises the potential solutions or action required. The general public is unlikely to understand how or why interference is occurring or what to do about it when it does but they could be seriously inconvenienced. Cable services served over Hybrid Fibre Coax using frequencies from 15 to 862MHz. It is strongly recommended that an appropriate test bed be made available for such innovation to thrive and for the industry to further understand. Table 2.

Encourage industry and Ofcom to conduct further analysis and testing to ascertain design challenge parameters. Encourage Cable and Mobile industries to conduct further collaborative engineering trials. possible collaborative operation modes in the home to avoid on channel radio interference. Encourage Broadcast TV and Mobile industries to conduct further collaborative engineering trials. Communal antenna and amplifiers systems vulnerable to interference (approx 5-6 million homes served). DTT home filters and On Channel Repeating (OCR). industry challenge. Encourage industry and Ofcom to conduct further analysis and testing to ascertain design challenge parameters. Same interference issues exist as DTT and solutions are also applicable. PMSE 470790Mhz Digital TV (470-790MHz) Conventional and Communal Antenna Systems Existing Users ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 9 . Long term solutions: Implement equipment design recommendations for Cable receivers. Further complexity of the management of available PMSE assignments will result in less spectrum availability and the only longer term solution is to find additional spectrum and/or tighter spectrum management and control. Collaborative R&D opportunity. Short Range Devices 863870MHz Short / long term solution: R&D opportunities exist to solve these issues. Short term solutions / actions: R&D opportunities exist to solve these issues. Radio design changes required.Table 1: Positioning paper recommendations New Entrants (Potential interferers) Mobile (791-862MHz) Challenge: High probability LTE in close proximity will interfere. industry challenge. Solutions: Base Station filters. Challenge: Adjacent channel ch60 and image channels +9. Encourage industry and Ofcom to conduct further analysis and testing to ascertain design challenge parameters. possible interference up to 100MHz away from mobile transmission. Short term solutions / actions: Cable (15-862MHz) R&D opportunities exist to solve these issues. Long term solution: Equipment design recommendations for DTT receiver conformance parameters. Challenge: High probability LTE in close proximity will interfere. industry challenge.

Digital TV broadcasting provides greater efficiency allowing an increased number of TV services to be delivered in less bandwidth compared to analogue delivery. especially in the higher frequency bands.25GHz 2.25GHz 1.75GHz 2GHz 2.5GHz 2. especially for broadband wireless data. „Cellular‟ = Mobile applications. This has enabled the top end of the TV spectrum to be cleared for use by the cellular industry. 500MHz 750MHz 1GHz 1. The development of mobile services has relied on spectrum vacated by established services with most of the current cellular spectrum formerly used either by the military or for fixed links which have since migrated to higher bands or alternative technologies such as fibre.25GHz 2. Above 3GHz.5GHz 1. WiFi) Figure 1: Evolution of Spectrum allocations up to 3GHz from 1970 to 2010 Note figure above. high building penetration losses prevents use indoors and below 300MHz.75GHz 2010 Military Aeronautical Broadcasting Fixed Links Cellular Other (e. Further growth in cellular applications.5GHz 1. The figure below shows how the spectrum available for mobile has grown in the last 40 years.75GHz 2GHz 2. the antenna size become impractically large for portable devices.5GHz 2.5GHz 2.75GHz 1990 500MHz 750MHz 1GHz 1.g.75GHz 2GHz 2. GPS.5GHz 1.5 Background (Spectrum) The UHF spectrum from 300MHz to 3GHz is particularly attractive for mobile and portable applications.25GHz 1.25GHz 2.25GHz 1.75GHz 1970 500MHz 750MHz 1GHz 1. is resulting in increasing demands for new spectrum to be released. Different regions of the world are reallocating different parts of the TV spectrum for mobile as shown below: ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 10 .

ITU Region 1 (Europe / CEPT) : 2 x 65 MHz total 698 MHz Digital TV 790 Digital Dividend 2 x 30 MHz 8 62 880 900 MHz band 2 x 35 MHz 960 ITU Region 2 (USA): 2 x 54 MHz total 698 MHz Lower 700 MHz 2 x 18 MHz 746 787 Upper 700 MHz 2 x 11 MHz 824 850 MHz band 2 x 25 MHz 894 960 ITU Region 2 / 3 (South America & Asia Pacific): 2 x 87 MHz total 698 MHz Digital Dividend 2 x 45 MHz 806 824 850 MHz band 2 x 21 MHz 890 894 900 MHz band 2 x 21 MHz 960 Mobile transmit Base station transmit Figure 2 Cellular spectrum below 1 GHz in different ITU Regions (source: Aegis) ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 11 .Figure 2 Regional reallocation of TV spectrum for mobile use The following diagram compares the amount of spectrum that will be available below 1GHz in each of the three ITU regions following re-allocation of the digital dividend spectrum. Note that the amount available in Europe is substantially less than in Region 3. prompting interest in possible extension of the current digital dividend band.

The combination of interested parties is unique due to the attractiveness of the spectrum. due to imperfect screening. The table below shows a matrix of the potential interactions between the different technologies: ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 12 . For new mobile cellular deployments planned in the upper cleared band (790-862MHz). the guard band has been reduced to just 1MHz. New licensed-exempt devices and mobile cellular services using paired and unpaired spectrum assignments are vying to operate alongside traditional broadcast applications. This document will look at each of these potential issues and suggest some areas for further exploration and/or analysis. Typical systems operate between 15-862MHz within wired hybrid fibre optic and coaxial cables (HFC) and provide high quality TV and high speed (up to 100 Mbps) broadband connections to the consumer.5. The close proximity of cellular and digital TV assignments will result in interference to digital TV services in some areas. Radio interference between different types of service is usually controlled by guard bands which are used to separate the different assignments or by ensuring sufficient spatial separation. Traditionally the wireless industries have always differentiated licensed-exempt and licensed spectrum by assigning different bands. particularly near the edge of coverage. The cable industry has been using the entire UHF TV band and additional spectrum at lower frequencies. The potential problems are particularly acute in the UK where a successful broadcast industry makes extensive use of the services. The deployment of mobile cellular between 790-862MHz can inject interfering signals into the in-home set top box and cabling. this can disrupt the quality of the video and broadband cable services. This will require coordination between the broadcasters and the mobile operators to manage the problem.1 800MHz compatibility issues The new 800MHz spectrum for mobile use is providing many new challenges for the wireless industry to address. with Ofcom statistics showing that DTT is used in between 80 and 90% of households either for the primary set or on a secondary set.

Potential Short Range No adjacent channel Devices (863interference interference and 870MHz) blocking PMSE (470790MHz) Yes . Yes .Potential No adjacent channel interference interference and blocking Services impacted No – prevented No through band / interference power management No – prevented No through band / interference power management No interference No – prevented through band / power management No interference No interference ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 13 . low probability – potential adjacent channel interference and blocking Cellular (791No 862MHz) interference Yes – Adjacent Digital TV channel ch60 and (470image channels No 790MHz) +9. Yes – same as conventional with Digital TV potential increase (470No dues to higher 790MHz) interference amplification Communal stages and Antennas antenna gain / height.Table 2: Interaction of Digital Dividend potential users Potential Interferers Short Range Spectrum Cable Digital TV Cellular (791Devices (15(470users 862MHz) (863862MHz) 790MHz) 870MHz) Yes – potential coClose channel and on proximity to Cable No channel broadcast (15-862MHz) interference breakthrough into transmitter / CPE repeaters Yes – Yes – potential responsibility adjacent of Cellular to channel solve interference and blocking PMSE (470790MHz) No interference Yes. Potential interference Conventional interference up to Systems 100MHz away from Tx channel.

as this was felt to reduce some of the interference effects between handsets and the broadcast service. Figure 3 Frequency plan for LTE-800 deployment The close proximity of the LTE base stations (BS) to the broadcast channels and the finite selectivity and image rejection performance of DTT receivers results in a number of interference mechanisms. sites. The transmitter powers. with the base station in a lower frequency band to the mobile uplink. For 10MHz LTE modes. understood and ultimately resolved to ensure compatibility between cellular and broadcast technologies. the 5MHz carriers would be aggregated in pairs. The LTE-800 mobile band has been designed to support 2x30MHz paired LTE FDD deployment in either 5MHz or 10MHz bandwidth modes. The plan includes a 1MHz guard band between the edge of the broadcast channel 60 and the first LTE base station downlink. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 14 . These need to be considered. network delivery infrastructure. This spectrum band is proximate and adjacent to DTT broadcasts which will continue to occupy spectrum up to 790MHz. The proposed channel plan was developed within CEPT SE42 and is shown in Figure 3 below for the 5MHz LTE mode. a number of interference scenarios are emerging. A reverse duplex scheme was chosen.The following sections will look into all of these technologies in more detail 6 Digital Television services The 790-862MHz spectrum band is a harmonised band for additional broadband mobile cellular applications (typically LTE-800) across Europe and other parts of the world as a benefit of digital switch over (DSO). antennas and network topologies are quite different for broadcast DTT and mobile cellular networks and as a result of these differences and the very small guard band.

but since DVB-T and LTE base stations both use COFDM technology. The data above applies to the UK DVB-T mode selected for switchover (64-QAM. Tin-Can tuners: Figure 4 DTG C/I performance targets for DTT receivers and mean performance for 7 receivers Using this data. Performance targets for LTE are currently being introduced by the DTG. Slightly reduced performance would be expected for the Freeview HD service. 1 DTG D Book http://www.org. rate 2/3 FEC. and a graph of typical performance for the average of 7 receivers using traditional discretecomponent.1 DTT Receiver Selectivity Characteristics The selectivity performance of domestic DTT receivers is specified in the UK by the DTG. 8k FFT). it should be possible to predict the LTE signal levels that will provoke the onset of picture failure. The selectivity performance is specified in terms of a protection ratio which is the minimum carrier to interference ratio required for the onset of picture failure quality at a given frequency offset.html ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 15 .uk/publications/books. the C/I characteristics for LTE into DTT were expected to be similar to the DVB-T into DVB-T targets currently specified. Figure 4 shows the C/I targets specified by the DTG. who define minimum performance targets in a publication known as the D-book1. which uses a DVB-T2 mode. 1/32 guard interval.dtg.6.

the LTE mobile signal is quite different in character to a TV signal. For a given level of interference (I). the performance with LTE interferers is up to 30dB worse than for steady state broadcast signals. are especially vulnerable to interference. Figure 5 Performance variation for DTT CH60 for different LTE traffic conditions Notice that the protection performance is non linear.Unfortunately. the performance degrades and the curves steepen as the overload condition is approached. corresponding to full loading of all LTE resource blocks and the idle condition where the base station carries only synchronisation symbols and network signalling. This effect is illustrated in Figure 5 below which shows how performance varies with traffic condition and interference level. which are 9dB lower in average power than the 100% loaded BS signal. the graph shows the level of wanted signal (C) to restore reception for 3 receiver designs and 2 LTE traffic conditions. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 16 . Receiver 1 (RX1) shows the anomalous behaviour typical of 5% of designs where the idle signal interacts badly with the tuner AGC giving rise to a 20-30dB loss in protection performance. and tests have shown that approximately 5% of TV receiver designs. The two traffic conditions considered in the figure are the 100% loaded base station. At higher interferer levels. particularly some modern designs with silicon tuners. For some devices. indeed receiver 2 (Rx2) has improved performance on idle signals. This behaviour does not affect all receivers.

interference can be expected when the adjacent channel protection ratio target is exceeded. 6. estimated to affect 5% of chassis designs.2. This gives rise to an interference mechanism whereby a handset at ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 17 . For receivers that are susceptible to the time domain variation of the base station signal. This corresponds to a separation of 24km between the base station and the victim DTT receiving antenna for the worst case where line of sight propagation from the base station and a 7dBi TV antenna gain applies. the maximum level of LTE signal that can be tolerated will be -45dBm.2 LTE-800 UE Interference into DTT– N+9 offset The DTT receiver characteristics shown in Figure 4 show a steadily improving performance as the offset between the interferer and wanted signal increases.2 LTE-800 Interference into Digital Television (DTT) The following sections provide information regarding the main interference mechanisms. suggesting a minimum isolation requirement of 109dB. There is however a noticeable reduction in performance for interferers at N+9 offset (72MHz) for traditional CAN tuners due to the finite image rejection performance of designs with a first IF of 36MHz. where the Hata sub-urban propagation model applies. The proposed base station power levels are expected to be up to 64dBm.6.2.1 LTE-800 BS Interference into DTT Ch60 – N+1 offset Given the 1MHz offset between the broadcast service in UHF channel 60 and the first LTE downlink in channel 61. Figure 6 LTE-800 Base station (BS) interference to DTT CH60 6. This is to be expected given the characteristics of the receiver‟s IF and RF filters. typically increasing the interference radius of the base station by up to a factor of 10. Given a received DTT signal level of -72dBm at the coverage edge. This will typically occur when the LTE signal level is 27dB greater than the DTT signal and is shown in Figure 4. an additional 20dB of isolation would be required. interference problems would be predicted where the victim DTT antenna is within 900m of the base station. For a more-cluttered environment.

and a received DTT signal of -72dBm at the coverage edge. particularly in flats and terraced properties. however this is not always possible to control. and this will result in interference. In practice. Handset interference can also couple into standard domestic installations through the downlead. Newer installations using double screened cable (e.g. 6. this can be controlled by not using smart phones in the vicinity of set top antennas. CT100) and screened outlet plates are less vulnerable. antenna plate and fly lead causing overload or adjacent channel interference. This scenario is illustrated in below: Figure 7 LTE handset (UE) interference to DTT CH57-60 For a typical handset EIRP of 25dBm.2. but many households still use single screened cable and unscreened outlet plates. as tests on LTE handsets suggest the time domain characteristic of the signal results in degraded receiver protection ratio performance causing picture break-up at lower interferer levels. suggesting a required isolation of 66dB between DTT antenna and LTE UE. a mobile base station will radiate significant energy into the broadcast band. the maximum permitted level of handset signal for the onset of failure would be -41dBm. such installations are expected to be particularly vulnerable to overload. Additional interference mechanisms involving handsets are expected to affect households using set top antennas for secondary sets in bed rooms. In practice. To some extent.72MHz offset from the wanted DTT channel can produce picture break up. even if additional filtering is used at the receiver in an ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 18 . This corresponds to a minimum separation of 50m between handset and DTT antenna. the interference may be worse still.3 Interference resulting from ‘out of band’ emissions Problems resulting from the finite selectivity of the receiver are only a part of the story. Due to the very short coupling distances.

erodocdb. This effect is shown in Figure 8 below and interference levels up to 0dBm cochannel with TV channel 60 are permitted by the recommendations made by CEPT SE42. The ACLR requirements in EC 2010/387/EU actually permit 0dBm OOB radiation into every TV channel from CH21 to CH60 (470-790MHz). Given a typical ACS performance for the DTT receiver for the first adjacent channel of 55dB. as the adjacent channel interference would be dominated by the receiver ACS performance.attempt to reject the base station signals. Figure 8 LTE base station OOB causing interference to DTT CH60 The minimum requirements for Out of Block (OOB) characteristics of the base station defined by CEPT SE42 have been harmonized across Europe in EC 2010/367/EU2. the SE42 studies showed that improving the BS ACLR beyond 59dB made no further improvement to the interference problem. This interference cannot be addressed at the receiver. and could dramatically reduce broadcast coverage. even if ACS is improved through use of receiver filters.PDF ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 19 .dk/Docs/doc98/official/pdf/2010267EU. The permitted levels of out of band would result in a 20dB degradation in receiver sensitivity at 500m from the cellular base station. This high level of OOB permitted by this decision unfortunately limits the mitigating effects of receiver filters as the ACLR component of the interference will dominate. 2 COMMISSION DECISION of 6 May 2010 on harmonised technical conditions of use in the 790-862 MHz frequency band for terrestrial systems capable of providing electronic communications services in the European (2010/267/EU) http://www.

(4) Re-point DTT antennas to alternative transmitters where broadcast coverage overlaps allow. To realise the benefits.3 Interference Discussion – Possible solutions The interference mechanisms described so far are an inevitable consequence of the non-ideal behaviour of receivers and transmitters and the FDD band plan with the narrow guard band chosen by the CEPT. in locations where CH60 us used for DTT. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 20 . This would allow for the design of filters that could be retrofitted and later included in the DTT designs to allow the DTT and mobile bands to be decoupled. DTT receiver filters must also be used. This may also be possible if additional DTT relay transmitters are deployed using interleaved spectrum. and the selectivity performance of the receiver (i. (5) Consider alternative band plans. Restricting the 5MHz license from 791 to 796MHz is particularly beneficial. (3) Restrict the antenna polarization to that opposite to DTT in CH60/59 areas. receivers will also pick up energy outside of their intended receive bandwidth).1 The following sections discuss how collaboration between the cellular and broadcast industries might further address these problems to ensure and guarantee harmonisation and minimize pathological interference scenarios. This unfortunately prevents MIMO deployment. (6) Repair the damage by transmitting the DTT signal from the cellular base station site. The TDD approach favoured by Asian countries would permit a greater separation between the mobile and broadcast services. Furthermore.e. thus ensuring that the link budget differential between DTT and LTE800 at the DTT receiver falls within the limits defined by the protection ratios. See section 6. RF energy leaks into adjacent spectrum due to finite implementations of the transmitter devices. technology and business levels. such collaboration may result in additional opportunities creating value to customers through working together at the infrastructure.3. A number of solutions are emerging: (1) Use fast roll-off filtering at the LTE800 base station to provide additional protection. Although the RF transmissions are designed to occupy their intended bandwidth. (2) Restrict the EIRP of the base stations. but gives up to 16dB of additional isolation between BS and DTT victim. Interference problems will be a particular issue towards the edge of DTT coverage and TV channel 60 appears to be particularly vulnerable.6. reducing the mobile network performance.

and needs only to be from one sector (sometimes two sectors).6. However. Nevertheless. this may be something which would warrant a more comprehensive study to allow partial clearance of CH60.ofcom. The network topology for DTT re-broadcast delivery is one where a main broadcast transmitter is at the centre and the broadcast transmission is re-transmitted (as a repeater) from a network of cellular base stations where the time difference between main broadcast antenna and repeated signal is within the Guard Interval (GI) of the DVB-T signal. This either requires sharing of backhaul bandwidth between mobile operator and broadcaster. where for example a DTT Channel 60 service is received via a donor antenna but re-transmitted at low power on another DTT channel.This would require DTT receivers to be re-tuned. the required data could be made available via satellite. and would warrant further investigation.3. a fibre/cable/microwave backhaul connection to the LTE800 cellular base station site could be exploited which carries the DVB-T signals to be re-broadcast from the base station. For some DTT multiplexes.uk/static/research/co-existenceLTEDTTservicesatUHF.org. Alternatively.pdf ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 21 . initial feelings from broadcast radio network planners suggest that this may not be possible due to the already tight spectrum re-use topology that would be in place. The backhaul requirements are typically 24Mb/s for DVB-T or 40Mb/s for DVB-T2. in order that the domestic TV rooftop antennas do not have to be re-pointed. An adjacent channel on-air repeater could also be contemplated to address the above isolation requirement. Such arrangements are known as “TV relays” or “rebroadcast links” (RBLs). Initial recent field trial studies have been carried out by Ofcom using OCR‟s to understand their benefit as an LTE800 to DTT Adjacent Channel interference mitigation technique3. 3 The co-existence of LTE and DTT services at UHF: a field trial: http://www. the feasibility of backhaul based delivery of low-power re-broadcast of DTT services from cellular base station sites has not been studied comprehensively as an LTE800 to Channel 60 DTT interference mitigation technique. As for the adjacent channel on-air repeater solution above. OCR results indicate that the solution can work but relies upon sites being able to provide very good isolation between DTT donor and DTT repeater antennas. which may not be achievable at all cellular base station sites.1 On-Channel Repeaters One of the proposed mitigation techniques to address LTE800 adjacent channel interference into Channel 60 DTT receivers is the use of On-Channel Repeaters (OCR‟s) to re-radiate a low-power quasi-synchronous transmission of the damaged DTT signals from a subset of LTE800 cellular sites under the footprint of the main DTT broadcast antenna. or the need for separate physical backhaul circuits. re-transmission from the cellular network sites wouldn‟t have to be at all cellular sites. but this is already the case for DSO phases. Furthermore.

and even broadband IP (IPTV delivery). Terrestrial DTT is also seeing slowly growing competition from alternative delivery means such as Satellite (Sky. Beyond a certain distance (20km). the directive properties of the antennas and the need to coordinate with international neighbours. IPTV and cable enable interactivity. It is often the most cost effective platform and Cable and Satellite subscribers often chose DTT for secondary sets as additional subscriptions are expensive. DTT network planning has many constraints due to domestic antenna frequency groupings. Competing platforms are able to offer HDTV and many more channels. 6. one can understand the need to protect DTT reception and sympathise with the fact the terrestrial broadcast industry is losing spectrum as part of the digital dividend. but Ofcom have decided to restrict the DTT platform and prevent digital dividend spectrum from being used for further HD services using the DVB-T2 technology beyond the 5 services that can be offered on a single HD DTT multiplex. The left image depicts the coverage to rooftop antennas for DTT service. As a result. DTT still uses high-power/high-tower network topologies designed using frequency planning and co-ordination rules dating back to the 1961 Stockholm Agreement. but nevertheless remains the dominant platform in the UK.Figure 9 Benefits of repeating DTT from Cellular Base Stations The image above depicts a full shared cellular/re-broadcast topology across a 40km radius area. FreeSat). Unlike the cellular industry domestic TV installations are deemed expensive to upgrade (e. the image on the right depicts the coverage when delivered (repeated) via a grid of cellular sites. Given this. the fixed rooftop antenna. the cellular sites will always provide better service coverage. Cable (VirginMedia).2 DTT & Cellular Cooperative Network Evolution Proposal The terrestrial TV broadcast industry has evolved at a somewhat slower pace to the cellular industry particularly in terms of its network topology.g. which are becoming increasingly important to consumers and these ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 22 . cabling and feeds for multiple TV sets).3.

3. Italy. Given this. and now adaptive antenna Beamforming resulting in an evolved heterogeneous topology of Macro. Micro. which is certainly not the case for broadcast TV receivers.techniques are being included in new hybrid platforms like “YouView” that will combine on demand technology for catch up services like iPlayer with broadcast DTT technology for traditional linear consumption. frequency hopping (GSM). the solution of re-broadcasting DTT from a cellular site to mitigate cellular interference to a DTT receiver has been proposed in the previous section to permit co-existence of the two networks and mitigate against adjacent channel interference. A remaining question is why the natural evolution can‟t be to arrive at a fully shared network topology and infrastructure. Terrestrial DTT and Digital Dividend Cellular share the prime UHF radio spectrum for delivery of content and information. UMTS. Over 25 years. The networks have gone through many generations of technology for the radio interface (TACS. cellular operators have acquired 3 spectrum bands and this is expected to increase to 5 bands soon with the introduction of 800 and 2. This includes UK. and have adopted network spectral efficiency techniques such as cell-splitting. Germany and Japan. Many countries across the world have terrestrial TV delivery platforms. and thus permits much tighter spectrum boundary or guard bands to be used between cellular and DTT services. India. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 23 . etc. for example. for the current LTE800 to Channel 60 DTT issue and for any potential future digital dividend releases. Canada.6GHz services. EDGE. particularly important for portable and mobile services. HSPA. GSM. France. HSPA+ and soon LTE and LTE-Advanced). although these still having a significant terrestrial TV component. such as wireless microphones. Working together at the network topology level could bring the following benefits: a) Solves the near-far adjacent spectrum interference conditions discussed earlier for all DTT-Cellular cases. Pico and soon Femto cell layers. Spain. The next section explores what could be achieved if this infrastructure sharing could be carried out. GPRS. broadcast moving to a cellular type topology would potentially allow better spectrum re-use for white space bandwidth and other users of interleaved DTT spectrum. Moreover. Cable and/or Satellite TV delivery platforms are more popular in other countries such as US.3 Shared DTT Broadcast and Cellular Topology The proposed thinking brings together Broadcast and Cellular networks to essentially share base station sites and thus share the same topology. variable tilting antennas. 6. This has been possible as consumers are prepared to replace their terminal equipment. This proposes using lowpower/lo-tower for broadcast services rather than the current hi-power/hi-tower model. almost on a yearly basis. Cellular networks have evolved at a more rapid pace as terminal equipment changes can be subsidised by the mobile subscription fee. and China as examples.

Connecting America. and has UHF directivity/gain can equate to something like a 10-15dB gain in received signal quality strength for LTE (over an indoor handheld device). outdoors. Perhaps such an incentive model may be a useful mechanism to discover or reveal the real economic value of UHF spectrum. thus permitting more channels/content and/or HD content. but a significant proportion of the auction proceeds go to the broadcast network operator to re-invest in DTT infrastructure. http://www. thus potentially reducing costs. This allows the mobile operators operating say an LTE800 network to offer “fixed” broadband delivery and thus competing against fixed broadband operators using xDSL. The FCC national broadband plan4 also proposes the use of the broadcasters “transitioning to a cellular architecture” to solve many of the interference issues and broadcast/cellular co-existence. if mobile operators allow broadcaster operators access to cellular sites then this naturally speeds up and facilitates any transition. or Cable. In the USA. and if the LTE800 signal is on-air repeated (assuming good isolation between rooftop and living room for example) in the house then this even may offer an alternative approach for the domestic femtocell. the FCC are considering incentive based spectrum auctions where further prime UHF broadcast spectrum is auctioned.b) Enhances DTT coverage penetration significantly. and maintained. and raises the question how such investment would be funded. base station equipment vendors can now support multi-protocol transmissions. and hence a useful reference for collaborative thinking. and radical change from the traditional broadcast model. allows significant power reduction from the main broadcast transmitter which in turns offers significant spectral efficiency in spectrum re-use. and even a further dividend spectrum. and hence raises the question could LTE800 and DVBT/T2 be transmitted from the same physical hardware.gov/download-plan/ ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 24 . but would require changes to how networks are managed. The fact the Yagi antenna is at 10m height. Additionally. and/or could even remove the need for rooftop antennas (which could in turn permit faster evolution of the DTT industry). c) Assuming we keep the rooftop TV antenna in b) above then the domestic rooftop UHF Yagi antenna could also be connected to an LTE800 modem in the home. 4 FCC National Broadband Plan.broadband. allows realistic Mobile DTT services. above the rooftops/clutter. DTT broadcast services transitioning to a low-power/low-tower topology would however require a significant investment in terms of infrastructure. operated. Furthermore.

58 as discussed earlier. assuming a BS EIRP of 59dBm and additional roll off to OOB specification in EC2010/387/EU. However. there are a number of other channel 60 interference mitigation techniques which Ofcom hasn‟t tested. This is when a strong LTE800 signal is in the presence of a weak DVB-T (regardless of channel frequency) signal causing the receiver to go into non-linear mode.6. not to restrict the number of base station sites and not to specify the OOB roll off in the technical license conditions can be expected to further increase the number of households affected. providing the base station also has good Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) filtering. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 25 . 5 Since DTT services are free to air in the UK and do not carry a subscription charge. Ofcom demonstrated and made conclusions that simple in-line passive Low-pass RF filters could be used to mitigate front end overload situations. in particular into Channel 60 but also into channels 59. or moving subscribers to Satellite or Cable TV services5 would be expected. Ofcom also has discussed. the proposal to move affected households to subscription platforms is potentially unpopular. with emphasis on testing various LTE800 adjacent channel interference into Channel 60 and below mitigation techniques. It is understood that suppliers are innovating with the view and desire to test/trial such mitigation concepts and with which the DTV. Ofcom stated that this may not be a useful mitigation technique.4 Recommended DTT tests for trial test bed Ofcom recently completed a detailed field trial of LTE800 co-existence with DTT services. As such. studied and trialled polarisation discrimination techniques such as LTE800 using vertically polarised transmission and DTV using Horizontal polarised reception. However. Initial estimates. it is recommended that an appropriate test bed be made available for such innovation to thrive and for the industry to further understand and manage such interference issues. Adjacent Channel interference. especially as mobile operators would prefer to exploit slanted dual cross polar transmission for LTE for base station antennas to enable 2x2 MIMO techniques. This field trial complemented Ofcom‟s theoretical analysis of the interference. This showed some improvements but also concluded that cross polar discrimination varies widely depending upon domestic aerial types and quality of installation. suggest 750 thousand households could lose DTT reception if 9000 co-sited LTE base stations were deployed. The number of households that would be affected is a subject of current debate. Two dominant interference mechanisms were concluded: Front end DTT receiver overload. the use of OCR. Cellular operators and other stakeholders should be keen to understand. and the majority of Adjacent channel interference issues for channels 58 and 59. the channel 60 interference issue remains without a silver bullet mitigation technique. In such cases. Recent proposals by Ofcom to increase the BS EIRP to 64dBm.

Cabling from this unit to the various devices inside the premises is of high quality dual. in addition to High Speed Broadband services. The following sections will investigate the interference scenarios that have been established. there is little opportunity in the way of filtering or other simple “add-ons” which will dramatically improve the situation for Cable Networks in the UK. ECC and Standards Bodies along with Ofcom UK. since then it has taken part in a range of activities including. Telephone services are also carried alongside the fibre/coaxial network and terminate in a conventional copper pair at the customer premises. Handbook providing in depth information is available on the ICT KTN website at: www. TDD modes of LE are popular that would allow increased separation and more effective filtering of LTE from DTT. triple or quad screened coaxial cable which is terminated using high quality “F” type connectors.org/web/spectrum/document-library 7. Alternatively.innovateuk. European Commission. HFC networks support the Government plans for wide scale high speed broadband with current speeds of between 50 and 100Mbits/s. 7 Hybrid Fibre Cable (HFC) Networks Some thirteen million homes have access to the HFC networks within the UK to receive a wide range of services which include Digital TV. A Head end distributes its signals using DVB-C and DOCSIS modulation schemes via a hybrid fibre optic and coaxial cable distribution system terminating at the customers premises‟ at an isolated outlet. Partial deployment of licence A using a 5MHz mode occupying 796-801MHz would be a third option. HFC Head ends are fed with incoming signals via a national fibre optic network and are also capable of receiving and retransmitting off air signals as well as being able to stream locally stored media. it may be necessary to restrict deployment of LTE licence A (791-801MHz) in certain geographical areas where DTT CH60 cannot be cleared. High Definition and 3D). Hence protection can only be achieved by increased immunity. In Asia. A single Head end is capable of serving in excess of one million customers.ktn. Interactive and Time Shifted video services (available in Standard Definition. and just not an adjacent channel issue. and the ability of DOCSIS 3 to bond up to at least 32 channels mean that the final speeds to be achieved will be well in excess of the current offerings. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 26 .Alternative band plans might also be beneficial. The challenge for Cable Networks is that of being able to operate co-channel with the LTE transmissions.1 800MHz spectrum usage and impact to Cable & STB industry The cable industry was not aware of the changes in spectrum use until early 2009. Video On Demand.

which is split between upstream and downstream as follows: • • upstream from approximately 15 – 65 MHz.org/web/spectrum/document-library The cable networks are operated within the frequency range 15 . The testing program concluded that the HFC network itself was a robust structure and that the vast majority of interference would be experienced within the home. Personal Video Recorder. and an HDMI cable as provided with the STB or long SCART cable. and makes use of a Tratec isolator.ktn. Each head end. No testing has been carried out using the fixed mobile units proposed for some locations using higher powers which will increase the interference to CPE. a two-way splitter with equal 3.862 MHz providing the delivery of services from the Head End to the subscriber.innovateuk.2. a representative system outlet 15m SCART cable connected the STB port to a television in and cabling the control room.862 MHz.1 Set Top Box . An interference range of some 3-4 metres is for a terminal unit operating at the maximum power quoted in ECC Decision of some 316 mW. The various tests suggest that interfering signals generated in one premises will affect equipment in adjacent locations. may have different frequency plans dependent on local requirements. Where coaxial ports remain unused on ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 27 . it was used in with a set top box. this is the return path from the subscriber to the Headend downstream from 85 .7. Where no option existed. preference over a SCART port.6dB output attenuations. a 2m tri-shield cable for the STB. 7. nor the higher base station powers now being proposed by Ofcom. The scenario in use here is entitled „Scenario 1‟ as provided by Virgin Media.LTE Interference testing The UK components were assembled on a board as shown in the Figure 10. which is capable of serving in excess of 1 million customers. copies of this work can be found at: www. Where an ECN terminal device (or any other transmitter within the frequency reception range of the CPE) was in proximity to the customer premises equipment (Set Top Box. Where Figure 10 British scenario an HDMI port was present on the STB. Cable Modem etc) at ranges of up to 3-4 metres.2 LTE Interference into Cable and DVB-C/DOCSIS CPE A testing program carried out by Cable Europe Labs (the trade association of the Cable industry) and supported by Virgin Media has carried out an investigation into the interference mechanisms which can be expected from the new Electronic Communication Networks (ECN) and other use of cleared spectrum. These conclusions are similar to those found during other testing carried out by the Dutch Administration and within Germany.

Such an MER caused approximately one pre-Reed Solomon (RS) error per second.victim equipment. Table 3: Accessible signal level control point configuration Point Tratec Ecoline 3-way splitter Tratec tap Prior to drop cable Tratec isolator Tratec Ecoline 2-way splitter Table 4: Cables used in installation Cable Times Fiber RG6 siamese White tri-shield RG59 cable HDMI cable provided with STB Scart cable Length From 70m 9m 2m 15m Trunk network System outlet System outlet STB output To CPE installation Set top box HDMI-fibre optic converter TV in control room Affect on signal level 7dB attenuation 25dB attenuation 3dB pad 0. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 28 . most likely in the form of macro blocking. the RS filter is able to correct these errors such that there were zero post-RS errors. Graph of results below. This level is considered „worst case‟ because a minor variation to any of the factors affecting MER could result in a post-RS error. they have been left un-terminated. whilst all unused ports or cables attached to the cable network are terminated. and a visual manifestation of the problem.4dB attenuation 3. Specific configuration data is contained in the following tables.875 Ms/s Input level (to the STB) -10dBmV Frequency range 675-859MHz Signal levels present at the input port of the STB are approximately -10dBmV and provide a Modulation Error Ratio (MER) of approximately 30dB on each STB.6dB attenuation Table 5: Wanted signal characteristics Signal standard DVB-C Modulation Symbol rate 256QAM 6.

5m ) The red 316mW line is the nominal pow er (CEPT) of the terminal unit. 35 STB 1 STB 2 STB 3 30 On-channel 25 STB 4 STB 5 20 STB 6 1 5 STB 7 STB 8 1 0 LTE transmit ERP (dBm) STB 9 5 STB 10 STB 11 STB 12 STB 13 STB 14 STB 15 0 -5 -1 0 -1 5 STB 16 -20 STB 17 STB 18 -25 STB 19 -30 STB 20 STB 21 675 683 691 699 707 71 723 731 739 747 755 763 771 779 787 795 803 81 81 827 835 843 851 859 5 1 9 -35 256QAM channe l ce ntre fre que ncy (M Hz) LTE (10MHz BW) at 316mW ERP Figure 11 LTE-radiated European scenarios. STBs in representative netw orks. STBs 1 to 21 ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 29 . calculated separation distance 0. -10dBm V DVB-C input level (LTE centre frequency 795 MHz.DVB-C STB tests: Maxim um LTE level perm itting stable audio and video on 256QAM channels from 675-859MHz.

triple or quad screened internal cables (light blue on graph Figure 13) when they install however the customer is not legally obliged to use the operator when extending or changing their installations. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 30 .2 Cable Modem – LTE Interference Testing A similar test configuration to that shown in 0 was used for cable modems.3 In.5m and shows that the receivers display significant problems on-channel. and on a number of off-channel frequencies.9 Points below the red line were affected by maximum power levels proposed for LTE terminal units. Table 6: Wanted signal characteristics Signal standard DOCSIS Modulation 256QAM Input level (to the STB) -10dBmV Frequency range 795MHz Signal levels present at the input port of the cable modem are approximately -10dBmV and provide an MER of approximately 30dB. 7. Graph demonstrates the effect these power levels will have at a distance of 0.Home Cabling – LTE Interference Testing The UK cable operator uses high quality dual. -10dBm V DOCSIS (Annex B) input level from cable (LTE centre frequency 675-859MHz. Maxim um LTE level perm itting stable data on a 256QAM channel at 795MHz. LTE (1 Hz B W) 0M at 31 6mW ERP Figure 12 LTE-Radiated European Scenario.2. calculated separation distance 0. CM 1 .2. on both adjacent channels. CM in representative netw orks.5m ) 40 CM 1 30 On-channel CM 2 CM 3 20 CM 4 LTE ERP (dBm) 1 0 CM 5 0 CM 6 -1 0 CM 7 -20 CM 8 -30 -40 675 691 707 723 739 755 771 787 803 81 9 835 851 CM 9 256QAM channel centre frequency (MHz) The red 31 6mW line is the no minal po wer (CEP T) o f the terminal unit.7.

Calculated separation distance 0.5m. 818 and 850MHz). 25m cables. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 31 . On-channel On-channel On-channel 40 Pro quad-shield (black) 30 LTE ERP (dBm) 20 Good domestic (black) 1 0 Standard domestic (brow n) 0 Low -end RG59/u (black) -1 0 -20 786 81 8 850 LTE (10MHz BW) at 316mW ERP LTE transmit and DVB-T receive centre frequency (MHz) The red 316mW line is the nominal pow er (CEPT) of the terminal unit. LTE-radiated 25m coaxial cables 7.2. -60dBm input level to outside receiver.4 Summary of LTE Interference with Cable systems Testing demonstrates that the tested combinations of modulation and power levels with a STB or cable modem in an in-home installation are susceptible to on-channel (where the STB uses the same radio channel as the interfering signal) LTE interference at or below the 25dBm Total Radiated Power (TRP) level proposed for LTE terminal units in this band. Figure 13 Test 24.A number of tests were carried out on various qualities of domestic cables as the Dutch and other reports give in-home cabling as a major cause of ingress in their countries the indicative results of the Cable Europe testing show: Test 24: Maximum LTE level permitting stable audio and video on a DVB-T channel (centre frequencies 786. Seven out of eight tests revealed susceptibility on adjacent channels. where the receive frequency is one 8MHz Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) channel offset from the interferer‟s transmit in addition to various image/IF channel interference.

2 Reduce QAM rates to make the system more robust: Testing demonstrates that the combinations of modulation and power levels with a STB in an in-home installation are susceptible to on-channel (where the wanted channel operates on the same channel as the interfering signal) LTE interference at or below the 25dBm Total Radiated Power (TRP) level proposed for LTE terminal units in this band. Transmission of High Definition. unfortunately it has a range of practical drawbacks: The cable networks already use spectrum above 790 MHz. 3D and Interactive TV is spectrum hungry. Seven out of eight tests revealed susceptibility on adjacent channels (where receive frequency is one 8MHz Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) channel offset from the interferer‟s transmit frequency).7.3.3 Cable Interference .1 Restrict cable transmissions to below 790 MHz. Amendments to the configuration revealed the following: A regression to a more robust form of modulation – 64QAM – from 256QAM provides a marginal (between approximately 0 and 5. Such a regression reduces data throughput by a factor of around 30%. This will not provide an answer for the interference expected in the next stage of Digital Dividend clearance to 600MHz or the use of white space devices (and indeed could compound the issues). and the loss of existing and future revenue to enable competing technologies and delivery mechanisms to operate appears to be anti-competitive. causing the overall spectrum requirement to increase to maintain existing DTV and Broadband services. As DOCSIS 3 services are expanded.4dB) improvement in immunity. up to some 32 bonded channels may be required in order to obtain maximum data rates. 7. Requirements for higher speed broadband will need up to 32 bonded 8 MHz channels. Costs of reconfiguring the networks to below 790MHz would be prohibitive. and six out of eight revealed wider susceptibility to in-band interference.3. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 32 .Possible mitigation and solutions A number of mitigation techniques have been suggested: 7. Whilst this would seem to provide an instant answer.

7.3.7.6 Pilot Tone A tracking low level pilot tone transmitter attached to each piece of CPE would serve a number of purposes Cause the ECN terminal unit to avoid that frequency when communicating Provide sufficient level of RF power to be detected by white space devices 7.4 Cable Summary Testing has shown that there is little in the way of filtering or other simple “add-on‟s” which will dramatically improve the situation in the UK as the issue is largely a cochannel one. This does not of course address the issue of the millions of pieces of legacy CPE which are deployed across the UK HFC Networks. 7. roll out of ECN‟s in rural areas first would achieve Government objectives and allow time for the cable industry to both develop and fit new CPE. This would also increase the risk of signal levels at the system outlet and at the input to the CPE which are currently operating within specification being raised above maximum specified level as defined in EN60728-1 System Performance of Forward Paths. work is underway in the ETSI/CENELEC EMC Joint Working Group on these issues and with individual CPE and components manufacturers. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 33 .3. Subscribers must be actively discouraged from using inferior cables to modify or extend their own in-home cabling.3.3. the prime point by a range of agencies for use of ECN‟s is to provide rural broadband.3 Increase HFC signal level HFC Networks in the UK are designed to operate with input levels to the CPE as close as possible to the mid-point of their specified input level operating window. Time is required for new CPE to be developed.5 Home Cabling improvements Where interference occurs and existing in-home cables are dual-shield only. Increasing signal levels on the HFC Network would require considerable re-engineering at great expense. 7. However the short time scales before the introduction of ECNs suggest that new designs will not be commercially available in time in the quantities required.4 Increase immunity of CPE A long term solution. these can be upgraded to triple or quad-shield types.

However if data is being downloaded. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 34 . total loss of data is not always immediately apparent to the end user.7. total loss of data is immediately apparent as the video and audio stream stops. the end user may not notice as any undelivered packets are re-sent. The input signal should then be set to -10dBmV and the process repeated. 2 conditions shall be recorded. this is obvious as the stream will stop. For Cable Set Top Boxes. 316 mW). so any totally corrupted data is lost forever. the interfering carrier should have 100% & 50% modulation applied and should also be operated in idle mode (0%). 2 conditions shall be recorded. The DUT should be tuned to a target 256QAM. the channel power of the interferer at the point when error correction commences and the channel power of the interferer at the point when data is lost.5.2 Testing Procedure Each device under test (DUT) should be radiated by a real LTE carrier with a bandwidth of 10MHz. the channel power of the interferer at the point when error correction commences and the channel power of the interferer at the point when the picture is lost.5 Recommended Cable and DVB-C/DOCSIS CPE tests for trial test bed. 8MHz wide channel with an input signal set to 0dBmV and the interferer varied in power and modulation until interference is seen or the limits of the terminal power reached (25 dBm. depending on what operation they are carrying out at the time the interference occurs.1 Interference scenarios There are 2 types of Cable CPE which need to be tested. 7.5. for example a large document. For each Cable Set Top Box tested. This constitutes 3 sets of tests For each Cable Modem tested. If they are for instance streaming video and/or audio. Firstly for Cable Modems. This will potentially have a dramatic impact on the network as continually having to re-send dropped packets does impact on payload/data carrying capacity. and the impact of LTE interference is different for both the end user and the network. It is also important 7. These signals are not buffered or re-sent as they are received in real time.

The systems often carry additional locally introduced signals ranging from hotel front of house systems to student education and information channels. hotels. up to 12 test procedures need to be completed. in which frequency selective components are used. MATV systems have two principal parts: The head end. blocks of flats. Typically. commonly satellite programmes. in which the head-end passes all signals from the frequency band used for terrestrial television Processed. which is an arrangement of cables and splitters designed to carry signals from the launch amplifier to outlets in each dwelling. they are found in large houses. prisons. etc. designed to apply different amounts of gain to ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 35 . anything from about four flats upwards. in which there is at least one antenna to receive signals off-air and often more than one to receive radio. 8 Communal Antenna Systems Communal antenna systems are used to deliver television and radio signals received at a single location to a number of users. The source of the Communal Antenna Systems section of this document has been supplied by the Confederation of Aerial Industries Ltd and has been used by permission granted via Copsey Communications. These components include equalisers and channel amplifiers. which deliver satellite services as well as terrestrial television SMATV (Satellite Master Antenna Television). 8. so that the system does not pass all terrestrial television frequencies. MATV head ends can themselves also be partitioned into two categories: Wideband. and a launch amplifier to overcome the loss of signal power in the distribution network The distribution network.Hence for each device tested. student halls of residence. An IRS can be regarded as an MATV system with additional components to deal with satellite signals. similar to MATV with the addition of locally modulated signals.1 Communal Antennas – Systems and Topologies Communal antenna systems can be partitioned into three categories: MATV (Master Antenna Television) systems.000 homes. tower blocks with over 100 flats or housing estates with 1. which deliver analogue and digital terrestrial television signals IRS (Integrated Reception Systems).

ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 36 .. The addition of a further satellite would result in a system with 9 cables or 3 satellites. local) television transmission station and. 13 cables and 4 satellites. The best systems will have channelized filtering to prevent interference from other transmissions. Each distribution point has a satellite switch and connects via a single cable with an outlet plate in the flat where commands from the satellite decoder cause the switch to deliver the required polarity. a converter called a stacker may be used. Stackers result in the distributed bandwidth increasing locally to the flat to between 88 and 3500 MHz. and large systems will have processed head-ends. Signals range from the FM broadcast band through DAB to analogue and digital television signals. The interference immunity of the head-end varies widely dependant on age and installation design. Many systems also have a satellite reception capability. In addition to the signals mentioned above. A stacker will up convert one satellite output from the switch and add this to another output. although this varies somewhat geographically and with the age of the system The antenna array receives “off-air” terrestrial broadcast signals from both the main (i. in many cases. A system such as this with one satellite being distributed is known as a 5 cable system. receiving either Freesat channels or. and channel changers. In the flat. As a rule. Systems delivering services such as Sky plus and HD would have a minimum of two cables feeding into the flat. Distribution components are readily available for up to 17 cable back bones. The LNB has four outputs being low and high band with two polarities for each being horizontal and vertical. Each of the cables carries an IF range of signals between 950 and 2150 MHz. The addition of satellite to the system comprises of a dish complete with LNB.different channels. 17 cables. some systems will also have the introduction of on-site and locally produced programmes including security cameras modulated into free channels in bands 4 and 5. In the case of retro fitting to provide the extra feed for Sky plus etc. depending on license arrangements a combination of Freesat and subscription channels. The back bone of the system run between the head end and each switch and repeater amplifier is therefore that number of cables. transmission stations from an adjacent area. with gains of up to 40dB or more. Other systems will have the terrestrial antenna connected directly to a broadband amplifier which may have a bandwidth as wide as 30862MHz. a down converter will separate out the two sets of signals.e. small MATV systems tend to have wideband headends. designed to move a signal from one channel to another. The head end amplifiers enable these four sets of signals to be distributed around the system as well as the terrestrial.

000 MATV / SMATV / IRS systems serving 5-6 million homes (Source: Mr D Hodges of the Confederation of Aerial Industries Ltd). dependant on the cable losses incurred up to that point. With the physical co-location of LTE base stations and communal antenna systems. The link cables (fly lead) between the wall socket and customer equipment are normally provided by the customer. at minimum. Once in the system. Cabling of these systems will vary widely from multi-screened cables to single screen. The selection of distribution will depend on the geography and size of the site concerned. local council or a local company. Wall sockets will also vary. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 37 . Termination in customer premises will normally consist of an unfiltered plate which may have two or more sockets diplexing FM radio. the amplifiers used in a communal antenna system are likely to receive direct breakthrough from the LTE signal into the wideband amplifiers. 8. Distribution of the signal throughout the building or buildings will be achieved by wideband repeater amplifiers. These conclusions have been borne out by both industry and Ofcom testing 8.2 Communal Antenna Interference Issues Many communal antenna systems located in major conurbations will be on high tower blocks where the head end may well be co-located with other radio services including GSM. DAB and UHF television. In addition the terminal units will interfere with both the distribution amplifiers and domestic CPE. cause interference to any co-located channels or adjacent channels. the most common being star distribution and cascade. However for the UK the following figures are the best estimate from the Confederation of Aerial Industries (CAI): There are in the order of 750. the older systems having unscreened outlet and modern systems complying with EMC requirements. communal antenna systems may be provided by the building owner. The gain of these amplifiers will vary by up to 40dB. 3G and in the future LTE systems.3 Communal Antenna Customer base It is difficult to determine exact numbers of viewers as there is no single authority. The interference effect will depend on the bandwidth of the interfering signal and the amount of out-of-band energy produced by the base station. normally without any filtering.Distribution may be achieved through a variety of methods. the LTE signal may well overload the amplifier or.

5.8.1 Fibre Optic Systems Deploy fibre optic systems for use throughout new systems and as an add on where possible for existing systems.2 Head end design ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 38 .5. terminal units will cause interference within the distribution amplifiers and domestic CPE. To follow some suggested solutions. Once the signal has entered the distribution chain it is unlikely that conventional RF filtering will resolve the interference issues. In addition to the base station interference. more likely.4 Communal Antenna Interference Assessment From initial research. it is reasonable to state that interference will occur and is due to the physical proximity of the base station to the head-end equipment and to the wideband nature of amplifiers used for distribution of the signal within a building. some of which will be shared with domestic TV and cable. in some cases.5 Innovation to solve the problems Several Interference resolution techniques could be deployed for installations to reduce interference. 8. Communal antenna systems and viewers will also be vulnerable to any other changes in the environment brought about by additional services being introduced in the television bands. These may include: White space devices either due to non-local television signals being distributed throughout the system or for breakthrough into local wideband distribution amplifiers New mobile or similar services introduced in the second phase of clearance above 600MHz The proposed increases in terrestrial television transmission powers may also have an effect on these systems as a minimum rebalancing of the network would probably be required. greater consideration of the cabling needs to be made. This will be worse in hotel systems where the migrant population would be expected to use a higher percentage of terminal units for longer periods. it may have been put into conduit or. 8. For the future. 8. built into the fabric during the construction of the building and therefore replacement with better screened cables is unlikely to be economically viable. Cabling of communal antenna systems is unlikely to be generally accessible as.

develop and install new: compact filters for both the antenna and amplifiers.4 Domestic Premises and CPE Solutions that could be deployed to follow. but for terminal units c) Same as a). but fixed mobile units d) Use the results from a) to c) to generate radiated signals at 3m to identify: .3 Distribution amplifiers Solutions that could be deployed to follow. possibly using fibre optics 8.Solutions that could be deployed to follow. develop and install new: multiple compact filters with tuneable pass bands housings for both existing and new equipment which will provide maximum shielding from interference Interference proof connectors.Provide sufficient level of RF power to be detected by white space devices 8. develop and install new: develop much better immunity both for the overall equipment casing and receiver performance fibre connections for all CPE (interconnecting various devices such as recorders and hard disk units). preferably channelized with steep sides housings for both existing and new equipment which will provide maximum shielding from interference innovative antenna designs which minimise any but the wanted direction and channels cable designs to maximise immunity 8.A tracking low level pilot tone transmitter attached to each piece of CPE would serve a number of purposes .6 Recommended Communal Antenna tests for trial test bed To follow is the recommended tests where equipment and cabling can be tested against radiated and conducted interference from 800MHz LTE systems: a) Evaluate real base station LTE signal using the proposed licence conditions and plot the actual out of band and any other spurious energy b) Same as a).5.Cause the ECN terminal unit to avoid that frequency when communicating .actual radiated immunity / interference to existing coax cables .actual radiated immunity / interference to all components of a communal antenna system including the satellite sections . perhaps as an add on for existing equipment immune cable or fibre optic (perhaps with plastic fibre) Pilot Tone .5.Actual efficiency/performance / interference to mitigation filtering ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 39 .

9 Applications above 862 MHz . games consoles and similar devices. Baby Alarms consisting of a sensitive microphone in the vicinity of a baby with the receiver adjacent to parents or other adults. Operation of mobile terminals in close proximity to SRD receivers may lead to interference or blocking in some scenarios. These systems allow a tour guide to provide a commentary on the subject of the tour. These will commonly be plugged into the headphone outlet of televisions. Tour guide systems. Consumer radio microphones. Hi-Fi systems. existing standards reflect the current relatively benign adjacent band interference environment. camcorders and similar devices. there will be potential for interference to arise from mobile terminals into SRDs in the adjacent band. In Ear Monitoring systems (IEM) enable performers to hear the combined audio output of other musicians or singers. particularly at the lower end of the SRD band. Radio microphones for professional markets. used with karaoke systems.Short Range Devices The 863 – 870 MHz band is allocated on a harmonised basis throughout Europe for use by licensed-exempt Short Range Devices (SRDs). In some cases there will be more than one frequency in use to allow additional languages to be used. these are plug-on units for existing audio microphones. Common SRD uses include: Wireless headphones for consumer markets. which are illustrated below. Portable wireless microphone and receiver for professional markets. A voice quality 7 kHz audio bandwidth is common in these devices. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 40 . with high power TV transmitters at fixed locations and a limited number of PMSE deployments. radios. Butt transmitters. As this band lies just above the mobile transmit sub-band part of the 800 MHz digital dividend spectrum. Radio microphones for semi-professional markets. Figure 14 863MHz to 870MHz Spectrum usage Although licensed-exempt SRDs are expected to operate in a non-protected interference environment and many devices incorporate interference mitigation techniques such as very short duty cycles or “listen before transmit” protocols. The SRD band is sub-divided into three application-specific sub-bands. The entire band may also be used by generic SRDs which may include conventional narrow band systems or wideband systems using spread spectrum technology.

Ofcom has commissioned two studies to ascertain the extent of SRD deployment in the 863 – 870 MHz band in the UK and to assess the immunity of SRDs to interference from mobile terminals below 862 MHz.5m of each other. The potential for interference to licensed PMSE operations in channels below 790 MHz also requires investigation. Terminal units can use up to 316mW (ECC Decision (09)03 and draft EC Decision). will start to show interference at powers above 0. A separate study is also investigating the potential impact of mobile terminals on systems operated by the emergency services in the 862 – 863 MHz band. On the basis of these studies Ofcom has concluded that in general SRDs in this band are unlikely to suffer any significant increase in interference as a result of the deployment of mobile services in the 790-862 MHz band.1 863MHz-865MHz testing (Copsey Communications) A variety of six professional. given the safety critical nature of these devices. A third of devices were susceptible to LTE transmissions below 830MHz. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 41 . Ofcom has commissioned further work to ascertain whether specific mitigation measures may be required. centred at 857MHz. semi-professional and consumer devices operating in the license-exempt frequency band 863-865MHz conforming to the harmonised standards EN 301 357 or EN 300 422 were tested by Copsey Communications for susceptibility to a 10MHz bandwidth LTE signal transmitting from 700MHz to 862MHz emulating both the base station and terminal unit: 50% of devices were adversely affected by a 10MHz wide signal at 857MHz (this is the highest centre frequency for a 10MHz wide terminal unit). This is a conservative figure with the cordless audio transmitter and receiver within 1.These devices may use FM or digital modulation with an output power below 10mW. Those devices susceptible to interference on the highest planned LTE terminal unit channel. 9. whereas normal operating conditions for the cordless audio equipment would probably be in the range 35m.15mW ERP (LTE signal transmitted from a 3m distance). The receivers are capable of receiving signals in the 863-865MHz band. In the specific case of social alarms. which could well affect a large percentage of existing cordless headphone users. One unit also showed interference from the base station transmit frequencies. One device out of six was susceptible to LTE transmissions below 779MHz.

5dBm EIRP. As the cordless audio devices consists of two parts (a transmitter that broadcasts to a receiver or receivers in the vicinity). As these devices migrate into „Mobile phones‟ the possibility of these being in close proximity to radio microphones or even on the user of the cordless audio device will increase. this is obtained from the block edge mask contained in CEPT Report 30. there is the possibility of interference from base stations under some circumstances. Various tests have been carried out within Europe and LTE terminal units have been shown to cause interference up to 4m away. 9. UK Ofcom. it was necessary for both components to be operating normally in the presence of an interfering signal in the 790-862MHz band to determine if there is potential for interference to the transmitter and/or the receiver.In addition whilst the base station out-of-band emissions are stringent at -49. The locations ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 42 . Figure 15 excerpt from presentation “MFCN base station emission limits for different 800 MHz licensees”. especially with the older cordless audio and baby alarm systems. The figure below reproduced by kind permission of Ofcom and Copsey Communications provides a graphic view of the energy dispersion over the band. this means that terminal units in adjacent flats or rooms may well generate interference into domestic setups. The objective was to determine if Mobile Networks operating in the reallocated band 790-862MHz using LTE modulation will cause interference to incumbent devices transmitting and receiving in the 863-865MHz band.2 863MHz – 865MHz test set up and results The cordless audio devices were set up in an anechoic chamber at a 3m separation distance from the interferer antenna. LTE modulation schemes are likely to include data dongles which may well be in close proximity to domestic equipment. Initially the cordless audio transmitter was located centrally and held stationary whilst the output of the receive unit was monitored as it was being moved around in proximity to the cordless audio transmitter.

and testing repeated. and the output of the receive device monitored on headphones in every case. The interferer was a 316mW ERP LTE signal transmitted in a 10MHz bandwidth.5 metres Test support Chamber Control room Cable 3 Signal generator Cable 6 RF amplifier Figure 16 Test environment and arrangement of equipment ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 43 . The devices were either mains-powered or powered by fully-charged or new batteries.LTE modulation parameters Radio format FDD Uplink Bandwidth 10MHz Standard rev 2008-09 Access technique SC-FDMA Modulation Full-filled QPSK Waveform name LTE_FDD_UL_10 3 metres Receive Transmit Bilog antenna Movement of receive unit 1. The characteristics of the signal are contained in Table below. using a Frequency Division Duplex scheme. Table 7. A 1kHz audio tone was supplied to the transmit device. Moving the cordless audio units enables the impact of any nulls or peaks in the transmit power of both the LTE and cordless audio signals to be overcome.were exchanged.

Cordless Audio devices (863-865 MHz). Table 8 . Professional portable wireless microphone and receiver Professional radio microphone system 1 Professional radio microphone system 2 Semi-professional radio microphone FM Wireless headphones LTE generator centre frequency (1MHz steps) 700-769 770-779 780-789 790-799 800-809 810-819 820-829 830-839 840-849 850-856 857 .The following results. Susceptibility to LTE operating from 700 – 857MHz. were obtained from 4th-12th May 2010.highest potential 10MHz LTE Centre Frequency * ** ** ** * * ** ** ** * ** * ** ** ** *** Key: * Mild LTE noise present ** Moderate LTE noise present *** Strong LTE noise present ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 44 Tour guide system .

3MHz was set as the frequency of transmission/reception for the cordless audio unit. ECC Decision 09/03 provides for a terminal unit power of 23dBm +/. A 10MHz bandwidth LTE signal with a centre frequency of 857MHz will occupy the range 852-862MHz. Table below shows the signal levels where interference to the cordless audio equipment starts to be observed.4 Recommended tests for trial test bed The tests detailed above clearly show that there is significant potential for interference between LTE in the 800MHz band and SRD‟s. 861. transmission was within the 863-865MHz band.88 33. No attempt has yet ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 45 . 9. dBm) 13. which in most cases had a reasonable or dramatic effect on the scale of the interference.96 15. mW) 24.Three of the six devices tested where susceptible to signals radiated within the proposed 790-862MHz band. Where selection could not be made.15 FM Wireless headphones Semi-professional radio microphone Professional radio microphone system 1 9.3 863MHz-865MHz test conclusions System susceptibility varied dependant on the physical location of the receiver relative to both the interfering transmission antenna and the cordless audio transmitter: nulls and peaks were detected during lateral movement around the 3m separation point.88 0. Where the operating frequency could be selected.2dB.maximum 10MHz bandwidth LTE signal power Radiated power (ERP. in an attempt to discern the power boundary where interference ceases. When listening to audio over a system any noise or interference is unacceptable.3 -8. Where a radio microphone is in use. any interference will ruin a production or cause the audio amplification to overload with possible harm to the audience. For the purposes of testing a 25dBm signal has been used and stepped down where interference was observed. Tests need to be conducted in real life scenarios to accurately replicate the possible interference modes.14 Radiated power (ERP. Table 9 .

Tests are required to determine what possibilities exist. Usually this is to allow one or more persons to listen at a higher sound volume than the other viewers in the room who are listening via the loudspeakers. used by the elderly or hearing impaired whilst watching television.g.ofcom. For example.pdf Ofcom study 2 Aegis Spectrum Engineering http://stakeholders. Body absorption alone at 800MHz frequencies can easily account for 20dB of signal loss. usually some 2 or 3 metres from the viewers. care homes. The transmitter for the cordless headphones will normally be located adjacent to the TV. in pockets.4m6) in comparison to the average domestic living room and normal TV viewing distances. hospitals.ofcom.7m or 24. The assumptions regarding the likely EIRP of LTE 800 UE equipment in the domestic environment need to be further investigated since the assumption that UE devices will not be operating at or near their maximum EIRP seems to be key to the Ofcom conclusion that in general SRDs in this band are unlikely to suffer any significant increase in interference as a result of the deployment of mobile services in the 790-862 MHz band. Hence the LTE devices could be operating at or near maximum power.uk/binaries/consultations/tlc/annexes/Final_report.been made to model the situation where more than one UE is present in the vicinity of the SRD. The LTE UE devices will be indoors and quite possibly close to the body. In multiple occupancy premises such as flats. the interfering UE devices may be in an adjacent room or even property yet very close physically to the SRD. It is necessary to establish the safe LTE 6 Ofcom commissioned studies on potential SRD interference Ofcom study 1 ERA Technology http://stakeholders. for interference mitigation in existing SRD‟s in real world conditions. These tests should include simultaneous use of multiple LTE 800 devices at real world proximity to the SRDs and with the LTE 800 devices operating at various base station field strengths to replicate the effect of higher and lower mobile and base transmit powers.5m of the wireless headphone receiver that is on the users head since it is quite reasonable to expect that the user of the headphones may themselves have a mobile phone as well as every other person in the room. if any. The various protection distances for SRD‟s referred to in the Aegis /ERA report are large (e. as they may well be in the domestic environment.uk/binaries/consultations/tlc/annexes/SRD-Study.pdf ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 46 . 49. A realistic scenario therefore is that there may be one or more LTE UE devices within as little as 0. but not exclusively. where signal strength will be degraded by building penetration and also potentially by body absorption. in practice cordless headphones are mostly. In this situation the victim has no control over the interference source and is in no position to take evasive action such as re-locating the offending device even if they are aware of the cause of the interference.org. so even with the LTE UE operating at lower powers the risk of interference would seem to be very real at normal domestic environment distances. halls of residence. etc.org.

co. but for terminal units c) Same as a). has managed the PMSE sectors use of the radio spectrum in the UK. but otherwise the interference scenarios described in Section 6 which apply to DTT being the potential victim of interference from 800MHz LTE also apply to PMSE operating in the bands up to 7 JFMG Ltd. Instances of interference to UHF TV reception.1 PMSE Interference PMSE receivers do not automatically suffer the N+9 problem as there are many and various receiver architectures with different IF's. Use of the UHF spectrum by PMSE is not confined to the UK and similar activity can be found in most parts of the world.htm ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 47 . Hence there is a global market for many forms of PMSE wireless. but fixed mobile units d) Use the results from a) to c) to generate radiated signals at 3m to identify: . http://www.7. analogue or digital.uk/pages/about/about. The technology used by the PMSE industry is almost entirely low powered (10 – 50mW ERP) wide band FM. In the UK this use has been managed and licensed by various means over the last three decades. In international spectrum regulatory circles the terms Services Ancillary to Broadcasting (SAB) and Services Ancillary to Production (SAP) are more commonly used to refer to the types of radio services in question. although a theoretical possibility. Equipment development has historically focused mainly on improving performance and reliability as well as on reducing the size. JFMG Ltd. are unheard of.jfmg. from PMSE. 10.actual radiated immunity / interference to Social alarms 10 PMSE 470-790MHz Programme Making and Special Events (PMSE) use the 470MHz to 790MHz band where professional PMSE users share with Analogue and Digital TV on a secondary basis. To follow is the recommended tests where equipment and cabling can be tested against radiated and conducted interference from 800MHz LTE systems: a) Evaluate real LTE terminal CPE signal using the proposed licence conditions and plot the actual out of band and any other spurious energy b) Same as a).800MHz mobile transmit power level in the domestic environment.actual radiated immunity / interference to Wireless Audio devices . where various types of SRDs are in use. Since 1997 a contracted agent.actual radiated immunity / interference to RFID devices . weight and power consumption of portable devices. who receive licence fees and issue licences to individuals and organisations on behalf of Ofcom. though the levels of formality and regulation vary widely.

8 Cambridge Wireless Radio Technology SIG http://cambridgewireless. have predominately been derived from simulation and modelling and a minor adjustment of a variable can make a large impact to the population or households that could be impacted. which could be worldwide.2 Recommended PMSE tests for trial test bed PMSE in 470MHz to 790MHz needs a set of tests similar to those for DTT and SRD devices described in sections 6. understand the real interference and for industry to further develop techniques to manage such interference issues. To follow is the recommended tests where equipment and cabling can be tested against radiated and conducted interference from 800MHz LTE systems: a) Evaluate real base station LTE signal using the proposed licence conditions and plot the actual out of band and any other spurious energy. 10.4 and 8. when interference occurs. DTT and SRD‟s It must also be noted that poor RF performance in the end user equipment increases the demand for spectrum and radio network density. 11 Conclusions and recommendations A combination of the techniques discussed in this paper are likely to be essential for optimising LTE 800MHz mobile coverage and capacity whilst not interfering with existing services such as Cable. The effects of interference to PMSE can of course be far wider reaching than interference to an individual TV or even communal aerial system since it potentially affects the whole audience. b) Use the results from a) to generate radiated signals at a defined distance to identify potential area around a base station site where PMSE devices could suffer interference. Recent studies have shown a large variation in radio performance for user equipment and in recognition of this challenge the ICT KTN Wireless Technology and Spectrum group voted this as a 2011 priority to address the longer term R&D challenges to improve radio front end technology. The technical assumptions used. The working group is working closely with a newly formed Cambridge Wireless Radio Technology SIG8 to address this challenge and will be hosting a series of events and workshops to address this topic.790MHz.co. The Ofcom consultation on 800MHz interference and co-existences challenge has created a big debate on the actual levels that could be experienced and who solves this.6. Getting agreement across multiple stakeholders of what the real model variables should be is very difficult to do and therefore it is strongly recommended that an appropriate test bed be made available for such innovation to thrive. PMSE.uk/sigs/radiotechnology/ ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 48 .

technology innovation. If this can be achieved we will be able to realise significant societal benefits whilst enabling our industry to benefit across the whole of the value chain. collaboration and knowledge transfer Identifying & prioritising challenges Policy and Regulation Flexibility to implement R&D trials Global exploitation Figure 17 Maximising wireless opportunities through Government & Industry collaboration ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 49 .Wireless technology development is a major opportunity for the UK to lead the way globally in deployment. policy & regulation Innovation. The concepts provided in this document can significantly help the deployment wireless services and increased capacity in high density areas within the UK and also help UK companies to trial and test concepts to enable global exploitation. The ICT KTN Wireless Technology and Spectrum working group believe we can act as the catalyst for this collaboration and is keen to take this to the next phase. policy and regulation. Driving Innovation Funding R&D to solve the major challenges INDUSTRY Wireless Technology & Spectrum working group Feasibility R&D to ensure technology can meet market. The diagram below demonstrates how the UK eco-system could provide a more holistic joined up strategy to maximise the benefit for the UK. The key to unlocking this potential is collaboration at all levels. spectrum and economic challenges Spectrum.

The working group is not working on economic and service values. Public safety spectrum: regulatory framework for infrastructure sharing? Flexible regulatory environment to enable trials Technology Strategy Board Advanced Filter and RF switching technologies. The output of the ICT KTN working group is biased towards innovation and technology challenges and therefore this should be read as opportunities for innovation and best use of spectrum from a technical perspective. Public safety spectrum to be included if decision is made to use this spectrum. Cable. Enable regulatory environment for RFI immunity. DCMS. This document has highlighted some major opportunities for industry to address by solving the issues through technological innovation.Wireless technology development. If this can be achieved we will be able to realise significant societal benefits whilst enabling our industry to benefit across the whole of the value chain. Mobile and SRDs. The objective of the working group is to focus on technology and innovation for other interested parties to use the information. is a major opportunity for the UK to lead the way globally in deployment. policy and regulation. Co-existence and interference challenges / network topologies Radio planning tools and dynamic radio management Antenna technologies Disruptive RF Front End Technologies Cost considerations are taken into account relating to design. To further enhance this eco-system we believe a more holistic UK approach is required involving not only industry but also Ofcom. The ICT KTN Wireless Technology and Spectrum working group believe we can act the catalyst for this collaboration and is keen to take this to the next phase. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 50 . Table 10 . DCMS. To help focus the request to OFCOM. within the Digital Dividend Spectrum. Support collaborative R&D Trials R&TTE and EMC directives need to be reviewed: Box level. technology innovation. Transmission over the air and through cables. BIS and the Technology Strategy Board a table of key priorities is listed below. relating to wireless and spectrum. equipment and a technology perspective.Ofcom. DCMS. BIS and the Technology Strategy Board. BIS & TSB recommendations Ofcom BIS / DCMS Receiver conformance / design – how to ensure future compliance of receiver air interface requirements. The key to unlocking this potential is collaboration at all levels. PMSE. Interaction issues require further investigation. Practical Cognitive radio techniques. DTT.

BIS and Ofcom. Collaboration enabling UK Wireless Innovation. ICT KTN Wireless Technology & Spectrum Working Group 800MHz Interference and co-existence challenges – August 2011 Page 51 . is critical to achieving the maximum benefit for the UK and the ICT KTN would welcome hosting meetings to see how this could be achieved with Ofcom. Academia Technology Strategy Board. We would also welcome new members to the working group who could strengthen this eco-system and potentially address some of the innovation challenges described in this paper. DCMS. BIS and Technology Strategy Board. DCMS. Figure 17.The information provided in this document has been worked on by the ICT KTN Wireless Technology and Spectrum working group to prioritise the areas we wish to work in collaboration with Industry.

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