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Emirates Journal for Engineering Research, 15 (2), 7-14 (2010) (Regular Paper


J.S.Senthilkumaar1; P.Selvarani2 and RM.Arunachalam3

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Greentech College of Engineering for Women, Tamil Nadu, India, E-mail jssenthil@ymail.com 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Govt. Polytechnic College, Tamil Nadu, India, E-mail. pselvarani@live.com 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sona College of Technology

(Received July 2010 and accepted November 2010)

‫( ﺑﺸﻜﻞ واﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻄﻴﺮان ﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﻤﺘﺎز ﺑﻪ هﺬﻩ‬Inconel 718) ‫ﻳﺘﻢ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺴﺒﺎﺋﻚ اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺒﺎﺋﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ أﺣﻤﺎل آﺒﻴﺮة، ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﺖ درﺟﺎت ﺣﺮارة ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ. هﺬا ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻌﻬﺎ أﻣﺮ ﺻﻌﺐ‬ ‫وﻳﺆدي اﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳﻄﺢ ذات ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ أدﻧﻰ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺔ، وﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆدي أﻳﻀﺎ اﻟﻰ ﺗﺂآﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻷدوات اﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ. ﺗﻢ‬ ً ‫( وﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﺮوف ﻗﻄﻊ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ، ﺗﻢ أﻳﻀﺎ‬full factorial design) ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﺠﺎرب ﻗﻄﻊ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻲ اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ً ّ ‫( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺨﺸﻮﻧﺔ اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬machining parameters) ‫دراﺳﺔ أﺛﺮ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻵﻟﺔ‬ (non-linear ‫واﻟﺘﺂآﻞ اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﻲ. آﻞ ذﻟﻚ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﺗﺒﺎع ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ارﺗﺪاد ﻏﻴﺮ ﺧﻄﻲ‬ .‫. ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮق ﺗﺎﺟﻮﺗﺸﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻲ‬regression)
Inconel 718 is widely used in aerospace industries because of their ability to withstand excessive loads even at elevated temperature. This property makes it, one of the most difficult to machining the material with inferior surface quality and rapid tool wear. Cutting experiments were conducted as per the full factorial design under dry cutting conditions. The effects of the machining parameters on the performance measures surface roughness and flank wear were investigated. The relationship between the machining parameters and the performance measures were established using the non-linear regression analysis. Taguchi’s optimization analysis indicates that the factors level, its significance to influence the surface roughness and flank wear for the tuning and facing processes. Confirmation tests were conducted at an optimal condition to make a comparison between the experimental results foreseen from the mentioned correlations. Keywords: Machining; Surface roughness; Design of Experiments; Taguchi Technique; ANOVA.

Nickel-base super alloys Inconel 718 are widely employed in the aerospace industry, in particular in the hot sections of gas turbine engines, due to their hightemperature strength and high corrosion resistance. They are known to be among the most difficult-to-cut materials. In machining Inconel 718 alloy, it is well known that the tool temperature rises easily due to its poor thermal properties. Micro-welding at tool-tip and chip interface takes place leading to the formation of built-up edge (BUE). The excellent material toughness results in difficulty in chip breaking during the process. In addition, precipitate hardening of secondary phase (Ni3Nb) together with workhardening during machining makes the cutting

condition even worse. All these difficulties lead to high tool wear less material remove rate (MRR) and poor surface finish (Raman et al 1997, Choudhury & El-Baradie 1998). The manufacture of aerospace components involves a variety of machining operations such as turning, facing, milling and drilling. Considerable research has been done on selection and optimization of machining parameters for coated and uncoated carbide cutting tools using wet and dry cutting conditions. However understanding the wear mechanism of turning and facing operations, are very important in the aerospace industry for desired surface roughness and economic manufacturing of the product. Surface finish is a very important aspect for designing mechanical elements and also presented as a quality indicator of manufacturing processes (Puertas & Luis


Aslan et al 2007 and Hascalik et al 2007 quoted in their research an optimum selection of process condition is extremely important as this one determine surface quality and flank wear phenomena of the manufactured parts. which will be selected based on the response function and its characteristics. main parameters which are assumed to have influence on process results are located at different columns in a designed orthogonal array. The S/N ratio for minimum responses type of characteristic can be calculated as follows: η = −10 log ⎜ ⎛ 1 n 2⎞ ∑y ⎟ ⎝ n i =1 i ⎠ (1) where yi is the observed data at ith trial and n is the number of trails. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Single pass finish turning and facing operations were conducted in dry cutting condition in order to investigate the performance and study the wear mechanism of uncoated carbide tools on Inconel 718 in the form of cylindrical bar stock of diameter 38 mm. so that the appropriate data can be analyzed by statistical methods. The chemical composition and mechanical properties are given in table 1 and 2 respectively. The experiments were conducted on the L16 ACE designer CNC lathe with constant speed capability. there are several quality characteristics.07 Cu 0. Thamer J. In turning operation. such as cutting speed.294 Table 2.1 Work material Inconel 718 material is used as the work material in the present investigation. Taguchi design of experiments is a simple robust technique for analyzing and optimizing the process parameters. Sulaymon. In this paper.04 Fe Bal Mn 0. Ali H. Test specimen was prepared from cylindrical bar of 1m long and 38mm diameter into nine equal lengths. feed and depth of cut are controlled by the operator at the time of machining process. Vol.04 Nb+Ta 5. parameters cutting speed.40 Mo 2. depth of cut machine tool. the effective parameters having influence on process results can be seen and the optimal sets of process parameters can be determined. In the case of surface roughness and flank wear.2. Among these 3. feed.80 Co 0. smaller the better “SB” ratio were selected. From the S/N ratio. In this method. There are three S/N ratios that are available. Mohammed. Ghani et al 2004). 2010 . resulting in a valid and objective conclusion (Thomas et al 1997).98 Al 0. lower values of them are desirable. In order to decide the surface quality and tool wear the statistical design of experiments is used quite extensively. This requires to measure surface quality of manufactured parts with accuracy. No. In turning and facing operations an improper selection of cutting parameters will cause undesired surface roughness and high tooling cost. 2.Abbas H. The design of experiments refers to the process of planning the experiment. 3. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS Design of experiments is a powerful tool for modeling and analysis of process variables over some specific variable which is an unknown function of these process variables (Ghani et al 2004). In the Taguchi design of experiments the signal to noise ratio (η) representing quality characteristics for the observed data (Ross 1996. Jawad 2003). desired responses are minimum surface roughness and minimum tool wear so. Mechanical properties of Inconel 718 Tensile strength (MPa) 1280 Yield strength (MPa) 1090 Young modulus (MPa) 208x103 Density (kg/m3) 819 Melting point(˚C) 1285 Hardness (HRC) 18 Thermal conductivity (W/mK) 12.034 Si 0. cutting tool rigidity and geometry etc.48 Cr 17.09 Ti 0. Depending on the experimental response. 15. chemical compositions of Inconel 718 (weight basis) C 0. Any machining process does not allow achieving the theoretical surface roughness due to defects appearing on machined surfaces due to rapid tool wear and imbalances in the process. In general surface roughness and flank wear are mainly depends on the manufacturing conditions employed. feed and depth of cut for measuring the surface roughness and flank wear by using uncoated carbide inserts grade H13A.98 Ni 50.23 8 Emirates Journal for Engineering Research. Table 1. The facing and turning operations were done in same and dry cutting conditions to fulfilling requirements and making it possible to minimize the objective functions. full factorial design of experiments was conducted by varying the machining parameters such as speed.

4.20 0.79 0. 20. Table 4 presents the experimental details and their results.73 0.50 1.15 0.56 0.11 0.50 1.132 0.84 0.122 0. 27. The standard orthogonal array chosen was L27.122 0. 1.00 1.15 1.59 0. 9.088 0.085 0.1.10 0.32 0. 8.63 0.00 1.182 0.148 0.39 0.6 0.50 1.288 0.197 0.57 0.27 0. 26.25 1.37 0.17 0.47 0.65 0. Three process parameters at three levels led to a total of 27 tests for turning and facing operation.226 0.136 0. 23.182 0.23 0.125 0. 2.125 0.075 0.00 1.137 0.79 0. The facing operation was carried out on a 7.138 0.10 0.108 0. one for facing and another for turning operation resulting that 54 tests were conducted.36 0.26 0.25 1.33 0.174 0. The parameter levels were chosen within the intervals based on the recommendations by the cutting tool manufacturer.121 0.162 0.17 0.25 1.58 0.15 0.131 0.15 0.1 0. Levels of machining parameters for orthogonal array Machining parameters Cutting speed ‘V’ (m/min) Feed ‘f’ (mm/rev) Depth of cut ‘a’ (mm) Level 1 25 0. Vol.15 0.52 0.09 0. Orthogonal array and experimental results Machining parameters Trail No.71 0.49 0.50 1.19 0.14 0.50 1.068 0.00 1. During the machining processes constant cutting length of 19 mm were machined.20 0.45 0.15 0.56 0.78 0.15 0.20 0.134 0. 15. 5.2 Tool material Uncoated carbide inserts as per ISO specification SNMG 120408-QM H13A were clamped onto a tool holder with a designation of DSKNL 2020K 12 IMP for facing operation and DBSNR 2020K 12 for turning operation.25 1.57 0. 21. LT16 CNC lathe with a maximum spindle speed of 3500 RPM.20 0. 2010 9 . 19.11 0.25 1.00 1.1 1.91 0.10 0.00 1.Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Three-phase non-NewtonianLiquid-Gas .15 0.56 0.8 0.10 0.00 1.186 0.20 0.18 0.42 0.125 0. 18.1 0.20 0.086 0.85 0.44 0.17 0. 10. 13.00 1.25 1. 3.25 Level 3 45 0.103 0.101 Facing Process Surface Flank wear roughness ‘VB’ (mm) ‘Ra’ (µ m) 0.10 0.20 0.136 0.59 0.25 0.158 0.56 0.10 0.10 0. Three levels were specified for each of the factors as indicated in Table 3.50 1. Cutting speed ‘V’ (m/min) 35 25 25 35 25 35 35 45 45 25 25 35 25 25 45 45 45 25 25 35 45 45 35 45 35 45 35 Feed ‘f’ (mm/rev) 0. No. 15. 14.43 0.75 0. Three levels were specified for each process parameter as given in the Table 3.33 0.145 0. 24.135 0.25 1.53 0.38 0.50 Turning Process Surface Flank wear roughness ‘Ra’ ‘VB’ (mm) (µ m) 0.69 0. 16. 25.52 0.129 0.67 0.82 0.00 1.Solid fluidized beds 3.20 0. Surface roughness was measured by using Mittoyo-surftest 211 with sampling length of 0.5 0.75 0. 6.22 0.64 0.51 0.123 0.10 0. Table 3.25 mm whilst the tool wear was measured using a Toolmakers microscope coupled with a CMOS camera and image processing software. 22. which has 27 rows and 26 degrees of freedom.5 kW. 17.72 0.13 0.50 1.15 0.109 0. Two tests were performed for each combination.0 Level 2 35 0.137 0.50 1.149 0.5 Table 4.10 Depth of cut ‘a’ (mm) 1.20 0.1 0.56 0.62 0.18 0.47 0.25 1.25 1.148 0.2 1. 7. 12.15 Emirates Journal for Engineering Research.15 0. 11.

0025 0.412 0.50 3.00402 0. If the error percentage was greater amount the linear model developed by using factor and their interactions may not give precise prediction results.0007358 FRatio 5.03599 0. From the Table 7.00 10 Emirates Journal for Engineering Research.79 100.022 0.05 are considered to have a statistically significant contribution to the performance measures.376 % of contribution 7.22 20.032 0. ANOVA analysis of surface roughness for the facing process. 15. associated with the F-tests for each source of variation.96 16. We can observe that the interactions are statistically significances and contributions on the tool wear are ‘V×a’ (25.04 % of contribution 13.98 100.05. This analysis was carried out for a significance level of α=0. Tables [5-8] the Probability level that is the realized significance levels.0123477 0.57 1.692 0.0353 0.74%) alone have significance on the surface roughness generation in the workpiece.41 2.07061 0.03215 F-Ratio 1.22%) and ‘f×a’ (20. No.79% (turning) and 13.0019558 0.05 4.0030869 0.14395 0.03645 0.94%).025 0.15617 0.66 5.e. Vol.63% and 16% respectively of the total variation.08 0. i.12 2.8% (facing).112 0.43 32.01823 0. Also last column of the tables show the percentage of contribution of each source to the total variation indicating the degree of influence on the result.2 Probability level 0.0047175 0.63 0.88 15.9973 Table 6 ANOVA table for flank wear of turning process Source term V f a V×f V×a f×a Error Total Degree of Freedom 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 26 Sum of Squares 0. for confidence level of 95%. Thamer J. Notice that the error associated in the ANOVA analysis for the surface roughness was 25.25721 0.121 0.0078233 0.65 14.55 1.926 0. ANOVA table for surface roughness of turning process Source term V f a V×f V×a f×a Error Total Degree of Freedom 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 26 Sum of Squares 0.0005676 0. Mohammed.46 0.0058861 0. it can observe that the factor ‘f’ (33.94 9.08 0. Based on the ANOVA.0589736 Mean Square 0.00 13. Table 5 and Table 7 shows that the result of the ANOVA analysis for the surface roughness of turning and facing process respectively.379 0.98%(turning) and 31.21% (facing) and for the flank wear was approximately 9. Table 6 shows that flank wear of the turning process are depends on the cutting speed ‘V’ and depth of cut ‘a’ which contributes 13.27 25.0037185 0.21 Probability level 0.3279 0.009435 0. Ali H.39 6. Sulaymon.00 Mean Square 0. The sources with a Probability level less than 0. From the Table 8 none of the factors having either statistical or physical significance on the flank wear obtained. the relative importance of the machining parameters with respect to surface roughness and flank wear was investigated to determine the optimum combination of the machining parameters.1 0.66 25. Similarly the Table 6 and Table 8 show that the results of the ANOVA analysis for the flank wear of turning and facing process.00501 0. Table 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The purpose of the statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is to investigate which design parameter significantly affects the surface roughness and flank wear.589 0.03904 0.Abbas H.0080401 0. 2010 .0002838 0.2.08198 0. Jawad 4. Table 5 shows that none of the factors were statistically significance with variation surface roughness.0148739 0.

2010 11 .000919 F-Ratio 2.0025068 0.991 0.1 Taguchi optimization analysis of surface roughness Taguchi recommends analyzing means of S/N ratio using conceptual approach that involves graphical method for studying the effects and visually identifying the factors that appear to be significant (Phadke 1987.0050136 0. Main Effects Plot (data means) for SN ratios v 7.80 100.1.21 0.360 6.13 31.08 Probability level 0.37 13.379 0.Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Three-phase non-NewtonianLiquid-Gas .370 6.75 1.24 11.0073519 0. The rank indicates the dominant machining parameters that affect surface roughness.91 7. Based on the data presented in Table 9 and Fig.01 0.01041 FRatio 2. 15.0 6.0000185 0.00916 0.50 35 a 45 0.67 10.0278 0. The mean S/N ratios for each level of the machining parameters were calculated and the results are shown in the Table 9. Ranking of the machining parameters are also calculated based on difference in the S/N ratio.452 0.98 0.2mm/rev).585 0.15 0.0 6.68 0. and depth of cut (1. 2 the optimal performance was obtained at cutting speed (35m/min).74 2.0006884 0.5 25 7.88 1.1mm/rev) and depth of cut (1.0819 0. Mean of Signal to noise ratio for Surface roughness of turning process Emirates Journal for Engineering Research.0 5.20 Figure 1.906 5.97 12.77 Probability level 0.769 5.03211 0.0003604 0.10636 0.07 6.39 0.0 5.0231161 Mean Square 0. feed (0.05561 0.Solid fluidized beds Table 7 ANOVA table for surface roughness of facing process Source term V f a V×f V×a f×a Error Total Degree of Freedom 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 26 Sum of Squares 0.082 % of contribution 8.00 4.129 0. Figure1 shows that the plot for surface roughness.148 1 2 3 Mean Square 0. The surface roughness and tool wear are individually analyzed using statistical software.02048 0. feed (0.817 6. Davim 2001.5 6.006 0.5 7.12846 0.21272 0.21 1.000037 0.759 5.0016256 0. No.10 0.0065024 0. Vol.0014415 0.01832 0.63056 Table 8 ANOVA table for flank wear of facing process Source term V f a V×f V×a f×a Error Total Degree of Freedom 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 26 Sum of Squares 0.050 1.348 5.309 5.05024 0.1 the optimal performance for the surface roughness of turning process was obtained at cutting speed (25m/min).809 0.16 0.228 % of contribution 21.01256 0.000008 0. Signal to Noise Ratio for Surface roughness (Turning process) Details Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Delta Rank Machining parameters Mean S/N ratio Cutting speed Feed Depth of cut 7.00 Table 9.99 20.00 1.2003).399 1.25mm).97 3.02 0.193 0.0000161 0.125 0.5 f Mean of SN ratios 6.73 0. which indicates that surface roughness decreases with increase of cutting speed and feed whilst very low influences on the depth of cut since delta value is found to be very low.25mm).5 1.5 7.82 33.92 28.25 1.820 2.0027537 0.08332 0. For the facing process with reference of Table 10 and Fig.21 100.

0 -3. Table 11 Signal to Noise Ratio for Flank wear of turning process Details Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Delta Rank Machining parameters Mean S/N ratio Cutting speed -0.934 -2.341 4.10 0.10 0.50 35 a 45 0.5349 3 Depth of cut -1.7665 2.00 1.0 25 -2.990 -3.50 Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better Figure 3. Thamer J. Based on the flank wear observation in turning process depth of cut and cutting speed were dominant factors where as in facing process cutting speed alone the dominant factor. and Fig. Similarly for the facing process from the Table 12.862 5.5.20 Mean of SN ratios 4 3 6 5 4 3 1. Mean of Signal to noise ratio for flank wear of facing process Figure 5.660 2 1 3 -1 -2 Main Effects Plot for SN ratios Data Means v f Mean of SN ratios -3 25 35 a 45 0.1mm/rev). The feed rate is found to have a little influence on the flank wear. the optimal performance for the flank wear was obtained at cutting speed (35 m/min).703 -2.25 1.8481 -2. 3) for turning process was obtained at cutting speed (25m/min).5 -3. Taguchi optimization analysis of flank wear Tool wear is one of the most critical factors to decide the cost effectiveness of the machining process.4089 2 Feed -1. The flank wear were observed on the cutting tool as shown in Fig.5mm). Flank wear (10x) obtained at different cutting conditions of turning process 12 Emirates Journal for Engineering Research.4650 -0.25 mm).5449 -2.119 6. Mean of Signal to noise ratio for flank wear of turning process 25 35 a 45 0.0 1.743 3. Sulaymon. 15.059 Rank 1 2 3 4.879 Level 3 -4.463 5. and depth of cut (1. Mean of Signal to noise ratio for Surface roughness of facing process Table 12 Signal to Noise Ratio for Flank wear of facing process Details Machining parameters Mean S/N ratio Cutting speed Feed Depth of cut Level 1 -2. 4. Vol.5 -4.339 3. Based on the analysis using the Table 11. No.6985 1 Main Effects Plot for SN ratios Data Means v -2.5 -4.15 0. Ali H.20 Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better Figure 4. The flank-wear increases with increase of cutting speed.2.15 0. Signal to Noise Ratio for Surface roughness (Facing process) Details Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Delta Rank Machining parameters Mean S/N ratio Cutting speed Feed Depth of cut 4.20 -1 -2 -3 Main Effects Plot for SN ratios Data Means v 6 5 f 1. feed (0.50 Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better Figure 2.2 mm/rev) and depth of cut (1.054 5.00 1.365 0.6790 -2. Mohammed.803 1.888 Level 2 -1.468 5.10 0.25 1. Jawad Table 10.5 -3.9560 -3.126 0.00 1. optimal performance for the flank wear (Fig.068 -2.3830 -1.Abbas H.0 -2.070 -2.2. 2010 .9588 2.0 f Mean of SN ratios -3.9564 0.0 -2.15 0.938 Delta 2.645 -2.25 1. feed (0.511 5.080 0.

& Birgoren B. CONCLUSION In this work. the percentage error between experimental and predicted result is 4.25. & Hassan. Englewood Cliffs.A. exhibits a good correlation between the predicted and the experimental responses. 3. U (2007).47 0. 0. Choudhury. & Caydas.& El-Baradie. Tech.77.28. Vol.S.. H. Figure 6. Design of optimization of cutting parameters when turning hardened AISI 4140 steel (63 HRC) with Al2O3+TiCN mixed ceramic tool.Solid fluidized beds 5. Hascalik. pp.25 1. M. From the analysis of Table 14.49% in turning and facing process respectively. 3.259-272. • Optimal machining parameters for minimum flank wear. • Based on the Taguchi’s optimization analysis for the turning process the cutting speed and depth of cut are the dominant factors whereas in facing process cutting speed and feed are dominant factors which affecting the performance measures. Turning Turning Facing Facing Surface roughness Flank wear Surface roughness Flank wear 25 25 35 35 0. Prod.. P. Table 14.A. A comparative analysis of machining characteristics in ultrasonic assisted EDM by the response surface methodology. J. Optimization of turning parameters for surface roughness and tool life based on the Taguchi method. 2. Tech. it can be observed that the maximum error for surface roughness and comparatively lower error in flank wear for both turning and facing processes.J (2003). Res. I. J. pp. Tech. pp. 2010 13 ..J. 8. No. Surface roughness prediction by factorial design of experiments in turning processes. No. Process. pp. A note on the determination of optimal cutting conditions for surface finish obtained in turning using design of experiments.132. pp. Table 13 Predicted optimum machining parameters for turning and facing process Optimization Basis Machinin g process Cutting speed ‘V’ (m/min) Feed ‘f’ (mm/rev) Depth of cut ‘a’ (mm) Test REFERENCES 1.152 0.278–284. Murti. J.. Phadke. Int. pp.” Materials and Design.2 1. Mat. I.63 0. Camuscu N. Mater.H (2004). Manuf.390-396.2. The percentage error between experimental and predicted result is 8. 145.25 1.K (1987). J.R & Philip. 2. M. J.63% for facing process. Design of optimisation of cutting parameters for turning metal matrix composites based on the orthogonal arrays.1618-1622.340-344.A (1998).P (2001). Davim. • Optimal machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were determined.102 8.143-144. The confirmation experiments. pp. Vol. full factorial design of experiments was conducted and Taguchi optimization analyses were carried out for selecting the optimum machining parameters. J.46 0. Process. Process. Tech. Table 14 Confirmation tests and their comparison with the results Surface roughness Flank wear ‘VB’ ‘Ra’ (µm) (mm) Experimen tal Experimen tal Error (%) Error (%) Test Predicted Predicted 7. Aslan E. Flank wear (10x) obtained at different cutting conditions of facing process 4. C.P (2003). Mater.84–92. Puertas Arbizu. J.69 0. Vol.67 Emirates Journal for Engineering Research. Quality Engineering Using Robust Design.1.305-308.. V. 4.59 0. I. NJ.5 1.1 0. pp.107 4. 1.67% for turning process and 2.Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Three-phase non-NewtonianLiquid-Gas . 4. Tech. Vol. (2007). Based on the experimental and analytical studies following conclusions have been made: • Based on Taguchi design of experiments and analysis.A Choudhury.69% and 8. Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of end milling parameters. A.1147-1154. 3. 15. Davim. pp.25 6. J. Mat. 116.2 0.S (1989).54 8.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Machinability of nickel-base super alloys: a general view.42 0. Ghani. Process. Confirmation tests The optimum machining parameters for finish turning and facing confirmation tests were obtained based on the Taguchi technique and presented in Table 13. Prentice-Hall. 4.3. 1. 9. 2.1 0.” Int.148 2. shows that the results where obtained as a comparison done between the foreseen values from the model developed in the present work with values obtained experimentally. Adv. 5.. & Luis Perez. the cutting speed is the main factor that has the highest influence on surface roughness as well as flank wear of turning and facing processes.

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