MENTAL DISORDER

A mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological pattern, potentially reflected in behavior, that is
generally associated with distress or disability, and which is not considered part of normal development
of a person's culture. Mental disorders are generally defined by a combination of how a person feels,
acts, thinks or perceives. This may be associated with particular regions or functions of the brain or rest
of the nervous system, often in a social context. The recognition and understanding of mental health
conditions have changed over time and across cultures, and there are still variations in definition,
assessment and classification, although standard guideline criteria are widely used. According to the
World Health Organisation (WHO), over a third of people in most countries report problems at some
time in their life which meet criteria for diagnosis of one or more of the common types of mental
disorder.[1]
The causes of mental disorders are varied and in some cases unclear, and theories may incorporate
findings from a range of fields. Services are based in psychiatric hospitals or in the community, and
assessments are carried out by psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and clinical social workers, using
various methods but often relying on observation and questioning. Clinical treatments are provided by
various mental health professionals. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major treatment
options, as are social interventions, peer support and self-help. In a minority of cases there might be
involuntary detention or involuntary treatment, where legislation allows. Stigma and discrimination can
add to the suffering and disability associated with mental disorders (or with being diagnosed or judged
as having a mental disorder), leading to various social movements attempting to increase understanding
and challenge social exclusion.

Classifications
Main article: Classification of mental disorders
The definition and classification of mental disorders is a key issue for researchers as well as service
providers and those who may be diagnosed. Most international clinical documents use the term mental
'disorder', while 'illness' is also common. It has been noted that using the term 'mental' (of the mind) is
not necessarily meant to imply separateness from brain or body.
There are currently two widely established systems that classify mental disorders—ICD-10 Chapter V:
Mental and behavioural disorders, since 1949 part of the International Classification of Diseases
produced by the WHO, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)
produced by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) since 1952.
Both list categories of disorder and provide standardized criteria for diagnosis. They have deliberately
converged their codes in recent revisions so that the manuals are often broadly comparable, although
significant differences remain. Other classification schemes may be used in non-western cultures, for
example the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, and other manuals may be used by those of
alternative theoretical persuasions, for example the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. In general,
mental disorders are classified separately to neurological disorders, learning disabilities or mental
retardation.
Unlike the DSM and ICD, some approaches are not based on identifying distinct categories of disorder
using dichotomous symptom profiles intended to separate the abnormal from the normal. There is
significant scientific debate about the relative merits of categorical versus such non-categorical (or
hybrid) schemes, also known as continuum or dimensional models. A spectrum approach may
incorporate elements of both.
In the scientific and academic literature on the definition or classification of mental disorder, one
extreme argues that it is entirely a matter of value judgements (including of what is normal) while
another proposes that it is or could be entirely objective and scientific (including by reference to
statistical norms).[2] Common hybrid views argue that the concept of mental disorder is objective even if
only a "fuzzy prototype" that can never be precisely defined, or conversely that the concept always
involves a mixture of scientific facts and subjective value judgments.[3] Although the diagnostic

for example through schemes based on the Big Five personality traits. panic disorder. like personality traits in general. If an inability to sufficiently adjust to life circumstances begins within three months of a particular event or situation. borderline. and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated.[6][7][8][9][10] Anxiety or fear that interferes with normal functioning may be classified as an anxiety disorder. histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders. . such as antisocial. language use and perception of reality can become disordered (e. or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. while others suggest that the differing ideological and practical perspectives need to be better integrated. alternating with normal or depressed mood. Psychotic disorders in this domain include schizophrenia. situations. The ICD also has a category for enduring personality change after a catastrophic experience or psychiatric illness. hallucinations). bulimia nervosa. but are not validated in the same way as most medical diagnoses. social anxiety disorder. Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) involves abnormally "high" or pressured mood states. types that have described as 'dramatic' or 'emotional'.g.[13] Furthermore. The extent to which unipolar and bipolar mood phenomena represent distinct categories of disorder. generalized anxiety disorder. it may instead be classed as an adjustment disorder. or individuals that are considered abnormal or harmful to the person or others). delusions. The personality disorders in general are defined as emerging in childhood. schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders. such as paranoid. and those sometimes classed as fear-related. Other affective (emotion/mood) processes can also become disordered. Schizotypy is a category used for individuals showing some of the characteristics associated with schizophrenia but without meeting cut-off criteria. actually incorporate a mixture of acute dysfunctional behaviors that may resolve in short periods.[4][5] Disorders See also: List of mental disorders as defined by the DSM and ICD There are many different categories of mental disorder. agoraphobia. gender identity disorder and ego-dystonic homosexuality. such as anxious-avoidant.categories are referred to as 'disorders'. Personality—the fundamental characteristics of a person that influence thoughts and behaviors across situations and time—may be considered disordered if judged to be abnormally rigid and maladaptive. the commonly used categorical schemes include them as mental disorders. or at least by adolescence or early adulthood. dependent. Milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia. Sexual and gender identity disorders may be diagnosed. Various kinds of paraphilia are considered mental disorders (sexual arousal to objects. and maladaptive temperamental traits that are more enduring. they are presented as if medical diseases. including those sometimes classed as 'eccentric'. and many different facets of human behavior and personality that can become disordered. Schizoaffective disorder is a category used for individuals showing aspects of both schizophrenia and affective disorders. Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness. albeit on a separate 'axis II' in the case of the DSM. or a feeling of tiredness despite sleep appearing normal. A number of different personality disorders are listed. Some neurologists argue that classification will only be reliable and valid when based on neurobiological features rather than clinical interview. Although treated separately by some. is subject to some scientific debate. or mix and merge together along a dimension or spectrum of mood. thought disorder. or despair is known as major depression (also known as unipolar or clinical depression).[11] Commonly recognized categories include specific phobias. and delusional disorder. exercise bulimia or binge eating disorder.[11] Categories of disorder in this area include anorexia nervosa.[12] Patterns of belief. melancholia. including dyspareunia.[14] Eating disorders involve disproportionate concern in matters of food and weight. There is an emerging consensus that socalled "personality disorders". there are also non-categorical schemes that rate all individuals via a profile of different dimensions of personality without a symptom-based cut-off from normal personality variation. known as mania or hypomania. Sleep disorders such as insomnia involve disruption to normal sleep patterns.

There are a number of uncommon psychiatric syndromes. De Clerambault syndrome. Other memory or cognitive disorders include amnesia or various kinds of old age dementia. passive-aggressive personality disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. There already exists. People who suffer severe disturbances of their self-identity. The DSM incorporates such conditions under the umbrella category of substance use disorders. such as Munchausen syndrome. between couples. may be classed as a disorder. may be classed as having an impulse control disorder. Disordered substance use may be due to a pattern of compulsive and repetitive use of the drug that results in tolerance to its effects and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped.[17] . which includes substance dependence and substance abuse. There are attempts to introduce a category of relational disorder. for example autism spectrum disorders. Somatoform disorders may be diagnosed when there are problems that appear to originate in the body that are thought to be manifestations of a mental disorder. Two recent unique unofficial proposals are solastalgia by Glenn Albrecht and hubris syndrome by David Owen. and Ekbom syndrome. [15] Factitious disorders. sadistic personality disorder. Othello syndrome. including alcohol).People who are abnormally unable to resist certain urges or impulses that could be harmful to themselves or others. Among those controversially considered by the official committees of the diagnostic manuals include self-defeating personality disorder. Cotard delusion. There are also disorders of how a person perceives their body. Neurasthenia is an old diagnosis involving somatic complaints as well as fatigue and low spirits/depression. The DSM does not currently use the common term drug addiction. where the diagnosis is of a relationship rather than on any one individual in that relationship. A range of developmental disorders that initially occur in childhood may be diagnosed. if continuing into adulthood. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can sometimes involve an inability to resist certain acts but is classed separately as being primarily an anxiety disorder. The use of drugs (legal or illegal. such as Capgras syndrome. memory and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings may be classed as having a dissociative identity disorder. or "split personality"). are diagnosed where symptoms are thought to be experienced (deliberately produced) and/or reported (feigned) for personal gain. This includes somatization disorder and conversion disorder. such as gambling addiction. and disorders such as kleptomania (stealing) or pyromania (fire-setting). Ganser syndrome. and the ICD simply refers to "harmful use". The application of the concept of mental illness to the phenomena described by these authors has in turn been critiqued by Seamus Mac Suibhne.[16] Various new types of mental disorder diagnosis are occasionally proposed. may be defined as a mental disorder. when it persists despite significant problems related to its use. Popularist labels such as psychopath (or sociopath) do not appear in the DSM or ICD but are linked by some to these diagnoses. including various kinds of tic disorders such as Tourette's syndrome. or others. under the category of psychosis. may be diagnosed as antisocial personality disorder (dissocial personality disorder in the ICD). which may continue into adulthood. and additional disorders such as the Couvade syndrome and Geschwind syndrome. oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. which are often named after the person who first described them. a diagnosis of shared psychotic disorder where two or more individuals share a particular delusion because of their close relationship with each other. and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Conduct disorder. Various behavioral addictions. The relationship may be between children and their parents. such as depersonalization disorder or Dissociative Identity Disorder itself (which has also been called multiple personality disorder. which is officially recognized by the ICD-10 but no longer by the DSM-IV. such as body dysmorphic disorder.

with nearly half regaining their prior occupational and residential status in that period. Alternatively. depends on numerous factors related to the disorder itself. psychotic disorders. by adverse effects of medications or other substances. cooking etc. and possibly superior during periods of hypomania in Bipolar II. mental disorders rank amongst the most disabling conditions."[18][19] Around half of people initially diagnosed with bipolar disorder achieve syndromal recovery (no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis) within six weeks. Including communication skills. the individual as a whole. continued disability has been linked to institutionalization. At the same time. particularly in their social roles and personal relationships. Unipolar (also known as Major) depressive disorder is the third leading cause of disability worldwide. being poor during periods of major depression or mania but otherwise fair to good. DIY tasks etc.5 million . goal-striving. functioning may be affected by the stress of having to hide a condition in work or school etc. Long-term international studies of schizophrenia have found that over a half of individuals recover in terms of symptoms. The World Health Organization concluded that the long-term studies' findings converged with others in "relieving patients. many have serious difficulties and support needs for many years. Ability to acquire a job and hold it. nearly half go on to experience a new episode of mania or major depression within the next two years. The proportion with access to professional help for mental disorders is far lower. accounting for 65.[22] It is also the case that.[24] Nevertheless. people report equal or greater disability from commonly occurring mental conditions than from commonly occurring physical conditions. or by mismatches between illness-related variations and demands for regularity.) or looking after accommodation (chores. while others may be more chronic in nature. Including looking after the self (health care. even among those assessed as having a severely disabling condition. cognitive and social skills required for the job. meticulousness. some mental traits or states labeled as disorders can also involve above-average creativity. Even those disorders often considered the most serious and intractable have varied courses i. and nearly all achieve it within two years. The degree of ability or disability may vary over time and across different life domains. carers and clinicians of the chronicity paradigm which dominated thinking throughout much of the 20th century. although "late" recovery is still possible. and personality disorders. while often being characterized in purely negative terms. Some disorders are transient. which is an estimate of how many years of life are lost due to premature death or to being in a state of poor health and disability. however.Signs and symptoms Course The likely course and outcome of mental disorders varies. In terms of total Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). or studying as a student.)  Interpersonal relationships. with some requiring no medication. schizophrenia.[21] Disability Some disorders may be very limited in their functional effects.. However. dressing. non-conformity. dealing with workplace culture. discrimination and social exclusion as well as to the inherent effects of disorders.e.[20] Functioning has been found to vary. while others may involve substantial disability and support needs. or empathy.[23] In addition. the public perception of the level of disability associated with mental disorders can change.[25] Disability in this context may or may not involve such things as:  Basic activities of daily living. grooming. Furthermore. shopping. of any condition mental or physical. ability to leave the home or mix in crowds or particular settings  Occupational functioning. internationally. and around a fifth to a third in terms of symptoms and functioning. and the social environment. ability to form relationships and sustain them.

to substance misuse. and other negative or overwhelming life experiences. The primary paradigm of contemporary mainstream Western psychiatry is said to be the biopsychosocial model which incorporates biological. Some types of mental disorder may be viewed as primarily neurodevelopmental disorders. An eclectic or pluralistic mix of models may be used to explain particular disorders. Differences have also been found in the size or activity of certain brain regions in some cases.4 million. although this may not always be applied in practice. Social influences have been found to be important.[30] Causes Main article: Causes of mental disorders Mental disorders can arise from multiple sources. Psychoanalytic theories have continued to evolve alongside cognitive-behavioral and systemic-family approaches. norepinephrine. including substance use disorders and conditions involving selfharm. and post-traumatic stress disorder 3. for example. and bipolar disorder 14.7 million DALYs globally. A common assumption is that disorders may have resulted from genetic and developmental vulnerabilities.years lost. published in 2011.4 million. Alcohol-use disorders are also high in the overall list. while other drug-use disorders accounted for 8. neglect. including employment problems. and features of particular societies and cultures.8 million DALY. Traumatic brain injury may increase the risk of developing certain mental disorders. The total DALY does not necessarily indicate what is the most individually disabling. Second to this were accidental injuries (mainly traffic collisions) accounting for 12 percent of disability. followed by communicable diseases at 10 percent. There have been some tentative inconsistent links found to certain viral infections. In the eastern Mediterranean region it was unipolar major depression (12%) and schizophrenia (7%). although there are various views on what causes differences between individuals. dopamine and glutamate systems. Panic disorder leads to 7 million years lost. Abnormal functioning of neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in several mental disorders. because it also depends on how common a condition is. Studies have indicated that variation in genes can play an important role in the development of mental disorders. Biological psychiatry follows a biomedical model where many mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and experience. The specific risks and pathways to particular disorders are less clear. psychological and social factors. Environmental events surrounding pregnancy and birth have also been implicated. Evolutionary psychology may be used as an overall explanatory theory. including serotonin. The disorders associated with most disability in high income countries were unipolar major depression (20%) and alcohol use disorder (11%). although the reliable identification of connections between specific genes and specific categories of disorder has proven more difficult. schizophrenia is found to be the most individually disabling mental disorder on average but is less common. primary insomnia 3. socioeconomic inequality. Aspects of the wider community have also been implicated. while attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological approach sometimes applied in the context of mental disorders.6. however. and in many cases there is no single accepted or consistent cause currently established. found that among 10 to 24 year olds nearly half of all disability (current and as estimated to continue) was due to mental and neurological conditions.[26] The first ever systematic description of global disability arising in youth. A distinction is sometimes made between a "medical model" or a "social model" of disorder and disability. Schizophrenia causes a total loss of 16. obsessive-compulsive disorder 5. is a leading cause of death among teenagers and adults under 35. and in Africa it was unipolar major depression (7%) and bipolar disorder (5%). bullying. including abuse.[27] Suicide.5 million DALYs. problems linked to migration.[28][29] There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year worldwide. lack of social cohesion. exposed by stress in life (for example in a diathesis–stress model).1. responsible for 23. which is often attributed to some underlying mental disorder. and to general physical health. Psychological mechanisms have also been . social stress.

Diagnosis Psychiatrists seek to provide a medical diagnosis of individuals by an assessment of symptoms and signs associated with particular types of mental disorder. Many things have been found to help at least some people.implicated. and in rare specialist cases neuroimaging tests may be requested. Psychotherapy A major option for many mental disorders is psychotherapy.[34] It has been found that most clinicians evaluate patients using an unstructured. Services for mental disorders. emotional influences. individuals may be treated against their will. Other mental health professionals. and that inaccurate diagnosis may be common in routine practice. A physical examination to check for ill health or the effects of medications or other drugs may be conducted. such as cognitive (e. who may refer a patient on for more specialist diagnosis in acute or chronic cases. There may be specific problems with accurate diagnosis in developing countries. intended to support each individual's personal journey to gain the kind of life they want. On the other hand. open-ended approach.[41][42][43][44] The different clinical and scientific perspectives draw on diverse fields of research and theory.[23] In some countries services are increasingly based on a recovery approach.[36][37][38] the field of psychology known as clinical psychology. In addition. and Mental health professional Treatment and support for mental disorders is provided in psychiatric hospitals. Psychoanalysis. where evaluations are made of appearance and behavior.[32][33] Time and budgetary constraints often limit practicing psychiatrists from conducting more thorough diagnostic evaluations. addressing a network of significant others as well as an individual. with limited training in evidence-based assessment methods. A number of professions have developed that specialize in the treatment of mental disorders. There are several main types. addressing underlying psychic conflicts and defenses.g.[40] There is also a wide range of psychotherapists (including family therapy).[35] In addition. which may include algorithms based on ticking off standardized diagnostic criteria. explanations and goals. and different disciplines may favor differing models. a person may have several different difficulties only some of which meet the criteria for being diagnosed. at least initially. Routine diagnostic practice in mental health services typically involves an interview known as a mental status examination. personality dynamics. there are peer support roles where personal experience of similar issues is the primary source of expertise. relatives or other third parties may be taken into account. counselors. and a placebo effect may play a role in any intervention or medication. The views of other professionals. There are a range of different types of treatment and what is most suitable depends on the disorder and on the individual. This includes the medical specialty of psychiatry (including psychiatric nursing). where the same person meets the criteria for more than one disorder. Psychological testing is sometimes used via paper-andpen or computerized questionnaires. although there may also be 'therapeutic pessimism' in some areas.[39] and the practical application of sociology known as social work. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely used and is based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder. In a minority of cases. but such methods are more commonly found in research studies than routine clinical practice. temperament and coping style. has been a dominant school of psychotherapy and is still in use. mental health history. reasoning) biases. and current life circumstances. clinics or any of a diverse range of community mental health services. which can cause particular difficulties depending on how it is carried out and perceived. . assessed and treated by family physicians (in the UK general practitioners) during consultations. such as clinical psychologists. and public health professionals. Systemic therapy or family therapy is sometimes used. Management Main articles: Treatment of mental disorders. may or may not apply the same diagnostic categories to their clinical formulation of a client's difficulties and circumstances. self-reported symptoms. comorbidity is very common in psychiatric diagnosis.[31] The majority of mental health problems are.

Approximately one in ten met criteria within a 12-month period. with women having higher rates on average. Much may depend on the therapeutic relationship.8%). and by gender.4%).8% for Bipolar I disorder. and suicide is ranked 7th as the cause of death for women between the ages of 20-59.[59] A US survey that incidentally screened for personality disorder found a rate of 14.[51] A review of mood disorder surveys in different countries found lifetime rates of 6.8%). anxiety disorders (13. which included mood disorders (13. World wide more than one in three people in most countries report sufficient criteria for at least one at some point in their life. and approximately 10% of 1.[52] In the United States the frequency of disorder is: anxiety disorder (28.3% among men.7% for major depressive disorder (higher in some studies.[50] A review of anxiety disorder surveys in different countries found average lifetime prevalence estimates of 16.8%) or substance use disorder (14.8% to 2.000 inhabitants in 2004. it was consistently lower in poorer countries.9%). [60] Approximately 7% of a preschool pediatric sample were given a psychiatric diagnosis in one clinical study.[62] . impulse-control disorder (24. followed by mood disorders in all but two countries.6%) or alcohol disorder (5. Mental health professionals often employ an eclectic or integrative approach. <2200 3200-3400 2200-2400 3400-3600 2400-2600 3600-3800 2600-2800 3800-4000 2800-3000 4000-4200 3000-3200 >4200 Mental disorders are common. There are a number of specific therapies used for particular disorders. but one broad Norwegian survey found a five-year prevalence of almost 1 in 7 (13. differing across countries.[1] In the United States 46% qualifies for a mental illness at some point. educational level and other factors. while substance disorders and impulse-control disorders were consistently less prevalent.6%). Women and younger people of either gender showed more cases of disorder.[56] A 2005 review of surveys in 16 European countries found that 27% of adult Europeans are affected by at least one mental disorder in a 12 month period.9% of the disability from neuropsychiatric disorders among women compared to 29.[48] An ongoing survey indicates that anxiety disorders are the most common in all but one country.[58] Studies of the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) have been fewer and smaller-scale. mood disorder (20.Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic approach. which may be offshoots or hybrids of the above types.2%). women tend to have a higher rate of depression. and there may be problems with trust. and in women) and 0. Depressive disorders account for close to 41.and 2-year-olds receiving developmental screening have been assessed as having significant emotional/behavioral problems based on parent and pediatrician reports. [61] While rates of psychological disorders are often the same for men and women. Rates for specific disorders ranged from 0.4% for lifetime prevalence.[53][54][55] A 2004 cross-Europe study found that approximately one in four people reported meeting criteria at some point in their life for at least one of the DSM-IV disorders assessed. Each year 73 million women are afflicted with major depression.8%. Epidemiology Main article: Prevalence of mental disorders Disability-adjusted life year for neuropsychiatric conditions per 100. confidentiality and engagement.6%.[57] An international review of studies on the prevalence of schizophrenia found an average (median) figure of 0.[49] Rates varied by region.79%.

and carry the risk of abuse for political. The insanity defense may be used in a legal trial (known as the mental disorder defence in some countries). Legal challenges in some areas have resulted in supreme court decisions that a person does not have to agree with a psychiatrist's characterization of the issues as constituting an "illness". Moreover. disturbed emotional reactions (mainly fear or aggression) towards companions. and generalized learned helplessness.[84] The individual should also have personal access to independent advocacy. or a guardian.[84] In 1991. time-bound review by an independent review body. . Australia. a family member or a legally appointed guardian. where a person is helped to understand and choose treatment options before they can be declared to lack capacity. the UN formally agreed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of disabled people.[86] There should at the very least be shared decision-making as far as possible. Applications for someone to be involuntarily admitted usually come from a mental health practitioner. for example outpatient commitment laws (known by different names) are used in New Zealand. the United Kingdom and most of the United States. It can impinge on personal liberty and the right to choose. the United Nations adopted the Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care. sometimes used colloquially as a synonym for mental illness.e. and therefore be able to make an informed choice to either accept or refuse). In 2006. patients may be able to make. Human-rights-oriented laws usually stipulate that independent medical practitioners or other accredited mental health practitioners must examine the patient separately and that there should be regular. social and other reasons. and assist some people in attaining their right to healthcare when they may be unable to decide in their own interests. Captive great apes show gross behavioral abnormalities such as stereotypy of movements.[87] The term insanity. a close relative. In order for involuntary treatment to be administered (by force if necessary). and the need for treatment. self-mutilation. Over 20 behavioral patterns in captive chimpanzees have been documented as (statistically) abnormal for frequency.Laws and policies Three quarters of countries around the world have mental health legislation. In animals Psychopathology in non-human primates has been studied since the mid-20th century. may also be included in legislation.[84] The right to supported decision-making. it should be shown that an individual lacks the mental capacity for informed consent (i. and is often outdated. but the type and severity of disorder that counts can vary in different jurisdictions. including those with psychosocial disabilities. The two most often utilized grounds for involuntary admission are said to be serious likelihood of immediate or imminent danger to self or others. an advance directive stipulating how they wish to be treated should they be deemed to lack mental capacity in future. Compulsory admission to mental health facilities (also known as involuntary commitment) is a controversial topic. The World Health Organization reports that in many instances national mental health legislation takes away the rights of persons with mental disorders rather than protecting rights. but only recognize the issues and the information about treatment options. Involuntary treatment laws are increasingly extended to those living in the community. nor agree with a psychiatrist's conviction in medication. severity or oddness—some of which have also been observed in the wild. is often used technically as a legal term. to understand treatment information and its implications. a family member. In some cases such behaviors are hypothesized to be equivalent to symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders in humans such as depression. which established minimum human rights standards of practice in the mental health field.[85] Proxy consent (also known as surrogate or substituted decision-making) may be transferred to a personal representative. yet it can potentially prevent harm to self and others. lack of species-typical communications. when they are considered well.[84] All human rights oriented mental health laws require proof of the presence of a mental disorder as defined by internationally accepted standards.

8 percent — or 1.[120][121] but this has been criticized on empirical grounds[122] and opposed on animal rights grounds. and on rare occasions psychiatric drugs. had suffered a serious mental illness in the past year that substantially interfered with their lives. although restoration of functional sexuality and care-giving is often not achieved. neurological. The survey by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration found women were more likely than men (23 percent to 16. However. early sensory deprivation. Those teenagers who experienced a depressive episode also had twice the rate of illicit drug use than teenagers who had not experienced depression. behavioral or emotional disorders. such as sociability or impulsiveness. eating disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Americans suffering mental illnesses were three times as likely to have developed substance dependence or substance abuse disorders than adults who had not experienced mental illness. including by inducing or treating symptoms in animals through genetic. The administration surveyed 67.[116][117] The risk of anthropomorphism is often raised with regard to such comparisons. at least in captivity.500 people aged 12 and older in person around the United States. The report found that about 8. a government report released on Thursday found. or 11. while the rate of mental illness among people aged 18 to 25 was twice that of those aged 50 and older. Particular causes of problems in captivity have included integration of strangers into existing groups and a lack of individual space. suffered mental illnesses in the past year.7 million American adults had serious thoughts of suicide in the past year. One in five Americans suffer mental illness in 2011: study NEW YORK--One in five adults in the United States. in which context some pathological behaviors have also been seen as coping mechanisms.[116][119] Laboratory researchers sometimes try to develop animal models of human mental disorders. with 2. borderline and schizoid personality disorders have also been applied to non-human great apes.4 million people. available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors—including physiological responses and homologous facial displays and acoustic utterances—to neurochemical studies. or nearly 50 million people. .anxiety disorders. Socialization has been found to work 90% of the time in disturbed chimpanzees. with women and young adults suffering disproportionately. It is pointed out that human psychiatric classification is often based on statistical description and judgment of behaviors (especially when speech or language is impaired) and that the use of verbal self-report is itself problematic and unreliable. Among youths aged 12 to 17.5 million making suicide plans and 1. Concepts of antisocial.9 million teenagers — experienced a major depressive episode in the past year. behavior therapy. Studies have also indicated individual variation in temperament. and extended periods of social isolation. The administration defined mental illness among adults as diagnosable mental. The survey found that 5 percent of American adults. chemical or behavioral manipulation.1 million attempting to take their own lives. environment enrichment.[116][118] Psychopathology has generally been traced. Remedial interventions have included careful individually tailored resocialization programs.8 percent) to have experienced a mental illness. defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest. excluding developmental disorders and substance use. and assessment of nonhuman animals cannot incorporate evidence from linguistic communication. to adverse rearing conditions such as early separation of infants from mothers.

" he said last year.” . We just have to do what god’s plan is." (In September. "people who show patterns of behavior like Britney are suffering from a dual diagnosis. has said that based on media coverage of Spears's behavior. Diana Kirschner.." says a source who was close to the family during her marriage to Kevin Federline. she's not balanced. but it's unclear if any tests returned positive. However. They have both a substance abuse problem and a bipolar disorder or manic disorder. people who love them will help them to face thebig challenge of their life. and was ordered to undergo random drug tests." says a source close to the singer. This is really a matter of her being unstable. she's had manic episodes for years. when Spears spent time in a rehab facility. I believe that god made them like that because he has a purpose. who has not treated Spears but is an expert on the subject. the founder of a high-end treatment center in Malibu. It got worse after Jayden was born.." According to Dr." “ having a mental Disorder is very difficult for a person whose suffering it.." PEOPLE has learned from multiple sources that the singer also suffered from depression after both her pregnancies. the Promises Treatment Center in Malibu. "She didn't want anyone's help . 2008 05:00 PM EST Cousart-Ramirez-Rios/JFX  Facebook  Tweet  Britney Spears has "suffered from a psychological disease for years. Spears was characterized by the court in her custody case to be a "habitual. Two separate sources who are acquaintances of the family believe the singer has never been formally diagnosed with bipolar disorder. frequent.. "and who knows what she's on now.) Michael Cartwright. she appears to have a drug and alcohol addiction and bipolar disorder. not suicidal .. and continuous" user of drugs..People who will support and love them even if they know that he/she have this kind of disease. "She had postpartum depression after Preston was born. but "there is no question she is bipolar . Several friends of Spears have been told that the singer has taken anti-anxiety medication. "She seems deeply ill to me.Friends: Britney Suffers from 'Psychological Disease' By Ulrica Wihlborg Sunday January 06.

: . ABELAR YR/SEC.PROJECT IN MAPEH RESEARCH PAPER IN MAPEH ( MENTAL DISORDERS ) SUBMMITTED BY: KELSEY KATE E.

IV-EINSTEIN .

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