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PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Graham & Trotman
First published in 1986 by Graham and Trotman Ltd. Graham and Trotman Inc. Sterling House, 13 Park Avenue, 66 Wilton Road, Gaithersburg, London SWlV 1DE MD 20877, UK USA
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Archer, . I S . Petroleum engineering : principles and practice I . Petroleum enginecring 1. Title 11. Wall. C.G. 622'. 3382 TN870 ISBN 0X6OlO6659 ISBN 086910b7159 Pbk
0J S Archer and C G Wall, 1986
This publication is protected by intcrnational copyright law. All rights reservcd. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mcchauical, photocopyi~~g, recording or otherwise, without the permission of the publishers.
Typeset in Great Britain by Bookworril Studio Services, Salford Printed and bound in Great Britain by The Alden Press, Oxforci
Contents
Preface Foreword CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1.1
CHAPTER 2 Reservoirs
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6
Petroleum Engineering: A creative technology
Conditions for occurrence Reservoir pressures Fluid pressures in a hydrocarbon zone Reservoir temperatures , Nature of reservoir fluids Reservoir data  sources
CHAPTER 3 Oilwell Drilling
Operations Costs Well completions and oilwell casing Completion Drilling fluid control Rheology of well fluids (drilling muds and cements) Formation breakdown pressures and leak off tests Data acquisition during drilling Mud fluids for core recovery Drilling optimization
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE
3.11 3.12 3.13
Turbine versus conventional rotary Special problc~ns drilling in Completion for production
I
CHAPTER 4
Properties of Reservoir Fluids
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Volumetric and phasc behaviour of hydrocarbon systems Applications to field ryrtems Compressibility Measurement and prediction of reservoir fluid properties Formation volume factors, B Gasoil ratios Direct measurements PVT analysis Generalized correlations for liquid systems
I
CHAPTER 5 Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks
Data sources and application Coring decisions Conventional and oriented coring Coring mud systems Core preservation Well site controls Core for special core analysis Corederived data Geological studies Routine core analysis Porosity Permeability Relationships bctween porosity and permeability
CHAPTER 6
Fluid Saturation: influence of wettability and capillary pressure
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Equilibrium conditions Laboratory measurements and relationship with reservoiv systems Pore size distribution Capillary pressure hysteresis Saturation dirtributions in reservoir intervals Correlation of capillary pressure data from a given rock type 92 93 96 97 98 99
1
CHAPTER 7 Relative permeability and multiphase flow in porous media
7.1 7.2 7.3 Definitions Fractional flow Effects of permeability variation
CONTENTS
vii 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 Wettability effects Laboratory determination of relative permeability data Residual saturations In situ wettability control Relative permeability from correlations Validation of relative permeability data for use in displacement calculations Pseudorelative permeability in dynamic systems Static pseudorelative permeability funttions 108 109 111 112 112 113 115 115
CHAPTER 8 Representation of volumetric estimates and recoverable reserves
Inplace volume Areal extent of reservoirs Thickness maps Lithofacies representation Isoporosity maps Isocapacity maps Hydrocarbon pore volume maps Probabilistic estimation Recovery factors and reserves Distribution of equity in petroleum reservoirs
CHAPTER 9 Radial Flow Analysis of Well Performance
Radial flow in a simple system Development of the line source solution Radial equations in practical units Application of analytical solutions in well test methods Pressure buildup analysis Skin effect Pressure drawdown and reservoir limit testing Gas well testing Well test procedures Well testing and pressure analysis
CHAPTER 10 Reservoir Performance Analysis
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Recovery from gas reservoirs Primary recovery in oil reservoirs Gravity segregation and recovery efficiencies Material balance for reservoirs with water encroachment or water injection Accuracy of the gross material balance equation 157 159 164 165 168
CHAPTER 11 Secondary Recovery and Pressure Maintenance
11.1 Displacement principles
viii 11.2 11.3
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Factors influencing secondary recovery and pressure maintenance schemes Quality of injection fluids and disposal of brines
175 183
CHAPTER 12 Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery
Targets The influence of recovcry mechanism on residual oil Permeability improvement Miscible displacement mechanisms Miscible flood applications Chemical flood processes Heavy oil recovery Thermal energy Gas condensate reservoirs Volatile oil reservoirs 191 191 193 194 195 196 200 204 207 211
CHAPTER 13 Factors Influencing Production Operations
The production system Reservoir bchaviour in production engineering Wcllbore flow Field process facilities Natural gas processing Crude oil processing Heavy oil processing Produced water treatment Injection water treatment Crude oil metering
CHAPTER 14 Concepts in Reservoir Modelling and Application to Development Planning
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Models Equations of inultiphase flow Simulator classifications Sirnulator application Reservoir description in modelling Application of reservoir models in field dcvelopment 257
APPENDIX 1 SPE Nomenclature and Units
Units SPE Symbols Standard Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity
APPENDIX 2 Solutions to Examples in Text INDEX
310 357
Wall 1986 . particularly as practised in the offshore environments of NorthWest Europe.PREFACE The need for this book has arisen from demand for a current text from our students in Petroleum Engineering at Imperial College and from postexperience Short Course students. It is. The material is largely based on the authors' experience as teachers and consultants and is supplemented by worked problems where they are believed to enhance understanding. In particular we would like to thank our present colleagues and students at Imperial College and at E R C Energy Resource Consultants Ltd. Archer and Colin G. however. Dan Smith at Graham and Trotman Ltd. and Lesley and Joan for believing that one day things would return to normality. The book is arranged to provide both background and overview into many facets of petroleum engineering. for his perseverence and optimism. John S. Jill and Jane1 for typing seemingly endless manuscripts. hoped that the material will also be of more general use to practising petroleum engineers and those wishing for aa introduction into the specialist literature. for their stimulating company. The authors would like to express their sincere thanks and appreciation to all the people who have helped in the preparation of this book by technical comment and discussion and by giving permission to reproduce material.
With such a spread o f disciplines the availability o f a text. Petroleum fluids are complex mixtures o f many hydrocarbons and currently prediction o f their behaviour at reservoir pressures o f up to 14 500 psia (1000 bar) and 450°F (230°C) is based on attempts to understand their thermodynamics. and a study o f the current literature shows the vast amount o f effort now being applied to further the understanding and improve predictions o f the behaviour o f reservoir fluids and to increase their recovery. That the oil and gas industry is profitable is largely duc to the emergence o f petroleum engineering and the techniques which have been developed for its application. and has an obligation to analyse all the data available and to interpret it effectively in order to forecast the future performance o f the reservoir. The petroleum engineer is a resource manager. wells and plant. Petroleum engineers play a leading role in the design o f recovery systems which require flexibility in well placement and the sizing o f surface facilities for export processing to ensure that the products mcct the specifications required for transportation by pipeline or tanker. Imperial College. Indeed. some o f the most powerful computers available today are dedicated to the modelling o f reservoir behaviour and a modern petrolcum engineer must be capable o f making full use o f them.Foreword Petroleum engineering has developed as an area o f study only over the present century. The knowledge of the reservebase is always insufficientas natural reservoirs are heterogeneous in their geometry and character. Londcn and . is welcomed. These studies and operations require the disciplines o f physics. The prediction o f fluid behaviour in hcterogeneous reservoirs is aided by sophisticated mathematical modelling using powerful computers. classical engineering. This may well lead to decisions on variations in the original production scheme. geology. and skills are required to design for data acquisition which will allow updating of rescrvoir models in the light of production experience. It now provides the technical basis for the exploitation o f petroleum fluids in subsurface sedimentary rock reservoirs. In all these activities safety and economy are mandatory. The breadth o f the interdisciplinary knowledge needed by today's petroleum engineer is ever increasing. The authors are the present and past Heads o f Petroleum Engineering in the Department o f Mineral Resources Engineering o f the Royal School o f Mines. mathcmatics and computer science. The lnethodology in petrolcum rescrvoir development requires the testing and evaluation o f exploration and appraisal wells to discover the volume in place and productivity of compressible hydrocarbon fluids. describing the basics o f petroleum engineering. The petroleum engineer's responsibilities are o f necessity very wide.
Through its e3tensive bibliography the reader will also be guided to more specialised branches of the petroleum engineering literature. This book will both give students a good grounding in petroleum engineering and be valuable to the practising engineer as a comprehensive reference work. Sweatman (exChief Production Engineer?British Petroleum Company and Visiting Professor Petroleum Engineering Imperial College. A. The College has been a centre for the study of petroleum recovery since the early years of this century with courses in Oil Technology commencing in 1913.FOREWORD xi both have had field experience with major oil companies before joining Imperial College. H. London. UK) . The Petroleum Engineering Section moved to its present location in the Mineral Resources Engineering Department at the Royal School of Mines in 1973 and currently runs undergraduate and Master of Sciences courses and has active postgraduate and postdoctoral research groups.
.
a petroleum engineer has a responsibility to present analyses of schemes that are both technically and financially attractive. chemistry. The economics of hydrocarbon recovery processes is inextricably linked with the practice of petroleum engineering.costs of production are significant. particularly in highpressure or offshore reservoirs. in terms of pretax cost of oil production from a 2000 mSS onshore well compared with a 3000 mSS offshore well. On a project basis. Unlike many branches of engineering. 1. The further recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs approaching the end of conventional development processes requires the costeffective application of enhanced (EOR) or improved (IHR) hydrocarbon recovery processes.nature of the reservoir can be accumulated and the production methods can be modified. we discuss the representation of 'proven' quantities of hydrocarbon in terms of the availability of information and the existence of the technology to exploit recovery on commercially attractive terms. Developments in the recovery of hydro . physics. more information on the . In the current climate of deeper reservoir exploration and increased exploitation ofoffshore reservoirs in the world's sedimentary basins (Fig. Current exploration in maturing hydrocarbon provinces is centred on more subtle trapping mechanisms than structural highs and on smaller accumulations.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. A route to problem solution in petroleum engineering shown as Table 1. in that design is based on observation of production performance and on a representation of the reservoir inferred from very limited sampling. but rather an illdefined naturally occurring reservoir is induced to produce some fraction of its contents for as long as is considered commercially attractive. The exploitation of heavy oil (API) gravity less than 20" API) and of gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs (API gravity greater than 4. mathematics. Petroleum engineering can thus represent an exercise in the application of uncertainty to design.1). economics and geostatistics.I PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: A CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY The function of petroleum engineering is to provide a basis for the design and implementation of techniques to recover commercial quantities of natural petroleums. It is of necessity a broadly based technology drawing upon the foundations of engineering. With the passage of time and cumulative production. As an engineering subject it is a little anomalous. In Chapter 8 ['j1. reservoirs cannot be designed to fulfill a particular task.5" API) requires special petroleum engineering effort. a ratio of 1:10 might be expected. For example.1 has been adapted from Timmerman The terminology of the subject contains varying degrees of confidence in the representation of the inplace and recoverable resource base. geology.
.
Fig..  A c t .: Dollar Select preferred approaches to solving t h e problem models.1 INTRODUCTION Define objective of study (nature of the problem 0 6 26 =6 c?z Identify economic value of answer in terms o f costs and time i n study. or at mid1985 exchange rates it was over US$600 million. The investment was over £500 million in 1985 currency. express result probabilistically. ..3.. Apply professional judgement and interpret result in manner that provides best f i t o f facts.r a t l o n a I l z e w l t h real.. compiled from figures in Petroleum Intelligence Weekly. I Define theoretical bas's required for each s o l u t ~ o n and apply . has led to an increased economic and political awareness amongst petroleum engineers. Multidiscipl~nary may be needed to express interrelated phenomena. The costs of reservoir development generally require an operating company to raise a substantial quantity of money from loans the repayment terms of which are linked to a representation of reservoir production uncertainties. Prepare outline study plan and evaluate availability.. It is also very clear from this figure that much of the investment is exposed at least five years prior to any production revenue. 1. Figure 1.ty Budget t i m e .project analogy. The cost profile for the development of an offshore oil field on the Continental Shelf (UKCS) with some 75 million barrels of recoverable oil is indicated in Fig. ~ m p l e m e n and monitor result . Pound Organise data and applicableapproaches in solution. Break down problem into stages 2 .2 shows the fluctuation in the average official Middle East crude oil price.1 Problem solving in petroleum engineering carbon from oil sands and oil shales requires that petroleum engineering methods are combined with the technologies of mining engineers and chemical engineers.reliabil~ty and accuracy of data base. Is simple approach required 7 order of magnitude o r d e t a ~ l e d :. This fact alone leads to a petroleum engineering design criterion of high initial production rates to shorten payout times.. 1.be prepared to m o d ~ f y t Learn from the experience TABLE 1.. The variations have an effect on exploitation policies of operating companies. If appropriate. /I ! ' 1 I Define study flow p a t h s a n d c r i t ~ c a paths l c a p t a l . think and compare data with expectation and physical behaviour. The effect of the exchange rate fluctuation between the pound sterling and the US dollar is also clearly seen. ~nvolvement statistical correlation etc. which averaged some 400 million barrels of recoverable reserves for each reservoir. and maybe develop more theory.. .in more detail to the problem. reliable and u n b ~ a s e dc o n c l u s ~ o n Write summary o f f a c t s leading toconclusion and supporting the proposed action. Conduct study .p e r f o r m intensive analysis of data and results. Evaluate. I Make a techn~callysound. Revise ideas.. I 7 8 '79'80'81 '82'83'64'85' Year I I Upgrade base for study by literature search. The prices of oil in world markets is partly controlled by agreement amongst producing nations. . particularly in NW Europe. The current fiscal environment..2 Variation in price of average Middle East crude oil. ... Present results of study to win a l l necessary approvals to proceed.. The development of offshore oil fields on the UKCS with recoverable reserves less than 100 million barrels should provide a greater challenge to petroleum engineers than those under development at the end of 1983.
1.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 0 5 T~rne (years) since discovery 1 0 Fig.3 Capital expenditure profile for hypothetical 1985 UKCS offshore oil discovery with 75 million stock tank barrels of recoverable oil.) . 1.4 Offshore exploration using the semisubmersible rig Sea Conquest (Photo courtesy of BP. Fig.
Paper ~ ~ f l ( 1 ) . Technical Paper (Sept. Further small offshore oilfield developments. Dynamics of oil and gas accumulations. Europec (1984). London (1983). gas separation and handling Remote and frontier areas facility design C h e m l c a l processes surfadnts poiymers \ ~ika~is Non hyd. [4] Esso UK plc Opportunities for British Industry (1984). 1 7 Thermal for Heavy oi!s \ c O ~ ~ i O n Soak Drive Wet Dry 1 Mining technology applications New chemicals Insltu heating Cycling Gravlty drainage  / Combinat~on drive 1 i Other f u l d InjectionJ C02. 11th World Pet. Proc. ElfAquitaine.water. SPE Paper 12988.E. Tulsa (1983).Pad or wells platform Updip/downdip lines and volatile Pressure Maint. Distribution and quantitive assessment of world petroleum reserves and resources. (1983). J. [9] Archer. Proc. 1984). 1. P a n wells . and Marsden. 11th World Pet. Proc. [5] UK Offshore Operators Association Potential Oil and Gas Production from the UK Offshore to the Year 2000. 265.S.J. Bias in engineering estimation. 1983 and annually. Pub.S. 407. C.ocarbon (Gas. Mem 5. Pau 1983. Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation. [3] Department of Energy Development of the oil and gas resources of the United Kingdom (the Brown Book). . The role of taxation in optimising the exploitation of the UK continental shelf. Paper PD6(1). L 2 . [2] British Petroleum Company plc BP Statistical Review of World Energy (June 1984). Europec (1984). D.En. N 2 ) s 1 dscble (water biocklng) MISCI~I~ and Woter~ontrol low I F T Fig. [6] Brush. [8] Underdown. Proc.L~quid) Mlsclbie Hydro carbons ' Oil.5 Petroleum recovery methods.N2 / \ ~~d. References [I] International Petroleum Engineering Encyclopedia Pennwell Publish. V.D. Cong..1 INTRODUCTION '+ Petroleum recovery pressure maintenance (supplelnented drive energy) Water injection natural reservoir energy) Solutiongas drlve '1: Natural water influx High rate '1' / Low rate \ Gas injection I] 4J Nuclear technology applications Stimulation l m m i ~ ~ b l eMkcible] Intermediate Combinatlon Compoctlon drlve Gas cop expansion  1 1. Co. JPT (1982) 433. 1101 Perrodon. [ l l ] Master. R. A. [7] Marks. SPE Paper 13008. S. Q. Cong.M.ocarbon (C02.
Reprint Series 3 . 176. Firia~icialrequirements ancl methods of financing petroleum operations in developing countries.B. Practical Re. JPT (July 1964). Grahanl Sr Trotman 177192. JPT (Dec. Trans. Proc. 2171. .R. E. J. [I61 Parrn. [I31 Northern.D. SPE of AIME (1970). The Hague (1981).x~~lo~rrlion Strrctegics in Devrlopirzg Counfries. 727. I. Feb.6 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [12] Hertz. D. F. andHaynes.G. Tulsa (1982). Risk analysis in capital invcstn~cnt~ Harvt~rdBusiness Review (Jan. Pr~trul~utrz E. 1984) and in Pet.. E. [I41 Attanasi. Economics and appraisal of conventional oil and gas (in the Wcstcrn Gulf of Mexico). Investment clecisions in pctroleurn exploration and production. Penrlwell Publishing. 2 vols. 1984).~ervoir Engineering.H. UN Corg.L. [15] Tirnmerman.
namely (a) a source for hydrocarbons. It is believed that petroleum originates from the anaerobic decomposition of fats.4. as shown in Figs 2. Petroleum formation requires that organic source clays become mature by subjection to pressure and temperature. which will have reached a fluid pressure equilibrium throughout its pore volume at the time of discovery. The discovery of oil by exploration well drilling in some of the world's sedimentary basins is shown in Figs 2. can act to modify further the pore structure and geometry. chemical replacement and diagenetic changes. seems to be optimal for formation of hydrocarbon mixtures classified as oils.2 in terms of intensity of exploration. The accumulation.1 and 2. The setting for hydrocarbon accumulation is a sedimentary basin that has provided the essential components for petroleum reservoir occurrence. From a petroleum engineering perspective it is convenient to think of sedimentary basins as accumulations of water in areas of slow subsidence into which sediments have been transported. Secondary processes. The North Sea province is seen as a relatively young exploration area in a high yield basin. which may be correlatable with burial depth and geological time. the existence of traps in porous sedimentary rock at the time of migration and in the migration path.7% organic matter) with local rich streaks greater than 40%. This needs rapid sedimentation in organic rich waters and leads to the accumulation of organic rich clays in an anaerobic environment. wet gases and gas. The average organic content of potential source rocks is about 1%by weight.3 and 2. The primary depositional processes and the nature of the sediments have a major influence on the porosity and permeability of reservoir rocks. If the pore fluids cannot be expelled the pore fluid pressure may increase. may lead progressively to the generation of hydrocarbon mixtures characterized as condensates. plankton and algae. The origin of sedimentary basins and the genesis. (b) the formation and migration of petroleum.1 CONDITIONS FOR OCCURRENCE We may define a reservoir as an accumulation of hydrocarbon in porous permeable sedimentary rocks. grains of sediment are subject to increasing contact and pore fluids may be expelled from the decreasing pore volume. i. The Kimmeridge clay. solution. The hydrogen content of the organic matter should be greater than 7% by weight for potential as an oil source. migration and entrapment of hydrocarbons is an extensive topic covered in the geological literature['10] and only the essential details are reviewed here. the principal source rock for North Sea oil averages about 5% carbon (. proteins and carbohydrates in marine or estuarine plant and animal matter. It is a rule of thumb that for each percentage . With compaction.e. A hydrocarbon field may comprise several reservoirs at different statigraphic horizons or in different pressure regimes. A temperature window in the range 140°F to 300"F. is also sometimes known as a pool. including compaction. (c) a trapping mechanism. maturity and exploration effort and volume by discovery.Chapter 2 Reservoirs 2. Prolonged exposure to high temperatures. or shorter exposure to very high temperatures.
~anada / / / / / W.1/ 1 / / / / I I / / I I I 5 1 0 100 Wildcat wells per lo4 krn2 50 500 1000 5000 10 000 Fig.2 Historical relationships between exploration intensity and yield (after [''I).Texas 10 L 5 E / Gippsland //.S.Saharo / *~a?o{ //O / / / / / U S .5/ / / //* / / / / / ./'*Wyoming Oklahoma / / .o ro / */ N.E. 2. Gulf Coast (offshore) E /' / / Indonesia / / /aU. Tunisia 0. exploration yield and discovery (after [la]).Texas . / ~ichigan// / / / / 9 1L / //. .France / / / / / / ~. / / / / *Reconcavo ~ouisiano// Alberta . / ~sea ~ t h // / Illinois a .100 50 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / // / / / / / / / / / California / / / / / / // / Arabian Gulf / N 1 / /' / / ~ Arctic Slope / / / ~ i g e r Delta osirte / N. Exploration success (%) lo6 rn3 oil discovered per successful wildcat Fig.Germany / / / / / 0. 2.A /' / / / m ~ a r k t i s // S.W.1 Wildcat well success v.
however.2 RESERVOIRS Hydrocarbon generated+ 9  fossils" Fig. The source rock microfractures are believed to heal as pressures are dissipated.4 Variation in the quanhy of hydrocarbons contained in fine grained sediments as a function of temperature (after. In the permeable system the transport occurs under condi . 2. necessarily true that all the oil generated will be expelled or trapped in porous rocks.there is no consensus on this topic. The migration process involves two main stages.[ Fig. Migration of petroleum generated from source rocks is not well understood. some 13005000 cubic metres of oil per km2 m (1040 barrels of oil per acreft) of sediment could be generated.3 Hydrocarbon generation for normal geothermal ) I ' gradient (after. 0 Gas pool Gas migration routes Surface oil shows rocks soure rock Fig. Since the generation of petroleum is accompanied by volume changes which can lead to high local pressures. 2. The movement of petroleum may have been as a solution in water or as distinct oil or gas phases .)I'[ Oil pool I Oil migration routes . namely through the source rock and then through a permeable system. there may well be an initiation of microfractures which provide an escape route into permeable systems such as sedimentary rocks or fault planes. point of organic carbon in mature source rocks. 2.5 Migration pattern model for a section of the Congo coastal basin (after [61). It is not.
2. in deeper water deltaic sediments and in the enveloping sediments of limestone reefs.10 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE tions of a fluid potential gradient which may take the hydrocarbon to surface or to some place where it becomes trapped. The down faulted mature Kimmeridge shale also provides a source for the oil as shown in Fig. Many reservoirs exist as the result of a combination of structural and stratigraphic features.9 Unconformity trap. 2. Fig. 1 Cross section . 2.6 and 2. a style of trapping is found which results from the truncation of inclined permeable beds by an impermeable unconformity surface (Fig. Stratigraphic traps result when a depositional bed changes from permeable rock into finegrain impermeable rock (Fig.7. Fig. .. . A t equilibrium conditions the density differences between the oil. The seal for the Middle Jurassic is either the clays and shales of the unconformity itself or Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge shale. i. Limit of poroS1ty Stratlgraplcsand 'pinchout' trap Fig.10 Brent Sand trap . 2.a regional hydrostat~cgradient. as shown in Figs 2. Cross section In the North Sea and several other sedimentary areas. 2. the malor~ty being in the range 5004000 mSS.6 Anticlinal structure. we may have an expectation of.UKCS.7 Fault trap. oilwater and gasoil contacts.10.5.. 2. gas and water phases can result in boulldary regions between them known as fluid contacts.8 Strat~graphicpinch trap. with the great majority of known accuinulation being in the former style. as shown in the example of Fig. Cross sect~on MOP Fig. It is debatable whether this trap should be called stratigraphic because of the trapping by fine grained sediments. 2.c. o r structural after the geological nature of the unconformity.8).   '0wc. 2. The character~sticforms of petroleum trap are known as structural and stratigraphic traps. Impermeable rocks provide seals above and below the permeable reservoir rocks. Examples of this process occur in thc more distal regions and in discontinuous sands of river channels. Structural traps may be generally s~~bdivided anticlinal and fault traps which arc into described in terms of the shape of the sedimentary beds and their contacts.   . 2. It might be assurned that less than 10% of petroleunl generated in source rocks is both expelled and trapped.9).2. 2. I cross section Unconform~ty surface A Map I Fig. RESERVOIR PRESSURES Hydrocarbon reservoirs are found over a wlde lange of present day depths of burial. out . In the Viking Graben area of the northern North Sea. the Breiit Sand reservoirs arc characteristically faulted deltaic sands truncated by the Cretaceous unconformity. In our concept of the petroliterous sedimentary basin a5 a region of water into which sediment has accumulated and hydrocarbons have been generated and trapped.
One particular mechanism responsible for overpressure in some North Sea reservoirs is the inability to expel water from a system containing rapidly compacted shales.44 psiift) to 12 kpalm (0.79 (0. The value of G. fluid pressures may depart substantially from the normal range (see for example MagaraI2]). In reservoirs found at depths between 2000 mSS and 4000 mSS we might use a gradient of 11 kpalm to predict pore fluid pressures around 220 bar to 440 bar as shown in Table 2.3 (0. where X i s the depth below a reference datum (such as sea level) and G. 2.433 psilft) and reservoir water systems are commonly encountered with gradients in the range 10 kpaim (0.53 psilft).2 RESERVOIRS That is. Fresh water exhibits a gradient of 9.12. Under certain depositional conditions.45) 11.17 (0. in a water column representing vertical pore fluid continuity the pressure at any point is approximated by the relationship 8000 ~totfjord Px= X . All show similar salinity gradients but different degrees of overpressure. There is a balance in a reservoir system between the pressure gradients representing rock overburden (G. simply because of the lower density of the hydrocarbon compared with water. 2. is the pressure exerted by unit height of water. 2. Fig. A representation of this is G.). which is based on data from a number of Brent Sand reservoirs in the North Sea. Any hydrocarbon bearing structure of substantial relief will exhibit abnormally high pressures at the crest when the pressure at the hydrocarbonwater contact is normal.).5) .1 Pore fluid pressure.11. TABLE 2. and is shown in Fig. Abnormal pressure regimes are evident in Fig. The pore fluids can be considered to take part of the overburden pressure and relieve that part of the overburden load on the rock grains. depends on the salinity of the waters and on the temperature in the system.G.433) 10. pore fluids (Gf) and sediment grain pressure (G. 2. bar (psi) Depth m SS (ftSS) Gradient kPa/m (psilft): 9.1. or because of movement of closed reservoir structures. f Q . \ \ + G.79 kpaim (0. possibly related to development in localized basins[12].12 Equilibrium gradients.1 1 Pressure regimes in Brent Sand reservoirs (after ['21). Pressure + . = G. o g lloooLO L Heather Lye11 12 000 13 000I I I I I 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Pore f u ~ d pressure ( P S I )+ Fig.
14. X. In layered sand systems which contact. The prcswre in the gas phase at the top o f the reservoir X I will therefore be: 5 a 9 a \. can reprcsent any degree o f water phase ( P . The estimat~onand recognition o f flulci contacts are essential in evaluating hydrocarbons in place. is given by the average tcmperaturesalinity gradient ot wate. + Cl. There can be significant Top reserilolr . As an equation o f a straight line this is W e will define a fluid contact between oil and water as the depth in the reservoir at which the pressure in the oil phase (P. ) . Overpressure from the burial weight o f glacial ice has also been cited. condition as an ecluilibriuln condition. Fig. as in some reservoirs a zone o f the prcssure In the oil phasc is the pressure that the 100% water saturation can occur above the free oil had at the wateroil contact less the density head water level by capillarity..(goc).14 Multiple fluid contacts showing tested interval indicationof LKO and HKW. at the samebetween P.6 kpalm ( 1 psilft).13 shows this under.) equation difference at depth XT depth using the and the P. the position Po = P.pg Where g' is the ratio o f gravitational acceleration g to the universal constant g. At any depth XU above the wateroil further in Chapter 6.(X. At the gasoil contact P . Abnormal fluid pressures are those not in initial fluid equilibrium at the discovery depth. 2.. This effect is dcscrihcd o f the 011. water level (FWL). Strictly At somc dcyth. The magnitude o f the overburden gradient is approxirnately 22. This difference accounts for gaskicks encountered sometimes during drilling operations as gas sands are penetrated. Above thc wateroil contact.Reference to Fig. the rock grains take a proportionally increasing part o f the overburden load. This leads to overpressured aquiferhydrocarbon ~ystemsl'~].(owc) = P. P. 2.3 FLUID PRESSURES IN A HYDROCARBON ZONE At the wateroil contact. the pressure in the oil phase w~ll Pcl(XD) bc do not have equilibrium with a common aquifer. 2.12 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE As fluid pressure is reduced.. 2. defines the free P. we can therefore write speaking. Magaral" has described conditions leading to abnormally high and abnormally low pressures. 2.13 Pressure equrlibr~um a statlc system in calculated P. Some explanations lie in reservoirs being found at present depths higher or lower than the depth at which they became filled with hydrocarbon. fro111 the surface datum o f sea level. This may be the result o f upthrust or downthrown faulting. is the local oil density.(owc)..w p Water Fig. (goc) = P.. In Gulf coast and North Sea reservoirs overpressure is most frequently attributed to rapid deposition o f shales from which bound water cannot escape to hydrostatic equilibrium. G. as follows: multiple fluid contacts can be found as shown in Fig.. = X. Pressure + where p..) is equal to the pressure in thc where the constant C. The placing of tluid contact\ often rcsults horn .or overpressure.
there may be an implied correction for water depth in offshore operations.16 Geostatic temperature gradient. The local geothermal gradient can be disturbed around a wellbore by drilling operations and fluids. ' i Mean predictive gradient Fig. i. 2.5 At t t At 1. 2. 2. 40~ EZ On $5 odan nco l. 2. using a suite of temperatures at a given depth from successive logging runs. The combination of uncertainties in fluid properties for gradient extrapolation and in well test intervals means that a fluid contact is often represented as a depth range until data from several wells in a reservoir have been correlated. (g) fluid saturations from recovered core. lead to a reasonable assumption that reservoir condition processes tend to be isothermal. together with large surface areas for heat transfer within the reservoir.1 A / during ~ n d u c t ~ o n run log i I 0.029 Kim (1. In many petroliferous basins this is around 0. i jt 5060 0. The overburden and reservoir rock. and a Horner type analysis['41.029"Kim (0. a typical geostatic temperature gradient in the reservoir interval of a northern North Sea well might be 0. Some of these difficulties may be resolved by capillary pressure analysis using representative core samples. A particular difficulty in hydrocarbonwater contact evaluation concerns identification in the presence of increasing shaliness. (f) capillary pressure data from core samples. When temperature gradients are represented by a straight line from the surface to the reservoir interval. .2 RESERVOIRS consideration of information from several sources.15 Geostatic bottomhole temperature from Horner analysis. The mean . which have large thermal capacities.@F/100 ft).15). (c) flow of particular fluid from particular minimum or maximum depth.0 ( og sca. As shown in Fig.016"FIft). / z0 ak 10  $ 6a $ $ 200) +G C L 22 2 a E 30  / Indication. The effect of shaliness is manifest in small pore throats and high threshold capillary pressure which give high water saturation. temperature of the North Sea has been taken as 43°C.e.4 RESERVOIR TEMPERATURES Reservoir temperature may be expected to conform to the regional or local geothermal gradient.e) = r e apsea rlme since c rcuot on stopped ar I ng tlrne t me slnce clrcJ at on stopped + Fig. during microA/ log run 0Indication during sonic log run // a 0 . (e) saturations interpreted from wireline log data.16. (a) equilibrium pressures from RFT or gradient surveys. (d) fluid densities from formation samples. can be used to obtain an indication of the undisturbed local temperature (Fig. + e c 0m Geostatic bottom h oP temperature / . The temperature profile from surface conditions will reflect rock property variations and can be obtained from maximum reading thermometers used with logging tools. The proving of an oilwater contact from flow tests gives rise to the terminology of LKO (lowest known oil) or ODT (oil down to) depths and HKW (highest known water) or WUT (water up to) depths. (b) equilibrium pressures from well tests. 2.
a volume is meaningless unless accompanied by a definition of the conditions of mcasuremcnt. Exprcssed as a gasail ratio or GOR. The proportions. In the petroleum industry.3. It is most frequently necessary to relate the volume of a fluid phase existing at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure to its equivalent volume at standard conditions.2. All the phases are considered compressible. The volumetric equivalence of one standard barrel of fluid (1 BBL) is as Follows: and is discussed further in Chapter 4. the volume resulting from unit volume of feed depends on the conditions of processing. If we define a phase as being a physically distinct and physically separable part of a system. as O NCM or nm3. for most purposes all hydrocarbons heavier than C6 or C7 arc frequently lumped as a composite fraction characterized by molecular weight and boiling point range. Although the range is continuous. the volume of gas associated with unit volume of stock tank oil is a characterization property. but although compositional analysis is frequently taken to C1. Petroleum hydrocarbons consist predominantly of a series of paraffin hydrocarbons (CrrHZrrf2) together with some cyclic hydrocarbons (naphthenes C. gas. water). The normal condition is sometimes used. although to different degrees..159 cubic metres (m3) A barrel at stock tank conditions of temperature and pressure is denoted STB. the compositions and the physical properties of the phases present may change as production proceeds. oil density has long been described using an expanded inverse scale authorized by the American Petroleum Institute the API gravity. The data collected in thc prcdevelopment.14 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 2.5 NATURE OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Hydrocarbon accumuIations are invariably associated with formation waters which may constitute extensive aquifers underlying o r contiguous to the hydrocarbons... The analysis of reservoir performance depends upon the prediction of the physical properties of the coexisting phases at any time and. phases present within the reservoir during its producing life (oil. may require complete compositional analysis.5) 1 BBL = 5.6 RESERVOIR DATA  SOURCES The determiAation of hydrocarbon in place and technically recoverable reserves requires the implementation of a data acquisition scheme. and pressures change in the essentially isothermal system. The relationship between APT gravity and the specific gravity of the liquid (relative to water) at 60°F (SGbO)is as follows: SG6. the divisions are arbitrary. The cubic foot at standard conditions of 60°F and 1 atmosphere has found considerable industry usage in gas'volume measurement and is represented as SCF. Hydrocarbon reservoir fluids may be roughly classified as shown in Table 2. Many North Sea oils are in the region of 37" API with GORs around 600 SCFISTB . and frcqucntly three.H2. but since production facility design and peak . and aromatics C. in some cases. at O C and 1 bar. The relationship forms a term known as a forrri~ltion volilrne factor In addition to oil gravity or density. The compositions of the arbitrary classifications might typically be as those shown in Table 2. By convention. The degree of understanding of reservoir continuity and properties should improve with each well drilled but will always be a subjcct of uncertainty. I11 communication of data it is inevitable that recourse to unit conversions will occur.615 cubic ft (ft3) 1BBL = 0. reservoir appraisal and delineation stage needs careful planning and coordination in order to extract the maximum information. The volume unit of measurement in the industry is the stock tank unit. As with gases. then there will always be two._6). stock tank conditions used in the industry are 60°F and 1 atmosphere pressure. The economic justification of data acquisition is sometimes a difficult case to argue.H. Since stock tank oil is the result of a processing operation (gas separation). The usual range starts with water density at 10" and rises to volatile oils and straw coloured condensate liquids around 60"70". or cvcn to CZO. = 141. the units at a reference condition of 60°F and 1 atmosphere pressure are commonly SCFISTB and SCMISCM. conventionally the barrel but frequently nowadays the cubic metre. The cubic metre at stundurd conditions of 15°C and 1 bar is represented as SCM or sm3.5 ("API + 131. 2. or which may exist only within the hydrocarbon bearing interval as connate or intcrstitial water.
05 0.08 0.04 0.75 0.01 0. No anomalies in phase behaviour.65 0.03 0.03 0.08 5075 10000 + Tank gas 0. Figure 2. which will be amplified in later chapters. May be recently sourced or degraded black oil. high otl density and negl~glblegasoil ratio. Mole fraction compositions of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids Condensate Volatile oil Light black oil CI CP c3 c4 c 5 c.03 0. Also known as a dissolved gas oil system and constitutes majority of oil reservoirs. the narrowing of estimates in a probabilistic sense leads to greater confidence in capital commitment.9 0. Examples Example 2. Very low oil specific gravities. Crit~caltemperatures are greater than reservoir tempsrature.1 The volume of Upper Jurassic source rock buried to maturation depth in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf has been estimated at 12 million km2m.43 2545 2000 plateau production rates are calculated from reserve estimates.600. are shown in Table 2.3 Dry gas Essentially light hydrocarbon mixture existing entirely in gas phase at reservoir conditions.+ 0.04 0.2 RESERVOIRS 15 TABLE 2. Exists in a twophase region.44 0.08 0.4. Estimate the oil in place and the technically recoverable oil in the UKCS.1 5 4060 30006000 Separator gas 0. stating the assumptions made. The main sources of reservoir data.200.17 shows the types of interac tions using petroleum engineering and geological information during hydrocarbon exploitation. Better representation with viscosity higher than say 10 cp. .01 Liquid API gravity GOR After processing: Tank oil 0. Black oil 3045 Volatile oil 4570 Gas condensate Dry gas TABLE 2. The liquid phase has very high ratios of dissolved gas to oil and the gas phase can yield a substantial part of the stock tank liquid.2 Classification of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids Fluid A PI gravity Note Heavy oil <20 High viscosity.05 0.03 0. A gas phase at reservoir conditions but can undergo retrograde behaviour to yield low denslty oils In the reservoir.04 0. At surface may form tar sands etc.02 0.02 0.04 0. The source rock has an average carbon content of 5% and an expected convertibility of 4500 m3 oil per km2m of source rock for each percentage point of carbon.
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Small wellwall samples for lithology control (Fig. Borehole surveys: logs.18 Sidewall core operation. and possibly the type of hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbon type and fluid samples are obtained (Fig. porosity.20). the lithology of the section. May give gross and net section thicknesses. (Photo courtesy of BP. permeability. pressure gradients. under favourable condrtions. 2. porosities and fluid saturations. 2.) . Permeable intervals and movable hydrocarbon may be detected. Logs may be open hole or cased hole production logs. thicknesses of porous.* Yield data on lithology pore structure. fluid saturations and hydrocarbon type. dips and. wireline tests etc. and may help to determine depositional environments. and can help in determining intervals for coring. hydrocarbon bearing layers. water contacts. 2. Generally conducted in cased hole (Fig. permeability .thickness estimates. Initial reservoir pressure. 2. Special core analysis techniques will indicate recovery potential. and velocity data for seismic interpretation is obtained. The RFT tool can give valuable information on pressures and zonation.2 RESERVOIRS 17 TABLE 2.19). Well tests and flurd sampling Fig. and well productivitres.4 Source Sources of data  Drilling time logs Drill cuttings Mud logging and MWD (measurements while drilling) Sidewall cores Core samples I These represent the earliest information available.18).
(Photo courtesy of BP. 2.19 Riser system on an offshore well allows fluids to reach surface.) . (Photo courtesy of BP.20 Well testing on an offshore exploration rig. 2.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig.) Fig.
. W. 103118. JPT (1977).N. 3rd World Pet. Petrole 32 (1977). How down hole temperatures and pressures affect drilling. [4] Hubbert. Distribution and continuity of sandstone reservoirs. K. (1983). and Nelson. AAPG 61 (1977). 100.503. Sedimentary basins of the world and giant hydrocarbon accumulations. Fr. Bull. John. R. Proc. S. Energy Brown Book . J. Inst. D . Distribution and continuity of carbonate reservoirs.M. Petroleum exploration methods. A. 1954. [15] Grunau. Seismic stratigraphy moves towards interactive analysis. Cong. The Brent Sand in the N . and Twombley. 1121 kobertson Research InternationaliERC Energy Resource Consultants Ltd. [lo] St.. UKCS : A Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study (7 vols). H.Q. 776. [3] Erdman. AAPG 37 (1953). Elsevier. Cong. [14] Horner. J. D. B. (1981) Graham & Trotman. Proc. L A . and Smith. Cong. 13. thermal history and bacterial origin. [6] Chiarelli. Development of the ocl and gas resources of the United Kingdom. (Moscow) 2 (1971). World Oil (Oct.a [5] Chapman. 1980. Bull. P.Annual Report. J. [19] Kassler. 11th World Pet. D. techniques and costs. Paper PD12 (3). [I 11 UK Dept. Rev. map. Amsterdam (1978). Migration. Pressure buildup in wells. [16] Timko. IMM TransactionsSpecial Issue (1980). 8th World Pet. and Corvel. 873. HMSO. R.2 RESERVOIRS 19 References 1 1 Hunt. J.A. du The importance of vertical migration mechanisms of hydrocarbons.A. B. London (1984). 95. Mem 5. UN Conf. 189. Proc. D.J. et al. H. Else\ier. ElfAquitaine. W. JPT (1977).E. Compaction and Fluid Migration.P. Leiden (1951) 11. Problems of petroleum migration. Pau 1983.R.H. Dynamics of oil and gas accumulations. 73.R. Entrapment of petroleum under hydrodynamic conditions. andFertl. 6 .H. The Hague. AAPG (1980). K. 1972).E. Amsterdam (1973). Natural gas in major basins world wide attributed to source rock type.J. [2] Magara. accumulation and retention of petroleum in the earth. a Concise Study. Roberts. World Oil (March 1985). [7] Le Blanc. D. Review of the petroleum geology of offshore NW Europe. Proc.J. Petroleum Geology.L. Bull. R. AAPG Studces in Geolog)!10 (1980). Petroleum Exploration Strategies in Developing Countries. [18] Perrodon. and Rouchet. 191 . Morris.F. l8l Jardine. [17] Simson. [13] Jenkins.1Distribution of carbon as hydrocarbon and asphaltic compounds in sedimentary rocks. A. Viking Graben.
Chapter 3 Oilwell Drilling 3. EOR) NOT TO SCALE Fig. .1. In an offshore system the drilling rig is mounted on a structure (Fig. Whether a well is drilled onshore or offshore is immaterial to the fundamentals of the process. water. 3. n'nchor . 3. . 1  Crown block TABLE 3. 185'8 ca~lng cemented at 1000' Cement    casing cemented at 7 0 0 0 / 1 0 0 0 0 Development I Casing 9'8  Production (oil. ~p . or may be permanently or temporarily fixed to the sea bed (platform.1 Main componetits of a well drilling operation. 3.2) which may float (a drill ship or semisubmersible rig). . .1. The main components of a well drilling operation are described with reference to Fig.) .1 Well classification Onshore . Ball  or flex8ble~olnt B I O W . jacket. A classification of wells can be made as in Table 3.Offshore Exploration ~ I ~ S C O joint DIC M z a 3 ? L v .1 OPERATIONS The operation of drilling a well into a potential reservoir interval is the only way to prove the presence of hydrocarbon.Hydraulic control hose for well head I ' ~tser connector  . gas) I I Observation lniection (gas. (Photo courtesy of BP.o u t preventers and well head body .
h . 3. Fig. (Photo courtesy of BP.3 OILWELL DRILLING 21 Flare tower. incorporating radic p.ior .:e.ncoa.2 Offshore system.) .
4 Bit types used. Thc mud syste~n a closed loop as can be secn in Fig. (c) that the drill bit is cooled.) . The mud may bc waterbased or oilbased and have components that provide particular properties needed to control is the drilling. From the mud tank the mud is \ Fig. 3.5.3 and 3.3 Large diameter and hole opening bits. including diamond coring bit. The drill bits are lubricated during drilling with a fluid known as drilling mud. (Photo courtesy of BP. which has a composition engineered to providc (a) a density such that a pressure greater than the formation fluicl pressure is maintained in the drill hole.4).) jackup rig). (Photo courtesy of BP.) s . (Note that the mud loop i shown in black.5 Closed loop mud system. 3.Drill~ng hose Fig. 3. (b) that rock cuttings are carried away from the drill bit to the surface. 3. The drill hole is built using drill bits and steel casing for lining the drilled sections (Figs 3.22 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig.
The mud circulation system ensures that fluid emerging at the bit is brought to the surface carrying the cuttings. namely power for the hoist. pumped by a slush pump up the stand pipe and into the flexible hose.6. Fast drilling is important both from the point of view of timerelated costs. As the most expensive phase of exploration data acquisition. Data acquisition is required within a reasonably predictable reservoir zone and so can be planned economically. The weight acting on the drill bit is controlled by use of particularly heavy drill pipes called drill collars and by the tension in the upper part of the whole assembly or drill string. The hose is connected at a swivel joint to a hollow heavyduty hexagonal pipe called a kelly. Typical drilling into sandstones at a depth of 3000 m would be achieved with a weight of some 45 000 lb on the bit and rotation at 100 rpm. In the case of development wells. safety and data acquisition are the preeminent considerations. At 3000 m some 1000 tons of cuttings will have been removed from a typical hole. but operations can be planned with more certainty than for wildcats.2) lists in great detail all the tangible and intangible components of well costs. drilling operations together with well testing and well completions justify careful planning and close supervision. WELL COMPLETIONS AND OILWELL CASING When drilling in relatively unknown areas. a summary comparison in pounds sterling (1984) is as shown in Table 3. In order to get to such a depth it is necessary to start with a larger hole near surface and progressively set and cement in casing. Such a document (Table 3. wells. The main power requirements on a drilling rig are designed to satisfy three major functions. and an expensive element in the development expenditure of a field. power for the rotary table and power for the mud system. In . The budget for a well is generally presented in a document known as an AFE (authorization for expenditure). as shown in Fig.3 OILWELL DRILLING 5 " drillpipe ( 6 4 Ib/rn) Tension I 8" drlll collars ( 5 0 5 Ib/rn) ingress. The drill pipe is connected below the kelly to provide a hollow pipe route to the drill bit. 4 I l l Resul+:45000ib on bit 12 $ " stabil~ser 12f" bit Fig. and of the acceleration of production. When drilling exploration and appraisal wells. In some drilling operations some rotation can be achieved by use of a turbine located below the swivel. 3.3.6 Design basis for drilling to 3000 mSS. it is desirable to maintain sufficient of the hole cased and securely cemented so that a blowout from below the casing shoe is unlikely to occur (Table 3. Rotation of the drill assembly is achieved by clamping the kelly in a bushing in a rotary table. and guidance on its preparation For current UKCS can be found in the literature[12]. safety is still a dominant consideration. A neutral point in the drill string is defined by the upper part in tension from the hoist and the lower part in compression on the bit.2 COSTS The cost of drilling operations is to a large extent dependent on well location and depth and whether the well is an exploration or a development well. The effluent passes onto vibrating screens which separate the larger solids from the liquid slurry. The table speed of rotation is controlled by the driller.4). 3. 3. and fast drilling and minimum cost are subordinate (within reasonable limits). which passes to cyclone separators. to protect the drilled hole from caving and pore fluid 3. The kelly and its attached pipe are held in tension by a hoist system controlled by the driller. The emergent cleaned mud passes into the mud tank where and properties are peri~dically~checked chemicals added as required.3.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 3.2 AFE document R/g Water depth Total depth targef Function Rotary table elevation Site prep / Move on Days Drtll to TD Test Abandon/ Suspend Workover Tofaf Rig rate S~te survey TowIAnchor Markers Mobll~zat~on Riser tension analysis Slte preparatlon Anchors Gu~de bases Wellhead bod~es Wellhead equrpment Conductor lntermed~ate caslng Deeper caslng Caslng h e r Caslng accessorles Rock b ~ t s D~amondlPCD ~ t s b Core head Drlll~ng consumables Mud chem~cals Cement and add~tlves Fuel 011 Lubricants Cater~ng Accommodat~on Drllllng flu~d equlp hlre Dr~ll strlng tool rental tublng Complet~on Complet~on tub~ng accessories I Complet~on valves and packers Complet~on perforat~ng and flu~d Complet~on operations Complet~on Chr~stmas trees Abandonment and demob~l~zat~on Transportat~on Standby vessels Waste d~sposal Insurance Contractpayments (see detalls below) Mud englneerlng Caslng runnlng Cement servlces Mud and drllllng logs Turblne drllllng Dlrect~onal drllllngiSurvey Flshlng Dlvlng and u/w television Wlrellne logglng Veloc~ty ~allbratlon DST/Product~on testlng Core barrelloperator rental Sampl~nglFlu~d analys~s Ac~d~zat~oniFractunng lnspect~on servlces Rig te~ecommun~cat~ons SUBTOTALS !  .
this will require from one third to one half of the remaining distance to the next target depth to be securely cased. A decrease in the value of d indicates the possibility of abnormally high pressures. knowledge of formation breakdown and fracture pressure. where R = rate of penetration.05 0.lost circulation zones. drawn from data on a well in SE Asia. Wellbore caving prevention 3. Figure 3. Environment for installation of production tubing :j: general.7 Selection of mrnimum casing depth for interinediate strrnqs.2 0. Pay zone and thief zone isolation 5. Control of well pressure 2.Yt is common to monitor a term known as the dexponent while drilling: in order to obtain an indication of abnormal pressure.2 0.3 OILWELL DRILLING TABLE 3. overpressured formations. shows the effect on the dexponent as the abnormai pressure zone is entered at 6560 ft[16].4 Reasons for casing in a well 1.6 Development N North Sea (3000 mSS) Central North Sea (3000 mSS) Land (2000 mSS) 0. lb.2 0. in addition. 3. and of any local difficult formations .05 0. caving shales etc.1 0.8.9 0. will enable local practices to be evaluated and implemented. When drilling through shale. Freshwatersand isolation 4.t  Fig. a sudden increase in drilling rate may occur since cuttings removal in the vicinity of the bit is aided by decrease in the mudpore pressure differential and. N = rotary speed. ftlh. Confinement of production to wellbore 6. W = weight on bit.4 4.8 0.3.7 TABLE 3. In a well drilled area.3 UKCS well costs (costs in millions pounds sterling. 1984) Exploration Semisubmersible (3000 mSS) Rig Transport Contracts Consumables Casing &wellhead Site preparation Overheads TOTAL 1.7.7 0. Pore pressure and fracture pressures for a typical well are shown in Fig. the rate of penetration tends to increase with depth. in.3 0.1 0. D = hole diameter. d= log [ R / ~ G N ] log [ 1 2 w / 1 0 6 ~ ] Surface Pressure . . shale may be softer.. rpm.3 0. In an abnormally high pressured section of hole.
In drilling to the intermediate target of 5000 ft.4. highly deviated wells. i. in any difficult drilling situation. This will allow continued drilling with a normal 4Yz5 in. 3. 3. The knowledge of pore pressure is of significance in drilling and in well completion. lithology and preferred casing seats. diameter.9 Pressure gradients.e. Pore pressure \ 10000 Pressure.psi 150 0 0 1000 3 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 Fig. drill string with bits up to about 8Y2 in. in drilling to the casing setting point at 2000 ft. or for moderately high levels of production in a smaller liner is 9% in.8 dexponent plot. or to complete a development ~ i e l l . and obtain the data ncccssary for an exploration well. and eliminates the probleins associated I \\ Unconsol.26 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCtPLESAND PRACTICE f abnormally high pore pressure zone ' d ' exponent Fig.9.7. It is then essential to be able to continue drilling to target dcpth with a smaller diameter bit. In addition. a new area. for deep.doted surface gravels and clays dolorn~te (~osslble lost fl L~thology Sea bed 150rn 1 36\ole. this means that a well with a target depth of 10 000 ft (vertical) should have an intermediate casing set at about 5000 ft (vertical). a string should be set at 6001000 ft. and the reasons for casing a well as shown in Table 3. Consider norrrzal pore pressure completion as summarized in Fig. T o a first approximation. ovcrpressures or lost circulation problems. In practice. . potentially high productivity wells. 3. thc smallest diameter of casing which will allow either for extended continued drilling.30\sg at 210 r n 1 1 1 24" h0le. A North Sea well arrangement is shown in Fig. the possibility should always be considered that well conditions may require the final planned casing string to be set prematurely. 3. In turn. a protective casing should be set at about 2000 ft.18~/8"csg 5 0 0 m at I I I Shaley _ innn.
Collapse 9+" N 8 0 471b/ft has Collapse rating 4 7 5 0 psi Collapse load 2 2 5 0 psi load 4 5 0 0 psi ( c ) Tensile forces  Surface 6 Max. (b) collapse forces. 3. (a) Burst forces. (c) tensile forces. .3 OILWELL DRILLING ( a ) Burst forces 3500  Surface 13%'' J 5 5 681b/ft has effective burst rating 3 1 0 0 psi 5 0 0 0 ft Net burst at shoe 2 7 5 0 psi 1 2 $ " hole 10000 ft  t 4500psi ( b ) Collapse forces  Surface .tensile load 0 lb Neglect buoyance effect of mud In the hole Fig.10 Casing selection. tensile load 4 7 0 000 Ib 9 " : N 8 0 471b/ft has Tension rating 1 0 8 6 000 Ibs L M~n. (d) tensile forces.Collapse load 0 psi .
(b) when the emergency string has been run because of drilling difficulties. gravel packed linzr. and to remove continuously from the hole the drilled rock material. 3. and drilling into the reservoir.5 DRILLING FLUID CONTROL Drilling fluids (muds) are continuously circulated down thc hollow drill pipe.7. The greater reliability and safety of testing in casing more than offsets the cost of the casing string (unless a zone to be tested lies only just below an intermediate casing string). are shown ~) for a hypothetical case in Fig. Fluids used in exploration and appraisal wells are almost universally waterbased.2 Llncemented screen liner This may be adopted for sand control .4. 3.1 .6 Conditions in a given wcll environment require selection of casing according to burst. 3. cemented casing. screen liner uncemented. collapse and tension forces. can be handled. 7 in. returning through the annulus. Even in exploration and appraisal wclls which arc to be abandoned. From calculated values the ovcrtlesign safety factors are often as follows: Burst 1. the principal variations being: barefoot. casing. 3.4. 3. which assurnc a 0.5 ~ 2 (and. casing string to target depth has becomc a common standard for the highly deviated. 3.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 3 5 .1 1 and are summarized below.5. and trcatlnent and disposal of oil contaminated rock cuttings. and meets all requirements of exploration and appraisal wells. collapse and tension data in API ~ u l l e t i l l . and arc widely used in development drillin[ where the problems of mud salvage and reuse. In the largest hole possible through 9% in.45 psilft pore pressure gradicnt and a 0.00. viscosity and filtration propeities are modified and controlled by additives. Thc advantage is that therc is no restriction to flow. casing can be run as a liner. Tcnsion 1. highly productive wells of the North Sea. Completion string g5/8 7 65/8 Hole size Intermediate string 13% 10% g5/8 Hole size Surface string Hole size 12'/4 9% 8% 17% 14% 12'/4 20 16 133/n 24 20 17% All sizes are in inches with deep drilling with 3% in.4 COMPLETION The adoption of a particular completion size thcn dictates the selection of other hole and casing sizes and several representative programmes are tabulated in Table 3. Collapse 1. The disadvantages are that there is no selectivity ila completion. The princip:rl purposes of drilling fluids are to effect a primary control of formation fluid pressures.1 Barefoot completion This involvcs sctting a production string in caprock.3 Cemented liner This may be required when: (a) when the Irlow stril~g size is larger than can be placed in final casing size. These dispersions are stabilized with peptizing agents.1 psilft gas colulnn. and in this or slightly smaller holes. cemented liner. and no fluid control in completion interval.unconsolidated sand bridging on a slotted or wire wrapped perforated liner. consisting of dispersions of colloidal clays in fresh or sca water. For development wells. Oilbased fluids have some advantaees. a variety of completion methods are possible. casing will provide a fairly adequate conduit in dcvelopnleiit wells.10.4. proper density control is important . the final casing string w l be run il and cemented if hydrocarbons wort11 testing are encounterecl offshore. In all wclls.) bits. 3. and density. The completions arc illustratecl in Fig. The completion with a 9% in. The main design criteria in casing selection involve consideration of burst. drill pipc and small (less than 6 in. 6% in.
overpressures often exceeding 10001200 psi (i. since some excess of mud pressure over formation pressure is essential for safe control of formation fluids.e. as shown in Fig. definition of apparent viscosity p. The determination of the rheological properties of drilling fluids and cements is complicated for a 3. In such a condition veiocitv difference between 0 two adjacent layers Shear rate = v = distance between the two layers Shear stress = t = force per unit area of the laminar layer inducing the shear The apparent viscosity p.11 Completion practices. (d) high differential pressure and pipe sticking. (b) induced fracturing and lost circulation.12 Newtonian fluid viscosity.6 RHEOLOGY OF WELL FLUIDS (DRILLING MUDS AND CEMENTS) fluid is directly The shear stress (t) of a N e ~ t o n i a n proportional to shear rate (v) and gives rise to the . The excess pressure should be the minimum consistent with safe control of formation pressures (i. of the order of one hundred bars). Excessive pressures can lead to: (a) lost circillation in vugular or very high porosity zones. 3.12. v' (shear rate) Fig. higher mud weights are often carried than would be normal in development wells . parallel to the direction of flow. 3. is constant at constant temperature and pressure. (f) severe formation damage and plugged perforation etc. (c) excessive fluid loss and thick mud cake.e. a few hundregs of psi or tens of bars) when pressures are known.3 OILWELL DRILLING Barefoot Completion (obsolescent) Open hole Screen liner Completion Cemented liner (perforated) Cornplet~on Cemented Casing Completion Fig. For laminar flow a fluid is sheared into laminar layers. Since in exploration and appraisal wells pressures are either not known or not fully established. with each layer moving at its specific velocity. (e) reduced rates of penetration. 3.
(c) the fluids arc nonNewtorlia~~ and have in general a behaviour intermediate between a Ringham plastic fluid and a pseudoplastic power law fluid.8 DATA ACQUISITION DURING DRILLING In exploration drilling it is imperative that no source of data should be neglected while drilling is in progress . 3. when higher formations are fully protected. elastic to plastic deformation and to be at its yield point. Changes in rate of penetration can then frecluently be correlated with sand and shale intervals.14 Log T . shales are harder to drill than thc moderately high porosity sands and loosely consolidated sandstoiles that constitute good reservoir rocks. so high formation pressures relative to the ruud pressures can accelerate drilling . In any subsequent operations. When this volumepressure relationship ceases to be linear.a reverse pressure differential leading almost to spontaneous disintegration of the formation. A very sudden substantial increase in drilling rate shorild lead to a cessation of drilling while a check test is made for fluid influx and a possible kick. 3. Additionally. a plot is made of incremental mud volume pumped against pressure. just as high mud weights and pressures retard drilling by a chip hold (down effect.1 Drilling log ____I . While background methane is Away\ present.log :well fluid behaviour. especially the rate of penetration under otherwise constant conditions.8. (b) flow distortion resulting from rotation and displacement of drill string and casing. In general. 3.it can nevcr be certaln that circumstances will not arise which will lead to abandonment of the well before it can be logged comprehensively by wireline. will frequently indicate thc: presence of hydrocarbon beanng intcr . the formation is assumetl to bc in a transition from The driller's log is the most immediate information available. this value of pressure at the casing shoe should not be exceeded. including (a) the variable geometry of the well circulating system. Fig. It should be emphasized that it is not the object of a test actually to break down the formation. The important sources of data while drilling is ill progress are: drilling logs. It is standard practice now to conduct a leak off test on formations after drilling out a casing shoe.2 Mud logging This i~lvolves the continuous analysis of gases extracted from the circulating ~ n u dI' by a chromato[' graph and a sour gas (H2S) detector.well fluid behaviour The sophisticated MWD methods are under active development and are entering more common usage?' 3. MWD.14.13 T. 3. S 0 /  A ~ Power Law log l i Fig. In a leak off test.7 FORMATION BREAKDOWN PRESSURES AND LEAK OFF TESTS An essential factor in planning the control of any possible kick or blowout occurring while drilling involvcs the avoidance of including fractures in higher formations when controlling forrnatiolls at greater depths. MWD (measurement while drilling) logs. rotary speed and mud density. as shown in Figs 3. such as weight on bit.8. an event which must be avoided. and prior indication of a porous sand interval can instigate a close examination of appropriate cuttings.13 and 3. and particularly increase? in ethane and heavier hydrocarbons. a change in methane concentration. mud logs.30 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE number of rea~ons. 3.
which is unlikely to change significantly either the wettability of reservoir rock minerals or the physical state of clay minerals within the reservoir rock. Viscosity and filter cake control requires the presence of thinners (peptizing agents).g. e. The production. the sharp increase in drilling rate and the total disappearance of gas indication are correlatable phenomena which should have led to the suspicion of saliferous beds. is desired. or starch which requires a preservative.15 is reproduced from["] to indicate a well description log for a well drilling with an 8% in. an oilbased fluid is desirable. which is broadly neutral. It was noted in reviewing the well history that the upper saliferous beds were drilled with nonsaturated mud and that salt did not show in the cuttings brought to surface (i. When an (objective is the evaluation of the interstitial water saturation.58 glcc and 78 000 ppm salinity. It should be obvious that the problems of formulating a good bland coring fluid for exploration and 3. and shaly samples examined for stratigraphic and palaeontologic evidence of age. brine or crude would normally not give adequate pressure control in undepleted reservoirs. drilling was continued with oilbased mud. The rationale of the latter policy is that after drilling. scale 1=0 to 50 minlft FSD. The observation of substantial salt was made while circulating with the drill string stuck at 8774 ft. Adationally. (f) cutting description by the wellsite geologist. and reservoir crude with minimum active additives is a preferred base. To avoid clay alteration. storage and pumping of reservoir fluids will itself normally expose the fluid to some contaminants.3 Cutting logs Provided that the travel time log between bottom hole and surface can be established. the formation pressures will be better known. cuttings not representative of formation which exaggerated sandstone). It is almost inevitable that a core will be heavily invaded and thoroughly flushed by mud and mud filtrate. some operate a policy of never coring the first exploration well. These may. Additives used specifically for filter loss are CMC (a cellulose derivative). or a high pH environment or a very high salt environment. it is desirable that the drilling fluid should be as neutral as possible with respect to the reservoir rock minerals. however. a decision may be made to take a complete formation core. and an oxidized crude would be severely altered. many of which require moderately high pH. Amongst the most common are tannin derivatives. be detectable by examination of the solvent extract or cut for fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The drill string became stuck in a salt section at 8774 ft and after freeing. a brine formulation similar to the connate formation water is desirable. an aqueous coring fluid is necessary.9 MUD FLUIDS FOR CORE RECOVERY Some companies operate a policy of coring any good indication. permeability and hydrocarbon content. Muds containing additives which severely affect the surface properties of minerals should be avoided. and a mud programme designed to give minimum alteration of core properties can be adopted. An unchanged reservoir brine or reservoir crude would be the ideal fluid for securing unaltered specimens of reservoir rock. the mud itself will be tested directly for hydrocarbon content (ultraviolet lightlfluorescence or total analysis by distillation for hydrocarbons). (b) depth. For maximum useful reservoir information. (e) gas detector (units % equivalent methane) showing amount of gas in the analysed gasair mixture coming from the degasser in the return flow line. (d) mud salinity in ppm. good mud log indications and hydrocarbon indications in the cuttings. Given such indications. 3. Figure 3. A bland or unreactive mud system. The log data shown includes from left to right the following data: (a) cutting percentage.e. surfactants should be avoided as should high pH muds. Obviously. cuttings will have been washed thoroughly by the drilling fluid stream and only residual oil traces will remain. The drilling mud was a salt waterbased mud in the upper section with a density of 1. Also. To avoid changes in wettability. When one objective of core recovery is the evaluation of residual oil saturation. bit through a shaly sand series with interbedded salt layers. particularly on wettability and capillary properties of the reservoir rocks. (c) rate of penetration in minlft. with good sandstone cuttings. a precise identification can be made of the zones which are of the greatest interest for coring.8. If good indications of reservoir rock can be detected very early.3 OILWELL DRILLING vals. logging and possibly testing an exploration well. complex phosphates and chromelignosulphonatellignin formulations.The constant increase in salinity. cuttings at the surface can be collected and examined for apparent porosity. . drilling break.
grey. "on calcareous.. subangular to rullraunded Siltstone dark grey.the UKCS Murchison development progra~nrne managed to reducc drilling times from 5070 days to 3040 days for 10 000 ft TVD wells. to grey or white Shale grey. randy. subangular to rubrounded I Sandstone whole. Conventional tricone rotary bits may last from 15 to 35 hours. the ~lsefullife of the bit and the time taken in round trips. wlth f ~ n ecarbonated sheets Some quartz grafns rned~urn coarse. w ~ t h quartz grams. Sandstone wli~te.rllghrly brown. l ~ g h grey to brown. 3.. medium to coarse.Sandnone. gradmg to I sandy riltrtnne.with t coarse quartz gram. grcy.10 DRILLING OPTIMIZATION The cost of drilling is such that total costs of a development can bc rcduced sign~ficantlyif drilling costs can be reduccd . subangular to subrounded. white to light grey. 13 . Optimization requires a careful balance betwccn the instantaneous drilling ratc o r rate of penetration. by which time wcar of teeth. High caving percentage. gauge or bearings will generally have .fine. soft. very fine. anhydr~ric Siltstone. s~lty. and cffective coring is frequcntly best conducted in development wells (though well deviation can thcn be a problem). Trdces of anhydrlte. hard. coarse.15 Well data during drilling through saliferous beds in a shaly sand series (after [''I).32 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE CORES f I I MUD 1 HYDFiOCAR8ON . .roft. No v~sual porosity Shale l ~ g hgrey. nated. % a : "n SHOWS DESCRIPTION OBSERVATIONS . lam. 3.. t flne to medium. rubangular to sub rounded and rand coarse tovety coarse Wellsorted. hard flne to medluln subangular to sub rountled.suhangular torubrounded. Subtantial occurrence of salt Stuck plpe Wlrellne logging. appraisal wells is difficult.w~th quart7 rned~umto coarse grained Traces r i i salt. Chanue to "11base mud Fig.
The longitudinal pull necessary to move the pipe may exceed the capacity of the rig to pull the pipe free. In particular. kicking off a directional hole. where the rotary torque is supplied at the surface.4 shows a variety of bits in general use. .rather as a lathe tool or a shaper cuts . Stratapax core bits are also becoming available and could be equally effective.in North Sea shales the bit has been especially effective in oilbased muds. the strengthof derrick legs. rpm) than are possible with turbines ( i 5 0 0 rpm). As a rule. (Stratapax bits may change this situation. There have been several reasons for this: 1. where a bent sub and turbine are now the standard method. and turbine usage has been expensive. Consequently turbines have largely been used in special operations.moderately hard uniform homogeneous rocks . Stratapax bits have outperformed conventional bits in aqueous fluids.ideally all wearing similarly.use lighter muds (wash to water or in depleted sands to oil) . where only 60 ft is cored in a single trip. using 200300 hp at surface to provide 1020 useful hp at the bit. 3. Diamond coring with a turbine. after sticking . or the lower speed mud motor. The remedies may be: avoidance .diamond bits driven by a turbine can be extremely effective. the strength of wire rope. On land in Holland. abrasive formations. Diamond bits which can cut well at these conditions are not suited to all formations.12. In suitable formations .1 1 TURBINE VERSUS CONVENTIONAL ROTARY In spite of the apparent logic of generating rotary torque and power downhole where the power is neededsnd applied. tooth and gauge wear will be a dominant factor. diamond coring. For these bits. . The capacity may be limited by: the strength of the pipe itself. Turbine reliability has been suspect in the past. 3. Conventional tricone rotary bits cut and perform best at lower rates of revolution (*I00 I 1 . the pipe is subject to a substantial lateral thrust. The rotary speeds of turbines is ill suited to the conventional tricone bit.suot lubricating andlor deflocculating chemicals around pipe at stuck section. v I 3.) 2. turbine drilling has been slow to supplant conventional rotary. directional correction in deviated wells.12 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN DRILLING 3.reduce pressure differential. . and the combination of turbine. . In soft. With multiple cutting edges. is largely irrelevant in relation to the total power requirements of a drilling rig and the power availability. The special operations are particularly: % . having very long bit lives under these conditions. the longest tooth (softest formation) bit which will actually cut rock without premature failure is the best overall choice. and rock bit is restricted to some aspects of controlled directional drilling. is the most effective coring method. The recent developments of Stratapax bits consisting of polycrystalline diamond compacts may prove to be the first major advance in bit design since the development of the tricone bit. and bearing failure is a dominant factor. The insert type bits used for very hard rock require very high loads for the rock crushing action necessary. but less effective than the best conventional practice in waterbased fluids. The apparent power wastage.use stabilizers or fluted drill collars or square section collars.occurred .keep pipe rotating while mud cake builds up after circulation has stopped. The effectiveness of cut does appear to have an unusually strong dependence on the nature of the drilling fluid . Figure 3. high quality sealed lubrication bearings are desirable to maximize bit life.minimize delays.and the tool operates effectively at very low load and at moderately high speeds.use lightest possible mud weights.1 Stuck pipe and fishing A common cause of stuck pipe is the existence of differential pressure between borehole and formation. the bits shear the rock in small cuttings . if a thick impermeable mud cake is allowed to build up around a pipe lying stationary on the low side of the hole. (a) (b) (c) In future the combination of Stratapax and turbine may well become standard. and in normal drilling where conditions are known to be favourable. and it will not be worthwhile having bits with bearings of very high durability.
or possibly while making a connection. The inference is that mud pressure ant1 formation pressure arc finely balanced. Obviously. a drill stern test stling can be run. 3. A series of stages can be defined and encountcred: Trip g u ~ : situatio~lwhere after making a round a trip and resuming circulation.16 Blow out preventers (BOP) arrangement on offshore wells: (a) 21 l/4 " BOP on board Sea Conquest (b) detail of BOP (c) diagram of BOP and wellhead body. When thc pipe cannot be backed off for fishing. Wberc safety permits. or through lost circulation or by swabbing. then a fishing job results. used to latch on to the plpe for recovel y. then formation fluids may enter the well bore. This is Fig. (Photo courtesy of BP. the fishing string latchcd In. or n spear.12.34 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE If thc pipe remains stuck. and the pressure below the test packer reduced to reverse tlie pressure differential. If fluids continue to enter for any period of time.) . the well bore pressure will continue to fall and further fluids may enter. 3. there must be confidence that the packer will not stlck. Kick: a small intlux of fluid while drilling. The pipe must be backed off and a recovery string comprising (a) pipe sub (b) safety joint (c) bumper sub or rotary jars (d) drill collars (e) drill pipe run and an attempt made to jar the pipe flce. either through inadequate n ~ u d weight. the pipe can be cut and an overshot. gas is circulated out of the hole. This iniplics that the removal of tlie circulating pressure drop and the swabbing effect of the round trip have brought gas into the holc.2 Pressure control and well kicks If the pressure in the borehole is reduced below the formation pressure. and that the hole below the packer will not collapsc completely.
Consequently. the integrity of the cement bond is of great importance.16) and circulating through a choke)..'. and eccentricity can lead to very . preventing further fluid influx until the influx has been circulated out.3 OILWELL DRILLING Quick Cameron forged steel seals Fig. Eccentricity of casing.'.. 3. . Blowout: a more or less uncontrolled flow of formation fluid either flowing to the surface or to a zone of n?tural or induced lost circulation down hole. preventing flow of fluid from one horizon to another. Casing clearances in the hole can be smali.3 Cementation problems Casing is run and cemented partly to protect the drilled hole from collapse.. A number of factors can prevent the attainment of a good cement bond: Fig. 3. 3.. The mud weight is increased to a sufficient extent to control the formation pressures.12.16(b) controlled by circulating against a back pressure (obtained by closing BOPS (Fig.I 1: . the cement should bond firmly to the casing itself and directly to the wall of the hole. partly to isolate formations hydraulically.1 6(c) . 3. Ideally.
. This prevents small contractions in the casing causing a rupture between cement and pipc.13 COMPLETION FOR PRODUCTION For flow into a cemented liner or cemented casing complction. This is effected by the detonation of shaped charges which can be placed or located selectively with a high degree of accuracy by correlation with a gamma ray log and a casing collar locator.e. Perforation can then be carried out undcrbalanced. subsequent gas or water problems. or cominunication problems. the cement bond will be to a mud cake. Additionallv. If this mud cake is not removed. Washed out hole. 3. not to the formation. 3. 3. this will give an ideal conlpletion.17 Productiontree assembly (Photo courtesy of BP). after cementing. Presence ofmud cake.1 Permanent completion With the larger tubing strings. The explosive charges are. Drilling operatlolls on a well are completed with the installation of the Christmas tree (Fig. prewash and operation in turbulent flow.2 Normal completion In this case. it is necessary to perforate the casing to open a flow channel from formation to well bore. Fig.13. and the well washed to oil before perforating. If the hole is washed out to excessive diameters. with a normal perforation density of four nominal half inch shots per foot. When all perforations remain open.17). After perforation. the BOPS flanged down and the well head and Christmas tree installed. 3.13.18). after cementing. The larger charges give better penetration. a mud cake will exist.36 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE thereby limiting plugging of perforation by mud cake. This is a use for centsa 1' ~zers. then the more difficult and expensive operations of remedial squeeze cementing nlay have to be undertaken. tubing and packer arc run and set. Intervals can be perforated selectively in one or more batch runs. 3. however. arise. but if mud weights are excessive. perforating guns can be lowered down the tubing. smaller than for full hole casing guns. i. small clearance areas where gelled mud cannot be displaced by cement. This is a factor to be considered while drilling arid requires careful mud colitrol and clay stabilizing muds in the drilling phase. perforations may become plugged. The tendency may be reduced by the use of scratchers. the excess Dressure due to the dkterence in mudYand cement density (cement is at least 50% more dense than the average drilling mud) should be bled off. Acsoss all porous permeable zones. 3. that is with a reverse preqsure differential. the perfor. If.itions are n~atle with a large size casing gun in a mudfilled hole. 'nnd depths of penetration of the shots may sometimes be inadequate. flow performance equal to or better than the theoretical uncased borehole. the cement lnay not fill the entire crosssection. This enables the well to bc fully completed for production with tubing and Christmas tree installed (Fig.
3 OILWELL DRILLING Spider support + Production risers +umbilicals z from surface Central export riser Riser connectors To loading buoy Control u m b i l i c a l s 4 Satellite well flowlines Fig. North Sea. Burst = 1.8 psilft . Use the data of Table A 3. (See Appendix 11). assume the maximum surface pressure will be 8000 psi.125.92 SG mud is left outside the casing and 1.1 and Fig.18 Diagram of subsea production equipment.the pressure at 13 000 ft can be represented by an a\7eragepore pressure gradient to surface of 0.1 Design a 5Yz" OD API casing string from the following grades: 17 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads 20 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads 23 pounds per foot N80 grade or P110 grade LB threads for a well in which 1.1 psilft can be assumed. Buchan Field.18.455 psilft .the fracture pressure can be represented by an average gradient to surface of 0.a gas gradient to surface of about 0. The specific gravity of the steel is taken as 7. Example 3.1.2 In drilling through a formation to 13 000 ft the following information has been obtained: . The minimum section design Iength is 500 ft.312 and Tension = 1. Examples Example 3.84. 3. The length of string is 13 000 ft and as abnormal pressures are anticipated. Specify the minimum setting depth for an intermediate string casing shoe.15 SG fluid is left inside the casing. . Assume the following safety factors: Collapse = 1. A 3.
in. Planning techniclucs . R. L984). 6.C. Graham and Trotman. N. Tran. [6] Bruijn. 27. N. and Darley. n. M. 187. K. London (1982). London (1978).B. [L7] van Lingen. and McEwan. A. Proc. and Frederick. [26] Rernson. Europc~ (1984).H. Well Control Problems und Solutions. SPE Paper 13001.P. Russel. and Graves. Inst. .R. 21 10. Houston.L. G.38 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References [I] Craft.M. Planning for deep high pressured wells in t h c northern North Sea. du.J. (1983).E. L. [21] Rowlands. D. Effect of bit hydraulic horsepower on drilling rate of a PCD coi~lpact JPT (Dcc. G. Paper PD5(3). R.H. Downhole rheological behaviour of low toxicity oil muds. Pct. 13.IPT (Dec. I.. a r ~ d Burdyulo. [I41 Tanguy. Drilling costs. Graham and Trotni.IPT(April 1982) 713. Pet. Kcmp. [18] Holster.Key to drilling efficiency.. Well Design. Composition and Properties of Oil Well Drilling Fluid.Cutulogue of Typictrl Cases.H. 1985). A. AlME225 (1962). 321.R..C.L. and van Donegen. Eurol~e (1984). Proc. N. [24] Denholni. J. W. [13] Baldwin. bit. (1980) 327.J. Kluck. Drilling high angle directional wells. P. Papcr PD5(2). 1231 Woodyard. Pennwell. The usc of MWD lor turbodrill performance optimisation. Houston Tx. Gulf Publishing Company. Successful liner completion o n the Muchison platform. B.D. (1983). J. [19] Cooke. A . [7] Bailey. D. J.P. 575. 120) Adarns. 1982). [22] World Oil 1985 Tubing and casing joint tables.A. Gulf Publishing Co. Cong. B. Graham ancl T r o t ~ i ~ aLondon (1981).J. 353. Downhole rneasure~nents while drilling.. SPE Paper 12997. EUR 244. Risk analysis of wcll completion systems. . JPT (Sept 1985) 1671. Tulsa (1980). E (TM) 93 (1982) (26) 2. Europ.a major factor governing penetration rates at dcpth. The design ancl optimisation of gravcl packing operations in deviated wells. . J. Annular pressurc and temperature measurements diagnose cementing operations. and Oyeneyin. London (1982). 361. C. [3] American Petroleum Institute APT Bulletin 5C2 (1972). Offshore drilling operations. H. T. M. Graham and Trotnian.. Bottom scavenging. and Booth. 37. SPE Pnpcr 13000. [9] ~ohnsbn. Eng. H. 1984). Experience with polycrystalli~lediamond compact b ~ t s thc northcrn North Sea.C. Proc. World Oil (Jan.R. [25] Mohnot. D. PrenticeHall. Proc. Proc. 1271Black. and Dibona. Houston. Soc. Paper EIJR 365. Cony. [I61 CSRPPGN Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Rheology Manual. H. OGJ (Dec. 11tl~World Pet. Europr (1982) 769. E. . and Medrano. Paper EUR 339. Characterisation and control cf fine particles involved in drilling. 5 [S] Peden.R. Dec. Trans. Franc. and Kipp. 121 Gray. F.. 11th World Pet. Dearing. JPT (Sept 1985) 1622. J. [ I l l ENSPM.P. Petrole Drilling Data Handbook. N.J.G. 21 81. J.7. [IS] ENSPM Gc~ological and Mud Logging bl Drilling Control . Proc. Holden. [4] Composite Catalogue of Oilfieltl Equipment and Scrvices 35th Revision (198283)> vols. JPT (Scpt 1985) 1613.D.~ Mar. and Shute.. Llrilling und Production. S. Dec. A. [lo] CSRPPGN Blow Out Prevention cmrl Well Control. Europe (1984). Effects of pore pressure and mild filtration on drilling rates in a permeable sandstone.M. Conf.M.A. Proc. [12] Adams. 181 Paterson. El~ropr in (1982).W. Proc. M.W. Bern.
JPT (July 1985) 1239. G. JPT (Aug.C. [32] Hill. [29] Elliott. Bottomhole stress factors affecting drilling rate at depth. [30] Bourgoyne.R.R. Recording downhole data while drilling.3 OILWELL DRILLING [28] Rabia. H. A.. T. 1985) 1523. JPT (April 1985) 655. 1985) 1511. Specific Energy as a criterion for bit selection.R.T.M. W. T. et al.H. L. and Smith. c Qualifying drillstring components for deep drilling. Money. . and Robinson. [31] Warren. M. M.C. C.W.. An experimental study of well control procedures for deepwater drilling operations. and Palmer. and Holden. R.. JPT (July 1985) 1231.B. JPT (Aug. [33] Joosten. JPT (July 1985) 1225. Development of specification for christmas tree and wellhead components.
qualitative bchaviour has some similarities. i. 4. \\ .Chapter 4 Properties of Reservoir Fluids As we have seen in Chapter 2. As expansion is continued. . due to the small compressibility of liquid systems (c).1 VOLUMETRIC AND PHASE BEHAVIOUR OF HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS Consider the pressurespecific VO~UIIIC relationship for a fluid at a constant temperature below its critical For most liquids over coinnlonly encouiltered pressure ranges. A  .1 for propane. a prcssure will be reached at which some small infinitesilnal ga? phase will be found.e.2. the compressibility is independent of the pressure. temperature initially held ill the liquid phase at an elevated prcssure. where 4. 4.. history and present reservoir conditions. Fig.340°F . Fig. mol. This situation is illustrated in Fig. compressibility is small and constant. and terminology is the same. and generalized i n Fig.  . Dew point ''~rlple I point Temperature Volume cuft/lb. While the hehirviour of single component systems has no quantitative relevance to oil field systems... 4. 4. Expansion of the system will result in large decrements in prcssure for relatively small increineilts in volume (specific volume). (ideal gas) Gas reglon \ \ a Two pha: je .1 PVT diagram for propane (single component system).2 Phase diagram for a pure single component system. reservoir hydrocarbon fluicls are mixtures of hydrocalbons with conlpositions related to source.
the pressure and temperature at which the properties of the two phases become identical . position C indicates reservoir fluid found as a dry gas. 4. decline in reservoir pressure will not result in the formation of any reservoir liquid phase. (a) Multicomponent systems exhibit slightly different phase behaviour from that of pure materials.3.B . but forms a phase envelope. Since at any temperature the bubblepoint pressure and dewpoint pressure differ.is not necessarily either one of these points. (c) gas condensate.the cricondentherm. Expansion through the twophase region does not occur at constant pressure. at which the properties of liquid and vapour become indistinguishable. nor must it be between them. O n this envelope it is possible to establish a pressure above which two phases can no longer coexist . position B indicates reservoir fluid found as a gas condensate.4 (a).3 Pressuretemperature phase diagram for multicomponent hydrocarbon reservoir fluid mixture. 4. (b) wet gas.I L~quid 1 Gas C . the compressibility of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the pressure.the relative proportions of liquid and gas changing. as shown in Fig. For isothermal production in the reservoir: position A indicates reservoir fluid found as an undersaturatedoil. There are few natural gases yielding no gas liquids.4 Phase diagrams of hydrocarbon mixtures. 1 Single phase quid 1 Single phase gas .4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 41 This pressure is termed the bubblepoint or saturation pressure for the temperature considered. but is accompanied by a decrease in pressure (vapour pressure) as the composition of liquid and vapour changes.4 (b) is therefore more realistic. 4. 4. 4. until only an infinitesimal quantity of liquid is present in equilibrium with the vapour. Dry gas  ~ ~ / ~ ~ Cricondenbar c ~ l ) Temperature t (b) 1 Liquid 1 Gas Reservo~r temperature + Fig. the reservoir temperature is above the cricondentherm (maximum temperature of twophase envelope).the cricondenbar and a temperature above which two phases cannot coexist .C. (a) Dry gas. This point on the phase envelope is termed the dewpoint. . Expansion to lower pressures and higher specific volumes occurs in a vapour phase.e.the critical point . 4. then the equation P V = n R T is valid. A series of isotherms then generates a locus of bubblepoints.2. Temperature t Fig.2 APPLICATIONS TO FIELD SYSTEMS 4. The critical point . For a pure substance.1 Dry gas reservoirs In Fig. and even simple two or three component systems may demonstrate all the phenomena associated with very complex systems. the pressuretemperature relationship is not now a single line. This does not preclude the recovery of natural gas liquids from reservoir fluid as a result of change in temperature in flow lines or process facilities. Consequently. and a locus of dewpoints which meet at a point . further expansion occurs at constant pressure .the vapour pressure at that temperature . and i. and Fig. If the substance behaves as an ideal gas. The isotherm at the critical point exhibits a point of inflexion so that Expansion in the liquid phase to the bubblepoint at constant temperature is similar to a pure system. (d) black oil.
water is c. 4. The concept of a system being represented by a gas dissolved in a liquid is thcrl invalid.. oil ancl of reservoir liquid phase is particularly rich in liquefi.4 (cont.2 Condensate systems The critiarl temperature of the system is such that reservoir temperature is hetween critical and cricondentherrn as shown in Fig.e. greater than about 373 K).isobaric retrograde hehaviour . I N' Process l ~ n e 1 \ ' ~ e w point locus Contrast.3 COMPRESSIBILITY in prcssurc leads to incrcascd condensation of a liquid phase. The pore volume compressreservoir vapour phase. and a monotonic irlcrcase ill \rolume of the gas phase as pressure declines further. . those of liquid hydrocarbons. If the pressure can be reduced sufficiently.2. the gas is relatively lean.) (c) IOCUS u . the black oil . 4. which in turn are This is also partly true of volatile oil systems. Thc composition of gas varies only slightly when changing conditions (cxccpt at tank conditions).4 (d).3 Volatile oil systems These are within the twophase region under reservoir conditions. FTsurface .2. resulting in an proportion of stock tank licluid may derive from a increased fraction of overburden being taken by reservoir rock grains. c. At pressures ~tbovethe cricondenbar. at liquid phase may reevaporate..42 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE L i q u ~ d Gas Fig. As shown on Fig.) Temperature t 4. Upon isother~nal expansion.call also be demonstrated. greater than those of reservoir waters. Reservoir pore volume inay able constituents (C3 to Cs+) and a substantial change with change in fluid pressure. we can dciinc an pressures may not be obtainable in practicc. but sufficiently low constant reservoir tcmpcraturc. The liquid phase recovered (the condensate) from where V denotes original volurne and P is pressure. and Consequently. the system exists as an indeterminate vupour phase. 4. Under these conditions the system exhibits isotherrnal retrograde condensation./. the Reservoir iluids are considered conipre~sihle and. the vapour phase corresponding to condensate co~npositions conditions. Another phenomenon . Gas =densate a a' .is termed isothcrmal retrograde condensation. but is not of interest under thc essentially isothcrmal conditions of petroleum reservoirs.4 Black oil systems Temperature t 4.4 (c). and further reduction 4. The subscript whcrc the vapour phase in equilibrium with the tcr~ninologyfor the con~prcssibilities gas. (Nevertheless in absolute terms the maximization of liquid recovery from separator gas streams can be a valuable source of income. the critical temperature of thcsc systems is vcry much higher than the reservoir temperature encountered (i. a condcrisate system. is recovered from a phase Gas conlprcssibility is significantly greater than which is vapour at reservoir conditions.dissolved gas systems .2.?. a substantial part of the stock tank liquid is derived from a reservoir vapour phase.the condensation of licluitl upon follows: decrease in pressure . c.in which the composition of gas in equilibrium with liquid is comparatively lean (except at tank conditions).. the phase envelope is encountered at the dewpoint locus. the liquid recovery depends only marginally on the separated gas phase. and contributes only marginally to the separator liquid phase. 4. This isothermal compressibility as a positive term c as phenomenon . Isothermal expansion from the liquid phase leads to the formation of gas at the bubhlcpoint.
1 Typical system compressibilities System Symbol CW CO Cg Cg bar' 4.OE06 17. or can be computed from plots or tabulations of experimental data.5E05 psi' 3. Atmosphere Newton/m2 Cubic it Cubic ft ni3 "R O R K .4 MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION OF RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES 4.73 0. 4. = molar volume. and the densities of the material at the two points (and at intermediate points) must be calculable or measured.e. b is a factor related to.g.65E05 1000E05 250E05 3. The flow behaviour.35E05 24.0E06 689E06 172E06 2. and one early modification was that of van der Waals: c= V  while the primary processing operations of dehydration. cf This is reasonable for a constant overburden load. See Table 4. the finite volume and real geometry of amolecule. i. and correcting for.2 for examples. particularly the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient where a is a factor related to. n = no. will depend on the system of units adopted.1 Behaviour of gases Gas is produced from gas reservoirs by expansion of the fluid from the initial reservoir pressure to some lower abandonment pressure.1. or PV = nRT where V = volume. of moles. the pressure gradients developed.2 Values of the universal gas constant Moles Pressure Volume Temperature R 10. This is a twoconstant equation of state. the general order of magnitude of compressibilities is as shown in Table 4.5E06 10E06 Reservoir saline waters Undersaturated black oils Gas at I 0 0 bar (1450 psi) Gas at 400 bar (5800 psi) Consolidated sands at 400 bar Unconsolidated sands at 400 bar ibility may be related to fluid pressure P rather than grain pressure (Pg) and treated as a positive term. The value of R . The recovery from the reservoir can be. and correcting for. will depend in part on the isothermal compressibility: Both of these factors can be found by differentiating an equation of state. the gas constant. The possible error in these derived functions is an order of magnitude greater than the possible error in the original data (or equation of state). intermolecular forces. so that a very high degree of accuracy is necessary in equations of state (or experimental data) used for the calculation of thermodynamic functions. obtained by a mass balance on the system at the initial and end points. The simplest equation of state is the ideal gas law: where V .0 Pound Pound K~loaram Pounds forcelsq. Beattie TABLE 4.729 8312.4. The inadequacy of this relation was quickly recognized.ln.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS TABLE 4. dewpoint processing and sweetening will involve other thermodynamic functions of the gas. Ct Ct In the absence of specific information. and more and more complex equations (e.63E05 14.
 b ) = RT and yi = 4 7 j= 1 This equation has an acceptable accuracy for l~ydrocarhonsystenis over ti fairly widc range o f conditions. and is therefore detined as = f (TIT.73 x 102%olecules in each poundmole o f ideal gas and that a volunle o f 370.7 psi3 by one pound molccular weight o f any ideal gas. the specific gravity y is defincd as the ratio o f the density o f the gas to the density o f dry air taken at the same temperature and prcssurc then.. assuming ideal behaviour '/R = mass gas volume gas volume gas mass air  molecular weight o f ideal gas (mix(i~re ) rnolecdar weight o f air 4. reduced densities. BendictWebbRubin eight constants) have been developed in attempts to improve the accuracy.e. temperature and specific volumc have the same ratio to thc critical values. fugacitylpressure ratios. volume and inole fractions are identical. Dalton has postulated that each gas exerts a pressurc equal to the pressure it would exert i f it alone occupied the total volume o f the mixture . Since moles contain the same number o f molecules (or atoms). Since.4 cubic feet is occupied at 60°F and 14.g. and the constants ]lave been modified by Soavel"]. j.4. v= j=n p. . for a gas. The applicability o f the law o f correspouding states will depend on the phase and temperature o f the substance. in the a component mixture: .2 Law of corresponding states Fluids are said to be in corresponding states when any two o f the variable properties. It can be shown that therc arc 2. h The mole traction o f the ~ t component is \ymbolized as y. i. compressibilities. (V.7 psia and 32°F one pound lnolc o f gas occupies 359 cubic feet. . More rccently. A widely used twoconstant equation o f state is that of RedlichKwong which can he arranged to a form a A similar postulate by Amagat states that the sum o f the partial volumes o f n ideal components in a mixture is equal t o the total volume undcr the sa111c conditions o f temperature and pressure. A t low pressurc or for ideal gascs. they are used to describe system composition. For each ideal gas in a mixture of ideal gases.that is the same as saying that the total pressure o f thc mixture is the sum o f the partial pressures o f each component.e. pressure. c. equal volumes o f all ideal gases contain the same number o f molecules. one mole is taken as the pounds o f :t comlmnent equal to its molecular weight.five constants. the equation o f Peng and Robin~od"~ received widc acceptance has The apparant molecular weight o f a gas mixture behaving as i f it were a pure gas is defined as the sum o f the product o f individual conlponerlt mole fractions and molecular weights It may be noted at this tinie that Avogadro stated that under the same conditions o f temperature and pressure. These ratios are termed reduced values and subscripted R as follows: T R = TIT.) i. In this context. Pli = PIP. VR = V /V~ For pure substances with simple n~olecules can be it shown theoretically that PIP. VIV. . At 14. accuracy is greatest in the vapour . i f fluids are in corresponding states then any dimensionless reduced property calculable fro111 PVT data will be the same for thosc fluids.44 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Bridgemen .
4.0763 0. However. = critical temperature of component j.5194 1.6 Trube diagram for pseudoreduced compressibility of undersaturated reservoir liquids (after me]). the critical values will depend on composition.08 2. Pp. and is best for temperatures above the critical.0897 0..0696 Density Ib/ft3at 60°F and 1 atmosphere 0. 4. and is used for generalized liquid phase and gas phase correlations for hydrocarbon mixtures with a considerable degree of success. T .01 32. TABLE 4. For most pure substances. Specific gravity of undersaturated reservoir liquid at 60°F and reservoir pressure Fig. 4.3 Densitv (relative t6 air) 1.0053  Gas properties Molecular weight 28.1764 0. where y. Fig.5 Trube diagram for specific gravity as a function of pseudocritical constants for undersaturated reservoir liquids (after ["I).01 34.01 6 18.016 Gas Critical properties Pc(Ps~~) T.3 Pseudocritical temperatures and pressures The reference state for the law of corresponding states is the critical state.O 0.1 159 0. For complex hydrocarbon mixtures (e. = critical pressure of component j.e. and will also depend on the complexity and eccentricity of the molecule. which are more accurate than Kay's rule given above.f"R) 547 493 737 1071 1306 188 3208 238 227 278 548 673 60 1165 Air Nitrogen Oxygen COP H2S H2 H20 .6). For mixtures. pressure and temperature at the critical point.0738 0.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 45  phase. It has been found that the use of the true critical values of mixtures in corresponding states correlations gives less accurate results than the use of socalled pseudocritical constants calculated as the molaverage values for the mixture (Kay's rule). but there will not normally be a simple procedure for calculating the true critical values from composition and the values of the pure components.4.1047 1. = mol fraction of component j. pseudocritical constants can be determined from specific gravity. More complex rules for calculating critical constants have been formed. the C7+ constituent of a system).0843 0.5 and 4. molecular weight and boiling point of the mixture without determining the composition (see Figs 4. the values of the independent variables.9672 1. but this is generally adequ Pseudoreduced pressure. PC. have been measured and are known. the law of corresponding states has been widely used in smoothing and correlating experimental data on hydrocarbons.0 944.96 28.g. i.
.
and for natural gases and condensate well fluids in Fig.7. Because the law of corresponding states applies with satisfactory accuracy to mixtures of light hydrocarbon gases. Again. the reciprocal of the pseudoreduced temperature using (90. if direct measurements of viscosity are not available. For more accurate work.2(1t) Then zY = 0 . the reduced density from t. will be satisfactory methods. a NewtonRaphson iterative technique to calculate y. . using first 4.7t242.(fi 3/lb) Molecular Gross calorific value Btu/ft at s.3 and 4. T ) and z is termed a deviation factor (or supercompressibility factor) expressing the degree of deviation from ideality. it has been possible to correlate compressibility factors with reduced values of pressure and temperature.4?) y (2.c. defined as massiunit volume thus becomes at reservoir conditions: where z = f(P. The . = zRT The iterative procedure has been described by l~ake['~].761'+4.(psia) Critical Properties Tc V. and these generalized correlations (the StandingKatz correlations['] as shown in Fig. weight ate for engineering accuracy with hydrocarbon systems.82t) .4 Gas deviation factorZ The ideal gas equation would predict the equality RT For real gases at pressures of more than a very few atmospheres this is not true. 4.06125pD. Through these two correlations the viscosity at any given reservoir conditions can be estimated. The ratio of viscosity at a reduced pressure PR and reduced temperature TR.4. but also by flow rates and potential variations.~(l') 2 + 4.4.1.Hexane nHeptane nOctane nNonane nDecane Benzene Toluene Formula Hydrocarbon properties P. Hall and Yarborough['I have used the StarlingCarnahan equation of state to calculate z. 0 6 1 2 5 ~ . use is made of correlations based on corresponding states. The magnitude of flow rates and potential drops will depend directly on fluid viscosities.58?p2 + [(y +y2+ y 3y4)/(1y3)] = 0.5 Gas viscosities The reservoir engineer is concerned not only with the expansion behaviour of reservoir fluids. The behaviour of real gases can be expressed by the equation PV.7) are widely used in approximate calculations of gas reservoir behaviour. 4.2t2 42.4 Hydrocarbon Methane Ethane Propane nButane iButane nPentane iPentane n. the extension and smoothing of accurate laboratory measurements by an equation of state. or direct calculation through an equation of state using the detailed composition of the gas to generate the necessary constants.te . The viscosities of hydrocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure are established as functions of molecular weight and temperature. and in the case of gases these will depend on pressure and temperature.1s+2. Gas density.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 47 TABLE 4. t e ~ .76t9. to the viscosity at atmospheric pressure and real temperatures T are then correlated with reduced pressure and temperature. Critical constants for some commonly encountered components are reproduced in Tables 4.(14.4.
8.S 0004/~ 2 0 I 30 I 4 0 I 5 0 I 6 0 I 7 0 I 8 0 I 9 0 I 10 0 I Molecular we~ght Fig.8 are and 4. correlations. 4.~''~ show11 in Figs 4.6 Gas compressibilities For a perfect gas: Pseudoreduced pressure. 4. P .8 Viscosity (p.4. 4. . 4.9 (left) Viscosity ratio for natural gases.48 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Gas grav~ty (Air = I 000) Mol % C 0 2  0009 Mol % H. after Carr et 111.9. Note: obtain p1from Fig.) at one atmosphere for natural gases. Fig.
In this case the transformation P = Ppc. = f(composition. 2000 psia. = B.615 and for the above example B 4. In the case of gases. z = 1 It is frequently convenient to work in reservoir units of barrels..) Regrettably. P.e. compressibility can be represented by reciprocal pressure. With liquids below the saturation pressure. w are used to define the fluid phase. = f(composition. is an initial reservoir condition gas formation volume factor and Bobis an oil formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions..5. = volume at operating conditions volume at standard conditions and For example. Z = 0. some writers also use B. and gas volumes are frequently expressed in MSCF so that then so that Tz . pressure. so that for any ideal gas.. Po= X 'OoO reservoir barrels!MSCF P To 5. and for reference conditions. For real gases the gradient dzidP is obtained by drawing a tangent to the z against pseudoreduced pressure curve at the reservoir pseudoreduced conditions. is used as follows: Since 4. the definition of simple equations of state is complicated. . Thus B.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS For a real gas: P V = n z R T a n d z = f(P) V = nRTdV Z P (Formation volume factor).1 Gas formation volume factor 6.g. Subscripts o. i. The factors are therefore dimensionless but are commonly quoted in terms of reservoir volume per standard volume. simplify the problem of calculating the factor. and i and b are often added to define initial and bubblepoint conditions. pressure. gas formation volume factors have the same general numerical range as oil formation volume factors. and the possible dependence on composition and volume changes with pressure.. 14. for reservoir conditions.5 FORMATION VOLUME FACTORS 6 Formation volume factors have been given the general standard designation of B and are used to define the ratio between a volume of fluid at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure and its volume at a standard condition. temperature) (Formation volume factor). = B..il = B. thisdcan be done through an equation of state. and this expression will be given an alternative definition of the gas expansion factor.. to represent the reciprocal of the formation volume factor?i...7 psia. 520°R. temperature) Defining a simple ratio does not. In general we can write (In these particular units. temperature) (Formation volume factor).85. the evolution of gas with decreases in pressure. and this is also possible for a liquid above the saturation pressure. Volume at reference conditions (Bg)' = Volume at operating conditions but this convention will not be adopted here. pressure. For a gas B. or for real gases when the rate of change of z with p is small. = f(composition.e. of course. 585"R.
200F 150 F 100 F Pressure Upper line Lower line Pressure +  gas saturated pure water  Fig. 4. 1 B.50 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Gas expansion factor = E =  Volun~e reference conditions at Volume at operating conditions Note that for small changes in z *. 4.13 Volume factor for water.13 a n d 4..= and  Tz Po T. .. . during temperature reduction The values of A V terms are shown in Figs 1. gases and dissolved salts can affect the compressibility and so the formation volu~nc factor. 4. 0 Pressure + pb Fig.10 Gas formation volume factor.13. For water. is generally taken t o be unity.615 P Fig. and this can be convenient for data smoothing and interpolating.10.12. 4. It call be scen that loss in liquid volume due to evolution of gas as the prcssure reduces only partially compcnsates for water expansion. These data are shown in Figs 4.5. Fig.1 I and 4.'s constant P 250 F As shown in Fig. volume changes are calculated through comprcssibility.12 Effect of temperature. 4. When pressurc changes and water volumes are small.. a plot of E against P is approximately linear over small pressure ranges. In general.' but this effect is often ignorcd. may be expressed in terms of the volume change AV. pressure and gas  saturation on water formation volume factor. B . 4. 4.1 1 Brine compressibility at different pressures and temperatures.2 Water formation volume factorB.15.1 1000 5.. rathcr than formation volume factor. and when pressure changes are large and/or water volumes are large. during pressure reductio~i and AVw. (the equation of a hyperbola) and L= 13. The isothermal rcscrvoir volume relationship for water containing some dissolved gas and initially cxisting above its bubblepoint condition is shown in Fig. B .
The symbol R is generally the compositional changes in the gas with changing used for gasoil ratios and has the units of standard pressure and temperatures being ignored. below ly be regarded as solutions of gas mixture in a liquid.liquid. A unit volume of stock tank oil brought to equilibrium with its associated gas at reservoir pressure and temperature will almost invariably occupy a volume greater* than unity (the only little dissolved gas at exception would be an oil w ~ t h very high pressure). and displays similar behaviour to B. as shown in Black oil. In con. 4. it is the total system . 4. The effect of pressure on the hydrocarbon liquid and its associated gas is to induce solution of gas in the liquid until an equilibrium condition is attained. No simple thermodynamic equation exists through which these volume changes can be calculated and formation volume factors generated. bubble point pressure.15 Correction term AVw.. 4. curve (Fig. When used alone.16) reflects oil compressibility while all gas stays in solution at pressures above bubblepoint.14 Correction term AV. and not simply the stock tank liquid phase. R. is a constant above bubblepoint pressure. .that must be considered. The shape of the B. . The necessary liquid properties are either directly measured or are determined from generalized correlations which can have an acceptable accuracy for the generally homologous family of components of crude oil systems. Fig. 4. taneous total producing gasoil ratio (free gas plus 4.3 Oil formation volume factor B.17. and the compression of the liquid phase.oil plus associated gas . R represents an instantions and reservoir (or other operating) conditions.6 GASOIL RATIOS The dissolved or solution gasoil ratio. or dissolved gas systems. The oil formation volume factor will be discussed in connection with the behaviour of dissolved gas systems.. the thermal expansion of the system with temperature change. The volume change is then a function of the partial molar volume of the gas in solution.volumes of gas dissolved in a standard volume of sidering volume changes between reference condi. may convenient.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Reservoir temperature ( O F ) Fig. 4. i Pressure + 0 2 1 0 100 150 200 250 Reservoir temperature ( O F ) 300 Fig. 4.16 Oil formation volume factor.5.Fig. and indicates liquid shrinkage when gas comes out of solution below bubblepoint.
and the results of the two separations are combined (in rather arbitrary fashion) to generate the data needed for material balance calculations. For operational convenience.17 Solution gasoil ratio. and data is customarily replotted in terms of relative volun~e as shown in V. this inconsistency is relatively u~~important. indicates only the dissolved gas content of the liquid. If a well flows under stable conditions. and a step Gas 011 sample sample Mercury pump Fig.18 SchematicPVT analysis. two processes can be followed . the and values generated are system properties valid within the usual range of data uncertainty. Provided then that no leakage occurs from the sample.in taking measurements is that of obtaining a truly representative sample of the formation fluid. with a bottomhole pressure above the bubblepoint. It must be realized that all PVT analysis involves a basic and unavoidable inconsistency. v.c. When samples of separator oil and separator gas are recombined for test purposes. 4. then a bottomhole sample should be representative. and process simulation by laboratory experiment is necessary to validate thermodynamic relationships. The experimental layout is usually si~nilar that indicated in Fig. and expasldcd in stages at constant composition. the changes in pressure. The symbol R . A plot of the volumes and prcssures will identify the bubblepoint pressure. 4. Measured gasoil ratios will frequently be erratic.7 DIRECT MEASUREMENTS PVT ANALYSIS  The first requirement . = Volume at any arbitrary preswre Volume at bubblepoint pressure . except perhaps for gas condensate systen~s. Consequently this thermodynamic path cannot be followed or duplicated in a PVT analysis.7. In the laboratory. which is inherently less satisfactory. PV celi in thermostat bath 4. a particular problem is the choice of proportions for recombination. and that transfer from the sample vessel to the test vessel is carried out without loss of any components. .  +Gas samples measurement and analysis solution gas).18.. In the case of black oil (dissolved gas) systems. . then recombination should be valid. 4. 4. then tests should be rcprcsentative of samples. 4. temperatiire and composition) in flowing from the reservoir to the stock tank is essc~ltiallyunknown. In the case of volatile oil and condensate systems. both these separations are carried out.and difficulty . while with subscript s the symbol R. The thermodynamic path fc)llowed by a twophase mixture (i. to Pressure Fig. Multiple samples are essential.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE wise variable composition (differential) separation.1 Flash liberation at reservoir temperature The fluid sample is raised to a high pressurc (substantially above bubblcpoint) at reservoir tcmpcraturc. standard methods are inadequate. Fig.19. The alternative to bottomhole sampling is recombination sampling. to give the total volume at a series of pressures. VI.a constant coinposition (flash) separation. Provided that the pressurc at the bottom of a test well docs not drop below the bubblepoint. and the separator gasoil ratio stabilizes throughout the test. indicates a cumulative ratio since start of reservoir production. and will occasionally vary over a range \vhich will make recombination suspect. V. and is thus total standard volume of gas produced divided by total standard volume of oil produced.
When this is done. flashing the bubblepoint liquid to stock tank conditions through a series of intermediate stages corresponding to possible'field separator conditions. 4.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS as a formation volume factor. Consequently the expansion is not at constant composition. 4. and reservoir temperature . the free gas phase at each stage is removed at constant pressure. The relative volume ratio (Vo)d/Vb is generally plotted as a function of pressure. For many systems. 4. This will differ from the cumulative gas released in the differential process because of the different thermodynamic path involved in cooling residual oil to sta~dard conditions. From the plot. The liberated gas ratio RL is also plotted against pressure. and the results are valid only for dissolved gas systems.. This ratio will be sufficiently accurate (given the uncertainties in sampling) to be used in this way. and volumes of liquid at each pressure. 4.20 (b).. The volumes of stock tank oil generated by a volume of reservoir oil is in fact dependent on the thermodynamic path followed between initial and final states. the system is expanded in stages.20 Relative volume (a) and gas liberation (b) data by the differential process. 4. residual liquid volume]60oF Fig. PVT reports frequently tabulate the ratio (VO d I liquid v o l ~ m e ] ~ .19 Relative volume data by the flash process. This expansion yields the solution gasoil ratio as a function of pressure. although the basic inconsistency remains. In this case.20 (a). The total gas evolved in this flash operation is the value taken as the total or initial solution gasoil ratio R.  The initial condition is VRi. The liquid remaining at 1 atmosphere at reservoir temperature is termed residual oil (and its volume the residual oil volume). Pressure Fig. as shown in Fig.3 Flash separation tests It is customary to carry out a separator test. the difference between residual oil (60°F) and stock tank oil obtained through a specific separation process can be corrected.7. as shown in Fig. u (b) %I Pressure Pb Pi 4. the compressibility above bubblepoint of the liquid at reservoir temperature can be determined. and then measured by expanding to standard conditions.2 Differential liberation at reservoir temperature Again starting above or at the bubblepoint.7. We define: (Vo)d = Volume of oil obtained by a differential separation at any pressure. gas expansion factors as a function of pressure. and cooling this to 60°F will generate a stock tank volume (VST).
The bubblepoint oil formation volume factor R. = f (composition. 4.5 Equ~l~br~um vapor~zation tests Conducted at reservoir temperature Laboratory test summary Flash separator test Conducted from reservoir temperature to surface conditions Relates oil properties at reservoir conditions to oil at stock tank conditions Measures.8. and indirect approachcs may be necessary. and a value will nearly always be measured experi~nentally. but in general the composition for a TABLE 4. from flash separator tests is used in the calculation of oil compressibility. Flash vaporization test Gas not removed Composltron constant Differentralliberation test Gas removed as it is released Compos~tion remaining of system varies Measures: vo/vb us. in material balancc calculations.1 Bubblepoint pressure The bubblepoint pressure or saturation pressure is a value of considerable interest to engineers.7. .4 Summary of tests The laboratory tests can be summarized as in Table 4. vtIvb c o RL CO ~. Relates oil properties at T. Correlations are available for the estimation of bubble point pressure from other system properties.5. In fields with multiple reservoirs (or where the fact of separation of horizons is not established early on). the results will be a total for the gas originally in solution.P to saturated oil properties at Pb and T. This is frequently referred to as initial solution G O R per unit volume of residual oil (60°F). This volume will not be the same as the total gas obtaincd by flashing bubblepoint oil through a specific separator process to stock tank conditions. If the incremental gas volurnes accumulated in a differential process are summed.!. 4. samples may not be taken for all reservoirs.   / . Since the produced G O R used in material balance calculations is the separator GOK.8 GENERALIZED CORRELATIONS FOR LIQUIDS SYSTEMS 4.54 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE VI = Volume at bubblepoint and reservoir temperature The twophase formation volume factor B. and equilibrium ratios are available for the components at thc temperature required. temperature) If dctailecl co~npositionis known. it is customary to use the flash separator G O R as the value for R. P1. the differential separation values bcing used for the solution gasoil ratio. Vb Measures. together with the data generated. is calculated in consistent units from (VST)F = Volume of stock tank oil obtained by flashing a volume Vb of bubblepoint oil The solution gasoil ratio is thus R S = R A difficulty also arises with the definition of gasoil ratio. Again an inconsistency remains. the bubble point can be calculated.
4.21 Bubblepoint correlation using Standing's data (after ['I). The oil density at reservoir conditions can be estimated in appropriate units from the oil and gas densities at standard conditions and from the values at B..2 Formation volume factor Formation volume factor for a saturated liquid can be estimated[l]fromthe empirical equation . The . 0 i. at reservoir conditions..~ ( P . volume factors involve difierences in thGe factors. P O . B. .21.8. as follows: Po Bo = ( ~ 0 ) s c Rs (pg)sc + 4.22 shows a nomogram for an alternative method due to Lasater[16]. and the solution gasoil ratio. Evaluation of B.Rs) O This can be evaluated from the separate oil and gas formation volume factors at any . the gas density and the oil density. over a range of pressures. 4. and R.000147 F ~ . the final correlation being of pseudoreduced compressibility with pseudoreduced temperature and pseudoreduced pressure. several previous correlations being necessary for the liquid phase. .0009 IT I Fig. it is frequently desirable to smooth experimental or correlation derived data to improve accuracy. and is defined by  ' 4 *+@ . 3000 LUUU PEP" 100 0125(API) I \boo and the oil compressibility within the range P + Pb will be needed for this. so that B = 0. when the value of solution GOR is known at one pressure. ~ ~ ~ + 1.)"I + 0. .(Pb PI 4. relationship is shown in Fig. will then involve determining R. y = gas gravity and Pb is in Psi. The parameter is designated B. at a series of pressures within the range by the inverse of procedure for bubblepoint pressure. and the use of this value in the formation volume factor correlation. . = B + B. estimation for the compressibility can involve a number of crosscorrelations. Above the bubblepoint.8.25. and developed by StandingI1lis where T = OF.p b ) ) 1°4b ' io' i ~dk1&'&k6 ' ' 2bob I 100. the formation volume factor will be given by the equation BP = Bb ( 1 + c (Pb. Example GOR = 370scf/stb U Y I = 53 TR=200deg F yt=06 Pb' 2000ps10 Fig. 4.972 F = Rs [.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS dissolved gas system is represented by the solution gasoil ratio. " 4 A I000 800 . Twophase formation volume factors are most readily smoothed by the relation (Pb PI y = . Figure 4. (RS.3 Twophase volume factor The total (twophase) formation volume factor is the volume occuvied at reservoir conditions bv the oil and gas assodiated with a unit volume of stdck tank oil.. Since the reservoir eauations usinn formation.P ) ) Bb (1 . P . Depending upon the data available. P b = f ( R s . .pressure. T) An empirical correlation using a large amount of data.22 Bubblepoint pressure using the Lasater correlat~on (after [I6]).
6 Recent North Sea oil correlations Using the correlation methods proposed by Standing. elevated pressures.7psia 4.7psia Fig. or a measured value corrcctcd to this tcrnperature. Q 10 20 30 40 50 60 (a) Crude oil gravity (API).8.25 (b)) at pressures between 2000 and 10 000 psi. cp at reservoir temperature and 14. 14.0. The viscosity of various salinity brines at 1 atmosphere pressurc ( ~ 1 : ' ~is given in Fig..['7] . an estimate must be made through the oil gravity.25 (a) as a function of reservoir tempe~aturel'~.30218 (log P:::. is the specific gravity of the stock oil. 4.) .. The reservoir pressure in psia is P. I? the producing gasoil ratio in SCFISTB. 4. . Viscosity of dead oil. 'r the reservoir temperature in O F . and a measured value at this temperature.7447 (log P*.: against T chart (Fig. 4. is desirable.01 0 where D S .8. = 1. corrected for temperature and the effects of dissolved gas. 4. At the relationship is used where fp.g. r Fig.23). tank oil). a number of North Sea oils have been recorrclated by G l a ~ d ' ~The units uscd are oil field units ]. If the system is undersaturated. with Pb the bubblepoint pressure in psia.8. The viscosity of saturated oil is directly obtained. It is preferable for the viscosity at the reference state to be measured.24 (b) 0 : I 5 I 1 0 I I 50 100 4. is obtained from thc f. API is the degree API stock tank oil gravity and y . correlating and extending data. 4. For saturation pressure the relationship is log PI. 4.24 Beal correlations for crude oil viscosity. The viscosity of dead oil at reservoir temperature and atmospheric pressure is the requircd start point.)" 4 10 000  Temperature reservoir + 3  + 1. 7.24 shows the essential correlationsl"].23 Yfunction smoothing.5 Water viscosity Water viscosity is dependent on salinity. ' Fig. If no measured viscosity is available.4 Oil viscosity The viscosity of a reservoir oil can be coilsidered to be the viscosity of a dead oil at some reference pressure condition (e.. This can be a valuable relationship for smoothing. especially near the bubblepoint. Figure 4.56 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE and the Y function is a linear function of pressurc (see Fig.7669 1. 60°F. although correlations are available for this purpose. 4. the average specific gravity of the total surface gases. a correction for the excess pressure is needed.
The magnitude of the correction multiplier Fc. 4. For volatile oils an exponent for the temperature of 0.954 x lo'' ( A P I ) " ~ ~T~ ) i (0.8295)) yN2 + ((1.8 (YC02) T1.1 Tabulate values of API gravity for the specific gravity range 0. 6.65 X (API) 5.5 x (0.553 .9035 + 0.wt Mol. (p.58511 Fc = 1.90 in increments of 0.70 to 0. For H2S. as shown in Fig.1.2 The composition and component critical values of a gas are as tabulated below: com~onent Mol.fraction Critical press (psia) Critical temp. the relationship is log (Bob.093 (API) . and B.130 rather than 0.) 0. H2S. The relationship between P*band Pb is shown in Fig.26 (a).26 (b) illustrates this relationship.25 PVT correlations for North Sea oils (after [13').027 (API) .0. iyO(2 9 x 10000027R)1 = i3 f pressure correctIan 'actor 10 1 C p 5 0 :0 7 a 08 06 r s 04 02 The pressure of nonhydrocarbons. (e) and (f).019 (45 (API)) (yHzs) & + 0. Fc =  693. For the twophase flash volume factor B. can affect the calculated values of saturation pressure described above. specifically C 0 2 .0 .110S9 ) .0) = 2.4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 20 57 18 C C Figure 4.(0. = 0. 4.0015 (API!) (yHZs) + 0. 4.0 ((2.0. = Fig. N2. For oil flash formation volume factor.26 (d) . For nitrogen 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Reservoir temperature (deg F ) F.17351 (log B*J2 *  4 2 16 + g o 14 where 6 2 2 + 0 12 pr R 1 .366j (yi2)2 + + + rl For CO2.47257 (log B".91329 (log Bhob) .2.02. Example 4. the relationship between B. 4.172 is appropriate.27683 (1% B'ob)' where where B*ob= R  1. " is shown in Fig.080135 + 0. Bob. at any reservoir pressure P. which should be applied to the calculated value.25 (c) and represents: log B.f"RJ .968T Examples Example 4. can be expressed in terms of the mole fraction y of the nonhydrocarbon component present in total surface gases.
4. YN. .S y co.58 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Two Phase Flash Forrnatlon Volume Factor N2 correct~onto I C 0 2 correction to Pb .26 PVT correlations for North Sea oils (after 13).. Fig.
4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 59 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Calculate the molecular weight of the gas. a as saturation of 0. at 2500 psia.465 psilft.44 psilft (below mean sea level). at a temperature of 175°F.c f = 5 x l ~ .31 and compressibilities are respectively: c. The system is recompressed..275 litres c. and is measured by expansion to 1 atmosphere. and the regional hydrostatic gradient is 0. what density of drilling fluid will be necessary to control formation pressures at the crest (providing an over pressure of 500 psi). Volume of liquid Volume of gas (expanded to 1 atm. 60°F) The pressure is then reduced to 14. Example 4. (Mol wt. at 3000 psia B..9) Calculate the pseudocritical pressure and temperature.~ ( ~ s i ) . 4000 3000 2500 2000 1500 404 408 410 430 450 Estimate the bubble point pressure. at what elevation would a gasoil contact be anticipated? (c) What would be the formation volume factor of the oil at a pressure 4000 psi? (d) Find the viscosity of the oil at bubblepoint pressure and 175°F. gas gravity 0. liquid compressibility at 3000 psia B.. Calculate (both in vols/vol and in reservoir barrels/lOOO scf) the gas formation volume factor at 2000 psia and 135°F. gasoil ratio 750 scflstb. Calculate the gas density at 2000 psia and 135°F.70. B .s.3 If a reservoir has a connate water saturation of 0.5 The following results are obtained in a PVT analysis at 200°F: Pressure psia System vol. pore compressibility . 60°F:21 litres) Estimate the following PVT properties: 388 ml 5.. at what depth would a gas water contact be expected? (k) If the crest of the structure is found to be 1000 ft above gas water contact.4 (a) Using correlations find the bubblepoint pressure and formation volume factor at bubblepoint pressure of an oil of gravity 38" API. (i) Calculate the compressibility of gas at 2000 psia and 135°F. R. of air = 28. expanded to 2000 psia and the free ga? removed at constant pressure.7 psia and 60°F. ). Example 4. = 10 x 1 0 .~ ( ~ s i )What are: l. Calculate the pseudoreduced pressure and temperature at 2000 psia and 135°F.~ ( ~ s i!gas as calculated in 42(a). Example 4. z at 2000 psia .ml. (b) If a reservoir containing this hydrocarbon has an oilwater contact at 7000 ft s.' water: 3 x 1 0 . Calculate the density and specific gravity relative to air at 14.7 psia and the temperature to 60°F Volume of residual liquid 295 ml. (j) If the pressure of 2000 psia is the reservoir pressure measurement at 4100 ft SS and the regional aquifer gradient is 0.24. Molecular weight = 180. (h) Find the gas viscosity at 2000 psia and 135°F. (a) total compressibility (b) effective hydrocarbon compressibility. Volume of gas (measured at 1 atm. 2000 psia B . Determine the gas deviation factor at 2000 psia and 135°F.
[14] Pcng. G. [16] Lasater. [IS] Matthews. Chem. Equilibrium constants from a modified RedlichKwong equation of state. et ul. Handbook of Natl~ral Gas Engineering. 86.G. No. K. 610. [10] Dodson. The Properties qf Petrole~~m Fluids. How to solve equation of state for 2factors. 287. Tulsa (1973). W. Can.L. 264. Elements of petroleu~n reservoirs. and Robinson. 1974). 140. Gas Processors Suppliers Association. and Connally. New York (1959). 182 (1979). 1197. Pet. D. [22] Firoozabadi. Cltern. SPE Monograph No. Cllem. 1251 Robinson.R.A. L .Chesnut's water viscosity correlatior~.H. Tulsa (l974). A new two constant cquation on state. C. Dallas (1977). Somc applications of thc PengRobinson ecluation of state to fluid property calculations. N. [ i l l Carr. J. [9] American Petroleum Institute Recomlnended practice for sampling petrolcum reservoir fluitls. C. 0. JPT 32 (1980).B.G. Eng.. AIME 198 (1953). [17] Beal.J. McGrawHill Inc. Trans. Application of laboratory PVT data to rescrvoir engineering problems.R.Y. The viscosity of air. Pet. J.C.Zfactor calculations. [23] Katz.. Engrs.B. [6] Katz. Trans. D. L.A. 1201 Long. (1973). Bubble point pressure correlation.B. and Burrows. (1962). and Katz. Properties o i p e t r o l e ~ ~fluids. Eng. 25.L. and Ng.L. D. and Mayer. Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases under pressure. D. D. Soc.J. Volrrmetricand Phcrse Behavio~ir Oilfield Hydrocarbons. C. m [I31 Glasfl. M. AIME 165 (1946). Series. R. Sci. Reinhold Publishing (1952). 785. Pet. T~c. Trans. AIME 213 (1958). Reservoir depletion calculations for gas condensates using extendcd analyses in the Peng Robinson equation of state.. L. Washington D. Z'runs AIME 146 (1942). [24] Yarborough. Goodwill. 538. 64. 59. C. [41 GPSA Engineering Data Rook. 131 Standing. E.60 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References [I] Standing. 94.D. Kobyashi. and Katz. Co~nparisons made for computei. [7] Hall. Application of a generalised equation of state to petroleum reservoir fluids. Pemwell. RP 44 (Jan. M. Eng. of [2] Clark. Pcng. [IS] Soave. G.B. [19] Chew. D. Ind. Adv. J. JPT (1983). Generaliscd pressurevolumetemperature correlations. A PI Pub. H. 11. water. 56 (1978). D.Y. 16. D. (July 1961). Dimensionless PVT bchaviour of Gulf Coast rescrvoir oils. Proc. .ch. Overview of phase behaviour in oil and gas production.. 1 (1967).S. J. Soc. 1966). Eng. GPA. and Yarborough. Truns.L. 385. C. Fund 15 (1976). Pressure buildup and flow test in wells . Density of natural gases.B. D. D. 1976). Hckim. Y. 379. Am. AIME 201 (1954). OGJ (Dec.L. G. A viscosity correlation for gas satulatcd crude oils. D. 27 (1972). Salt content changcs cornprcssibility of reservoir brines. natural gas. Trans. 1205. 151 McCain. and Chielici. IHRDC (1979). A. E. and Russell. [8] Takacs. [12] Burcik. Clwnl. crude oil and its associated gases at oil field tenlperatures and prcssures. N. Ch. 23.. [21] Cronquist. A IME 216 (1959). OGJ (Feb.
J. N. C. J. Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering. Trans. ~ o m ~ r e s s i b i of tundersaturated hydrocarbon reservoir fluids.. 341. . JPT (Feb. 143. Trans. AIME 231 (1964). Bray. li ~ [29] Dake.R. Calculating viscosities of reservoir fluids from their compositions.G. [27] Clark. AIME 210 (1957). B. A. Amsterdam (1978).4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS [26] Lohrenz. L.S. I281 Trube. Elsevier Scientific. 1962).P. Adjusting oil sample data for reservoir studies. and Clark. 1171.
any geological formation must exhibit two essential The recovered core represents the record of rock characteristics. are used. There is This is done in the hopc that drying out of cores with a facility to retain the drilled rock as a cylindrical changes in wettability. In the first through relatively long distances under small poten. In addition.permeability due to washing with incompatible fresh sectional area of the cutting bit and the lcngth of the or sea water.). possible and desirable. These are a capacity for storage and type in the well scction and is the basic data for transn~issibility to the fluid concerned. Figure 5.g. a careful onsite examination for hydrocarbon tial gradients. .e.place. this may then be examined for hydrocarbon traces. the interpretation of geological and cnginecring propreservoir rock must be able to accumulate and storc erties. The first charac. gas bubbling or oil seeping Storage capacity requires void spaces within the from the core. unless special core barrels To form a commercial reservoir of hydrocarbons. and when devclopment wells are drilled it In general. In the sccond place. traces is desirable (e. two partially conflicting objectives must be possible for those reservoir fluids to flow must be met when taking core samples. be wrapA core is a sample of rock from the well section. results in cores up to 10 m in lcngth and 11 cm in solvc~lt cuts taken. it is While some estimates of reservoir rock properties desirable to preserve the core in as unchangcd a can be made from electrical and radioactive log condition as possiblc prior to laboratory evaluation. fluids. sedin~entologicdrilling conditions and in formation rock character al and palaeontological examination. survcys. i. after lithological examination and logging. ped tightly in polythene or immersed in fluid and generally obtained by drilling into the formation sealed into containers for transit to the laboratory. core fluorescence on a freshly rock.cuts ctc. It is frequently found that variation in thoroughly for detailed lithological.1 prevent 100% recovery of the core.1 DATA SOURCES AND APPLICATION Friable or unconsolidated rock is frequently recovered only as loose grains. fluorescence and staining in solvent be continuity of those void spaces. Remaining parts hollow section. cores. in case an opcn hole drill stem test is teristic is termed porosity. immediately rock are always essential. and transmissibility requires that therc should exposed surface. the study of core samples of the rcservoir Some parts of the core should then. the shows the kind of data obtained from recovered core may also be recovered in a broken condition. and some samples washed diameter. With conventionul equipment. will be minimized. the second permeability. with a hollow section drill pipe and drill bit.Chapter 5 Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks 5. or changes in porosity and samplc with the dimensions of the internal cross.
graded sandstones.1 Data obtained irom cored wells Sed~rnentology C Graln s ~ z e and (0 Descr~pt~on g% .5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 63 Slabbed core Photograph Sedimentology Lithology Samples Porosity Permeability Grain densiiy Asreceived saturations Special coreanalysis Thin sections Detail pore structure Diagenesis Porosity type Environmental evidence Core from Preservedhestored state Capillary pressure Relative permeability Electrical properties Acoustic properties Compressive properties Clay chemistry effects Specific tests Grain size distribution *Mineral analysis Xray and SEM analysis Calibration of wireline logs Fig. . 5. g . current ripple larn~natedand crossbedded. I 1 Core 4 Fig.3 Core log. 5.g b * 0 5 9  C A stacked serles of moderate reddish brown.
Samples from the recovered corc are also used to study post depositional modification to the pore space (Fig. where possible. 5. The Fig.64 Gamma ray log PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE FD C. The diversity o f information that can be obtained from rccovered core implies that a number o f speci a1'lsts are involved in assembling a coring program for a new well . unless a good . technical difficulty and costs. Drilling en.2).. The incremental cost o f the coring may also he effectivelypresented as a fraction o f oil Cores provide an opportunity to study the nature o f value at peak production rate. and they may argue that the opportunity to recover samples o f the reservoir is only presented once in each well. reservoir description leadillg to better 5. In general. This is in direct conflict with timeconsuming data retrieval and oftcrl results in coring dccisions requiring manage.3). log Bulk density correlated with wireline logs (Fig.each specialist wishing to ensure that sarnples are obtained under the best possible conditions.2 Lithology and log character in zonation of case should be supported by a time and cost analysis Rotliegendes in Leman gas reservoir (UKCS) (afterL361). As a further generality. together with the reasons for obtaining samples under controlled conditions. The case for coring therefore requires a careful presentation in which the need for the information is simply explained.those conducted o n explorationiappraisal wells and those on development wells.'~lneers tend to argue that the possibility for losing the wcll is increased by coring operations. the rock sequence in a well.4) (diagetlctic studies). it is often found that the control o f the coring program lies with exploratioll geologists for exploratiol~lappraisal wells and with reservoir eilgirleers for development wells. 5. 5. and that coring adds significantly in terms o f time to the cost o f a well.speciczl core analysis studies) and character o f recovered fluids and source rocks (geochemical studies). Petrophysical measurements o f porosity and permeability from samples o f the recovered core allow cluantitative characterization o f reservoir properties in the well section.e. Study o f the bedding character and associated fossil and microfossil record may provide an interpretation o f the age and depositional environment (Fig. flow character o f the continuous pore space (. They will providc a The coring o f exploration wells tends to be record o f the lithologies encountered and can be minimal on the first well on a prospect. The arnourlt o f core taken is usually decided on the basis o f a technical argument between data collection. complete the well and move o f f to the next location.for the coring operation and. The efficiency o f a drilling operation is often measured in terms o f timerelated costs to move on to a location. 5. it rnay be said that coring operations subdivide into two types . by an indication o f the benefits in terms of incremental oil recovery (i. Geologists and reservoir engineers require core for reservoir description and definition. ment arbitration between departments. reach a give11depth.2 CORING DECISIONS well placcmcnt).
A t this stage.core data being particularly relevant. without particular regard to the conditions of sample selection or preparation of the plugs. TQe presentation of results may also be defined by the reservoir engineers. which should lead to more efficient reservoir management. The coring of development wells is largely controlled by reservoir engineers. plug cleaning processes and even the test methods for routine core analysis. The conditions of core recovery. subdivided in terms of rock units. Despite delay to first production. The cored intervals will be decided on the basis of prognosis and analogy with the discovery well section.the coring should however be 75% complete before the reservoir has 50% of its wells.4 Diagenetic modification to pore space . The opportunity exists to influence the coring mud program. Conventional coring . regional analogy exists. The decisions on how many wells to core are generally taken by management after considerations of need. It can be important to specify the plug frequency. in combination with geological zone description. A target of 30% cored wells will provide reasonable reservoir control in all but the most complex geology . It is frequently found that the reservoir engineers do not fully participate in defining the core program for such appraisal wells. mineralogical and reservoir continuity studies and by engineers for attributing reservoir petrophysical properties within the more detailed zonation.3 CONVENTIONAL AND ORIENTED CORING Conventional coring refers to core taken without regard to precise orientation . and choice of cored wells should reflect this. wettability variation.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 65 Fig. In this case it is necessary for cooperation between engineers and production geologists to prepare the coring program. The zonation may initially be in terms of reservoir and nonreservoir intervals. In exploration wells the geologists have a primary concern in describing the core in terms of its lithological variation and defining a basis for zonation. and the storage and transportation of recovered core. the basis for sample selection for special core analysis tests. reservoir zonation may be better established and cores are required by the geologists for detailed sedimentological. plug drilling fluids. it is sensible to core early development wells as fully as possible in order to improve confidence in reservoir description and development plans.that is without reference to true north position. There may be some specialist advice from a laboratory group regarding some of these aspects. In many North Sea reservoirs the geological complexity can only be resolved by a combination and integration of data from many sources . The second well is often designated a type well by the exploration department and may be extensively cored. 5.to know technical argument and project economics. Routine core analysis on plugs drilled from the core is frequently commissioned by the exploration department. sample selection and sample storage require particular definition since results will be affected by. for example. Correlation with wireline logs and between wells may be made on a preliminary basis which will be improved as sedimentological and petrographic studies proceed.SEM of illitelsmectite formed at the expense of kaolinite. the basis for sample selection for routine core analysis. 5. Coring in highly deviated wells is naturally more of a risk than in straight holes or less deviated wells. These are more appropriately the responsibility of the reservoir engineer to define for the exploration department. It tends to be true that the degree of reservoir continuity and the number of development wells required form an inverse relationship and that core study can provide a basis for reservoir description. plug orientation.
A shaft extends from the inner barrel head through the safety joint and into a muleshoc attached at its top. 2 5.ctionnlly oriented coring and requires periodic stops in the coring o operation to take a measureme~lt f orientation. The orientation in fluvial deposition systems (e. rubber sleeve core barrel. Orientation o f cores is accon~plishedby running a conventional core barrel which has a scribed shoe containing three tungsten scribes (Fig. . The method is known as dirc. A tcchniquc that has found application in onshore coring1l2land is now achieving success in offshore coring involves the scribing o f grooves along the axis o f the core in a gyroscopically controlled orientation. The scribe shoe is added to the inner barrel by replacing the inner sub with the scribe shoe sub. The survey instrument has a builtin marker which is aligned with thc oriented scribe in the scribe shoe at the bottom o f the barrel.66 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE encompasses a range o f particular core barrels and cutting head and includes: steel core barrel. The scribe shoe is located at the base o f the inncr core barrel immediately above the core catcher assembly. plastic or fibre glass core barrel. weight etc.5). This may be a limitatio~lin sedimentological interpretation where direction of orientation has significance in predicting reservoir continuity. 5. The top o f the inner barrel is attached to the inner barrel head. pressure core barrel.4 CORING MUD SYSTEMS It is inevitable that coring fluid will invade a porous reservoir rock to some degree. river channels) is o f particular importance in well to well correlation and may not he easily deduced from d i p meter data. Thc survey instrument is located within a Kmonel collar to prevent any magnetic disturbance from the drill pipe. may cause a Fig. used to control viscosity.. 5. sponge insert core barrel. The cost o f oriented core offshore has recently been estimated as an incremental cost o f some US $50 per metre on convcntional core. Multishot survcy instruments are attached to the upper portion o f the muleshoe. The core recovered from these devices does not allow visualization o f rock in its exact reservoir condition orientation. particularly where ovcrbank slump is greater than depositional dip. The shaft rotates with the inner barrel.5 Oriented coring:American Coldset oriented core barrel with Spenny Sun adapter ( I ) and scribe shoe (2)in place of conventional inner barrel sub. filter loss. The consequence o f this is that materials in thc mud system.g.
0). or to otherwise demonstrate the effect of any particular mud system on the term o cos 0. Formation damage prevention: Need compatibility with formation waters to prevent changes of clay chemistry or physical state. (2) salt water. / / / Oil Surface Fig. (b) iron ore lead sulphide (approximate SG = 2. Best fluid is lease crude if well control permits. (b) reactive . These may change porosity and permeability as well as flow properties determined in laboratory tests. 5.clay compound. Usually only samples for special core analysis are stored and transported under these special conditions. which represents the interfacial tension (IS)between oil and water under the reservoir conditions and the contact angle (8) measured through the water phase as the angle between the oil water interface and the surface (Fig. (e) formation protection.5 CORE PRESERVATION The objective of core preservation is to retain the wettability condition of a recovered core sample. Retention of reservoir fluids (either oil or water) should maintain wetting character.5). Best with formation brine composition muds. 5 1 1 . following visual inspection at the well site. the core plug may be wiped clean.6 Wetting surface.2). therefore use low mud circulation rate and high as practica$le penetration rate. but in general these fluids would not allow adequate well control. (4) combination of 13. Flushing from oil filtrate. (d) hole cleaning.6). wrapped in a plastic seal and foil and stored in dry ice. and to prevent change in petrophysical character. (a) nonreactive . The core for routine analysis. (2) high gravity. The use of refined oils and paraffins may cause deposition of plugging compounds. The term o cos 0 controls the capillary forces and hence irreducible saturations in a particular rock fluid system. This change in wettability is manifest in the term o cos 8. so core may be stored anaerobically under fluid in sealed containers. Liquids: (1) fresh water.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS change in the relative affinity of the reservoir rock surface for oil and water. It is therefore necessary to use a bland or unreactive mud system. Initial water saturation: Eliminate water in mud system. The general limitations on mud composition dictated by formation evaluation requirements are as follows: + A mud laboratory is used to evaluate the compatibility and performance of chemical additives for drilling muds planned for a particular well. Changes in the term through mud system chemistry will result in the recovery of unrepresentative samples. The principal changes that might occur are those changing the wettability of the core or the physical state of in situ clay materials. without special care for wettability change or drying of core fluids. chert and some shales. Failing these techniques. (3) oils. avoid use of surfactants and caustic soda. limestone. 5. Residual oil saturation: Eliminate oil base fluids. Eliminate oxidation possibilities. (c) lubricate drill string. marked for identification. The main constituents of drilling muds are classified as liquid or solid as follows: 5.sand. Flushing will reduce any oil saturation to just about residual. (a) barite (approximate SG = 4. The influence of engineers and geologists requiring core on the mud system recipe must be decided in conjunction with the drilling engineers as the primary functions of the mud are: (a) control of subsurface pressure. It Unaltered wettability: Use essentially neutral pH mud. Reservoir brine (or a chemically equivalent brine) will prevent ion exchange processes in interstitial clays and maintain porositypermeability character. is placed in boxes. It is clear that the ideal coring fluids from a sample purity point of view would be reservoir brine or reservoir crude oil. Exposure to air can result in oxidation of hydrocarbons or evaporation of core fluids with subsequent wettability change['' 4 6 . (b) lift formation cuttings. . Minimum filtrate invasion: Use lowest mud weight giving control of formation. particularly with asphaltinic crude oils. Solids: (1) low gravity (approximate SG = 2.
It is now customary to pass the whole core along a conveyor belt through a device called a Coregumma surface logger which records a reading of natural radioactivity against equivalent downhole position of the core[']. In addition.53. continuity and characteristics of the various zones. Thc readings may be compared with the gainrna ray log readings obtained in . 5. Analyses may be performed on the sample of the whole core. 5. While this approach may be inevitable with exploration wells. Core for routine analysis should be dispatched quickly following the wellsite geologist's preliminary observations. The age of the individual rock units is usually establishcd by association with the lnicrofossil record (micropalynology) and this can be done as well with cuttings as with core samples. This is achieved by visual observation and the rcsult recorded as a core log.7 CORE FOR SPECIAL CORE ANALYSIS The selection of core for special core analysis is frequently a rather loose arrangement resulting from a reservoir enginccring request to the wellsite geologist to preserve some represmtutive pieces. Packing of transportation boxes should naturally he effective and prevent displacement of pieces. the core is usually sliced along its major axis into three slabs (known as sluhhing). It is convenient to describe the bedding character and macrofossil character within the grain size profile. After plug cutting. Photographs of the fresh core prove illvaluable in correcting later misplacements and sometimes in locating fracture zoncs. one third for curation and one third is often required by the licencing agency (e. 5.6 WELLSITE CONTROLS Thc recovery of core at a wellsite requircs care in handling core barrels and an awareness of the ultimate use of the core. One third is designated for geological analysis. or a refincd oil (as long as the crude oil is not waxy or ~~sphaItinic~(p1ugging)). will generally form the bulk of the recovered core.5 cm to eliminate mua invaded parts. the amount of sample required and the conditions for preservation. There is a danger in using tap water in that it may change the nature of interstitial clays by modifying ionic balances. I n cases of doubt it is preferable to prcscrve too much rather than too little and the geologists can always inspect the preserved core in the more controlled laboratory environment. transportation and storage. The environmentalidepositional model of a reservoir is largely based on the observations from individual corcd wells hut requires correlation of data between wells and integration with other sources of informa 5. These plugs are used in routine core analysis.e.3. the fossil assemblages also provide indication of transport encrgy regimes (palynofacies analysis) which help support sedimentological interpretations. if salinity is low (danger otherwise of salt plugging). 5.8 cm. situ in the reservoir and used to position the core pieces more precisely. It is necessary to specify thc basis for zone recognition. It is necessary to preserve samples from all significant reservoir flow intervals and these intervals must span permeability ranges.g. Core should be wiped clean for visual inspection and marked for top and bottom and core depth in a box. The plug diameters arc of the order 2. i. as shown in Fig.9 GEOLOGICAL STUDIES The purpose of geological core study is to provide a basis for dividing the reservoir into zones and to recognizc the geometry. The coolant used on the core plug drilling bit is important in Illany cores since it may possibly modify internal pore properties.68 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE is not rcally known whether this has any effect on the state of pore filllreplacement minerals recorded in subsequent geological analysis. and in an orientation to the whole core specified to represent bedding planes. The best coolant would be a reservoir brine. More usually core plugs are drilled at regular intervals (say 36 her metre)specified by the reservoir engineer o r picked at specific intervals. the Government). The main areas of study involve recog~litioll the of lithology and sedimentology of the reservoir and its vertical sequence of rock types and grain size. nonpreserved core. The plugs are usually about 4 cm long and are tritnmed to 2. vertical flowpath etc. horizontal flowpath.8 CORE DERIVED DATA The nonspccial core analysis. The recognition of depositional and post depositional features is achieved by core description and by microscopic observation of thin sections from cores. it should be possible to be more explicit during dcvelopmcnt drilling when reservoir zonation may be better understood. Core for special core analysis should be selected quickly and preserved in the agreed manner.
2 Residual fluid saturation determination In the API Recommended Practice. There are several disadvantages in the method. and capillary pressure data (see Chapter 6) will be required to determine the FWL. different rock systems require various analytical approaches with particular names. The change in core oil saturation as received in the laboratory shows a dramatic change between 2537. In addition. The validity of subsequpent measurements made on unconsolidated samples treated in the foregoing manner is the subject of contention.5 m and 2538 m from 19. Such samples are taken at regular intervals along the core and may represent a statistical sample.1 Principles and methods Routine core analysis is primarily concerned with establishing the variation of porosity and permeability as a function of position and depth in a well.10. In order to do this. (c) Rubber sleeve core (also plasticifibre glass sleeves) The purpose of a rubber sleeve or plastic sleeve in a core barrel is to support the core until removal in the laboratory. i. The placement of the contact will be between adjacent samples of relatively high and relatively low values. An example of this would be vugular carbonates where vug size may represent a significant volume of the plug sample. but it is clear that any grain reorientation or lack of similarity with real reservoir overburden stresses will invalidate results. but its utilization provides a method of at least recovering a core sample. analysis of core '1. In order to provide valid analyses. (a) Conventional core analysis This technique is applied to samples drilled from the whole core piece. 5.75 m and confirmation sought from log data. The experimental techniques should give accuracy of +5% of the true as received saturation condition. usually biased towards the more consolidated reservoir quality intervals. The cleaning of whole core sections can be difficult and timeconsuming. The plug sample may be supported by some kind of sheath while in a frozen state and is often then placed in a core holder where simulated formation pressures are restored and the temperature restored to reservoir conditions. (d) combination techniques. in order to provide insight into reservoir geometry and continuity.The oilwater contact would therefore be tentatively placed at the midpoint between these samples at 2537. The zone appears to be of one rock type and is thus likely to have consistent capillary character. Thus a rapid change in oil saturation from a relatively high volume to near zero in a similar lithology and reservoir quality interval suggests the presence of an oilwater contact.1. The use of whole core pieces tends to downgrade heterogeneous character that would be pronounced in small plugs. (b) distillation of water and solvent extraction of oil (need to know oil gravity). 5. the methods for determining the saturation of fluids in the core as received in the laboratory include: (a) high vacuum distillation at around 230°C (not so good for heavy oils). Plug preparation may require frozen drilling to prevent movement of sand grains. The techniques are reported in API booklet RP490 entitled Recommended Practice for Core Analysis Procedure[']. conventional core analysis. The samples are.e. however.6% to 1. 3 ' 3 ' visually inspected at the wellsite and is often frozen prior to transportation. The observed OWC may not be coincident with the free water level (FWL). (c) high temperature (up to 650°C) retorting at atmospheric pressure (not relevant for hydrated clays in sample).5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS tion. recovered in rubber sleeve['. The technique is therefore applied particularly in formations which are friable or unconsolidated. Full diameter cores are analysed only when there is reason to believe that plug samples will not reflect average properties. some analyses may also be performed on cuttings and sidewall cores. If the cored interval passes through an oilwater contact this may be observable from the residual saturation data. samples of recovered core are subjected to measurements and the results plotted andlor tabulated. The core cannot be . as shown in Table 5.1%.10 ROUTINE CORE ANALYSIS 5. (b) Whole core analysis The technique refers to the use of the full diameter core piece in lengths dependent only on the integrity of the core and the size of porosimeters and permeameters available. Although the core saturations reported do not represent saturations in the reservoir. because of ease of core cutting. whole core analysis. and analysis is generally significantly more expensive than conventional core analysis.10. they are certainly influenced by them. Sponge inserts in core barrels are sometimes used to retain reservoir fluids.
18 4.35 3634.67 A.70 3634.00 3634. poor calcitic wlovrite V.GR sub.76 2.00 10 4 0.0 14.ang.8 3.W. SlLTCalcitic A. GY.GR.16 4.6 2.1 0.25 6.F. GY.70 3.69 2.2 Horizontal permeability milliDarcy KA KL Presentation of routine core analysis results Satura.w.0 38. matter S.A. V.35 3632.cemented wimica A. rubble 3633. cemented wlmica 3632.2 17.ST. A.29 0.A.F. .68 2.0 3.A. V.0 39.00 n.68 2. withoutiorg.0 41.GR well cemented w.68 2.GR without calcitic n. GYIBR V.0 37.69 V. matter S.A A.W.ST.8 3.A A.70 3636.2 0. rubble 31 30 38 85 17 26 25 32 74 14 19 19 24 62 13 15 15 20 53 10 21.8 6.5 0.6 2.A.18 0. q/cc 2.67 2.ST.70 3637.35 3633.1 Laboratory measured oil saturation in recovered core Sample depth (m) 4 f%) k (mD) So (core residual) % TABLE 5.GR cemented wimica 3637.0 0.9 2'67 A.mica 3635. Depth Vertical permeability milliDarcy KA KL Formation description S.68 A.67 A. wlorg.25 0. S.GR.3 19.8 20.A.A. V.8 2.3 2.2 2.ST.9 0.F.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 5.p.70 21 17 14 11 19.1 18.6 0.4 1. F.83 13.35 3636.70 3635.A  A.2 0.5 21.p.80 2.9 2.5 0.Pore Saturation Helium tion porosity porosity % % SO STW Grain dens.p. GYIBR F.F.2 20.9 5.29 5.9 24.00 3636.77 2.A.v.p.4 7.16 0.4 19.4 12.8 15.71 2.
but this is no@ useful exercise. These ment equated to its volume. 5. recrystallization. + I I 5. tens of microns (Fig. It will normally only be possible to distinguish any effects of dual porosity if the coarse system has a flow capacity about two orders of magnitude greater than that of the fine system. Isolated pore space The dry method is preferred. partly to present the values on a condensed scale and partly because it is often found that lithologically similar samples show a linear relationship between porosity and log permeability.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 5. void spaces are microscopic in scale.7 Representation of permeability with depth. 5. the effective pore volume is measured by compressing a known volume of gas at a known pressure into a core which was originally at atmospheric pressure. where a weighed uncrushed sample is placed in a Boyle's law porosimeter apparent diameters of voids rarely exceeding a few. In the grain volume determination.can modify snbstantially the proportion and distribution of void space.8). With lesser contrasts. to determine grain volume.cementation. weathering. Grain volume measurements should be reproducible to 0. it is preferred nowadays to show permeability variation with depth on a linear scale. Fig. fracturing . Data may also be presented as a point plot against depth. these may be defined as coarse and fine porosities. 2Dimensional representation of pore space Fig. but the flow capacities of the different types of porosity. This is especially so in silty or highly cemented formations. For regular arrangements of uniform spheres. or a very few. 5. Two methods are in use: 5.10. and in some circumstances it may be necessary to define a system as a dual porosity system having primary and secondary porosity. The void spaces in reservoir rocks are most frequently the intergranular spaces between the sedimentary parti(a) the wet method.7. The grain volume is the difference between the total gas space of the void volume plus annulus and the calibrated volume of the core holder. the lower porosity range normally being of interest only in dual porosity systems. as shown in Fig.1 1 POROSITY Porosity is generally symbolized $ and is defined as the ratio of void volume to bulk volume. The porosity of reservoir rocks may range from about 5% of bulk volume to about 30% of bulk volume. solution.8 2D representation of pore space. toluene) and the displace. crushed core is placed in an unreactive refined liquid (e.3 Grain density Grain density measurements are sometimes presented in routine core analysis reports. as shown in Table 5. For the purpose of recognizing stratification effects. The most usual limitation in the applicability of these measurements is their lack of representation of the bulk reservoir.2. It has been customary to plot permeability on a logarithmic scale. although since it is the physical nature of the porosity that is of interest. equivalent to (b) the dry method.04%.4 Data presentatiqn Routine core analysis is usually presented in tabular form. The distinguishing factor between primary and secondary porosity from the reservoir engineering point of view is not the origin or mode of occurrence. 5. The rock description is provided only as a guide to character and does not pretend to be the geological sample description.10.the proportion of void space can be calculated a theoretically.g. Processes subsequent to sedimentation . behaviour is virtually indistinguishable from single porosity systems with some heterogeneity. where a weighed sample of cles. These data are usually not plotted in this way by service laboratories. In this .
111 reservoir engineering. P P . (b) grain volume (Boyle's law). mercury. 5.72 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE situation. oil or. Micrometer mercury pump I I I I Fig.9 Measurement of core plug porosity. (a) Bulk volume pycnometer.\ is applied to as received core plugs. in which the pore volume is considered equal to the sum of any oil. . established using steel blanks) (c) Bulk and pore volume poroslmeter 7 . (c) bulk and pore volume porosimeter. generally only porosities greater than about 10% are likely to be of commercial interest. 5. 5. only the interconnectcd porosity is of interest since this is the only capacity which can make a contribution to flow. Dead weight tester .1 1. (b) Grain volume ( Boyle's l a w ) Sol~d reference p1 Sample or sample !iLL Ilf Reference Gas chamber volume v = v.9). water. Porosity may be measured directly on corc samples in the laboratory. for laboratory purposes. .P ~ * ~ ~ be Reference mark lsolatlon valve Solid volume (Calibration curve v against p2/plp2can . . From plug samples. In routine core analysis. the techniques of routine core analysis provide for rncasurcment of bulk volume and either void volume or grain volume. and also may be estimated in situ by well log analysis. the bulk volume is usually determined eithcr by caliper nleasurements or by displaccmcnt of mercury in a pycnometer (Fig. calibration curve V' againstP2/(P1P2) can be established using steel blanks. The void volume is represented as the interconnected pore space that can be occupied by a fluid such as gas. A technique known as the summation of fluid.I Measurement of porosity Porosity may be determined from measurenlents on plugs drilled from recovercd core or estimated from (a) Bulk volume pycnometer  wireline log responses.
With low porosity.4) ( P I . fine pore structure systems. + pieceof fresh sample containing asreceived' fluids Plug for Piece for gas volume determination by mercury injection I Weigh fragment Several hundred qram sample for crushing and disti~~ation i 1 Inject mercury to displace gas from pores buileave liquids Gas content as fraction of bulk volume I RET0R. In general 1 ($1 . high pressures may be necessary to approach 100% displacement.fluid pressure) psi has been found for Brent sands["]as follows: " A calibration curve of V. the helium porosimeter using this principle has found wide acceptance. The magnitude of the overestimation will depend upon the pore volume compressibility of the rock and the initial in situ porosity.9(b) and the grain volume of the sample or solid volume of say a steel cylinder is denoted by V.P2) The form of the relationship between reservoir condition porosity Q R and zero net overburden laboratory porosity 4)L in terms of pore volume compressibility cp (VlVlpsi) and net overburden pressure APN (= overburden pressure . Total porosity may be obtained from crushed samples during the measurement of grain density. A similar. These processes are indicated gas in Fig.T DISTILLATION Water content as fraction of bulk volume J j.10. 5. dry weighed sample and the introduction of water into the pore space. a mercury injection capillary pressure curve and pore size distribution factor can be obtained en route to the porosity measurement. attainable with standard equipment.5% around the percentage value calculated.$2) c = . against P2/PIP2 is . So long as any clay then minerals in the pore space remain u n r e a c t i ~ e [ ~ ~ ] . Samples are not usable for further experiments after mercury injection. By conducting the test with small increments of mercury injection and noting the . A schematic representation is shown in Fig. a calibration curve defining the relationship between known solid volumes in a sample chamber and reference pressures and volumes is required. It is not usual to perform routine porosity determination with anything approaching a restoration of reservoir stress.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 73 water and gas occupying the sample. 5. The volume of V. and corrections for mercury and steel vessel compressibility may become necessary. The sum of the oil + water volumes as a fraction of total bulk gives the porosity. A destructive method of porosimetry. Oil content as fraction of bulk volume Porosity = water fraction + oil fraction + gas fraction Fig. Dual porosity systems can be investigated by the technique if the test is conducted in equilibrium steps14]. and therefore laboratory porosity values are generally expected to be higher than in situ values. The presence of clay bound water provides a limitation a'nd the values of porosity are considered to represent 10. Accuracy is reported high and reproducible to one percentage point in the range of porosities of 8 4 0 % . In this method which has a reprbducibility of about 2% of the measured porosity.10 Porosity by summation of fluids. Nondestructive testing is generally preferred since other types of measurements are often required on a common sample. A further representative piece is subject to mercury invasion to provide the gas filled volume. In precision work. nondestructive but inherently less accurate technique of porosity measurement involves evacuation of all air from the pore spaces of a cleaned. is designed to replace air with a measured volume of mercury.pressure required for displacement. most of the pore space contributing to flow is occupied. while core recovered at surface tends to be stress relieved. 5.. involving injection of mercury into small and irregularly shaped sample chips or regular plugs. The Boyle's law method is used to provide an estimate of grain volume. generally established using steel blanks. the weight increase of the sample is directly proportional to the pore volume. but at pressures of 600010 000 psi. in the sample chamber thus influences the observed pressure in the system compared with the pressure without the presence of a sample. The method is destructive in that oil and water from a representative part of the core are determined by distillation of fluid from a crushed sample. The maximum amount of mercury injected is equal to the pore volume of the sample. Rock at reservoir conditions is subject to overburden stresses.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Inserting some typical valucs. a true value of 27% porosity may be measured between 26.e.27 c. = 3 x lo" psi' AP.1 Porosity.2 Formation resistivity factor Although when clays and shales are present the rock itself has some conductivity.4500 = 5500 psi The measurement of porosity on consolidated samples in routine core analysis might generally be expected to yield values of the true fractional porosity k0. say: $L = 0. . Fraction Fig.005. i. in general the solid matrix can be considered nonconducting.1 1 Formation factor (forced a = 1).1 1. 5.5% porosity. 5. The Effective Overburden Pressure : 0.5% and 27.0 PSI 0. = 10 000 .
In heterogeneous formations. and perhaps at reservoir temperature in some cases. Obviously. conductivity bridge. in different degrees. At partial brine saturations. These two quantities. An example is shown in Fig.13. This index is a function of brine saturation and to a first approximation R.1 1. and 1 KO True formation resistivity when ( = 1. In interpreting formation lithology and saturation.11. reader is referred to the specialized log interpretation literature for particular details of their calibration. response and application[j21.1 1.81 for sandstones. The principle of operation concerns the scattering of gamma rays as a function of the bulk density of an environment irradiated by a gamma ray source. forming an element of a bridge circuit. the neutron log and the acoustic log. formation factor and resistivity index. 5. Resistivity of rock fully saturated with brine = Resistivity of the saturating brine Rw 5.) The formation factor can be measured by means of an a. the saturated core being held between electrodes in the bridge circuit. after[25]). are important in electric log validation. and in instances where localized mineralogy may influence response. and an index is is termed the formation resistivity factor (or formadefined: tion factor. the formation resistivity factor will depend on porosity.4 Porosity logs The porosity measurements from core plugs are frequently used to validate porosity interpretation from wireline logs. Brine resistivity is determined by a platinum electrode dipped into the brine. In making comparisons it is necessary to note that the core sample represents information essentially at apoint and on a small scale compared to the averaged response of a logging tool.2) and perhaps to the fluid occupying the pore space. m = 2. conductivity and spontaneous potential logs are used in addition (Fig. or resistivity factor) and is designated F. The 5. . 1 for carbonates).12 Resistivity index for a Berea sandstone sample.3 Resistivity index where n . 5. (This is known as the Archie Ea~ation[~]. 5. the gamma ray tool and variations of the induction. the resistivity of rock is higher than at 100% satujation.12. Most wireline logs are designed to respond. being infinite when c$ = 0. The tests should be performed at a range of net overburden pressures. to lithology and porosity (Fig. 5.= 2.c. As a particular example of wireline log use. such as cesium Fig. and a relationship proposed is I Resistivity of rock fully saturated with brine where a = 1 (taken as 0. it should be expected that overburden corrected core porosity will not match log The main logging tools for porosity are the compensated formation density log. the formation density tool response will be discussed further as it provides a particularly useful porosity indication in known lithology. 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS electrical resistance of a rock sample fully saturated with a conducting fluid (brine) is therefore very much greater than would be the resistance of a sample of fluid of the same shape and The ratio The form of the relationship is shown in Fig.
measured by a GeigerMueller detector is an inverse exponential where pf is the average density of the pore fluid containing pore water. from the source and the long spaced detectors 1 ft away. Gamma ray flux from the source is focused into the formation ancl results in about 90% of the instrument response coming from a region within 6 in.13 Bulk volume interpretation from logs for a 100 ft interval of a North Sea production well (after ["I). is known as V. whereby a photon collides with an atomic electron and some of the photon energy is imparted to the electron.. This socalled vertical bed resolution is dependent on the heterogeneity of the formation and on tool design and logging speed.. the high density solid tungsten preventing unwanted photons from reaching the detectors. The count rate of a detector at a fixed distance from :r source of constant intensity is very closely a sole function of the formation bulk density p . and collimation ensures that Compton scattering from formation rocks provides the prime detected energy. The bulk density measured by thc density log is the weighted average of the densities of the matrix and pore fluicl such that Fig.TROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE function of the bulk density of a formation. the count rate does not change as abruptly as a physical boundary or as a change of character is encountered by the detcctorsource combination. and p is the density of the rock matrix in the . 137 which emits 0. Both detectors are located in inserts in a tungsten carrier. The response is invalidated in poor conditions. and empirically represents the fraction of shale in formations.. It is usual for two detectors to be used: the short spaced one being some 6 in. It is therefore clcar that ipterprctation of the tool response requires some knowledge of the forlnation lithology and fluids present in the porc space as well as the heterogeneity of the investigation region.. defined from FDCneutron crossplots or perhaps from gamma ray readings. The detector responses are influenced by their specific length and depth. high densities are indicated by low count rates and low densities by high detector count rates.66 MeV gamma radiation. hydrocarbo~lsand rnud filtrate. Since the returning gamma ray intensity. 5. In such shale formations the bulk density is modificd for shale density pYhas follows: . A new photon of lower energy is created which in general moves In a different direction to the incidcnt photon and whrch can be considered proportional to bulk density... In shaley formations a shale index. Radiation intensity at the detectors is measured in number of cvents per unit time and because all radioactive processes are statistical ip nature the count rate fluctuates around an average value. As a result. Gamma radiation has neither charge nor mass but may be attenuated by matter as a funct~onof electron density. A n average rate is obtaincd by cumulating all counts for a given time and dividing by thc time. investigation region. of the well bore. The main interaction at an energy level around 3 MeV is known as Compton scattering.
\\ . 9 100 u ?  B ? S 0 ef Pb . (a) 8 . 5.\. a 5  Fig. as shown in Fig. One of the more common forms is a truncated normal distribution.75 10 I I I I 10 30 50 70 Neutron q5N ( API ) Fig.C t K h .14 and 5.16. 2 L Trend 2 x X / n \\' X \' X 2. X x \"i 2.50 K 1./Trend Cr.00+ .15 90 110 +A Fig.5 Porosity distributions Data from both core and log derived porosity interpretations may be used to provide zonal properties.25 I 4  _ ' T! Min I Max < & a n 0 1. Core data in particular may not be generally representative of an interval and is influenced in practice by ease of cutting and picks of good reservoir rock.00 r*.15. . In contrast.1 1. 5. \\ 1 2. LI Z 1. most core data is discontinuous.\. 1. 5.r> :. 5. 5. core corrected porosity against p~ in a given zone. 5.16 Porosity distribution.14 Porositybulk density crossplot. The distribution may or may not be skewed and may or may not show a trend of value with depth. . ' \ . f a 0 a x x Tn .25 Clay Recorded density value \ x'\ x . The nature of coring fluid influences the magnitude of pf in the porosity calculation and p provides limits on a crossplot of together with . ' 2. Sometimes it is observed @hat given lithologies in a reservoir with a particular depositional and diagenetic history will show a characteristic distribution of porosity in a given zone.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 77 In correlating core compaction corrected porosity measurements with density log data. it is therefore important to recognize bed heterogeneity and boundary factors (zonation) as well as the scale of the observations.f 4 @ma I C  /Trend 2 .50 Sand x . The log porosity validated by core observation is the most useful working set since it will represent a continuous depth section.ed r ?'. as shown in Figs.75 (b) r \ .\ x I X .
the mean porosity of the unit is the arithmetic average. so that if no energy losses occur an energy balance on a unit mass of flowing fluid is and if irreversibilities exist Poros~ty. it may be possible to establish an approximate relation between porosity and permeability. The three terms can be considered to be the energy components of the fluid liable to vary during a flow process .U = .17.17 Multimodal porosity. a rate of transfer is proportional to a potential gradient. and permeability (e. Kozeny model). For unconsolidated rocks it is possiblc to establish relations between porosity. electrical conductivity and diffusivity.constant A dL i. A gradient in potential can also be defined 5. 5. Again for rocks of similar lithologj~subjected to similar conditions of sedimentation.the pressure energy. and is defined similarly by a transport equation dG?' Q. Nevertheless. the acceleration due to gravity. and very high and very low values are sometimes missing. Permeability has direct analogies with thermal and the gradient in potential is a measure of the irreversible energy losses. conductivity. but these have a limited application. Basic equations of fluid mechan~cs (Euler or Bernoulli equations) apply the staterncnt o i encrgy conservation to a flowing fluid. If the potential terms are divided throughout by g. this provides one method of evaluating permeability variation from log and drill cuttings data which can be of value.12. Combinations of different rock units often show up with a multimodal histogram character and this requires separation into subzones. 5. and and d@ =dX dX Darcy rZ7' originally studied the vertical filtration of water deriving experimcntally the relation = U= g. the kinctic energy. The core alialysis porosity histogram is usually only a part of the log derived porosity histogram since sampling is unlikely to be statistically meaningful.78 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE For a truncated normal distribution. as shown in Fig.h 'd Q A  dh constant dL .+ Fig.and their sum can be considered to be a potential per unit mass of fluid. in theory (nor in practice). and the potential energy of position . but this is !ikely to be of local value only. and either some measure of apparent pore diameter.e. or of specific surface. then has the dimensions of length.12 PERMEABILITY 5. any unique relation between the porosity of a rock and its permeability (except that a rock must have a nonzero porosity if it is to have a nouzero permeability).. there is not.g .1 Fluid flow in porous media The permeability of a rock is a measure of its specific flow capacity and can be determined only by a flow experiment. Since pcrmcability dcpcnds upon continuity of pore space..
The group constant k = ~ d = permeability 2 is taken as the characteristic of the porous medium controlling fluid flow within the medium. A = sq.12.18 Linear Darcy flow. For horizontal flow dZ1dL = 0 and Darcy's equation can be written as is encountered so frequently that its restriction to horizontal flow may be forgotten. Further experiments and analysis. The Darcy can be large for a practical unit. p = density of fluid.2 Datum correction The equation and Qi' may be considered a potential per unit volume.A. It is. particularly by King Hubbert showed that the constant includes the fluid density and viscosity. and the milliDarcy is more commonly used. mean throat diameter).18. With dimensions of L'. 5. and that the residual constant has dimensions of acceleration and rock geometry. 5. cm. giving initially a correctly volumetrically weighted average pressure). where N = final constant of proportionality and incorporates a shape factor. as shown in Fig.g. a valid equation when all pressures are corrected to a common datum level (frequently in reservoir practice a level such that equal volumes of hydrocarbon lie up dip and down dip of this datum. and since kinetic energy changes are generally negligible Fig.Z) pgf and the potential difference between points 1 and 2 is then as shown in Fig. and this is defined by pZc p2+ (2 . where Q = cm3is.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 79 where dh1dL represents a manometric gradient. an absolute length unit could be adopted and 1Darcy lo* ( ~ m ( )~~1 0mm2) '~ For an incompressible fluid (or for a small pressure interval for which an average density may be used) :[ and P + g'Z= . however. g' constant = (Nd2). For the oil industry. d = characteristic length dimension (e. A rock has a permeability of 1 Darcy if a potential gradient of 1 atmlcm induces a flow rate of 1 cclseclsq cm of a liquid of viscosity 1 cp. the product g dhldL can be related directly to the potential as defined above. the unit adopted is termed the Darcy.+ g ' z P 5.19. p = cp. Obviously. . 5. The corrected pressures are then P I C = PI + ( 2 . dpIdL = atmlcm. and p = viscosity of fluid.) pg' = (h2 .h ~ pg' ) = p2 and this is the defining equation for the measurement of permeability by flow measurement.
field units as follows: Q = I In field units with Q in RBID and length tcrins in feet.12.20. 5. then we have an expression in .80 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Datum (b) Radial flow system.) P In (rclr'b") 1. 5. + pg' sin a If pressure gradient is measured in psiift. From Darcy's law we can write kA dP Q=  dr The curved surface area open to flow is 2nrh so P Fig.4335 y sin a I In practical situatioils thcre may well be a rcgion of altered permeability around the wellborc. The effect is described in terms of a skin effect S. area is in square fcct.. (a)Geometry.20 Linear flow in dipp~ng bed. y is a specific gravity rclativc to pure water. viscosity is in centipoise and volumetric flow rate is in reservoir condition barrels per day.f Fig. permeability is in milliDarcies. = r e" W External boundary Net thickness h 1 Radial dlstance r from well Z \ re Flowing steady state pressure at well is p. Integrating between the wellbore and the external boulldary of the system we have 12i P. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 5.3 Linear and radial flow equations We may now summiiriw the equation for steady state linear and radial flow of a single phase fluid as follows: (a) Linear system.21 Radial flow system.00708 k h ( P . which may bc positive for reduced permeability and negative for improvement.P. 5.19 Datum correction. 5.. It is incorporated into the steady state equation as follows: r./ which yields = _ Fig. 5. which may increase or decrease the pressure drop in comparison with an unaltered systcm. this becomes Q= 0.21. . (b) pressure distribution ..127 X lo' kA El [ (Pjf'Z) + 0.
Using conventional equipment. The true permeability is the extrapolation of the measured data on a straight line to the point UPrn = 0 (i. Routine core analysis is generally concerned with plug samples drilled normal to the long axis of the whole core. He) in permeability determination to minimize fluidrock reaction. Darcies. and kg(.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS plug sample / 5. Such samples are referred to as horizontal plug samples. permeability corrections are unnecessary for permeabilities approaching 1 Darcy but may be in the order of 0. The permeability for horizontal laminar flow of a single fluid through a granular material has previously been given by i compliant sleeve Fig.22 Permeability measurement. Along with routine core analysis measurements of horizontal permeability.22. In the laboratory.. atmicm. cp. measurements are often made on a full diameter core piece. This is known as the Klinkenberg correction[" for gas slippage and involves making several measurements of permeability at different inlet pressures. charts are available for typical corrections but these may be erroneous in specific circumstances. The nature of the liquid used in checking Klinkenberg corrections may be important in clay sensitive or reactive formations. it is directional. The mean permeability is determined as where the units are Q = volumetric flow rate.. infinite mean pressure).6 in the milliDarcy range. p = fluid viscosity. Any plug drilled along the long axis of the whole core is termed a vertical plug. Dry gas is usually used (air.4 Laboratory determination of permeability cap steel &linder Permeability is an anisotropic property of porous rock in some defined region of the system. For P2 = 1 atm. The region between the compliant sleeve and the inner walls of the permeameter is subjected to a confining pressure (about 200 psi) in order to prevent the flow along the long axis of the plug. (Fig. At low pressures. The horizontal permeabilities of k. the permeability measured is higher than the real permeability and a correction is required. cm2. then The linear Darcy relationship for gas flow at standardconditions thus becomes . A = sample crosssectional area. in horizontal plane). dPidL = pressure gradient across sample. When corrective measurements are not made. are usually reported for full diameter is samples (kg(. it is sometimes found that vertical measurements have also been specified. For this reason the Klinkenberg corrected permeability is also called KL (L = liquid). 5. k = constant called permeability. In carbonate reservoirs where heterogeneity is anticipated. Sometimes these samples are specifically requested along bedding planes where it has been noted that the long axis of the whole core is not normal to the bedding plane. The outlet end pressure is often atmospheric.1 2.e. the relationship between rate and pressures upstream and downstream at isothermal conditions is given by and calculated permeability is plotted against lip. permeabilities in PI Qi = P 2 Q 2 as shown in Fig. cm3/s. In general.. This real permeability is equivalent to the permeability that should be obtained for flow with the core saturated 100% with an unreactive liquid.23). the sample is placed in a device called a permeameter which comprises a compliant sleeve sealing the plug samples along its long axis and a steel container with end caps and pressure regulators into which the sample is placed. that is. normal to k. and for convenience. N2. For gas flow where flow rate is measured at standard conditions. Linear flow of gas through the core plug is established (flow rate proportional to pressure drop is checked). 5. 5.
5. with k. k. and well test derived data is of macroscale. In the representation T with subscripts x.24. The sedimentary environment may also lead to the orthogonal permeabilities in the 1101izontal direction also being unequal. f k. values of caprock permeability can be determined down t c around 1 0 ' D. kA T=L QP = AP k \ the range of I x 1v4 up to 20 D can be measured. in general. . injectcd water tonguing. Consequently. D The accuracy is usually within f5% of the true valuc. generally the smallest value. the quantificato tion is as follows: 0 Fig. Locat~on miniof Fig. # k .23 Klinkenberg permeability correction. Application in reservoir simulation models is of intermediate scale.82 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE t * /@)/( / kL The utilization of permeability anisotropy information is very much scale and problem dependent.z indicate direction. 5.. the sedimentation process will ensure that vertical perlneability will he less than horizontal permeability even in tllc absence of tight streaks. The direction of greatest interest in reservoir samples is that parallel to the bedding planes . but this is generally a lesser effect than the vertical to horizontal difference. Whenever sediments are poorly sorted. Core data represents microscale observation as shown in Fig.5 Anisotropy of permeability While permeability as defined in petroleum usage is ayropcrty only of the rock (having the di~nension L ). 5. injected gas override. With special pcrmeameters. The representation of iJow restriction is at the heart of permeability characterization and is manifest through definition of transmissibility. the property is not necessarily identical in all size samples or orientations. although the measurements arc poorer at high and low permcabilities.y.12.24 Effect of scale of observation and measurement in permeabilitydata from a Rotliegende aeolian sand cross bed set in the Leman gas field (after [361).the !lorizorrtr~l permeability. gravity smearing or accentuation of unstable displacement fronts. 5. The direction perpendicular to bedding planes is of considerable interest in connection with movement in the gravitational field: gas segregation. angular and irregular.
so the pressure gradient will be different and also different between layers. Crossflow is also promoted by capillarity. These are linear beds in series and parallel with no crossflow between beds. 5. which essentially means a unit having similarity in pore size distribution as a result of depositional and diagenetic history. behind. 5. .25. When all beds are the same width. This applies when beds are homogeneous such that PI . then A x h so iS is an arithmetic average. 1. Two simple systems can be analysed in linear geometry to determine an appropriate mean to represent an equivalent homogeneous system.26 Linear beds in parallel. The relationship between well test derived permeability Era and core averaged permeability k./k. can be represented empirically to account for scale by use of a coefficient a  2. Crossflow between adjacent beds can occur unless there are permeability barriers. Linear beds in parallel See Fig.25 Linear beds in series.12. This type of distribution was first reported in the literature by Law and has been noted by others. 5. as shown in Fig. It has also been shown analytically that the mode of a log normal distribution is a geometric average. and there is a For equal A then =L/~{L.6 Averaging permeabilities Warren and Price [20]showed that the most probable behaviour of a heterogeneous system approaches that of a uniform system having a permeability equal to the geometric mean Fig.26.kr product where k./p. however. Fig. kre5 kcor It should. a = : 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS The value of k may be from appropriately scaled observation. is a relative permeability. Linear beds in series For constant flow rate we can add pressure drops. zA.12. it may be expected that a truncated log normal frequency of permeabilities will occur. The only source of permeability data for observing the nature of a distribution is from core analysis measurements.7 Permeability distributions In a given rock type unit. be remembered that in general &e.) The approprhte mean is thus a harmonic average permeability kH. 5. is an effective_ permeability and really should be considered as a k. It will not be true when water displaces oil since ko/po ahead of front is different from k. 5.P2 is constant in all beds at equal distances.
Core analysis data can rarely do this. Some . so a depth record of permeability is not generally available.84 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE strong possibility that the plugs will not represent a true statistical sample of the unit. . 5. so any practical relationship represents a best fit and may be represented by a convenient inathematical relationship. tests such as the KolmogorovSniirnoff test have found application in testing whether or not sarnple sets belong to a particular population [I"'"]. 5. 5.28 Multimodal permeability distribution. Statistical linear scale porosity Logarithm of permeabil~ty Fig.27 and has the property that the mode is equivalent to a gcometric average of the sample values. 5. Empirical correlation of porosity with permeability is frequently attempted in order to provide an estirrlate of permeability as a function of depth. In these circumstances.27 Truncated log normal distribution.28. The easiest relationship to test is that of a straight line and it has frequently been noted that a plot of porosity against the logarithm of permeability leads to an approximate straight linc. 5. (b) loglog. As shown in Fig. normalization of the frequency axis is rccomrnended for ease of comparison. There is no theorctical relationship between porosity and permeability in natural porous systems. (a) Semilog. 5. The idealized truncated log norntal distribution is shown in Fig. (c)semilog multlfit. Permeability distributiolls in a reservoir can be used diagnostically to aid zonation and subzonation. rnln Logar~thrn perrneab~lrty of t rnax t Fig. . Reservoir zonation within and between wclls can be aided by histogrant analysis. The application of any relationship is purely in the nature of an inout operutor so any reasonable functional form will suffice. Fig. The low permeability zone may sometimes relate to diagenetic damage of pores and exist in a particular depth andlor saturation interval of a given depositional unit.13 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY Porosity from validated log response provides a continuous representation of pore volume as a function of depth in a well. In zonation it is important to recognize depth and thickness trends with permeability which can be differcnt but which can give rise to the s a n e apparent distribution. the sand unit probably rcpresents three regions.29 Porositypermeability correlations for glven rock types.
. logarithmic scale porosity against log derived @ corrected core I$ and obtain relationship. In addition to the correlation methods outlined TABLE 5. from core against Klinkenberg and compaction corrected core permeability (bedding plane direction) and obtain best fit. only data from unimodal histograms are plotted for defining a particulz permeabilityporosity relationship.c = coefficients . Explain anomalies. p~ = formation density log response. The most usual sequence of operations to provide the correlations is shown i n r a b l e 5. ik. As might be expected. 4. Compare compaction corrected core C$ histogram with log derived @ histogram and define appropriate zonation. a. One has been the direct correlation of core corrected permeability with well test interpretation and log response informations [j31. 1.. + b@.. Since flow rate is directly proportional to permeability the potential errors are significant..  . Define relationship between log derived in situ porosity and Klinkenberg and compaction corrected core permeability at common depth.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS required from a porosity value at a particular depth. It may also be apparent that the degree of fit of the equations is important as a calculated permeability is above there are other approaches [j8]. In poor correlations a porosity of say 25% may be used to predict a permeability of 300 mD. Depth match core and log data. Examples of the crossplots are shown in Fig.k. but be based on a data spread of permeabilities between 1500 mD and 10 mD.. Use each relationship in appropriate zone to predict permeability at each depth value of interest and plot permeability log.3. The form of the correlating expression in a given zone is as follows: k = aCf(ap. log response. 5. 5. ..Krelationships Oo / + . . It is clear that a statistically significant volume of data is necessary to identify the relationships. AT = acoustic .. s where a = . .  .... b. obtained empirically.29.@ = neutron log response. reservoir units may be represented by curves or multiple lines.3 @ .+ C A T + ) .
../.86 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Another form promoted by a logging service company requires knowledge of irreducible saturation and is based on pore geometry and log response.092 19.1 A series of core samples from a well give thc following formation factor: porosity relationships: FRF: : 30 0. What is the porosity? In an updip location the same formation has an apparent hydrocarbon saturation. and from a shale zone (as included in table). (c) Determine R.1 and A5.m=2. If the exponent of the resistivity ratio equation is 2. .29 Ilm. .5 0. and plot all points on the DIN Crossplot. and VAh calculate the water saturation from the basic Simandoux equation.165 8.84 blm metres. (d) Establish the clean line and the shale line for garnma ray.n=2.1 Om.IS this Q.3 A shaley sand has t i porosity of 26% over an interval within which R.. = 0.2 Using the logs in Figs A5.density crossplot. . 23 .1 8 ~ ~ +.0 0.!. (g) Use this value to determine porosity.2 (see Appendix 11) together with the densitySNP crossplot in Fig. Evaluate the water saturation using the WaxmanThomas e q u a t i o ~(~R = 0 .h for each level. what is the hydrocarbon saturation'? What would be values for exponents of 1. m = 2 . at A and B using i) The Simandoux equation ii) The niodified Simandoux equ a t'lon iii) The Poupon and Lcvcaux equation (Indonesia Equation). a l . NAIL VTI.8and 2. and a truc resistivity of 11. + (log + : + 2.3 0. . B. (h) Calculate S . (a) Tabulate log values for the zones A. c m ' m e q ~ ' . Note these are Dresser Atlas logs in a sandy formation of a well drilled with an oil base n ~ u d there are n o resistivity logs or an SP. The water resistivity is 0. C and shale.equivalent on thc modified Si~nandoux Using these values of R .. for zones A and B. to what value of V.5 Rm. a thick water bearing layer is encountered having a resistivity of 1. = model? If R.268 Calculate the constants of the Archie equ at'ion. Examples Example 5.2.205 6.120 12. Assumea=l. n = 2). Evaluate V. A5. 0 4 6 0 ~ ' . (b) Determine Rw by considering only zone C. = 0.2.4 0. = 5 Om and R .056 Rm..3 mcqlcc.3 evaluate the following information for the permeable zones A and B. (f) Integrate information from the two shale indicators and select the most appropriate value of V. Example 5./. Read garnma ray values for zones A and B and convert to VVh. The Coates and Dumarioir equation ['']is a modification of one by Timur '"I and is expressed as follows: where ~2 = 3.2. (e) Establish the shale point on a neutron . 111 an offset well. = 1.75  . Laboratory analysis has shown that Q.212 X~ and C = 465 p.2Y Example 5.
5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Example 5. A hydrocarbonwater contact exists at 5250 ft. when the pressure at the HWC is 1450 psi.4 Darcy's law in differential form is: (a) Show that the equation for isothermal linear flow of an ideal gas in Darcy units reduces to: (b) If a gas flows through a core sample discharging to atmosphere at a rate of 6.6 The following results were obtained in flowing dry gas through a cleaned extracted dried core plug: Core dimensions: Gas viscosity: Atmospheric pressure: Upstream pressure (mm Hg) Diameter 1in.038. length. Example 5.2 ccsls when a manometer upstream of the core records a pressure of 190 mm Hg. what is the rate of water influx in barrels per day? Assume the specific gravity of the aquifer water is 1.018 CP 760 mm Hg Downstream pressure Atmospheric Atmospheric Atmospheric Flow rate (standard conditions) (cm3/min) What is the permeability of the sample. Length 1in. The aquifer sand has a net thickness of 65 ft. 0. diameter x 1in.018 cp. The effective distance from the HWC to the outcrop is 10 miles. a width of 3000 ft and a permeability of 750 mD. Under dynamic conditions.. Sea level  f2501 Example 5. and gas viscosity at ambient temperature is 0.5 A n aquifer is known to outcrop at the sea bed where the water depth is 250 ft as shown in the figure. after Klinkenberg correction? . what is the permeability of the sample? Dimensions are 1in.
02 gicm Viscosity of brine = I centipoisc g 1atmosphere .0 20.7 psi Compressibility of water = 3 X 10\ols/psi Example 5.88 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Example 5. When flow is started. and mounted in a burette as shown in the accompanying diagra~n.= 1 0 ~ y n e l c m ' = 981 cm s2 Core Example 5.5 Brine What is the pernleability of the sample? Assume that: Density of brine = 1.0 96. A production rate of 1000 bbllday of tank oil is obtained flom a number of wells lying close to the upper fa~llt boundary.e. (d).7 cp Oil formation volume factor = 1. g Average pressure at producing wells = 1750 p ~ at 5000 ft Net sand thicknesc = 150 ft Permeability to oil = 150 mD Porosity = 26% Viscosity of oil at reservoir conditions = 0. The oilwater contact is 1000 ft long at a depth of 5750 ft. 1porc volumc of invading water) Use the following relationships: I BB Liday = I .0 30.0 13. (b) and radial flow (c).0 67.8 A reservoir is boundcd by three faults and an oilwater contact forming a tilted rectangular block of 3000 ft x 1000 ft x 150 ft.9 Find the expressions for the average permeability of beds or zones of differing permeability when in scrics and in parallel.1 82. (c) Calculate the mean permeability for the following cases: . what sizc of aquifer would be necessary if water drivc of thc reservoir werc to be complete? (i.84 cm3/s 1ft = 30.135 rblstb Density of oil at reservoir conditions = 50 lblft' 150 f t 5750ft (a) What is the pressure at the oilwater contact? (b) If the pressure at the original oilwater contact at abandonment is 500 psig.48 cm 1 atmosphere = 14.0 45. both in linear (a). the height of the brine above the core is as follows: Time (s) 0 100 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Height (cm) 100.7 A core sample is saturated with brine.
Int. 236. J. D . [6] Klinkenberg. Viking Graben. absolute.M. L. Tech. Pet. [19] Testerman. L. V2). Trans. Pet. A statistical reservoir zonation technique: JPT (1962). Pore volume compressibility of consolidated friable and unconsolidated reservoir rocks under hydrostatic loading. Permeability. Bass. 202. Pet. R. Flow in heterogeneous porous media. Interpretation. G. Tech. Coring and Core Analysis Handbook.W. effective. Wile)! Interscience (1973). 153. JPT (Feb 1979). 42. Proc. Can. J. 211. Vol 7 The Brent Sand in the [22] Gewers. [9] Buckles. \. Pet. Oriented cores guide Eliasville redevelopment. Graham and Trotman (1980). J. McGraw Hill (1960). Pet. 129. (Dec. 14th Ann. JPT25 (1973). Study of problems related to the restoration of the natural state of core samples. A new approach to improved log derived permeability.S. R. 889. Trans.H.Physical Properties. . [2] Ryder. 278. Tulsa (1975). [7] Amyx. [8] Frick. [12] Bell. 1211 RRIIERC . Reservoir rocks and petrophysical considerations. G. A. Pet. [4] Monicard. 16 (1977). [lo] Cuiec. 4 (1965). Petroleum Reservoir Engineering . 263. Symp. SPE (1962). J. 11 (1972). J. A critical review of core analysis techniques. L. 68.W.P. AIME (1944). J. D. G. and Nichol. and Whiting. Penwell. Eng.K. 6 (1967). Can.E. [5] Anderson. measured. AIME (SPEJ) 222 (1961). [16] Newman. (1980). R. [14] Davis. World Oil (1948). 174. H. Can. Tech. [13] Law. [3] Archie.J. S. SPEJ (1971). API Drilling and Production Practice (1941). [20] Warren. [ l l ] Havlena. 200. C. T. Can. (1969). averaging and use of the basic geological engineering data. Pet. J. Effects of liquid saturation on turbulence factors for gasliquid systems.S. D . D.L. UKCS: Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study.. G. H. J. D. Prediction of formation compaction from laboratory compressibility data. and Dumanoir.R.E.D. Can. The permeability of porous media to liquid and gases. A statistical approach to the interstitial heterogeneity of sand reservoirs. An analysis of high velocity gas flow through porous media. Gas turbulence factor in a microvugular carbonate. AAPG Bull 36 (1952). [15] Keelan. (ed. [23] Wong. J.J. Correlating and averaging connate water saturation data. SPWLA. J.C.) Petroleum Production Handbook (Vl. J. 38. A. Can.L. Properties of Reservoir Rocks: Core Analysis. (1973).5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Zone Depth (parallel) Length or radial extent (series) 89 Permeabilitv (mD) References 6 [I] American Petroleum Institute Recommended practice for core analysis procedure.M. Tech. [18] Teeuw. [17] Coates. and Price. and Katz. 42. A P I R P 40 (1960). Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology.R. Tech.L. Tech. (1970) 1241 Firoozabadi.M. 1979). J.
Barking (1985). for (1983). R . Paper EUR 273. Rc~v. 1421 ~ r u g e rW. Trans. 51 (1965).J. Errors in corc oil content data measured by the retort distillation technique. V . AIME 207 (1956). Log. J. Geol. JPT (1973).G.J. Wilson. M. H. [ i McLatchie. W. J.C.M. 144.L. 1281 Hubbert. J. The measulerneat of pctrophysical properties of unconsolidated sand cores.V.Y. E. (ed. 1960). AIME 213 (19581. Trans. and Ali. Applied Science Pub. Core handling and rne>~surement Syrnp. Geology of the Leman gas field. L > J ' 7 0 . F. [27] Darcy. and Archer. 195. Europec (1982). J. and Timur. Z . J .S.C. J. . Determining interblock transmissibility in reservoir simulators. polositp and residual water saturation relationships for sandstone reservoirs. JPT (1979). Statistically analysing core data. Dalmont. Proc. and Randall. Pet. Prediction of permcabil~ty from logs by multiple regres. Symp. R. SPWLA. 2 ( 1 979). and Pottier. Hemstock. 1984).troleum and the Continental ShrlfofNW Europe. JPT (1974). Proc. Wilson. DawciWilson) Elsevier Applied Science Pub. An investigation of permeability. The precision of core analysis data and sorne implicatio~is reservoir evaluation.W. 1432. Proc. P.W. New York (1962). [37] Passmore. The yublicfbuntains in thc Town of Dijorz. 223. Significant contributions in formation evaluation and well testing. J . Electron microscope and Xray diffraction studies of filamentous illitic clay from sandstones of the Magnus field.K.C. SPE ?'roc. (301 Miller. 1321 Swanson.R.. F. JPT (Dec. JPT (1961). B. M. Proc. 222. JPT (June 1967). A. Determination of rock properties by quantitative processing of geophysical borehole logs. M.S. NormalisecL Qv . 1411 Hook. [48] Pallat.J. Applications of clay mincralogy in reservoir studies.. 1331 Allen. A. 6lh ELITOP. 77.D. 691. R. R. 1985)..J.R. Paris (1 856). (Woodland. In Pt. 4] The effective compressibility of reservoir rock and its effect on permeability.F. and Young.F.Formation fines and factors controlli~lg their movement in porous media.J. Carnbriclgc (Apr. 1471 Rathmell. I. S. and Kahn. D. A. In Developtnenl in Pefrolel~m Engineering . N. Symp. Darcy's law and the field equations of the flow of underground fluids. Conference.M. and Cable. A. Statistical Arzalysis in the Geological Scierzcc7s. (June 1981). Permeability .ion. H. AIME Form. Eval. 2225. [26] Juhasz. Pet. Barking (l975). C. The relationship between permeability and morphology of diagenetic illite in reservoir rocks. and Tait.the key to shaley sand evaluation using theWaxmanSmils equation in the absence of core data. J . and Hoffnlan. Application of statistical methods to detailed stuclics of reservoirs. [43] Dupuy. A. J. J. Clay Mitz.90 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [25] Peveraro.J. techniques for obtaining reliable reservoir characteristics. Syrnp. [39] Archer.S. Determining areal permeability distributions by calculations. [2Y] Torouyi.W.. 1574.386. . Fall Mtg. . 1351 N a ~ t e ~ a a l .J. SNS. Proc. R.M. A.K. [40] McHardy. M. and Thomas.). The Log Analyst 9 (1968)..1. Wiley. F. P.R. Relationship of facies and reservoir quality in Rotlicgendes desert sand stones. 759. Symp.W. 1491 Trudgen. T. A. W. [44] Jcnnings. Papel M (1979) [34] Muecke. 145 1361 Van Veen. and Hurst. 1311 Timur. Thermal properties of reservoir rocks and fluids. Paper A (1979).. Oxford 17 ( 1 982). (1963). SPWLA. SPWLA 22ndAnn. Houston (Nov.S. . H. (1966). and McHardy. 4IstAnn. 24th SPWLA Ann. Proc 6th Europ. 23. Clay Min. I. [38] Wall.L. [4h] Luffel.. lt~st.pore size distribution correlations. 29. J. ed. P. J.
[56] Threadgold. D . J. 0 . Barking (1985). World Oil (March 1985). IjA). JPT (July 1970). Coring. Proper hydration of clays for rock property determinations.1 (Ed. London (1985). (Dev. Encyclopedia of Well Logging. [52] Serra. R. D. Elsevier. Amsterdam (1984). 800. a ~dvancid Well Log Interpretation.E. P. Hilchie Inc. In Developments in Petroleum Engineering . Colorado (1982).T..5 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS [50] Bush. Pennwell. Advances in Formation Evaluation. Essentials ofiModern Open Hole Log Interpretation. D. Golden. 83. Sci. 43. [54] Desbrandes. D.C. [51] Keeland.W. [53] Dewan. DaweWilson): Elsevier Applied Science. Tulsa (1983). L 2 .. and Jenkins. R. Graham and Trotman. in Pet.W. 1551 Hilchie. Fundamentals of Well Log Interpretation.
6. 6.. i..and R2.. we can write 6. R.Chapter 6 Fluid Saturation: Influence of Wettability and Capillary Pressure The curvature o f the interface suggests that the oil phase pressure Po is greater than the water phase The equilibrium saturation distribution in a pet. The capillary pressure PC is defined as roleurnreservoir prior to production is governed by the difference between the two phase pressures. Using the example o f an oil drop crosssection pore of radius r.1 EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS where 8 is the angle measured through the wetting phase (water) fluid that the surface rnakes at the contact with the pores wall (Fig. The angle 8 is known as the contact angle.2 Immiscible fluids interfacein a confined capillary. 6. It can be shown that the capillary pressure bons from a source rock region into a reservoir trap. 6. This happens as a convention. Capillary pressure may be defined as the pressure difference across a curved interface between two For an i~nmisciblc fluid pair coilfined in a circular immiscible fluids. 92 Fig. phase fluid (water) during migration o f hydrocar. thc PC tcrm is positive for unconfiiled result o f nonwetting phase fluid (hydrocarbons) immiscible fluid pairs.e. Oil drop Fig. can also be defined in terms o f these radii and in A pressure differential is required for nonwetting terms o f the interfacial tension o between the phase fluid to displace wetting phase fluid and this is immiscible fluids.pressure P. equivalent to a minimum threshold capillary pressure and is dcnendent on vore size.1 Pressures at an interface.1) assumption that RI = R2.2). By the pore space characteristics. The curved interface has two entering pore space iilitially occupied by wetting principal radii o f curvature normal to cach other. and making the in a water environment (Fig. .
. (b) preferentially water wet. Reservoir.P Laboratory. and the fluid which spreads more is said to be the wetting phase fluid.1.P Reservoir. particularly chamosite. 6. The presence of certain authigenic clays. T. (a cos Use is made of this relationship in conducting laboratory tests with fluids other than reservoir condition fluids..P Reservoir. i. and the displacement is effected by increasing air pressure in a series of discrete steps in watersaturated core plugs sitting Strongly (a) water wet (b) Preferentially (C)Neutral water wet wettabll~ty (d) Preferentially Oil wet Strongly (e) Oil wet Fig. The relationship for PC (reservoir oilbrine) is obtained using the appropriate value of (a cos 8). may promote oil wet character.3.2 LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH RESERVOIR SYSTEMS Since a cos 8 = rPcM it follows that the capillary pressure measured in any given porous system using a particular fluid pair will be related to that obtained with any other fluid pair merely by the ratio of the a cos 8 terms.1 System Wetting phase Brine Brine Brine Brrne Oil Gas (After 1261).P 30 30 0 0. by convention.. T P Laboratory. In Fig. The capillary pressure forces that influence allowable saturation change in pores of a given size are thus directly influenced by wetting character. 8 is measured in the water phase to aid comparisons. T. and on the nature of the pore wall.3 Wetting contact angles in confined capillaries. through the wetting phase fluid.. air and brine with a ( a cos 0) value of 72 may be used to measure PC (airbrine) in the laboratory. The qualitative recognition of preferred spread is called a wettability preference. ( 0 COS 8)res PC(. particularly the asphaltine content of the oil. It will be seen later that fluid displacement characteristics can also be used to deduce wetting character. (d) preferentially oil wet..6 FLUID SATURATION 93 TABLE 6. Nonwetting phase Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas Mercury Conditions T = temperature P = pressure .e.. T. Contact angles are measured. (c)neutral. The relative spreading concept applied to fluids on a surface may be used to illustrate the understanding of wettability description applied to an oilwater system in a reservoir. (a) Strongly water wet. T. For example. denoting fluid pairs by the subscripts 1 and 2 (a cos PC(" = PC. Air and brine are frequently used as the pseudoreservoir fluids. 0 140 30 48 72 (50) 4 480 The angle 8 is influenced by the tendency of one of the fluids in the immiscible pair to spread on the pore wall surface in preference to the other. The main practical difficulty comes from obtaining a smooth representative pore surface at reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure on which to make measurements. T. (e) strongly oil wet. 6. (= 26 dyneslcm). together with contact angles and interfacial tensions. Pure quartz sandstone or calcite surfaces are likely to be wetted preferentially by water.. A table of typical fluid pairs of interest in reservoir engineering is shown in Table 6. The degree of wettability exhibited depends both on the chemical compositions of the fluid pair.P Laboratory. 6.) = (0 cos @)lab The migration of hydrocarbons into an initially water filled reservoir rock and the subsequent equilibrium vertical distribution of saturation is modelled in the laboratory by a nonwetting phase displacing wetting phase drainage capillary pressure test.
I  Neoprene d~aphragm Atmosphere \ Screen \ Porous plate 10300 03 1 Pressure regulators transducers and d~g~tal voltmeters qI I m Cyl~nder Alr compressor Fig. (3) Repetition for several successive pressure levels. For pressures greater than the minimum threshold pressure. and measuring the quantity of any produced wetting phase.. The crosshatched region in Fig. with equilibrium being controlled by the core plug taking longest. In higher permeability reservoir rocks (500 mD) the value of PC. A number of cores of similar petrophysical propertics can be analysed simultaneously. 6.5 psi and 3.P. llr it will he observed that entry of the since P...94 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE on a semipermeable porous diaphragm.. If the density of water is denoted by P w .4. is reached and no further increase in differential pressure causes further desaturation. nonwetting phase should be most difficult in the smallest borc tube (highest threshold pressure). The nonwetting phase fluid finds it easier to enter the largest pore spaces in the porous rock first since. (2) Liquid saturations measured after equilibrium saturation has been reached.5 which lies between . a decreasing pore size is invaded by nonwetting phase fluid until an irreducible wetting phase saturation S. 6.. may be indistinguishable from zero applied pressure.. as shown in Fig. The laboratory test results may look like those shown in Fig.6.. 6.0 psi some desaturation is achieved and the minimum threshold pressure (P. for a given rockfluid system.4 Gas liquid drainage capillary pressure measurement.) the water saturation decreases and its value is established by weighing the core plug.5.) lies in this region. Again.. .. In laboratory tests this final irreducible saturation value is often beyond the breakdown pressure of the porous plate and is sometimes obtained by centrifuge spinning at a rotational force equiva1en.. 6. The physical significancc of threshold pressure may be apprcciated by an analogy with capillary rise of water in different bore glass tubes suspended in an open tray of water.) is known as the transition zone region. 6. Between 0.t to about 150 psi. Wett~ngphase saturat~onSw Fig.5 Laboratory measurements of drainage capillary pressure.PC. There will be a threshold pressure for each pore radius which has to be overcome by the applied pressure differential in order to move wetting phasc fluid from that pore. The apparatus layout is shown in Fig. 6. (1) Portion of liquid in saturated cores is displaced at a particular pressure level by either gas or displacing liquid. The first applied pressure differential does not cause any desaturation of wetting phasc and is interpreted as meaning that the threshold capillary pressure of the largest pore sizes has not beenieached. The relationship between applied pressure differential (equivalent to capillary pressure) and saturation thus gives a characterization of pore size distribution. As a result of an increase in pressure (ecluivalent to PC since PC = Pa.arid PC (S.
then at the FWL and P.7 shows fluid gradients for the oil and Since we also have the relationship water phases which are defined in terms of density of the fluids. Fig.P .P.pw g/gc. . The relationship between height above free water level and capillary pressure is derived from consideration of the gravitycapillary pressure force equilibrium. . In British units this ratio is unity. At some height H above the free water 20 cos 0 PC = level. which is a convenient datum and where Po = r PW=PFWL it also follows that the saturation which occurs at Po = PFWL POg/gc . the capillary pressure at a depth equivalent to H above the free water level is given by P C P C = ( P F M ~ LP O = g/gc g/gc H ) . . = PFWL. while an oilwater contact observed in a particular well in the reservoir will depend on the threshold pressure of the rock type present in the vicinity of the well and there may then be a zone of 100% water saturation from some height above the FWL. From our definition of capillary pressure as PC = Po . i. 6. H where gig. 6.6 Capillary rise above free water level.81.(PFWL. = 0 = P ~ ( F w L ) H = f (Sw) Figure 6. or g' is the ratio of the acceleration due to gravity and the gravitational constant. .7 Static pressure gradients in a homogeneous reservoir interval.P O I The saturation which exists at this height H i s a rock property dependent term and is obtained from laboratory tests P = f (Sw) C therefore Po . and in SI units is 9.P W g/gc H) therefore H(pw .6 FLUID SATURATION 1 2 3 Pressure + . + gradient pressure gradient Fig. where a region of 100% water saturation will be found. H height H will depend on a pore radius term r. The free water level in the dish provides a convenient datum location. The threshold capillary pressure found in reservoir rocks is proportional to the height above the free water level (FWL) datum.. The FWL is thus a property of the reservoir system. . Using the free water level as a datum and defining its position in the reservoir as the place where oil phase pressure Po equals the water phase pressure P..e. .
. 6. + P. Although this test is destructive. f .8 Static water saturation distribution and definition o contacts and transition zone in a homogeneous reservoir.9). then H ( P . and gig. The FWL depth is usually determined by noting an observed OWC in a well and conducting a drainage laboratory capillary pressure test on a rock sample from the interval to find the threshold capillary pressure.10 shows a number of diffcrcnt characteristic mercury injection capillary pressure curve shapes..96 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE PC(sW) = therefore 20 cos H .). the threshold height H. = PI. the nonwetting phase with respect to air. which is equivalent to the height of an observed oilwater cdntact above FWL in a particular rock type is given by The water saturation distribution in a homogeneous reservoir is shown in Fig. . 6.S/gc  (PW  PO) Similarly.v. DFWL DOWC+ Hr = In frequently used oilfield units where P is in lbfisi.8.PO) PC = 144 (Note: 1 glcm" 62. . Figure 6. in the sense that the sample cannot be used again.. is determined from the volume of mercury injected over a givcn pressure step '"1 (Fig. (pwr p PO) 20 cos 8 H(SI.4 lbmlft?) Well 'clean 011' Top transltlon zone  Transition zone Lowest location . which has been shown to influence saturation distribution. is equal to unity..H(s. 6. The shapes of the capillary pressure curves can be used diagnostically to compare samples of similar rock type.) = r .). H i s in feet and fluid densities are in units of Ibmift'.3 PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION The pore size distribution in a givcn rock type. The pore size distribution function D. 6.g/gc . is usually deterrnined using a mercury injection test. it has the advantage that high pressures can bc attained and mercury. then the depth of the FWL (= DFWI. The magnitude of the threshold capillary pressure can influence the location of fluid contacts predicted by gradient intersection methods from RFI' data since the tool respo~idsto filtrate invaded zone character (P. can be forced into very small pores. for oil production Observed OWC (Pc=Pc+)  gz  level (PC= 0 ) Fig.
The directional effect is attributable to the threshold pressure dependency on pore radius. combined with the difficulties of using the information in reservoir simulation models. (This last assumption depends on whether the gradients are being compared over large distances between wells (macrosystem) or over small pore . 6. has led to the assumption by many reservoir engineers that. the imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure is sometimes called a capillary suction pressure. for practical purposes.9 Pore size distribution function.11 Capillary pressure hysteresis. 6.4 CAPILLARY PRESSURE HYSTERESIS When wetting phase pressure is increasing. and the rate would be different depending on whether phase saturation was decreasing (drainage) or increasing (imbibition). capillary pressure hysteresis does not exist. The condition PC = 0 in the imbibition direction effectively defines the residual nonwetting phase saturation which is therefore a property of the particular rock pore size system and should be recognized as such.i= Sw Fig. 6. I I \ r pore radius 0 (lSH. Poorly sorted Slightly fine skewness Poorly sorted Slight coarse skewness Fig. Unsorted Well sorted Well sorted Coarse skewness Sw Well sorted Fine skewness Fig.6 FLUID SATURATION The pore size distribution would be expected to control the rate of saturation change in a given wettability system for a given phase pressure difference. This is close to the truth in systems without strong wetting preference and with essentially monosize pores and the magnitude of the difference APc(Dm may often be negligible in comparison with viscous force pressure gradients. The experimental difficulties in determining the definition of the imbibition direction capillary pressure curve.11. The hysteresis phenomenon gives rise to the curve pair character shown in Fig.10 Characteristic mercury injection capillary pressure curve shapes. 6. C 6.
the reader is referred to the literature [' 291. A well penetrating all sands as shown will log a saturation profile as shown. The sands are labelled 14 and have pern~eabilities k. In this example. and different irreducible water saturations. Multiple oilwater contacts and transition zoncs which arc shown can be seen to relate to appropriate portions of each sand's capil 11 tk/ sand 1 Fig.13 Saturation discontinuities in a layered reservoir and an example of multiple observed oilwater contacts.12 Observed oilwater contacts and their relationship with free water level in a layered reservoir with a common aquifer. The observed oilwater contacts representing thc effects of threshold entry pressure are denoted OWC. whose free water level is denoted as FWL. as shown in Figs 6. Each sand has a capillary pressure curve.) For the application of hysteresis in the dynamic pressure of reservoir fluid displacement. 6. depth related to saturation.5 SATURATION DISTRIBUTIONS IN RESERVOIR INTERVALS In real reservoir systems it is expccted that a number of rock type units will be encountered. 6. '3" 6.98 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE diameter distances on a nlicrodisplacemcnt scale. four sand units are connected only at a co~ntnon aquifer.13. . Each unit can have its own capillary pressure characteristic and the static saturation distribution in the reservoir will be a superposition of all units.12 and Well 6.k4 with kl>k4>k3>k2. Prof~le t well a Depth FWL0 sw 1 Fig. but a single free water level.
6 FLUID SATURATION 99 lary pressure curve. Logarithm of permeability  Fig. Since capillary pressure is a function of saturation. then the dimensionless capillary pressure term (J) is also a function of saturation.14 LeverettJfunction correlation. Since permeability has the dimension L2 (the unit of area). so long as the porous rocks have similar pore geometries.. an approximate linearization can be made by plotting the logarithm of capillary pressure against the logarithm of permeability as isosaturation lines.14) will apply as a correlating group for all measurements of capillary pressure using different fluid systems.  o cos 0 Fig. s w Fig. 6. Leverett [q in fact defined a dimensionless capillary pressure group in this way. This enables easier interpolation and regeneration of particular capillary pressuresaturation relationships to predict reservoir saturation distribution.. 6. 6. with the exception that (kl+)O was preferred.. Thus we may write ~P. then we could substitute V'k for r and maintain the dimensionless nature of the group.16. 6. Those curves are often obtained for sands where large permeability variations occur in a very narrow range of porosities. capillary pressure curves from samples of different permeabilities often form a family of curves.15. This behaviour is important to recognize in correlating oilwater contacts and in the zonation of reservoirs. A further correlating technique makes use of an observation that in a given rock type.  This relationship (Fig. Following the establishment of the correlation from representative rock samples under laboratory conditions. as shown in Fig. it is used to predict reservoir saturation distribution. and lack of correlation can suggest the need for further zonation.15 Effect of permeability on capillary pressure in a given rock type. we may note that the grouping rP.6 CORRELATION OF CAPILLARY PRESSURE DATA FROM A GIVEN ROCK TYPE From our definition of PC = 2 o cos 0ir where r is a mean radius.) With this shape of curve./ o cos 8 will be dimensionless. 6. as shown in Fig. There will therefore be a particular correlation for given rock type.16 Correlation of capillary pressure with permeability in a given rock type. . 6. 6.
785 and formation water at reservoir conditions has a specific gravity o f 1.0 1. 70 (1 948). [3] Gregg. . London (1967). = 45 lbsiftz) p . the interfacial tension o cos 0 had been 25 dyneicm.2 0. Chem.2 29.7 35. M. N.8 0.026. . Trans. C. M.3 A drainage capillary pressure curve using an airbrine fluid pair ( o cos 8 = 72 dynelcm) is generated using a core plug o f porosity 0..s of Oil Production. Full Mtg. McGraw Hill. A. Am.3%. [4] Leverett.2 I f . 33. W.7 0.22 and permeability 150 mD.1).. K. and the permcability and porosity had been 100 IIIDand 18% respectively.G.a network apploach. 62 (June i970).25 anhi a permeability o f 500 mD.2 13.. Use a mercury interfacial tension of 370 dyneicm. [2] Muskat. SPE Paper 9406.S. Physics of oil entrapment in water wet rock..C. what is the expected water saturation at that clcvation? I f thc hydrocarbon bearing thickness from the crest o f the structure to the oilwater contact is 175 i t . S.K.4 43. AIiME Ann. Tech.C~ern. Davis.5 15.F. Role of capillary forces in determining nlicroscopic displacement efficicncy for oil recovery by waterflooding.R.6 0. Use a Jfunction method to generate the reservoir condition capillary pressure curve and estimate the depth relative to the free water level o f the top transition zone and the observed oilwater contact. The reservoir condition oil has a specific gravity o f 0. Surface Arc~rrand Porosilq~.100 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 6. .5 11. Powder Tech. It is described as follows: Sw (fr 1. N Y (1949).1 82.. Capillary bchaviour in porous solids.1 An oil water capillary pressure experiment on a core sample gives the following results: 01 w capillary pressure 0 4. Can Pet.8 (percent) Given that the sample was taken from a point I00 ft above the oilwater contact.5 0. 70. Plzysicul Princip1e.L) References [I] Morrow. B.J.3 0.. Ind.P. L. Eng. [8] Pandey.K.0 (psis) water saturation: 100 100 90. The reservoir condition value o f o cos 8 is taken as 26 dyneicm. Academic Press. K. The determination of pore size distribution from gas adsorption data. T. Adsorptiori.. Evaluation of the capillary pressure curve techniques for dctcrn~ining pore size distribution . and Singhal.5 23 100 It is believed that the reservoir is better represented by a porosity of 0. AIMB 142 (1941). J. 54.0 0.9 0.7 16. in the previous example (6.4 5. J.2 Pc(psi) 0 1 4 6 8 9. 89.C.C. Physics and thermodynamics of capillary action in porous media. construct the mercury capillary pressure curve f o r a sample o f similar lithology with permeability 25 m D . and Scriven. [6] Mohanty.. and Sing. J.7 32. and BIandner..4 0. Soc. 152.H.6 10. [7] Shull. what is the average water saturation over the interval'? (pw = 64 lbs1ftz. C. 15 (1976). [S] Melrose. (1980). Example 6.3 5. 13 (1974). porosity 1.E. Example 6.
L.M.J. In Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Water as a Driving Fluid. Pore size distribution in porous material.A. I.J. Comparisons between log and capillary pressure data to estimate reservoir wetting. Trans. Ramey. AIME 186 (1949). Spec. Chem. SPEJ 15 (1975). J. Physical characteristics of natural films formed at crude oilwater interfaces. W. and Reichertz. r211 Brown. L. Ind. Trans.6 FLUID SATURATION [9] Kimber. 13.. 114.K. Soc. Fund 17 (1945). Fall Mtg..J. SPEJ (Oct. W. F. D . S. and Silverberg. R. Evaluation of capillary character in petroleum reservoir rock. C. P.R.K. 13. Swanson. Trans. [32] Mungan. Trans. S.B. and Hickman. Trans. J.G. Use of centrifuge for determining connate water. SPEJ (Sept. (1977).C. Trans.. 127. J. [12] Burdine. O. Ind.C.S. Paper SPE 9403. Kendall. Pore size distribution of petroleum reservoir rocks. AIME 127 (1938).L. Determination of the structure of porous media. [31] Sinnokrot. F. 139. W. 149. Studies Section CL Inc. Proc.R. A. [23] Holmes. D.. and Lorenz. Baker. Connate water in oil and gas sands. M.B.A. residual oil and capillary pressure curves of small core samples.. [24] Dullien. Surface area measurements on sedimentary rocks. Wettability as related to capillary action in porous media. P.K. 195. and Prehn. Capillary pressure investigations. N. AIME 189 (1950). Gournay.L. E. [27] Pickell. Special Core Analysis. L.F. AIME 192 (1951). [22] Rapoport.S. Interpreting capillary pressure and rock wetting characteristics from unsteadystate displacement measurements. 309. 369.H. [16] Donaldson. [28] Morrow. 153. SPE of AIME (1980). [26] Core Labs Inc. Ann. SPEJ (March 1966).1947). F. SPEJ (March 1966). Eng. The restored state method for determination of oil in place and connate water. and Tippie. AIME 192 (1951). R. [30] Melrose. B . Hodgins. 67. H. [11] Ritter. (April 1974).A. 782. 55.. Trans. B . 289.P. E. W. Wettability determination and its effect on recovery efficiency.. Chem. AIME 189 (1950).S. [13] Brunnauer. Effect of temperature level upon capillary pressure curves.W. W. Application of airmercury and oilair capillary pressure data in the study of pore structure and fluid distribution.A. P.L. [17] Purcell.. Eng. 25. R.R. E. AIME 195 (1952). .A. SPE Paper 6856. and Harris. 1974). Interfacial phenomena and oil recovery: capillarity. OGJ (July 26. W. 1970). W. Emmett. R. H. and Purcell. [la] Hassler.S. and Batra. SPEJ (1966). E. and Leas. and Welge. AIME 160 (1945). [lo] Donaldson.R. Chambers. and Teller. 55. [29] Batycky. and Bruce. a [14] Rose. 259. 1965). 199. Trans. and Drake. SPEJ (March 1971). W. V.L. 111. Fall Mtg.B. Chem. Trans. and Manning. 62 (Oct. AIME 198 (1953). Reed.J. A. [19] Slobod. The adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. Measurement of capillary pressure in small core samples.C. Am. 223.. [25] Bruce. Interpretation of capillary pressure data. R. [15] Brooks.. J. Surface area measurements of geologic materials. McCaffery. [33] Dunmore. Drainage capillary pressure functions and their computation from one another. and Brunner.. N. [20] Schilthuis. L . 55th Ann.C. Thomas. 440. Properties of linear waterfloods. SPEJ (1969).T. H. 60 (1938). Capillary equilibrium in porous materials.C. L.A.D. J. World Oil (May 1981). P. R. and Fisher. 127. and Marsden. G. N.F. C.H.
. k is the absolute permeability o f the porous system.. = k . i.occ~~rs a twophase system when . It has been convenient to relate the relative permeability to saturation as it is observed that effectivepermeability decreases with decrease in the phase saturation. refers to phase viscosity. is the relative permeability o f thc phase. i. increasing wetting phase saturation).e. represents the irreducible wetting phase saturation.0 Fig. u I I O t SWmin Sw t Swmox 1. = k x w (... the relative refers to cffective phase permeability.1 and 7. In oilwater systems in particular.e... k . kc. the nonwetting phase reaches thc residual nonwetting phase saturation. wetting and nonwetting phases respectively. Tn twophase systems the relationships are ex. k.(wzin 1) in Note that S.divided by permeability to nonwetting phase at the pressed as functions o f saturation.(.i. kI. d@'/dL refers to datum corrected permeability scale is often normalised by representing relative permeability as effective permeability pressure gradient (pseudopotential).k. as shown in Figs minimum wetting phase saturation...e.) (i. k. 7.z.Chapter 7 Relative Permeability and Multiphase Flow in Porous Media 7.1 DEFINITIONS Relative pcrlncability is a concept used to relate the absolute permeability (100% saturated with a single fluid) o f a porous system to the cffective permeability o f a particular fluid in the system when that fluid only occupies a fraction o f the total pore volume. S. it maintains a relationship for linear flow o f the form I E x a..2. where the subscripts w and nw refer to kc. 7. Similarly.)refers to phase volumetric flow ratc. is the effectivepermeability o f the phase.1 Representation of effectivephase permeability. The relationship really expresses the Darcy flow o f a twophasc or multiphasc system in a porous system. The process represented in these figures is one o f imbibition where qO. where k .sw.
such as: (1) movement of an oil zone or (2) aquifer into (3) a receding depleting gas cap. which in .3 Oilwater relative permeability (imbibition direction).. 7. as indicated in Fig. = k. 7.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 103 1 Sw = Sw. is the oil permeability at connate water saturation. f critical gas saturation Sgr residual gas saturation Sgmox (=ISwi) Fig. SWrnin Swmox Fig. water. In the oilwater system this is often expressed symbolically as k ./k. as shown in Fig. where k. 7.. In the gasoil system. In gasoil systems the third phase.2 Representation o relative permeability.. or Swirr Fig.4.. 7. 7.4 Gasoil relative permeability.3. the direction of displacement is particularly important as the process can represent a drainage process such as gas drive (gas displacing oil immiscibly) or an imbibition process..
= s. dd = displaced fluid.ikk and kJko (Fig...6 Fig. This is because the fractional flow o f displacing fluid (fcl) at the outlet end o f an i~lcompressible linear horizontal system with no For the condition in which viscous flow forces are considerably greater than capillary forces... . and modification to laboratory data may be necessary.5 Directional aspects of frontal gas movement. In liquid imbibition processes (gas saturation decreasing from a maximum initial value) the gas permeability goes to zero when the residual or trapped gas saturation (S. and the effec 1.2 FRACTIONAL FLOW Phase permeability characteristics are also frequently presented in terms o f permeability ratios k.  Fig. The directional differences may be incorporated in reservoir engineering calculatiolls by determination o f frontal saturation and the use o f pseudofunctions.s . as shown in Fig. Sd s d m a x l0 swi The 16.... fM. 7. Pd . where q.6). AP. 7. 7.kdd ratio Curve(semilog scale). The directional aspects o f relative permeability representation are often more pronounccd in gasoil systems.5. 7. It is therefore argued that experiments in the laboratory can be coilducted with or without irreducible water present. A .0td M = 1+ M kd kdd where M kd Eldil = .. we can write Po .7 (right) The fractional flow curve for water displacing oil. In a system where gas saturation increases from zero (a liquid drainage process) it is observed that gas does not flow until some critical gas saturation (S.. The directional aspect may perhaps be appreciated by consideration o f the difference between bedding plane gas advance towards a production well and downward gas movement vertical to the bedding plane in the vicinity o f a production well. kdd k1Pci and subscript d = displacing fluid. 7. are reservoir condition rates. as shown in Fig. The calculation o f frontal behaviour is discussed under the hcading o f fractional flow analysis. = so+ s .PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE reality is always present in reservoirs is considered to stay at irreducible saturation and play no part in the displacemcllt processes.7. This is attributed to the physical process o f the gas phase becoming continuous through the system in order to flow. Writing a Darcy law expression for steady state flow o f each phase in a linear horizontal system we  kIc. 7. 7.) is reached.) has been attained. capillary pressure effects can bc represented at differentsaturations in terms o f mobility ratios M 4(1 =4. q.= P. + 4 . = 4. and the expression becomcs . . The reservoir fractional flow o f wetting phase displacing fluid in an oilwater system with water as the displacing fluid is therefore 4 w.
. This is a condition assumed in the laboratory core analysis determination of relative permeability rock curves. q. 7. it will be positive for the displacing fluid moving from downdip to updip. In the BuckleyLeverettIWelge analysis of displacement of oil from a system with a uniform initial water saturation S.14 and 11. y as a specific gravity. curve are shown in Figs 7. is given by (Note for a constant injection rate and an incompressible system q r = q.this means that over any part of the crosssection. using field units of RBID for the total flow rate q n length terms in feet.2.1 Analysis methods Analysis of the fractional flow curve by the method of Buckley and Leverett and Welge [I0] allows the recovery performance of a homogeneous reservoir to be determined. This leads to an equivalencing for all times up to breakthrough 9f the saturation change behind the front to the volume of displacing fluid injected: At breakthrough the distance travelled by the front Xfwill equal L. + Sw Fig. as shown in Fig. Since the angle a is conventionally measured from a horizontal axis to the axis of a line in the direction of flow..8 Fractional flow analysis. A tangent drawn to the fractional flow curve from the initial water saturation has two important characteristics. 7. the distance Xf travelled can be related to the volume of displacing fluid injected W. the saturation of oil and water is uniform and no fluid segregation exists.8. the fractional flow of water.t) and the gradient of the fractional flow curve at the front with respect to saturation: OL  Xf Distance X from OWC at time t Fig. the length of the system. Therefore where tb is the breakthrough time: .9.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW In tilted reservoirs of dip angle a.5. Typical shapes of the effective permeability curves and the f. a graphical technique can be utilized. 7. This technique is applicable to relatively thin reservoir intervals where diffuse or dispersed flow is assumed . The tangent point indicates the saturation SWf of the displacement front shown in Fig. (= q.9 Linear saturation profile before breakthrough. = ~ I N J . 7. The intercept of the tangent at fw = 1 indicates the average (S.) saturation behind the front up to the time of water breakthrough at the outlet end (production well) of the system.  7. From BuckleyLeverett theory for the rate of movement of the frontal saturation. viscosities in centipoise and permeabilities in milliDarcies. and will be negative for displacing fluid moving from an updip to a downdip position.
and the fraction a of flood'ed thickness.  S . In terms of saturation this will be S. In terms of the water phase saturation S. A t any time after breakthrough.. the outlet end of the system (production well) will experience an increasing water saturation with time. the average water saturation m the reservoir will increase with increasing volume of injected water until a maximum value of (1 . k'..and k'. where endpoint mobilities are used and the approach of Dietz ["'I applied. The Welge analysis is used to calculate the average water saturation.So.3 1 b y a thickness weighted distribution..]. and material balance methods are needed f7'1. rock typcs may be analysed analytically if they are totally stratified. Since sw Fig."= S. and its gradient from the fractional flow curve is C~fwldSw1s. time after breakthrough This relationship at can be seen in Fig. 7. 7. In this case. It makes use of the fract~onal flow curve at a saturation greater than the frontal saturation and relates ally such saturation to its fractional flow saturation gradient. k.) is reached.  S " . at S. For a wateroil systcm. Immiscible displacement in a system having a transition zone cannot be handled by the geometrical constructioi~ methods appropriate to a uniforrn initial saturation distribution... Welge demonstrated that and 3...n)SWi ." are k T M= n . n(l  S.10. 7. a sharp interface is assumed to exist between the displacing and displaced fluids. s41 and by Stilcs '"'1. at Sw... + The reservoir condition recovery factor after breakthrough is obtained from the ratio of oil produced to initial oil in place. o r by numerical modelling techniques if crossflow is significant. the gravity segregated distribution of oil and water at any distance X along the flow path can he represented as shown in Fig.e. It is imagined that after breakthrough..106 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE After breakthrough of the frontal saturation at a production well for a water displacing oil system. " " ' . In both cases the effective permeability characteristics of each pore size rock type are required. then appropriate relative permeabilities at the weighted average saturation S. the particular outlet end saturation is defined as S. Displacement stability can be analysed in relatively simple homogeneous linear reservoir systems.10 Fractional flow gradients after breakthrough. i. 7.e. Stratified reservoir analysis by analytical methods is subiect to constraints regarding end point mobility ratios and the reader is referred to the original papers by Dykstra " and Parsons "A. the weighted average saturation S" is given by .' n and k.. then the relationship between time and the attainment of a given outlet end face saturation is readily obtained. and since at this front we are dealing with endpoint relative pcrmeabilities (i.. = k..3 EFFECTS OF PERMEABILITY VARIATION Reservoirs characterized by a number of different . that is gravity segregation dominates any capillary forces.) + (1 ." = (1n) k.' LA@[ 1 1 . . = k..
Note that for downdip displacement a will be negative and that for all endpoint mobility ratios less than or equal to unity the displacement is unconditionally stable and becomes pistonlike." v.So.sor))j The time taken tb to reach this condition in the particular layer j is thus (tbIj= (Wib1. 7.1 1 Dietz analysis. .SWj. In any bed j. For equal oil and water mobilities the pressure gradients in all beds are assumed equal and the displacing fluid is distributed between beds in proportion to the bed kh. centipoise.) at breakthrough of the displacing phase is (Wib)j= (LA@(l S w i . Dietz showed that the maximum rate for stable updip displacement was given.. effectively transforming a homogeneous 2D displacement to a 1D problem solvable by a BuckleyLeverettiWelge technique." and k. the total fractional flow of water at a producing well is determined at a number of times as each thin bed achieves water breakthrough.. Since there is no crossflow between beds... The pore volume of each bed between the injection and production points is (PWj = (LA@). 7.. 7. therefore.. In this way pseudorelative permeability relationships may be used to solve displacement problems in thicker sands..t Flow direction Oil immobile connate water + reservoir." relationship.!! = krwJ 1 . milliDarcies and specific gravities.Swi kr. feet.12 Relative permeabilities for segregated flow.12 this indicates that a straight line relative permeability relationship with average saturation is appropriate..sor [ + [ I As shown in Fig.S. Pistonlike displacement in stratified reservoirs characterized by thin beds with no crossflow between them can be analysed very easily by the Stiles[j5] approach. In this technique.so.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 107 ." . krott krof = 1 . to So. for say a wateroil SW" Fig. This leads to S. (q)j As each layer reaches breakthrough.(or from So. in field units of RBID. The flow is considered incompressible and q~ the reservoir condition injection rate is considered equal to the total reservoir condition production rate. In such an application the fractional flow curve is generated from the k. the injection rate is where qT is the total rate. S.SWi and 1 . The stability of displacement in a homogeneous 2D system will depend on the mobility ratio of the fluids and the dip angle a of the where the subscript D refers to the displacing phase and DD to the displaced phase. as Fig. the calculation technique is facilitated by rearranging the actual beds in a sequence with the highest kh product beds at the top. the piston displacement assumption means. The volume of injected fluid needed to change the saturation from Swito Swiro." .
. For an illcompressible flow system t h i ~ easily calculated since the proportions is at the outlet are equivalent to inlet rate distributions.)IS. as PV water injected Fig.~).: 7e the condition k . that only water flows thereafter. 7. the wettability of a surface depends on the term o cos 8. at most values of water saturation.4.d. in comparison with water wet systems.. at reservoir conditions.pDLIA in Darcy units is greater than about 2. = k . by: earlier water breakthrough. occurs at lower values of water saturation. The recovery factor for such a layer at that time is thus = J I 1 I \ \ Fig. which should duplicate or account for field conditions. In a laver not yet at breakthrough. saturation change so long as viscous flow forces are not controlling. The overall economic rccovery factor will be controlled by surface handling facilities and economic rate.)l] (L%. approaches zero by a film drainage mechanism) : higher values of k . A t sonle time t i n a system in which two out of n layers have reached breakthrough we have . 7. plus the oil from any layer which has reached breakthrough. and capillary pressure controls the sequence of porc.108 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE system.Oit wet preference L + o Z 2 > 0 K  0 1 4w = (41 + 42) 4 . at most values o f water saturation. lower values of k. I n r and the reservoir condition wateroil ratio as WOR = qw 40 The recovery factor at any time will be obtained by evaluating frontal positions and conducting a material balance.). In any layer which has broker] through. lower initial water saturatiolls for a given pore si. and the layer continues to take water from the injector. As discussed previously. . 7.S.) The fraction flow of water is given. Oil wet systems tend to be character~zed. + (1X)(So.13 and 7.13 Oil recovery efficiency. Viscous forces tend to control when. but this only indicates the condition of the as received sample.4 WETTABlLlTY EFFECTS Wettability effects in fluid displacement are d~splayr ed by etfective and relative permeability culve characteristics. . The total production at any time t is therefore the water from any layer which has reached breakthrough.Water wet preference . In practice it may in fact be sealed off. less pistonlike approach to a residual saturation (the So. plus the oil from any layer which has not yet achieved breakthrough. * The establishment of in situ wettability conditions14'l is therefore very important in the proper conduct of laboratory experiments.14. for water wet and oil wet systems is shown in Figs.14 Effect ofwettability on effective permeability. (sol)l  SO. The inost frequent laboratory measurement of wetting tendency is through the Amott testl'l. the term qI.r)~+(lx)(soI)~} where is the distaace of the front from thc injection location. the recovery will be (So. = (47 .. the oil remaining is (Pv~{x(s. 7.0 ~ ' ' ~The] effective permeability character '~ .
15 and 7.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 109 7. The determination of relative permeability is based on observation of the fractional flow of displacing phase fluid from the outlet end of the core plug and its relationship with saturation. Such reservoir condition tests may model displacement under steady state[231. or unsteady stateand equipment arrangements are shown in Figs. Room condition relative permeability tests can be conducted at outlet end pressures of one atmosphere and at room temperature using refined oils and synthetic brines. A reservoir condition test is conducted at^ reservoir pore pressure conditions and reservoir temperatures with real or simulated reservoir fluids.15 Unsteady state relative permeability measurement: (a)constant rate. 7. or with gases such as air. 7. nitrogen or helium.5 LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATA Laboratory determination of effective permeability is generally conducted as a special core analysis test on representative and carefully preserved core plug samples. The displacement theories d Buckley and LeverettL81 are combined with that of Welge['olin a technique described by Johnson. Unsteady state relative permeability tests simulate the flooding of a reservoir with an immiscible fluid (gas or water). Bossler and Naumann[l31. and severe errors can occur with heterogeneous samples.The detection of the breakthrough time of the displacing phase at the outlet core face is critical in the representation of relative permeability. Gas displacement processes require a significant back pressure (say 20 bar) to facilitate flow rate interpretation. (b) constant pressure.16. Flow rates are determined according to the method of in Rapoport and Leas[761 order to minimize the effects of capillary pressure forces in retaining OIL COLLECTOR BRINE COLLECTOQ KdSKA PUMP / CYART RECORDER / Fig. .
26 Resv.30 0. At such a condition the Darcy law equation is applied to each phase to calculate effectivepermeability at the given steady state saturation. the velocity may be too high for proper imbibition processes to take place between fingers o f invading water.25 Between BTand WOR = 100 Room cond.17 shows the effect o f core length on observed breakthrough recovery at u constant LVpD factor in a strongly water wet outcrop sandstone. cond. 0. and with homogeneous samples.110 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE CONSTANT DISPLACEMENT R l l S Y A PllMPS Fig. wetting phase fluid at the outlet end face discontinuity.13 Resv. cond. At each ratio from 100% displaced phase to 100% displacing phase an equilibrium conditiorl must be reached at which the inflow ratio o f fluids equals the outflow ratio. It has become clear that the room condition tests are not necessarily a good guide to reservoir conditions behaviour.15 Residual oil satn (fraction PV) Room cond. The steady state piocess providcs simultaneous flow o f displacing and displaced fluids through the core sample at a number o f equilibrium ratios. TRES (OF) PREs psi 3430 2100 199 176 Before BT Room cond. A B Resv.16 Steady state relative permeability measurement. The flooding efficiency ratio is defined here as the breakthrough to total oil recovery ratio for the reservoir condition test divided by the equivalent ratio for the room condition tcst. These data indicate the significance o f temperature in that the flooding efficiency ratio appears to correlate with temperature and might be considered influenced bv wettabilitv. Between five and ten stages are usually needed to establish relative permeability curves. Table 7. In cases where reservoir condition mobility ratios are signiricantly greater than unity. cond. 0. For reservoirs with more corescale heterogeneity and with mixed wettability.40 No. To some extent this conclusion is based on the applicability o f Rapoport and Leas LVpn core flooding criteria. Experimental evidence suggests that core lengths o f at least 25 cm are needed to obtain consistent results.1 Comparison between reservoir condition and room condition waterflood tests Oil recovery (fraction PV) Sample Reservoir cond. 0. the steady state laboratory test at reservoir conditions and with reservoir fluids is preferred. 0. In short cores. Capillary pressure tends to be ignored and a major difficulty is the determination o f saturation at each stage. For each test pair the injection rate and oilwater viscosity ratio was constant. 7.30 0.15 0.35 Flooding efficiency ratio 1.07 .06 0. Figure 7.30 1. The unsteady state or dynamic displacemcllt test is most frequently applied in reservoir analysis o f strong wetting preference.1 shows the results o f a number o f different room condition and reservoir conditions unsteady state tests conducted on different small plugs o f sandstones. T o obtain cores o f lengths TABLE 7. 0.40 0.26 0. and at which thc pressure gradient between inlet and outlet is constant. 0. there is some evidence to suggest that conventional short core plugs (7 cm) should not be used.
18 shows that they can behave as a continuous sample. This may not be true in the field. 7. In most laboratory tests. 7.18 Comparison of composite and continuous core performance with'homogeneous water wet outcrop sandstone.20 shows the ratio of . 8 piece composite core Fig. and they are maintained in capillary contact by compressive stress.17 Effect of core length on breakthrough recovery at constantLVb. the viscous flow forces are designed to dominate Fig. In gravity stabilized oil drainage by gas advance into an oil zone.40. \ Wetting phase \ residuals \ \ 0.2 G ' 0 ~ 0 . 7.7 08. Its scaling to field conditions is O problematical. A 30cm cont~nuouscore 3 0 c m .7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 111 Core length (cm) Fig.this contrasts with a dynamic but otherwise equivalent wettability process of water displacing oil where residual saturation between 20% and 40% might be expected. When composites obey this rule.20 Correlation between residual saturation ratio and capillary number (after [271). NC = V / L ~ / (cos 0) . 7. The greater than 25 cm in the bedding plane from reservoir rock cores it is necessary to butt together small cores and construct a composite core. Figure 7. potential for mobilizing the residual oil saturation from conventional recovery processes is the target in improved hydrocarbon or enhanced oil recovery (IHR or EOR). i. Fig. 7.6 RESIDUAL SATURATlONS Residual saturations tend to be dependent on pore geometry and on direction of saturation change with respect to wetting phase. capillary and gravity forces and little effect of rate on residual saturation is observed. depending on wettability. Composite cores should have component sections of similar petrophysical character in any representative section. as shown in Fig. 7. 7.0 '$A A Laboratory / 1 Field Measured Residual Logarithmic scale I I I 'y Number I 1 Field Capillary 0.19 Comparison of field and laboratory capillary numbers and residual saturations. l 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0!60'70'8 019 1'0 0 1 1 1 1 Pore volumes of water injected \ \  Fig. can influence the location of residual fluids.19. residual saturations approaching single percentage figures have been claimed . T k influence of capillary pressure is exerted at pore scale rather than at interwell scale and. The capillary number concept has been used to represent the residual oil saturation resulting from competition between viscous and capillary forces. 0 I 1.e.6 \ \ cp l \ \ p 0. but some field analyses tend to support its application.
then it is apparent that oil can be liberated more easily frorn higher permeability re\er. It is therefore clear that any core cutting. 7. then. exhibit gcllcral similarities of form.K. I *Crit~cal ratio \ .112 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I residual oil from chemical flood processes to that from waterflooding as a function of N.. reliable. 7.~). plug cutting. The imbibition case is more difficult to model. plug cleaning etc. to assist in smoothing. or purely empirical relationships. A comparison with true in situ wettability is. The clit~cal displaceruent ratio for a given rate and permeab~lity is shown in Fig. I(.7 IN SlTU WETTABILITY CONTROL All laboratory measurements on core samples are dependent on preservation of reservoir condition cliaracteristics at the time of testing. The capillary numbel at which increased recovery starts can be used to represent mobilization. This is particularly so since accuratc. Air permeability ( r n d )  Fig. core transportation. :111d the more rapid expcrimental techlliqucs generally show poor rcproducibility.volrs. The drainage case is conceptually the simplest. extrapolating. however. cxperilncntal measurements are lengthy and troublesome.22 Influence of near wellbore velocity on residual oil mobilization (after lz71).21 Effect of permeability on critical displacement ratio (after 1271). reproducible. 7. difficult to demonstrate. It is.lK) against saturation.IK. and in fluid properties. normalized plots of relative permeability. extending (or even dispensing with) cxperimental measurements of effcctive permeability. of preferential wcttabilities between fluids and rock surfaces. and gives generally lcss satisfactory results. for a range of laboratory tests lz71. ( K J K . 7. Some restoration of wettability is claimed by conditioning cores at reservoir temperature in the prescncc of reservoir cr~ldcoil for some days or weeks. demonstrate wettability change and contact angle modification. processes which altcl. The accuracy of approximate correlations may then be little worse than the present accuracy of the more usual measurements! idealized pore models have their greatest application in calculating relative permeabilities. With transformat~oninto rad~al coordinates it is possible to show that residual saturations in high velocity regions around a wellborc may be different from that some dictance away.21 shows that when the ~nobilization represented as a critical displacement is ratlo (units I. wettability will changc cffcctivc phase permeability characteristics. Both static and dynamic capillary pressure measurements can be used to . but smoothing relations are not unacceptably illaccurate. attractive to attempt to formulate theoretical semiempirical. dlsplacernent Veloc~tlestoo low for ' i r~ Rod~aldistance r Fig.22. 1 7. Methods for restoration of in situ wettability conditions Id51have been proposed and are presently under scrutiny.8 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FROM CORRELATIONS In spite of the wide variety of porc structure in reservoir rocks. Figure 7. and scveral simple idealizecl flow models lead to acceptable smoothing relations..
y2(Sw*)2drainage 7. In simulators. The direct application of core plug data in simulators where thick grid cells are modelled will result in improper representation of gravity forces it can be shown that straight line relative permeability relationships are more representative of the gravity segregation of fluids. together with selecting and use of relevant core plugs to represent zones of interest. Drainage case Krw = (SW3)" where a = 4 (Corey model). 2. The results of waterflood core tests can furthermore be processed using the same reservoir simulator as the reservoir model. and be a function of permeability and/or pore geometry. or 0.8. = irreducible nonwetting phase saturation.23.8. Laboratory experiments can explore the sensitivity of derived curves for rate effects and hysteresis in given test methods using core obtained and prepared in ways which minimize wettability alteration.5 Krw.. As a practical compromise some curvature is usually provided.lKub. Recognition of these effects. particularly with respect to steady state or unsteady state displacement mechanism and nature of the moving interface through the system with effect on distribution of residual fluid. 7. particularly with respect to viscosity and interfacial tension.x f.e.The value off might. residual nonwetting phase saturation.( s ~ " ~ . Core plug experiments tend to be run at high viscous:capillary force ratios and the system represents a disperse or diffuse flow regime. (b) resaturation of plug and saturation distribution.Sw*)(1 .irreducible water saturation. There are no proven rules for obtaining valid relative permeability data for use in models. straight line relative permeability curves do not lend themselves manipulation as the initial to stable n~m~erical gradients to and from irreducible saturations are too steep. (c) test fluids. lmbibition case Krw = (Sw * l4imb (Sws)imb = (Sw*)drainage. This at least ensures that a given curve set will reproduce the fluid recovery and where Swi = irreducible wetting phase saturation. Particular concerns in use of laboratory derived data arise from the scaling of microsize core plug displacement to reservoir simulation grid size displacement. storage. These include: Z (a) wettability change associated with coring fluids. The test can be conducted at reservoir conditions using reservoir (or simulated reservoir) fluids. Gravity forces are generally negligible in core plug tests. Drainage case = (1 .. A n alternative correlation is the Pirson model: 3/2 Krw = SW3 (SwY) . plug cutting and preparation. these smoothing relations can be used (or modified) to generate complete relative permeability curves. lmbibition case where S. can minimize the problem of applying relative permeability data in model studies. K.8. = KrCul.1 Correlations of wetting phase permeabilities 1. Normalized end points can be adjusted using factors based on experience. (d) test method..*)~ (1 + 2Sw3) K. a = 1013 (statistical model).2 Correlations for nonwetting phase relative permeability 1. = (1 . .~ 0. as shown in Fig. for example. 7.. i. represent the ratio K.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 7. and the phase permeabilities at these saturations.3 Use of correlations With a limited amount of fairly readily determined experimental data . 7.9 VALIDATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATA FOR USE IN DISPLACEMENT CALCULATIONS Laboratory derived relative permeability data reflect a number of characteristics which may be associated entirely with handling procedures and which may not be typical of in situ reservoir behaviour.s.5 ~ )s 2.
7. Relative permeability in simulation models is used to dcterminc trarlsfcr of fluid between grid cells at grid cell boundaries.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig. I Is h ~ s t o r y match acceptable? t +  DX /7 . 7./' Fig.24 and follows the ArclierWong method./ 07 ' weighted average kr curves ~f necessary to represent reglon of reservolr In the slze of g r ~ d block appl~ed the model For In th~n cells the lab curve may / / ' I . /' '1 I I I / //I I I )Jpstream cell I I I I I I M / / 1. 7. 7. 7.D core flood simulator to history match oil recovery and pressure gradients as functlon of cumulat~ve qo = k oA ~ [@i%] p<.R methods Check base for Kr is compatible w ~ t h slmulat~on pressure distribution measured in the laboratory A flow diagram representing the usc of a 1D simulator for checking corctlood relative pcrmeabilities is given in Fig. In order to aid numerical stability. thc relativc pcrrneability of the upstream cell block at 'the start of a tirne step is often used in effective transrriissibility calculations. i. A / .1 I J . . M o d ~ f y curves kr and check PC Check lab derived curves in I .24 Application of laboratory derived permeability in reservoir simulation (after [301). / Downstream cell ' 1 I I '2 J / I I I .23 Curvature at end points in use of straight line relative permeability curves. Fig.e. DXI The potential term (a') can include any capillary pressure contribution. from Darcy law for onc fluid in xdirection flowing across the boundary between Cell 1 and Cell 2 in Fig.{DXI Dx2] . wettability an appropriate sam~le used for core flood at reservoir condit~ons ~ t h w pressure grad~ents function as of cumulat~ve ~ s p l a c ~ n g d curves uslng JBN or J .25 Flow between cells.25.
The sole purpose of the curves is to reproduce the fluid and pressure distribution and displacement characteristics of the fine grid system in a coarse grid system.28.10 PSEUDORELATIVE PERMEABILITY IN DYNAMIC SYSTEMS It is often a convenience in reservoir modelling to reduce the number of grid cells in a system in order to reduce model run costs. f . ( k d . h.. . 7. The dynamic pseudorelative permeabilities can be significantly different from calculated static pseudos or from modified pseudos obtained by history matching observed reservoir behaviour.26).27.26 Pseudorelative permeability functions in coarse grid definition. as shown in Fig. ev d D re i psuedocurves _ Heterogeneous flne g r ~ d cells The average saturation S. ' \ . 7.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 7.27 Layer system representation for static pseudocalculations. at (SW). hjkj ( n = N ) Total thickness I I 115 Permeability ( m d ) k Layer N I H I i I Fig. k.1 1 STATIC PSEUDORELATIVE PERMEABILITY FUNCTIONS As a start point in many reservoir simulation problems. 7. The pseudofunctions generated will depend on position in the reservoir system and are clearly also dependent on ordering and thickness of the layers. The flow behaviour of a reduced cell system may be matched with that of the full definition system by use of a set of pseudorelative permeability curves in place of the original curves. in each of which segregated flow staight line relative permeability curves are assumed to apply. as the reservoir unit approaches flood out to residual oil may be calculated assuming crossflow through the vertical component of permeability. This is essentially an advance of bottom water. different pseudofunctions may be generated for different regions of the reservoir. 7. considering the position of the local oilwater contact from its initial position at the base of the bottom layer (n = 0 ) to its final position at the top of the top layer (n = N). = N 7. static pseudofunctions provide an insight into possible performance. For each condition of equilibrium oilwater contact from n = 0 to n = N we can write n+l N s w Fig... The current methodology for creating pseudos in a dynamic flow system is due to Kyte and Berry [js]and essentially determines the functions by summing flow rates from fine grid systems into the equivalent coarse grid and recalculating the effective permeability using Darcy's law (Fig. as shown in Fig. The generation of a pseudocurve is described for a reservoir unit with N thick layers. = C n+l 1 hT hj kj k. 7. In large field simulation.  1 (krw)n at ( S w ) n 1 n hj kj k d .
1 The following laboratory data have been obtained from a steady state room temperature rclative permeability test: Air permeability Helium porosity Plug length Plug diameter 20 mD 20% 9 cm 3. 7. but actual shape will depend on layer ordering and reservoir character. rcspectivcly. Examples Example 7. 7.25 and 0.2 cm Core average water saturation (from weight change) (% PV) Oil flow rate (cc/h) Brine flow rate (cc/h) Pressure drop psi (from transducer) The viscosity of the laboratory oil is 2 cP.1 cP.29.2 A linear horizontal sand reservoir of length 1 mile between a water injector and an oil producer is 1 milc bide and has a net thickness of 50 ft.2765 RBISTB. Thesc data can then be used in 1D displacement calculations or in coaise simulator cells.$16 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE The resulting pseudorelativc permeability curve is shown in Fig. The oil production rate is constant prior to breakthrough . Thc reservoir pressure can be considered as 5000 psia and at this condition the oil formation volume factor is 1. Prepare the steady state relative permeability curves for this sample and comment on its characteristics.29 Pseudocurve character which might result from static calculations. The porosity and initial water saturation distribution are uniform and are 0.28 Flow in layered system used for pseudocalculation. Thc viscosity of the laboratory brine is 1. o9 o6 1 04 3 Fig. Fig. 7.28. Example 7.
73 0.35 0.30 0. The gas formation volume factor is 7.10 0.) = 0.23 0.02 0. The reservoir is 8000 ft wide and 100 ft in net thickness and has a permeability of 800 mD.38 0.5. Other relevant reservoir zone data are as follows: .45 0.90 0.94 0..98 Calculate the fractional flow curve C for the water saturations between initial water saturation (S. Determine the position of the 0.17 0.37 0.03 0.63 0.778.60 0. Further estimate the reservoir condition water cut and recovery factor one year after breakthrough assuming water injection continues at the initial rate. a viscosity of 0. Show by calculation whether you consider the gas injection stable.3 It is proposed to inject gas into an updip well of a linear geometry oil reservoir at a rate of 15 x lo6 SCFID. If the oil formation volume factor is 1.70 water saturations at the following times: 0. a density of 48 lb/ft3 and a relative germeability in the presence of connate water of 0.00 0.125 RBISTB what oil production rate in STBID might be expected initially? Example 7.. ) 0.55 0. The reservoir dip is 10".0 and 2.13 ' 0.02 0.16) and residual oil saturation (S.0 years.65 kro 0.5.427 0.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW 117 at 10 000 STBID and water injection is used to maintain reservoir pressure in the 'incompressible' system.80 0.4 The intitial saturation distribution and relative permeability data for a linear isolated sand reservoir subjected to water drive are as follows: Distance from original water oil contact (ft) 0 10 12 18 26 35 50 90 350 SW (% PV) 100 79 75 65 55 45 35 25 16 kr w 1.06 0.52 0.00 kw 0.0 0. The end point mobility ratio has been estimated as 2. The withdrawal rate from the reservoir zone is 9434 RBID.28 0. = f .0 0.05 0.". The oil has a reservoir condition viscosity of 1.9.00 kro 0. Represent the initial saturation distribution graphically as a series of steps equivalent to the continuous distribution.028 cP and a relative permeability in the presence of residual oil and connate water of 0.70 8 Example 7. 0. Estimate the frontal saturation of the injection water prior to breakthrough and the time in years of water breakthrough at the production well.5 x lo" RBISCF.09 0.44 0.8 cP.02 0.79).54 0.25 0.oo 0.23 0. 1. The gas has a reservoir condition density of 17 lblft .75 and 0.79. The relative permeability data for the reservoir are given as follows: Sw 0.
19 (Nov. S. AIME 216 (1959).C. E. 500 mD. [4] Geffcn.83 cp Reservoir oil specific gravity = 1.. Trrrns..W. J. = 030 kr. 1954). J. Trans.R.. R.M. AIME 146 (1942). C.5. Water relative permeability at the residual oil saturation of 30% is 0. 111 Burdine.05 Distance from the original owc to the first line of producers 1s 350 ft Determine the frontal saturation after six months production using the material balance expression: Example 7.118 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Average reservoir thickness = 100 ft Averagc reservoir width = 8000 ft Formation dip = 6" Permeability = 276 m D Porosity = 21.T. Trans. Tran. A. Hafford. Parrish. [7] Jordan. gravity = 1. Effect of rate on oil recovery by waterflooding. 107. Observations relating to the wettability of porous rock. ' = 0 5 References Relative permeability calculations from pore size distrihutioll data. I E m U ) 2000md 20 1500 1 In each layel 1 ? 30 500md Assume + 40. P. Experimental investigation of factors alfecting laboratory relative permeability measurements.K. and Hocott. AIME 198 (1953). li.A. Prod. For simplicity to assurnc that in cach layer the following propertics apply: Oil relative permeability at the initial watcr saturation of 15% is 0. on OGJ (Aug 23. cond. J .' . Mechanism of iluid displacement in sands. Laboratory measurements of relative permeability. S. [2] Corey. 50md 50 Sw.M.~. 34.A.T .9.51 cp Water viscosity (res.R. Richardson. A I M 6 192 (1951).E.) = 0. 47. Mon.0 9 kr.. Owens. and Morsc.K. Each layer is 10 ft thick and the oilwater contact is initially at the base of the lower layer. The interrelation between gas and oil relative permeabilities. D. R.rms. T. [S] Morse. OGJ (May 13.S. 98.5% Oil viscosity (reservoir conditions) = 1. J .71.T. W. 10. AIME 192 (1951). J. P. and Blair. 1500 mD. J. McCardcll.A. From botto~n top the layer permeabilities are 50 m D . and Levcrctt. Relative pcrnleability mcasurcn~cnts small cole sa~ilples. N. W.. 156.. Kerver.5 Prepare the static pseudorelative permeability curve for a five layer reservoir assuming bottom water advance.C. [3] Amott. 1947) [6] Osoba. Tcrwilliger. [8] Buckley..L. and Yustcr. 99.01 Rewrvoir water sp. = 0 15 So. 2000 mD and 2500 mD. M.M. l957).
[31] Tao. 15. (1981). [29] Hvolboll.).O. Drain.R.F. S. JPT (Oct. . Effect of reservoir environment on wateroil displacements. 1216. [25] Craig. L. and Perkins. Soc. 343. 1973).. R. [26] Brown.J. and Salathiel. Laboratory evaluation of the wettability of fifty oil producing reservoirs. Pet. and Naumann. 531. Proc..J.. and Blackwell.. Reservoir waterflood iesidual oil saturation from laboratory tests.R. Tech. Naumann. JPT (Feb. F. R. 81. D. R. D. [22] Huppler. and Owens. [23] Braun. [16] Sandberg.H. Trans. Ir. Archer. AZME 216 (1959). 423.E.A. Can. and Rozelle.P. AZME 195 (1952). A I M E 213 (1958). J. 370. Numerical investigation of the effects of core heterogeneities on waterflood relative permeabilities. Braun. 398. and McCaffery. Pet.).T. [17] Mungan. # [28] Larson.K.T. 271. W . Bossler. S.R. (Feb. 92. (1981). [21] Treiber.M. 1970) 381. 1973). T. J. R. SPEJ (Dec. and Scriven.W. [12] Mungan. The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding.H. and Rapoport. SPEJ (Oct. Elementary mechanisms of oil recovery by chemical methods.. J.7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW [9] Cardwell. Huppler. W. JPT (Feb..J. H. Irrig. C. Fluid flow within a porous medium near a diamond bit. 66. 247. L. Oil recovery by surface film drainage in mixed wettability rock. Research on E O R past.J. Europ. Certain wettability effects in laboratory waterfloods.T. 175.T. Proc. [13] Johnson. [20] Jenks. Trans.M.F.Y. D.E. H. 209. AZME 216 (1959). Trans. Paper SPE 10155.L. 807. AZME 213 (1958).T. 579. ASCE (1966). SPEJ (Dec. C. SPEJ (Dec. G. The effect of fluid flow rate and viscosity on laboratory determinations of oilwater relative permeability. 1966). (June 1961). R. 13.D. R. Tech. Calculation of relative permeability from displacement experiments. [33] Collins. Relative permeability measurements using reservoir fluids. ed. and Mattax. L. 91. and Hunter. Properties of porous media affecting fluid flow. 0 . V. [18] ~alathiel. 239. Pet. Pet.S.E. Use of a reservoir simulator to interpret laboratory waterflood data. Fall Mtg. Laboratory displacement of oil by water under simulated reservoir conditions. Flow of Fluids Through Porous Materials. P. V. [30] Archer. L. Penwell. [27] Taber. and Wong. T. V. J.A.E. R. D. An improved unsteady state procedure for determining the relative permeability characteristics of heterogeneous porous media..G.C. 19th Ann. [24] Jones. 3 (2) (1964). CIM (May 1968). 1191 Rathmell. present and future. N. Symp. SPEJ (Aug. A simplified method for computing oil recovery by gas or water drive. J. F. and Watson. Plenum Pr.O.61. [14] Colpitts. A steady state technique for measuring oilwater relative permeability curves at reservoir conditions. [32] Sigmund. Davis. In Surface Phenomena in EOR (Shah. The meaning of the triple value in noncapillary BuckleyLeverett theory.O. W. 243. J. on EOR (1981). Vol. J. L.R. 2. [ l l ] Kyte.M. Mtg. 1978). A. Trans. 1979). G.P. and Sippel. Linear waterflood behaviour and end effects in water wet porous media. P. Tech.F. Trans. E.H. M. J. [lo] Welge.E. 56th Ann. SPEJ (May 1978). A. 1982). Gournay.. [34] Brooks. The provision of laboratory data for EOR simulation. (N. Proc.. [15] Kyte. E. Methods for accurately measuring produced oil volumes during laboratory waterflood tests at reservoir conditions. G.O. and Corey.W.S. SPEJ (Feb. N. 1972).C. 36. 3 (1971). L A . Graphical techniques for determining relative permeability from displacement experiments. and Langley. J. J. C. Div.. Paper 6824. Tulsa (1976).A. SPE Monograph No. 1972). 1973). Morrow.D. J. Proc. SPEJ (April 1984). Accuracy of JBN estimates of relative permeability.
A. Dempsey. SPE 8847.J. Proc. SPE (Oct. [38] Manjnath. Pet. Proc.S.R. L . 345. L. A. Fall Mtg.5hB. 149.53. 56th Ann. R. Proc. T. V .S. SPE (Oct. [41] Land. .L.L. Use of permeability distribution in waterflood calculations. New pscudo functions to control numerical dispersion. Mtg. J. Davis. AIME 216 (1959). 269. [39] Corey. J.120 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [35] Torabzadeh. SPE (Oct. J.T.A. [40] Stone.M. H. SPE 12915. Tru~ls. [46] Hearn. and Morse. 63. W. Proc. Full Mtg. [52] Dyes.P. Trans. Rathjens. R. Full Mtg. Truns. and Erickson. n The prediction of oil recovery by watcrflood. Tech. [51] Fayers.A.(July 1971). [42] Dietrich.. Proc. SPEJ (Aug. L. Truns. 1976).CPE2608 (1969). Proc. C. SPE Paper 2582. 121. A.H. Elsevier Dev.H. 349. Tulsa (April 1984). drainage and imbibition. and Parsons. [56] Ashford. M. H. 37. Proc. 1973). 9. F. B. Koninkl Akad. A I M E 186 (1949). A I M E 207 (1956). 51stAnn. Restoration of the natural state of core samples. 2nd ed. The effect of capillary pressure and gravity 011 two phase flow in a porous medium.E. from rock properties. EOR. EOR. I Pet. C. [55] Stiles. 160. Caudle.H. and Comer. . Predicition of oil recovery by waterflood . [48] Coats. Simulation of relative permeability hysteresis to the non wetting phase.E. SPE 5634. and Berry. A. 829.a simplificd graphical treatment of the DykstraParsons method. 805. 12690. K.A. SPEIDOE.J. Simulation of stratified waterflooding by pscudo relative permeability curves.N. 205. 83.effect of capillary number. (1953) Amst. SPE 6044. Rec. 1541 Johnson.L.. (1969). Calculation of imbibition relative permeability for two and three phase flow.W.H. Ann. J . Henderson. 1976). R. A theoretical approach to the problem of encloaching and bypassing edge water.K. SPEIDOE 12689. and Handy. The relative permeability function lor two phase flow in porous media . Reservoir simulation with history dependent saturation functions.I.B.A. 1501 Davis. API (1950). A I M E 207 (1956).Dec. 1981). Reg. C. JPT (July 1979). A Oil production after breakthrough as influenced by mobility ratio. and Scriven. [47] Berruin. 1571 Evrenos. S.G. F. Tec11.M. L. 12693. A. N. EOK. 1st Jnf SPEIDoE Svmn. 44th Ann. (1978). 4th Syrr~p. D.B. Can.. An investigation of three phase relative permeability. Three phase oil relative per~ueability [43] Carlson.H. The effect of temperature and interfacial tension on wateroil relative permeabilities of consolidated sands. J. and Wasan. 4th Symp. 4th Symp. [53] Dykstra.E. [44] Killough. J. P. Proc. 105.A: VHF electrical measurement of saturations in laboratorv floods. Trans.. SPEI DOE EOR. and Honarpour. Computed relative permeability. [58] Kyte. Tulsa (April 1980). Fundamentals of rcservoir engineering. 1975). van Weteizschuppen. Tulsa (April 19S4). [59] Dake. L. D. Proc.E. C. Proc. Sec.T. M. 1975). 81. [45] Cuiec.R. and Bondor. 163. SPE 10157. (May 1984). Tulsa (April 1984). and Wylie. Sensitivity studics of gaswater relative permeability and capillarity in rcservoir modc!ling. J.L.W. o f oil i the U. [36] Heiba. (0ct. F.. Three phasc relative permeability. 147. Rocky Mt. . H. Statistical network theory of three phase relative permeabilities. Waterflood performance of heterogeneous systems. and Sheldon. The use of vertical equilibrium in two dimensional simulation of three dimensional reservoir performance. J. A. models. 1491 Dietz.E.E. L. 1371 Ramakrishnan. Sci (8).T. I M E 201 (1954). D. 397.S. Full Mtg. SPEJ (March 1971). SPEJ (June 1968). and Henderson. Estimation of three phase relative permeability and residual oil data. Pet. SPEJ (Feb. ..
7 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND MULTIPHASE FLOW
121
[60] Jacks, H.H., Smith, 0 .J , and Mattax, C.C. The modelling of a three dimensional reservoir with a two dimensional reservoir simulator  the use of dynamic pseudo functions, SPEJ (June 1973), 175. [61] Woods, E.G. and Khurana, A.K. Pseudo functions for water coning in a three dimensional reservoir simulator, SPEJ 17 (1977), 251. [62] Chappelear, J.E. and Hirasaki, G.J. A model of oilwater coning for 2D areal reservoir simulation, SPEJ (1976): 65. [63] Koval, E.J. A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media, SPEJ (June 1966), 145. [64] Handy, L.L. and Datta, P. Fluid distribution during immiscible displacements in porous media, SPEJ (Sept. 1966), 261. [65] Higgins, R.V., Boley, D. W. and Leighton, A.J. Unique properties of permeability curves of concern to resen20ir engineers, U.S. Bur. Mines Rept. Investig., RI7006 (1967). [66] Hagoort, J. Oil recovery by gravity drainage, SPEJ (June 1980), 139. [67] Bragg, J.R. et aL A comparison of several techniques for measuring residual oil saturation, SPE 7074, Proc. Symp. Impr. Oil Rec., Tulsa (April 1978), 375. 1681 Deans., H . A . Using chemical tracers to measure fractional flow and saturation in situ, SPE 7076, Proc. Symp. Impr. Oil Rec., Tulsa (April 19781.399. [69] ~ o v e , ' ~,:~~ n. g e nJ.K. and Read, P.A. i , Visualisation of laboratory core floods with the aid of computerised tomography of Xrays, SPE 13654, Proc. Clif. Reg. Mtg. SPE (March 1985). [70] McCaffery, F.G. and Bennion, D.W. The effect of wettability on two phase relative permeability, J. Can. Pet. Tech. (Oct./Dec. 1974), 42. [71] Singhal, A.K., Mekjerjee, D.P. and Somerton, W.H. Effect of heterogeneities on flow of fluids through porous media, J. Can. Pet. Tech. (JulySept. 1976), 63. [72] Fulcher, R.A., Ertekin, T. and Stahl, C.D. Effect of capillary number and its constituents on two phase relative permeability curves, JPT (Feb. 1985), 249. 1731 Melrose. J.C. et al. waterrbck interactions in the Pembina field, Alberta, SPE 6049: Proc. 51stAnn. Fall Mtg. (1976). 1741 Archer, J.S. Some aspects of reservoir description for reservoir modelling. Proc. Intl. Seminar North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Trondheim (December 1985). [75] Slider, H.C. Worldwide Practical Petroleum Reservoir Engineering ~Methods,Pennwell Books, Tulsa (1983). [76] Rapoport, L.A. and Leas, W.J. Properties of linear waterfloods, Trans. A I M E 198 (1953). 139.
L

L
2
Chapter 8
Representation of Volumetric Estimates and Recoverable Reserves
8.1 INPLACE VOLUME
The volume of hydrocarbon in place in a reservoir depends on: (a) the areal extent of the hydrocarbon region of the reservoir; (b) the thickness of reservoir quality porous rock in the hydrocarbon rcgion; (c) the porosity of reservoir quality porous rock in the hydrocarbon rcgion; (d) the saturation ot hydrocarbon in the hydrocarbon region. This is represented in terms of avcrage properties as follows where A = area (avg), EN = net thickness (grpss thickness x net thicknesslgross thickness) (avg), @ = porosity (avg), S,, = water saturation (avg), V = reservoir conditioo volume of hydrocarbon. At standard conditions, the volurne of hydrocarbon in place is the reservoir condition volume divided by the formation volume factor. Each of the components of the volumetric equation is subject to uncertainty and spatial variation. We shall now examine the source and representation of these data and develop a probabilistic approach to volumctric estimation.
8.2 AREAL EXTENT OF RESERVOIRS
The areal extent of reservoirs are defined with some degree of uncertainty by evidence from drilled wells combined with geophysical interpretation of seismic data. The amount of well cclntrol has thc main influence on the mapping and representation of reservoir structure. Maps tend to represent time stratigraphy as depositional units. Since reservoir fluids are contained in, and recovered from, permeable beds, the combination of permeable elcments of a number of time stratigraphic units leads to mappable rock stratigraphic units having (a) areal extent, (b) thickness, (c) petrophysical properties.
Fig. 8.1 Example o a structure contour map on top f
porosity.
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
.Completed producers
proposed well locations
XAbandoned gulf wells
Fig. 8.3 Top sand structure map, Rough gas
Structure contour maps are used to connect points of equal elevation. It is customary to map structure at the top and base of porosity and the map indicates the external geometry of the reservoir. The map shown in Fig. 8.1 shows the boundaries as a fluid contact, a porosity limit to reservoir quality rock and fault boundaries. The contour intervals are regular and represent subsea depths. The map would be labelled top sand, base sand or refer to a geological age boundary. The difference in elevation between the hydrocarbonwater contact and the top of the structure is known as the closure or height of the hydrocarbon column. Structure maps of the top sands of Thistle oil reservoir[l61and the Rough gas field[l51are shown in Figs 8.2 and 8.3. A schematic crosssection of the Rough field is illustrated in Fig.
Contour i n t e r v a l
50 feet
o Well control
8.4["1. The area contained within each structural contour can be measured by various mathematical techni
Fig. 8.2 Top sand structure map, Thistle oil reservoir. (after
tive
carbon/ contact
Fig. 8.4 A schematic crosssection of the Rough field. (after!151)
124
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
qucs but is most ssually performed by a digitizing process or with the aid of a calibrated device called a planimeter. A plot of the area contained within each contour against the conlour elevation for the top a11d base structure maps establishes the basis for calaulation of rock volume, as shown in Fig. 8.5 The area contained between the top arld base structure and limited by the fluid contact can be measured from the plot by planimeter and is equivalent to the gross rock volume of the hydrocarbon interval. The validity of the maps, the scale and the accuracy of planimetering all influence the numerical value of the rock volume obt2tined.
Helghest elevat~onon top structure
Fig. 8.6 Net pay thickness isopach. well test interpretation. It is custo~naryto use a porosity cut ofJ' in log analysis equivalent to some f D minimum pern~eabilityon a porosity permc;~bility :z crossplot (i.e. 8 % porosity at 0.1 mD permeability). :r c In addition, VLl.iy and water saturation are often 0 included 2 s additional delimiters, i e . if Vc,,, 40% 1 > and S,, > 60% i  then the rock might in a particular 0 Area conta~ned contourby circumstance be considered sonreservoir quality. Fig. 8.5 Rock volume estimation. The net: gross ratio defines the thicksless of reservoir quality rock to total thickness in a given unit. Isopach maps of sand tliickness in the Rough field and the R4urchison field are shown in Figs 8.7 and 8.8. 8 3 THICKNESS MAPS . The area contained within a given isopach car1 be plotted against isopach value, as shown in Fig. 8.9. Contours of equithickness points in a reservoir can he drawn and are again influenced by geolo@cal and The area enclosed by this plot represents the net geophysical interpretatiorl and well control. Where rock volume and can be obtained by planirnetry. When a reservoir is composed of a nurnber of thickness represents for ma ti or^ thickness normal to different rock types or S ~ I S Iunits, and they ;ire ~ the plane of the reservoir (true bcd thickness) the mapped separately, the thickness rnaps are known contours are called isopachs. Often the thickness of a bed is mapped as a vertical thickness and such a for each rock type as isoliths.
He~ghest elevat~on on base structure 
z
0 L


I
1
contour should strictly be known as an isochore. A thickness mapped between top and base porosity and including nonreservoir material is known as gr0s.y reservoir i~opach.If the impermeable beds are excluded it becomes a net reservoir isopach. I the C thickness is measured from a zero datum of the hydrocarbonwater contact. the map would be either a net or gross pay isopach. Figure 8.6 sl~ows net pay thickness isopach map a and the zero contour indicates the fluid contact. Sand thickness is increasing downdip in this representation, cind the sand pinches out at the top of the structure with a change in lithology to nonreservoir material. The definitiol? of reservoir qoality anci nonreservoir quality material is a petrophysical definition based on core analysis, log analysis and
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
125
8.4 LITHOFACIES REPRESENTATION
Rock lithology can provide a guide in contouring, and lithofacies maps are generally presented as ratio maps, typically sand: shale or limestone: anhydrite (Fig. 8.10). The ratios follow geometric progressions (1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8 etc.) and equal contour spacings do not therefore represent equal changes in lithoC logy.
Reservoir sand. Shale ratio 4 1 2 122:l
0
2:1  4 : l
24.1
Fig. 8.10 Lithofacies mapping.
8.5 ISOPOROSITY MAPS
In a given reservoir zone or subzone, the areal variation in mean porosity may be represented. The porosity control values are thickness weighted average porosities for the zone at each well. The shape of the isoporosity map shown in Fig. 8.11 may be obtained by application of geological modelling, by statistical techniques such as Krige mappjng [I719] or by computer controlled contour mapping! A n example of an isoporosity map of the Rough gas field is shown in Fig. 8.12.
Fig. 8.8 lsopach map (a) and mesh perspective diagram (b) of Brent Sands, Murchison reservoir.
Porosity C . I. 5%
Area enclosed
Area contained by contour Fig. 8.9 Hydrocarbon volume from net pay isopach.
Fig. 8.11 lsoporosity map.
126
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

I
I
I
Fig. 8.12 Rough field porosity map  average gas saturation 63% (after [151).
Fig. 8.14 Rough field permeability map (after [15]).
8.6 ISOCAPACITY MAPS
Isocapacity is used to denote equal values o f a permeabilitynet thickness product, which is significant in appreciating well production capability. The product is frequently mapped instead o f pcrmeability, as permeability for a particular zone is sought as a functional relationship with porosity ( k = f n (@)). Figure 8.13 shows an isocapacity map in which the absolute permeability has been obtained as an arithmetic average in the zone, i.c. at a well
8.7 HYDROCARBON PORE VOLUME MAPS
As has been derived previously, an estimate o f hydrocarbon porc volun~e can be obtained by comb~ningthe net rock volume from isopach mapping with a mean porosity @ and a mean hydrocarbon saturation ( 1  S,,). The porosity should be a volume weighted average, 1.e.
The data, when modified for effective permeability can be validated by well testing. A permeability map o f the Rough gas field is shown in Fig. 8.14.
and is obtained by dividing the reservoir into regions o f constant porosity and measuring the bounding areas and mean thickness. The isosaturation map may be derived by noting the relationship in a given rock type betwecn irrcducible water saturation and porosity. The porosities and saturations in a hydrocarbon zone are generally considered interdependent. Contouring o f any isosaturation map must respect capillary transition zone characteristics and, as a consequence, regional average values areoften o f more practical use than a contoured map. Saturation should be weighted average: represented as a pore volu~ne
Fig. 8.13 lsocapacily map.
A n altcrnative to this approach is the dircct mapping o f hydrocarbon porc thickness (HPT) at each well control point. HPT is characterized at a well in a given zone as L$ . h N .Sh) whcre TI, = 1 St,,,. average porosity The ( in the net thickness interval hhi is likcly to be an I arithmetic average, as indicated from a porosity histogram. At the hydrocarbonwater contact Sjl is
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
zero, and at the porous rock limit $ is zero. Figure 8.15 shows the form of an HPT map. A map of HPT in the Rough gas field is indicated in Fig. 8.16. The shape of the contours might be suggested by geological controls such as structure, depositional environment and/or diagenetic modifications. The planimetering, or any alternative way of measuring area, of the areas represented by each HPT value results in data for a plot of area against HPT, as shown in Fig. 8.17. The area under the curve generated represents the hydrocarbon pore volume of the reservoir unit.
Area t
Fig. 8.17 Hydrocarbon pore volume from HPT maps (area under curve = net hydrocarbon pore volume).
8.8 PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION
It should be apparent that there are a number of ways to map any given set of data. A numerical value of hydrocarbon pore volume thus represents one outcome of a given map combination. The presentation of hydrocarbon in place as a probabilistic estimate rather than as a deterministic value seeks to show the uncertainty of the estimate. The association of ranges and distribution shape with h, each of the components A,(@Sh), NIG of the volumetric equation is a subjective technical exercise. One method, which has found widespread use in arriving at a probabilistic estimate, is the Monte Carlo approach [''I. Since standard condition (Vsc) volumes are usually needed, the reservoir volume of hydrocarbon in place is converted to a standard volume by use of an initial formation volume factor (Bhr)for the particular hydrocarbon, and its uncertainty is included in the estimation: HCPV Vsc = Bhi where HCPV represents reservoir condition hydrocarbon pore vojume. The shape of distributions and maximum and minimum values are generally agreed in specialist group committees, and rectangular and triangular distributions (Fig. 8.18 (a) and (b)) based on subjective assessment of reservoir characteristics are most frequently used. The distribution can easily be converted into a cumulative frequency curve which can be sampled at random. The repeated random selection of values and their probabilities from each independent variable set leads to the calculation of a large number of volumetric estimates (Fig. 8.19). The cumulative frequency of these estimates is used to show the likelihood that a given value will be at least as great as that shown, as indicated in Fig. 8.18 (c). The independent variables considered in
Fig. 8.15 Hydrocarbon pore thickness map.
Fig. 8.16 Rough field hydrocarbon pore thickness map (after ['51).
are then obtained.18 and 8. (c) resultant distr~bution introduced.19 Representation of volume in place calculations. ($Sh).128 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE volumetric and reserve calculations are A. . hydrocarbon porosity. very optimistic value. 8. predrilling through discovery and appraisal to early production and finally to late time depletion. The next parameter is then combined to yield a Fig. (a) new suite of 25 values. hG. These methods may give a clearer idea of the The values on the cumulative frequency graph possible spread of results and divert attention from (Figs. (3) most likely value (say 0. Prior to drilling a well which indicates the presence of hydrocarbon.3 chance of yielding Value a low value).18 Representationof independent variables.21) are used to represent concepts the potentially misleading best estimate value to of certainty at given levels. a . there is no proven value.at is known as a proven probable value and the 10% the 50% cumulative probability value. (2) an optimistic value (say 0. formation volume factor and recovery factor).8 chance of yielding a low value). the other possibilities. (b) triangular five. 8. area. net gross ratio.V/G. (1) a very optimistic value (say 0. In common usage[']. (5) a very pessimistic value (say 0. All combinations of two parameters (say h and $) Ot are computed (giving 25 products).9 RECOVERY FACTORS AND RESERVES It is also important to realize that the distribution of values can change with time as more information about a reservoir becomes available. and these are 4 i. ranging from multiple calculations or from multiple random from very pessimistic through the most likely to a sampling of distributions. and a final range of five values. level is known as a proven + probable + possible value. 8. Mln Value  Max Value + Fig.5 chance of yielding a lo\< value) .9 chance of yielding a low value). (4) a pessimistic value (say 0. e. which are again reduced to Rectangular dcstribution (no preference). 8. the 50% level rical the expectation value of the field can be found. A n alternative method attributed to Van der Laan is suited to desk calculation and makes use of a number of values of each variable . gross thickness.2 chance of yielding a low value) .20 The recoverable volume of hydrocarbon from a indicates the change in volumetric estimate from particular reservoir will depend on reservoir rock [I4]  . Min Max reduced to five by averaging successive groups of Value five. When the distribution is symmet90% level is known as aproven value. Bhi and R F (i. Each of the five values has a probability of 1 in 5 or 20%.e.I \  + . Figure 8.3 or 5 values to represent the probability distribution.g. The process is repeated until all parameters are distr~bution (strong preference).
The heterogeneity of the reservoir pore space will influence pressure gradients during dynamic displacement of hydrocarbon and leads to regions of poorer recovery than would be predicted by laboratory measured residual saturations. then.) to residual conditions (Shr)in a completely contacted region and implies a particular recovery mechanism (i.e. G.. (d) delineationlearly production. where N is the stock tank oil in place.20 Time (and data) variation of probabilistic estimates. For oil. ~ For gas. 8. where G is the standard condition gas in place. (a) Predrilling. (f) late time depletion.8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES t Y 'k l'hL1h Value O min  max O min max Value + O min Value  rnax Value  Value  Value  Fig. (e) mature production. Cqjtj Bhi Cqj RF= HCPV where qj is an interval standard condition volumetric production. waterflood. (c) appraisai. It is not achievable throughout the reservoir. is the cumulative standard condition gas production. Bhi is a hydrocarbon initial formation volume factor. chemical flood etc. as well as on economic conditions. tj is an interval time. 'v I P .). at some time t and pressure P The recovery factor at any stage of reservoir depletion is represented without spatial distribution . The ultimate recovery factor refers to the change in saturation of hydrocarbon from initial (= 1S. The fraction of original hydrocarbon in place that will be recovered. is known as a recovery factor. in terms of the cumulative recovered hydrocarbon. Np is the cumulative stock tank oil production then. at some time t and pressure P. all volumes being represented at a standard condition. (b) discovery. and fluid properties and continuity.
proven probable reserve at the 50% level and proven probable +possible reserve at the 10% level. 8. fluid boundaries. The mapping of the reservoir follows rules agreed in geological and geophysical subcom + . The recoverable reserve histogram can be used to develop a risk ratio for application in development decision making.e. by defining upside and downside potential of the reservoir. = A .1 V Recoverable reserve __f Fig.21 is used with the same connotation as that of the hydrocarbon volume in place estimation. Specialist subcommittees from all parties are required to formulate the bases for agreement of all parameters in the volumetric formula if unitization is to proceed. international boundaries. This means that the reservoir should be operated as a unit and the costs and revenues shared in an agreed manner. The ultimate recovery formula is also known as the movable hydrocarbon volume (MHV) formula. in that agreement is the main concern. 8. + + 8. Shr = average residual hydrocarbon saturation. This is because economic recovery factors will be influenced by well density in heterogeneous reservoirs. Development decisions are often taken assuming reserves at the 6070% probability level. Under such conditions it is prudent that the owners or operators where A = area. and the reservoir operation will then be considered unitized. The use of computer models to represent a threedimensional reservoir as a number of grid cells in which property variations are expressed is now commonplace. The summation of hydrocarbon pore volume for each grid cell leads to a deterministic evaluation of initial hydrocarbon in place (standard conditions). It is appropriate that we consider unitization in this chapter as most equity formulae are based on volumetric estimation of hydrocarbons in place. saturation and mapping techniques. The basis for agreement depends on apportionment of equity in the unit. ($I ' (1Swi Shr) Bhi Proven + probable 0. = porosity. i. porosity. transition zones. The final definition of parameters may sometimes be only quasitechnical. hN .130 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Recovery factors representing a given deveiopment concept can be calculated using the techniques and methods of reservoir dynamics and represented probabilistically as a distribution. MHV. The lack of agreement between licence or lease owners over the proper representation of residual hydrocarbon saturation is the main reason why this formula is rarely applied in equity agreements. The resulting cumulative frequency distribution shown in Fig.10 DISTRIBUTION OF EQUITY IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS It frequently occurs that the boundaries of a petroleum reservoir straddle lease lines and..21 Probabilistic representation of recoverable reserves. namely proven reserve at the 90% level. For each randomly selected parameter set the calculation: Recoverable reserve (standard conditions) = recovery factor x hydrocarbon in place (standard conditions) of each lease region enter into some sort of agreement to develop the reservoir in a cost and energy efficient manner. The use of this approach involves the least amount of contention but is nevertheless a major exercise involving the establishment of rules for defining net pay. In North Sea reservoir operation the equity determination most frequently applied in joint operating agreements is on the basis of stock tank oil in place. Although recoverable rather than inplace hydrocarbon may appear equitable. hni = net thickness. Bhl = initial hydrocarbon formation volume factor. experience indicates that it rarely provides a basis for agreement. and ultimate recovery factors may be uncertain because of their origin with core tests and the representative nature of samples. Swr = average connate water saturation. This allows a recoverable reserve estimation t o be performed using a Monte Carlo technique and for the results to be represented probabilistically. in some instances.
The definitions of net thickness and porosity tend to emerge from the agreements reached in petrophysical subcommittees on log interpretation methods and corelog correlation. For a resultant computer model of n grid cells. Interaction with a reservoir engineering subcommittee is necessary to reach agreement on representation of capillary transition zones and the validation of log derived saturation in a given rock type with capillary pressure data. The reservoir engineering subcommittee will usually undertake the responsibility of defining fluid contacts and will be involved in agreements regarding zonation. the deterministic total hydrocarbon in place at standard conditions V. The equity distribution between leases or licenses is obtained by arranging the computer grid system such that it follows the lease boundaries and it therefore facilitates regional subvolume calculation. The compaction corrected core porosity is often taken as a standard. historical costs and revenues may be reapportioned according to the nature of the Joint Operation Agreement. Following any redetermination. The fluid properties relevant to each computer grid cell allow areal and vertical variation in initial volume factors for hydrocarbons but depend on agreement reached in the reservoir engineering subcommittee on the use of fluid samples and the calculation methods for PVT properties (see Chapter 4). . \ ~ ~ \\ 1 Fig. particularly where log interpretation involves wells drilled with both oilbased and waterbased muds. Reservoir engineering methods for zonation are described in Chapters 5 and 14. One owner or licencee in a unitized reservoir will agree to act as the Operator of the unit on behalf of all members.22 shows reservoir regions defined in the Dunlin field volumetric study r31.. The equity determination may be reviewed or redetermined at certain times in the development lifetime of the reservoir. The mapping exercise provides gross reservoir rock volume as top structure and isopach (isochore) maps of each reservoir zone or layer. The petrophysical interpretation agreement will also define the methods for interpretation of saturation from well logs. is then * a 0 Platform oil producer e r ~njecow e n ~ Platform dry hole ' ~ \ y48\ . and the exercise may be conducted by an independent expert if there is no unit concensus. This of course presupposes some agreement on vertical zonation and reservoir boundaries. 8.8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES 131 mittees. Figure 8.22 Reservoir regions defined in the Dunlin field for volumetric calculations (after [31).
132
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Examples
Example 8.1
The table shows values of net sand thickness and area for a reservoir. The porosity varies linearly with sand thickness from 0.15 to 0.28, the water saturation varies hyperbolically from 1.0 to 0.33 from water contact to crest, and the oil formation volume factor is 1.355. What is the oil in place? Table of net sand isopach values v. area within contour
lsopach value (ft)
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
Area within contour (acres)
0 400 730 965 1200 1520 2150 2600
NB. The general equation of hyperbola is x2 y2 a2  b2 =1 and the relationship between x (= S,, fraction) and y (= h, ft) can be fitted using the expression
164 h = 139 sinh x
where sinh x is lh (ex  eFX).
Example 8.2
The probabilistic distributions of reservoir properties are summarized in the following table at the cumulative frequency levels (equivalent to cumulative probability greater than a given value) of 90%, 50% and 10%. These data might correspond to minimum, most likely and maximum values. Compare the deterministic and probabilistic estimates of the recoverable reserve in stock tank barrels of oil.
Cumulative frequency level greater than given value Variable
Area (acres) Net thickness (ft) Porosity (fraction) Porosityoil saturation product (fraction) Initial oil formation volume factor (RBISTB) Recovery factor (fraction)
1780 225 0.125 0.099 1.214 0.17
2115 250 0.133 0.1 13 1.240 0.31
2450 275 0.140 0.127 1.260 0.52
8 VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATES AND RECOVERABLE RESERVES
133
References
[I] Archer, J.S. Reservoir volumetrics and recovery factors, In Developments in Petroleum Engineering, (Dawe, R . A . and Wilson, D.C. ,eds), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers (1985). [2] Walstrom, J.E., Mueller, T.D. and McFarlene, R.C. Evaluating uncertainty in engineering calculations, JPT (Dec. 1967), 1595. [3] Van Rijswijk, J.J. et al. The Dunlin field, a review of field development and reservoir performance to date, Paper E U R 168, Proc. Europec (19801,217. I. [4] A ~ ~ S ( J . J . A statistical study of recovery efficiency, API Bull D l 4 (Oct. 1967), Am. Pet. Inst. [5] Bankhead, C.C. Processing of geological and engineering data in multi pay fields for evaluation, Pet. Trans. Reprint Series No 3, SPE o f A I M E (1970). 8. , , 161 . . ~ r a v s d nC.J. ~ayksian analysis  a new approach to statistical decision making, Pet. Trans. Reprint Series No 3, SPE of A I M E (1970), 215. [7] Ryan, J.M. Limitations of statistical methods for predicting petroleum and natural gas reserves and availability, Pet. Trans. R e ~ r i nSeries No 3. SPE o f A I M E (1970). 227. t [8] H&baugh, J. W., ~ o v e t o n : ~ and. ~ a & J.C. .~ , Probability methods in Oil E.xploration, J Wiley, New York (1977). [9] Pritchard, K.C. Use of uncertainty analysis in evaluating hydrocarbon pore volume in the RainbowZama area, JPT (Nov. 1970), 1357. [lo] Stoian, E . Fundamentals and applications of the Monte Carlo method, J. Can. Pet. Tech. 4 (1965), 120. 1111 Archer, J.S.  Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong., London (1983), Paper PD6 (1). 1121 SPE Standards pertaining to the estimating and auditing of oil and gas reserve information, JPT (July 1979), 852. [13] Martinez, A.R. and Ion, D.C. Classification and nomenclature systems for petroleum and petroleum reserves, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong. (1983), Study Group Report. [14] Van der Laan, G. Physical properties of the reservoir and volume of gas initially in place, In Proc. Symp. on the Groningen gas field, Verhandel Konikl. Ned Geol. Mijnbouwt Genoot Geol. Ser. 25 (1968), 25. [15] Hollis, A.P. Some petroleum engineering considerations in the change over of the Rough gas field to the storage mode, Paper E U R 295, Proc. Europec (1982), 175. [16] Hallett, D. Refinement of the geological model of the Thistle field, In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of North West Europe (Illing, L.V. and Hobson, G.D. ,eds), Inst. Pet., London (1981), 315. [17] Davis, J.C. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, Wiley Int. : NY (1973). [18] Krige, D.G. Two dimensional weighted moving average trend surfaces for ore valuation, Proc. Symp. Math. Stat. and Computer Appl. in Ore Valuation, Johannesburg SA (1966), 13. [19] Matheron, G. Principles of geostatistics, Econ. Geol. 58 (1963), 1246. [20] Garb, F.A. Oil and gas reserves classification: estimation and evaluation, JPT (March 1985) 373.
A
L
A
Chapter 9
Radial Flow Analvsis of Well
This chapter will serve as an introduction to the subject of pressure analysis in reservoir engineering. The theoretical basis of radial flow analysis and the rudiments of data analysis for buildup and drawdown in oil and gas wells are presented. Well test procedures are briefly discussed for exploration and development wells.
For a radial coordinate system (Fig. 9.1), with angular and vertical symmetry and isotropy, the resultingequation is
9.1 RADIAL FLOW IN A SIMPLE SYSTEM
Considerations of conservation of mass, of Darcy's equation for flow, and of an equation of state for a slightly compressible liquid lead to a linearized partial differential equation of flow for a fluid flowing in a porous medium. This equation is linear for the assumed conditions of constant @, p, k and small and constant compressibility. Solution is possible by Laplace transform methods (Hurst and van Everdingen .)I"[ and for more limited boundary conditions by applying the Boltzmann transformation:
Between the limits t = 0 and t (when s = x) then:
One solution applicable to well test analysis is the exponential integral, or line source solution [''I:
Fig. 9.1 Radial flow towards a well.
where, since the exponential integral of a negative argument is negative, an alternative nomenclature may be used:
9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE
CO
135
ei(x) = Ei(x)
=
9.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE LINE SOURCE SOLUTION
This exponential integral is calculable from the series
where @PC? x =4kt The boundary conditions necessary for this solution to apply are as follows: (a) external boundary is at infinity, re = a; (b) the rate is zero at the inner boundary r,, and is instantaneously changed to q at time zero and maintained constant
then: for small values of x (large values of ktl@yc?) Ei(x) = logex 0.5772 or ei(x) =  0.5772  logex =  EL(x)
+
(The terminology ei(x) =  Ei(x) is commonly used and values are shown in Fig. 9.2.) (c) the inner boundary r = r, is vanishingly small, r, + 0; (d) porosity, permeability, thickness and viscosity are constant; (e) compressibility is small and constant; (f) pressure gradients are small; (g) Darcy's law is valid. In spite of these apparently severe restrictions on the use of this equation, it has wide applications and will be valid for real systems (i.e. re # cc, r, # 0) provided that: (a) Dimensionless time for the radius at the inner boundary is greater than 510. The dimensionless time parameter is defined as follows:
Fig. 9.2 The functioneik).
This means that:
Since the wellbore radius is this radius in well testing, this condition is met within a few seconds or minutes of production in most cases. (b) There is no significant pressure drop at any outer boundary. This condition will be met if the dimensionless time for the outer boundary is small, e.g.
kt log,  0.809
+
Since all solutions of the diffusivity equation involve a coefficient qplkh, a generalization of solutions is possible in the form Since the dimensionless times are large for radii and times of practical interest, the simplified equation is valid in many situations.
I
136
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
where qpi2nkh is the coefficient for steady state radial flow, and PD(tD) is a dimensionless pressure function for the boundary conditions specified. The dimensionless pressure function will be a function of dimensionless time and may be a simple analytical function, or a complex function requiring numerical evaluation, depending upon the complexity of the boundary conditions. Tabulation or plots of PD(tD) for the more common idealizations of boundary conditions are available in the literature [','ll.
where p,,p =psi, q =STBID, p = cp, k h = m D ft, i.t = c,S, c,S, cfi(psi)1 r =ft, B, = RBISTB.
+
+
If t is in days
t,
=
0.006336kt $clGr2
9.4 APPLICATION OF ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS IN WELL TEST METHODS
Considering the equation for a well in an infinite reservoir
r
' 1
9.3 RADIAL EQUATIONS IN PRACTICAL UNITS
The constant rate, radial flow equation in Darcy units is
which in field units becomes
it is apparent that if this well is maintained at a constant rate of production, then a plot of P, against loget will yield a straight line, with a slope of qyi47ckh. If, then, the fluid viscosity is known. an estimate can be made of kh, the permeability thickness product of the formation. This estimate will be an estimate of the average kh in the area drained by the well during the test period, and consequently is representative of a very much greater reservoir volume than can be tested by coring or by wellbore survey methods.
TABLE 9.1
Characteristics of some current downhole pressure gauges (after Schlumberger)
Pressure type/ Temp. type Pressure range (psi) Temperature Pres. range ("C) accuracy % orpsi for10K Pres. resolution %fs orpsi forlOK Temperature Temperature accuracy resolution ("C) ("C)
Manufacturer Designation
Flopetrol Johnson Flopetrol Johnson GRC Geo Services Sperry Sun Lynes Lynes
SSDPISG
Strain gauge Junct, trans HP xtal Plat. Res. Capacitance Plat. Res Strain gauge or Plat. Res Strain gauge Strain gauge Quartz
10 000 15 000 (option) 13 500 10 000 5 000 10 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 10 000 5 000
01 50
i 5 psi
0.02 psi
k0.5"
k0.06"
SSDPICRG EMR 502 EPG 520 Derneter
0150 01 50 0150
i0.035% i 3 . 5 psi
0.02 psi
k0.3" +I0 i0.3"
0.03"
t0.09% FS 0.01 psi i 9 psi i0.04% t4psi k0.05% + 5 psi 0.012% 1.2 psi 0.005% 0.5 psi
fl o
0.02"
MRPG MK Ill DMR 3121200 DMR 31 4/200
0150 0125 0105
0.03" +lo +lo 0.03" 0.14"
+0.25%FS 0.025% +25 psi 2.5 psi +O.O5%FS 0.01 % i 5 psi 1 psi
9
RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE
137
The problem in this case is the practical one of accurate measurement of the small pressure drops normally encountered, at the fairly high absolute pressures involved. The characteristics of some current downhole pressure gauges are reproduced in Table 9.1. Rates of pressure decline may be substantially less than 1 psilday in extensive reservoirs with large permeabilities or thickness. Standard pressure gauges in use have an accuracy of 0.10.2%, but may be sensitive to pressure changes of 0.25  0.5 psi
( a ) Radial flow system
 and since the pressure differences are more
important than the absolute value of the pressure, these can give the data required in many cases. More sensitive gauges are available which are capable of detecting pressure changes of a few hundredths of psi, but the significance of these small changes in a flowing well may be obscure. For prolonged testing, surface recording pressure gauges are available and eliminate the possible failurg of clockwork or battery driven recording mechanisms. The procedure of measuring the pressure decline
1v Radial Log A t
( b ) Spherical flow system
I
I I
Log
t
fi
1 /Kt
r
4~
LO^ n t
/ 1iv /
Spherical flow
Fig. 9.3 Behaviour of pressure against time plots in spherical and radial flow in an infinite homogeneous reservoir (after [391). (a) Radial flow system, (b) spherical flow system.
~
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
( a ) Homogeneous reservoir
Log
At
Linear flow Log At
( b ) Finite capacity fractured reservoir
Log
At
4fi
'a Jl
I
Log
At
Fig. 9.4 Contrast in well test plots for assumed linear flow mechanism in infinite homogeneous and fractured reservoirs (after [391). (a) Homogeneous reservoir, (b) finite capacity fractured reservoir.
in a producing well is known as drawdown testing and is usually undertaken for purposes other than kh measurement, which can normally be done more convenientiy by pressure buildup testing. In many reservoir geometries the pressure changes with time will indicate a number of influences:
(a) For some time following start of flow, the pressure at the wellbore is not influenced by the drainage boundary of the system. and analysis can be conducted as if the system was infinite. The solution is said to be a transient or early time solution. (b) At some later time the influence of the
The ideal drawdown and buildup plots are only rarely seen. Transitionstarts1 before end of I W..4411.) I)'infinite" systems 2..5 show some responses under different boundary conditions.3.5 0. ... Closed system 3.. 9.5 PRESSURE BUILDUP ANALYSIS A pressure buildup survey involves measuring the changes in pressure which occur after a flowing well has been shutin.0. Many techniques have been proposed to identify the reason for anomalies [43... This dimensionless approach is often used to match observed well response to properties of a particular reservoir type.5 Summary of wellireservoir model responses in different reservoir systems (after [42'). nearest reservoir system boundary is experienced at the wellbore and the solution is said to be a late transient or middle time solution.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Homogeneous reservoir Model Double porosity reservoir interporosity flow 4)Pseudo steady 15) Transient state . 1o2r Approx~matestart of semi log straight line CD~" Fig. 9. If possible. The uncertainties in interpretation remain linked to assumptions of boundary conditions applied in solution of the original diffusivity equation. capacity and permeability.lnf~nite Infinite m=Seml logs lope No flow representing infinlte acting radial flow . 1 0.... Fractured wells ')  (With Xflow) Loglog g piot g _1 I ! Semi log plot (Cartesian) I Derivative plot 8 3 1 J/\ 05 7 : . lines develop I .6 Combined derivative and pressure type curve (after [321). 9.6 is a typecurve showing combined pressure and pressure derivative curves ["I. Figure 9.5 "Trans' . and Figs 9.. 9.Pressure mantenance boundary Key 1~ conductivity Uniform flux wellbore storage 21. and interpretation is frequently difficult and ambiguous.. 139 (z:ek$. the flowing pressure prior to shutin should also be recorded. especially in the absence of good geological and structural information.S I I I Fig. The change from transient to semisteady state conditions depends particularly on reservoir geometry.. (c) When the rate of change of wellbore pressure becomes constant in time then semisteady state stabilized flow conditions have been established.4 and 9.
has the physical significance P* = P. the discontinuity in the flow is removed by the technique of superpositior.809 .pXafter some depleton oftersomedeplet~on The pressure drop at r .log. At infinitely long shutin time t+At . 1' 0 tLAt .0. due to a positive rate of production q.. time after shutin) is given by the sum of these expressions: I r The permeability thickness product of the reservoir is obtained from Consequently a plot of P(A. The net pressure drop at any time t + At (i.. At + loge .9 Pressure buildup analyses at initial time and after significant reservoir production.6qpB kh . The use of type curves [32.7. as shown in Fig.8 A Horner plot (field units slope = m 162. maintained for a time t + At (At being the time after shutin) is qp AP1 = . 9.. then the change to zero rate at time t is effected by continuing the production.140 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I I T o enable the analytical equation to be used for pressure buildup analysis.7 Constant rate flow followed by constant rate shutin..6 SKIN EFFECT It is frequently found that observed pressures in the very early part of a buildup do not agree with the theoretical relation. If the well is considered to have flowed at rate q for a time t. so that the total rate is zero.9). It is important to identify the appropriate reservoir model for type curve matching and the use of pressure derivatives reduces but does not eliminate ambiguity.. at Fig. 1 The pressure due rate of production is the negative Fig.2 1 I I 9 ..unity + At + where units are field units. . some . 9. 1 I 2 x 4 _dddI I I I I ! 1 lo3 .) (the pressure measured in the well at time after shutin) against log.e. the data are plotted on semilog paper. + log. or for wells tested early in the life of the reservoir. Conventionally. Better agreement is obtained if it is assumed that in the vicinity of the wellbore.a'* . prior to shutin. and the best straight line fitted to obtain a slope of rn psi/loglo cycle. slope=m= t 6 2 6 q p .411in analysis of pressure buildup is increasingly popular. This is known as a Horner plot (Fig. ... and m is the slope in psi/loglo cycle. but from time t superimposing a negative rate 4. 9. 9.p*lntiol = Fig. Pressure drops are usually larger (rarely smaller) than theory would indicate. qC( log. (t+At) 4xkh I .. even when corrections for afterflow production are made.k .8).809 @C1cr. 9. for the infinite reservoir. and many examples of responses can be found[']. 9.k* F _. Extrapolation of the straight line to infinite shutin time gives an extrapolated pressure Pxwhich.. (Fig. ( t At)/At should give a straight line of slope qu14nkh. 9./* /* */* / 10 ! . + 0. py L / 109 *p nltlol ..+ AP2 = 4nkh @C1Er. .
units the resulting equation used with a solution at one hour of shutin time (Plh): I I + . steady state pressure drop. given as the product of a flow rate function. where S = skin factor in a zone of altered kh compared to the bulk formation kh as shown in Fig.809+2S $yErwZ 1 where P. The equation for the pressure at the flowing well at the instant of shutin is: Pi . filtrate invasion and consequent clay swelling or water blocking etc. Physical reasons for such an impediment are obvious and include: incomplete. = ft..P W f = .0. or practical.809 + 2 S @l. Pwf psi.f loget = 4nkh 2+ + log. 9. All these effects are local to the wellbore. and a dimensionless skin factor: the pressure at closedin time is: L J and for small At (early shutin times) Pi . this has limited application. inaccurate or plugged perforations. "skin" Fig. The magnitude of the skin factor can be found from a pressure buildup survey as will be shown.10 Concept of altered zone around wellbore. . 9. Conventionally and conveniently At is taken as 1 and the equation manipulated to yield S.'. and so flow within this damaged zone can justifiably be considered as steady state.AP. and S makes it difficult to calculate kh from flowing pressure data alone. Efficiency = P* . It is possible. At ir P(A*) qp . .log. p = cp. k = = mD. for values of At such that t + At+(.Pwf APsk~n= *.can then be considered as a rate proportional. Altered zon. The effect of damage . mudding off of formation or perforations by drilling fluid solids. For any other value of At (subject only to the restriction t At + t ) + . to interpret the skin factor as a zone of radius r.the skin effect .P. I$ = fraction. . 7 = (psi)' and r. The ratio of theoretical pressure drop to the actual pressure drop may be considered an index of the flow efficiency: P* . m = slope psi per loglo cycle.S in field units when rn is in psi/logIo cycle. and in field.P(sr)= Zh 4nkh [loget . but not generally very useful. within which the permeability is altered to some value k. The pressurl drop in the skin is given by Note that uncertainty in the values of k/@pc.lErw 1 2s (in Darcy units) 4nkh or 0.10.log. affecting only a very small volume of the reservoir.87 m.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE impediment to flow exists..P. or k. when: The total pressure drop for a flowing well in an infinite reservoir is then the transient solution r 1 but since it is not possible to assign an unambiguous value to either r.0.
defined as the radius of a well in a reservoir of uniform permeability giving the same pressure drop as the real system. and pressure fluctuation or gauge drift and vibration do not obscure the trend.ves Note that the average reservoir pressure P i s P= rw A plot of pressure against time on linear (Cartesian) coordinate paper should be a straight line. and results . The literature gives equations for the analysis of the intervening period (tDe equal to 0. is given by rw (effective) = r. after stimulation treatments. If flowing well pressures are recorded.1 Negative skin factors It is possible. then the drawdown test (or reservoir limits test) can yield an estimate of hydrocarbon in place in a closed reservoir.2 q At rn .. If a test can be prolonged sufficiently to reach this semisteady state period. In this case: since qdt = Vp . i. the plot may yield values of kh. for an aquifer of volume Vw using nomenclature from Chapter 10 NpBo = N B o 2 C e AP + V w L AP At early times. = (psi)' and q = stblD. [rJrw] + S . the log approximation to the exponential integral solution will be appropriate. If flow is continued then at some time (usually estimated as tD = 0. then the physical interpretation of the situation is normally that the effective well radius has been increased. to obtain negative skin factors.e./At. pressure will fall more rapidly than is predicted by the infinite reservoir equation.2) The definition of 7 will determine whether total pore volume or hydrocarbon pore volume is calculated. and c. It may be noted that the presence of an aquifer can influence interpretation through its volume and compressibility.0418qB0 (SF reservoir barrels where (S = psilh (slope).7 PRESSURE DRAWDOWN AND RESERVOIR LIMIT TESTING By the time the initial disturbances due to bringing a well on production have died out. and efficiencies or completion factors greater than 1. reducing the value of the log term of the righthand side. and the flow equation will be The pore volume is therefore v. then  162. a plot of Pwfagainst log time will be a straight line of slope qpl4kh. At some later time (again usually taken as tD = 0.1 to 0. . i. = 0. a significant pressure change will occur at the boundary.1 for the outer boundary of a symmetrical system).3 for the outer boundary) the reservoir is assumed to reach a pseudo steady state condition when the pressure at all points of the reservoir is falling uniformly with time and the equation for the pressure at a flowing well is obtained as follows: Since qo= NpB.3). dp then 4t p = p. (log. but the theoretical justifications are dubious. This effective well radius. With a noflow boundary condition.142 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 9. The slope of this line is 1 Ye dV and d V = Zxrhrpdr 4 9.6. If the kh is apparently unchanged by the stimulation.w f 1 nr:h@i. therefore.
as P' shown in Fig.P.12 shows the loglog plot of back pressure test data. although the empirical equations in use give no insight into reservoir behaviour. This equation is not strictly the result of any particular flow law.5 (turbulent) and 1. C = coefficient. The empirical relationship between rate and flowing pressure used to correlate data is known as the back pressure equation: A single constant rate test for a well described by a nonDarcy flow equation will give kh and the extrapolated pressure. requiring a quadratic equation for a realistic description of the pressure drop rate relationship. Dividing through by Q we can transform the equation into a linear form with slope B and intercept A (Fig. A is the coefficient of Darcy flow. Empirical test methods were developed for the statutory control and regulation of gas wells and Figure 9. The loglog slope is defined as ratelAP. [rel'w] T . standard volumes per day. One advantage of these methods is that testing at more than one rate is required so that inertial effects can be investigated.11): reservoirs [8. . the exponent n (the slope of the loglog plot) would be unity. . kh ~ z log . Pwf = stabilized flowihg bottomhole pressure. = static reservoir pressure. 9.['] " $la 9.11 Correlation of high rate gas test data.8 GAS WELL TESTING ' High rate gas wells are one common example of departure from the simple Darcy equation. P. If the flow were true Darcy flow of an ideal gas under steady state condition. and B is a coefficient of nonDarcy flow. However. and may not describe accurately the productive potentials of wells. data in this region can be used to determine minimum hydrocarbon in place since the slope of the linear scale pressure:time plot declines monotonically. and a pore volume (or BBLs of hydrocarbon per acre ft) can be estimated for this region. gas properties and interval open to flow but is always treated as a grouped term. with the coefficient C given as C = constant . However. 9. .?) on loglog scales. over moderate ranges of flow rate. More advanced interpretation of such interference effects is possible. B is some function of rock properties. so that observation of pressure in a well offsetting a producing test well can indicate the time when the radius of disturbance reached this point.0 (laminar).12. n = slope. 9. The basic equation for these conditions is known as the Forchheimer equation: 1 Q Fig.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE ambiguous and uncertain. between 0. and is invalid if a very wide range of flow rates is studied. but is not considered in this text.P . Approximate radial flow analysis indicates that the transient stage can be considered as pseudo steady state flow within a moving boundary (the radius of disturbance). and any slope taken at a time prior to semisteady state should be larger (and so the pore volume estimate should be smaller) than the value calculated for the steady state condition. but will not define inertial effects.1']. or inertial effect correction. test results will generate an approximate straight line when q is plotted against ( . The usual form of equation used in field practice where flow to the wellbore is essentially radial is A(P2) = A Q = B Q~ where P* = F2 . where Q = flow rate.  and the p u 2 term is a kinetic energy.
9. The test itself may be termed an AOF test . In this case.I developed to reduce the test duration' ' [ The isochronal test uses the flowing pressures after identical flow durations at each rate.1 Isochronal testing The requirement of stabilized flow and full buildup between flow rates may require very prolonged testing periods in low permeability reservoirs.8.3 Analysis of multirate data The empirical back pressure equation If the flow were fully turbulent the exponent n would be 0. but a combination of a Darcy flow equation and a power series expression for z can lead to a value of exponent other than 1. the flow periods chosen. Consequently. but will be parallel to it.2%ih) but with short flowing periods the buildup periods are also short..8. Unless stabilized conditions are attained ir. the theoretical flow rate corresponding to this value is termed the absolute open flow potential). it is desirable for a test at one flow rate to be prolonged until stabilized conditions are attained. 9. When multirate data are available it is more useful to revert to one of the basic flow equations in field units: (semisteady state) 9. although it may be useful in characterizing well performance. The results are then plotted on loglog scales. Q = C (P: .8.e.pwf2) = P (i. in which identical flow and shutin periods are adopted. and modified standardized test procedures have been . and measuring Pwf The well can then be allowed to buildup to static pressure. The standard test procedure involves producing wells at a constant rate. and this procedure may further reduce the time necessary for testing in low permeability formations. the loglog plot of the + BQ2 il(p2) = A Q where (transient) + BQ2 0. . Between each rate.5. 9.472 re A = . Log scale rate  Fig. the last value of shutin pressure before flow is used instead of P.Pwf).144 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE data will not be coincident with the true back pressure curve. until the flowing bottomhole pressure approaches stabilization.2 Modified isochronal testing A further modification may be used. and this will frequently be the case. this point when plotted giving the position of the back pressure curve.5 and 1 are generally taken as indicating the existence of some inertial effect.pwf2)" is not especially helpful in predicting reservoir characteristics or in analysing the components of pressure drops. the static pressure in the term (P.or absolute open flow test. Values of n between 0. the well shoilld return to the fully builtup conditions ((dpiPdt) < 0. the pressures not necessarily being the stabilized pressure.12 Back pressure test analysis. and a test carried out at a new rate.[lo& 1422pzT kh + S] semisteady state . and P : the line extrapolated to the value ( : . this may be repeated for three or four rates.
9. The drill string is customarily used as the flow string (Fig. 9. Q = MSCFID. without the well being completely equipped for continuing production. P = psia.m(Pwf)_ 1422TQ loge5 .1 Drill stem testing A drill stem test is a temporary completion of a well. I . y = cp. Drill stem tests may be run in open hole. . .13) (hence the term drill stem test). intervals can be tested selectively in a series of drill stem tests. and in evaluating the productivity of individual wells. conforming to the equation S'=S+DQ where 9. When testing in cased holes. and by use of a retrievable bridge plug and the testing tool. thereby eliminating the need to run a casing string. Because of cost considerations. =  $ +s ]+ FQ' 9. and the well then killed prior to abandonment or permanent completion. a number of intervals can be perforated for test at one time. the greatly increased possibility of sticking pipe and losing the hole. enabling the well to be brought on production without a production flow string and wellhead. A review of currently used equipment and techniques is referenced in ['']. It is perfectly possible for a stimulated well with a true negative skin to exhibit large positive apparent skin factors. severely limit the utility of openhole tests. L + 0. kept for this purpose. Because of the localized nature of the nonDarcy effect. k mD. for pressure surveys to be made.2 Testing tools and assemblies There are the essential components in an assembly of testing tools. T = OR(= 460 O F \ + = It must be remembered that the skin factor calculated from a constant rate test will generally involve a nonDarcy component unless the rate is verv low. Progressive testing of increasingly thick intervals allor~s assessment of productivity and zone contributions.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 145 or x T I kh [$(loget. but does not enable the skin effect to be separated from the Darcy effect.m(Pwf) correlated with rate: m ( p > . although in some cases the test tool assembly may be run on a tubing string.1' It is more appropriate[341 use the real gas to pseudopressure m(P) defined as m(P)=2 9.r = ft. but the uncertainty in obtaining a good packer seat. where 1422T and D Q is known as the rate dependent skin This provides one method of isolating the nonDarcy effect.809) + S 1 (transient) 1 and B = nonDarcy coefficient. . h. upon which will depend the number of wells needed to obtain a specified rate of production. and tests in cased holes are very much to be preferred. and care should be exercised in determining'a B correlation. the first tests on an exploration or appraisal well may be made by means of drill stem tests. rearranging the equation as D Fkh The analysis of multiple rate for the apparent skin effect S' will result in a set of rate dependent data. andthe lack of selectivity in testing.9.9 WELL TEST PROCEDURES Tests of the flowing behaviour of discovery and appraisal wells are necessary. both to help in determining reservoir parameters. Pb 1 :p  and either A ( ~ ( P ) ) ' or m(F) . it is possible to regard this as a local additional rate dependent skin effect.
They can be operated reasonably reliably under the conditions of a floating drilling vessel. When the test packer is set.PETROLEUM ENGINE:ERlNG: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Grili pipe to surface =ormotton fluid in drill pipe Moin valve Maln valve closed . by means of a packer. This serves to throttle the flow of the well and dissipate some of the pressure of the system. 4. 9. perforating debris etc. Since the initial flow period will displace drilling fluid (possibly gelled). fluid would be released only as stands are broken on the derrick floor. Choke assembly On a first test of a formation when pressures and potentials are unknown. The mud column in the annulus must then be isolated from the test interval. 3. Packer The interval to be tested must be exposed to a reduced pressure in order to induce flow. When pressures are known. which may plug narrow restrictions in valves and chokes. . relieving the wellhead assembly of excessive pressures. 1. mud cake. Equ~lizlng valve open  Formation fluid About to set packer Test In progress Test term~nated.. or a selected size run to control pressures and rates. imposing less restriction to flow than the mechanically operated types. The valve is operated by vertical movement of the drill pipe. A hydraulic control system delays the opening of the valve when drill pipe weight is applied so that the drill pipe weight can be used for setting the packer without opening the valve. inducing flow. against a spring holding the valve normally closed. a bottomhole choke will generally be run. about to pull out Fig.13 Drill stem testing. . opening of the test valve exposes the test interval to the low pressure of the drill pipe bore. and the valve will not open with a temporary hold up when running in the hole. which enables the drill pipe to be run wholly or partially empty of drilling fluid. some screening system is necessary at fluid inlets. Reverse circulating sub Since the tester valve will be closed when the pipe is pulled. 2. Valves operated by changes in annulus pressure are increasingly used instead. Tester valve This is the main valve in the tool. if there were no means of opening the drill pipe bore to the annulus. chokes may be omitted completely. The reverse circulation sub provides this connection and eliminates the necessity of spilling formation fluids (since these can be circulated out before pulling). and also enables the pipe to be pulled essentially dry.
and with one blanked off.result. some back pressure is maintained on the formation immediately after the tester valve is opened. (a) Amerada pressure gauge. Pressure gauges predetermined pressure. The safety joint enables the test string to be The main object of the cushion is to ensure that detached at some point above the packer. .) As an alternative to a water cushion. If a 6. but The water cushion is a column of water contained assist in the recovery of the test string. bottom valves at the end of the final flow period.14 Principle of the Amerada gauge. or damage to. data analysis known accuracy. (b) Amerada chart for a typical pressure buildup survey in a producing well. The first signifi A movement d i m e 1 :. as close as possible to bottomhole press. that is Accurate interpretation of test results requires concontained within a chamber with ports to the tinuous monitoring of all events. be test string. leading to plugging of.14 shows the princiImmediately after the valve is opened. which should be carefully calibrated gauges of 9. Cushion These are not essential to the test operation. commonly with one gauge in the flow stream. so that packer or any other part of the tool becomes stuck. an explosively violent period of flow could pressure. in case the within the drill pipe above the tester valve. Safety joints and jars 8. it taneously exposed to a pre5sure effectively atmosmay be desirable to obtain a fluid sample at a pheric. A secondary concern in very deep high pressure (Note that this is a flowing sample and does not wells is that of preventing collapse of the test string necessarily correspond to a true sample of reservoir due to the unbalanced annulus mud column pressure. tools. but a test will always use two gauges. Samplers moderately high pressure formation were instanParticularly when flow does not reach the surface. 9. but with no flow through the chamber. giving a variable cushion Any type of pressure gauge ['jZ4. ure. fluid. so that as much wellbore. Samplers are available which close top and and possible damage to unconsolidated formations. as clocks. gauge characteristics. a pressure  Time (b) + Base line Fig. Figure 9.9."]can run with a effect as the nitrogen is bled off. the test string is not run completely empty.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 147 5. data as is possible on flow and pressure can be Table 9. formation fluids flow into the well.1 shows some current downhole pressure subsequently reconstructed.y:ureo> 1 depth survey \ Lnt: \ . the test string can be pressure charged with nitrogen to any 7.3 Test procedures. flow may ple of the rugged Amerada gauge with mechanical be detected by a blow of air at the surface.
a shaped charge is fired through a sealing packer giving a flow channel from the formation to sample chamber.oil being tested through a separator. 9. to be obtained from a selected interval. but the flow and pressure data are generally of poor quality. When the well has cleaned up and formation fluids are flowing. the sample chamber seal valve may be closed and the tool left in place to record a buildup. erode or damage orifices.15 Test burners. in certain circumstances. The difference between this time and instant of valve opening. however. The repeat formation tester (vertical pressure logging) The earlier tools have now been replaced by an openhole testing tool that measures the vertical pressure distribution in a well. It is. a valve is opened and a hydraulic intensifier expands a backup shoe. materially complicating analysis. and very limited pressure data. can often result in data going unrecorded for significant periods.4 Wireline testing 1. 2.15 shows test burners. and the extent of transition zones.148 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE cant measurement that can be made is the time of arrival of the water cushion at the surface. Figure 9. 9. with frequent changes of chokes (and so of rate) in attempts to stabilize and control flow. with gas being vented or flared through a meter and oil being stored or burned off. Difficulties with burners. measures effective permeability. and choke pressures should be routinely recorded. and if this fills with formation fluid a pressure buildup is subsequently recorded. If there is no flow in open hole.) Bleeding down the hydraulic pressure releases the tool for pulling. The formation tester (FT) and formation interval tester (FIT) These are devices run on electric wireline enabling a small sample of formation fluid. Since there will usually be mud solids. because of cutting of the cushion by formation solids. Analysis of the flow and Fig. A piston device and an associated packer can be actuated to force a probe through mud cake and allow the flow of smdl volumes of fluid (about 10 cc) into each of two pretest chambers (Figs. in mud pressure ratings up to 20000 psi and mud temperatures to 35O"F. and followup drill stem or production tests are necessary. The sample chamber is small (generally taking a 10 litre sample). and a robust mass flow meter would be of help in analysing such flow periods. Pressures are monitored from the surface. possible formation solids which may plug. can be used to estimate a flow rate for this period.9. Alternatively. In operation. recovers formation fluid samples and. and the void volume of the test string. possible to use choke pressures to estimate the magnitude of flows.17). 9. openhole tests may recover only mud filtrate. separators. debris. forcing the tool and two sealing packers against the formation of casing wall. The device is designed to operate in openhole sizes between 6" and 143/4". and other surface equipment. but an Amerada gauge is generally connected to the sampling system for a more accurate measurement.16 and 9. but in casedhole it should generally be possible to recover formation fluid. One such device which has found frequent application is known by its Schlumberger trade name of the repeat formation tester or RFT. The tool may be particularly useful in locating hydrocarbonwater contacts. The end of the water cushion may be more difficult to estimate. (Photo courtesy of BP.) . this period is not metered. attempts are made to stabilize flow . or if the hole is cased. (This could lead to an overpressured condition in some circumstances. If filtrate invasion is severe.
Sample chambers between 1 and 12 gallons can be fitted for saving a fluid sample in extended flow. Fig.5 psi for temperatures f1°C of true. 9. .16 Schematic of the RFT tool.19.17 Photograph of the RFT tool. . The deviation between current and initial gradients in a producing reservoir can provide a basis for interpretation of reservoir depletion and crossflow by matching in reservoir simulation[26461. The builtup pressure response at a number of depth points in a well I3l1 is shown in Fig. the probe can be retracted and reset at a different vertical location in the well. and the log is compared with the initial pressure gradient of the reservoir. . . This difference will only be significant 'in lower permeability formations but . The builtup pressure is recorded by a strain gauge and can be backed up with a high precision quartz gauge with accuracy typically around 0. After each pretest pressure buildup. 9. A n example of the pretest pressure response in a well is shown in Fig. 30 In many instances the pressure measured by the tool will be the pressure of filtrate which is less than hydrocarbon pressure by the magnitude of capillary threshold pressure. . 9.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Mud cake 4 / b . Flow line Chamber 2 probe closed Seal valve chamber Probe open and sampling Fig. J ~ r e s s u r e gauge valve (to mud column) Chamber 1 .18. . . . 9. . In this way any number of pressure data points may be logged in a well. Formation 1 Seal valve to upper chamber . buildup curves using spherical and cylindrical flow analysis may lead to an estimate of effective permeability.
9. Under these conditions long drawdown. positive displacement meter readings.g. Gas flow rates will generally be measured by orifice meters. flow string and any necessary downhole production equipment (storm chokes. safety valves etc. Good testing practices involve the monitoring of bottomhole pressures with a subsurface gauge. The production facilities may be temporary (e. with the final casing and liner (if run).) installed. It is frequently a practice to flow a well for clean up before beginning a production test proper. but since this period will induce pressure transients it is desirable that some monitoring of this period through orifice meter or burning line pressures should be maintained. The Christmas tree and surface controls will be installed.10. and continuous monitoring of oil and gas flow rates. interference and buildup tests of days' or weeks' duration may be undertaken. tank dips. handling capacities and manpower availability. a range of flow rates may be utilized to help establish the productivity index and inflow performance of a well. Oil flow rates may be measured by one or more of the following: orifice meter readings.10 WELL TESTING AND PRESSURE ANALYSIS 9. enabling very much more significant pressure data to be obtained. leads to the conclusion that RFT gradient intersection may represent a hydrocarbon water contact rather than a free water level (see Chapter 6). and the stabilized flow conditions giving better oil and gas samples than is possible on shorter tests. essentially constant rate. flow and buildup survey.when there is a divided  . and the produced hydrocarbon will not generally be flared (although gas associated with produced oil may be burnt off).PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Digital pressure record ( psi ) o Analog lo4 interpretat~on First Second Pressure record from RFT test (pretest) at a glven depth in the wall Fig. unless it is certain that the reservoir returns to an equilibrium state before the production test. 9. and testing is limited only by the restraints of production facilities. and of annulus (when open) and wellhead pressures. or permanent. but this should always be secondary to establishing a valid.1 Production testing Production tests are carried out after a well has been completed. Separator and tank samples should be monitored regularly for bottom settlings and water. It is particularly important that all events should be properly recorded . With prolonged testing.18 Pressure record from RFT test (pretest) at a given depth in the well. Rolo tester or other portable tester).
choke changes. Interpretation may be difficult enough under ideal conditions. Accurate times. wellhead. with missing or inaccurate data it may become impossible! . recording of datum levels used (SS.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE 151 responsibility for bottomhole gauges and surface separator readings. annulus. bottomhole. accurate recording of rates and GORs are essential to accurate interpretation of test data. flow line and separator pressures. it is sometimes possible for essential data to be omitted from reports. RKB or wellhead tend to be used indiscriminately without being logged).
152 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Examples Example 9.15 r = 10cm u = 0. y.7535 RBISTB If net pay thickness is 60 ft. = 0.05 D = = = Example 9.5 4943 3. 7 ~ ~ 10 x 10~psi' 2400 cm r q t k 500 000 cm 250 000 ccsls 365 days = 0.7cp t = I s c = 10 x atm' k = 0.1 Calculate the dimensionless time tD for the following cases: (a) 4.3 Plot the following drawdown data and estimate the permeability thickness product.12 r = 10cm p = 0. 11.12 0 .01 D r = 100000 cm t = 10000 s k = 0. c as above r = 10cm t = 1000 s k = 0.2 Find the exponentia! integrals and pressure drops for the following cases: (a) 4. p c h = = = = 0.0 4937 6. Oil viscosity Oil formation volume factor 0.1D (b) +.5 cp 1.0 4935 9. what is the estimated permeability to oil? . time (h) pressure (psi) 0 5050 1.05 D h = 2400 cm q = 10 000 reservoir ccsis (b) (c) as above 4. = 0.0 4929 12 4927 18 4923 24 4921 48 4916 72 4912 Flowing rate was constant at 500 bopd.05 D Example 9.3 cp t =10s c = 15 x 10~atrn' k = 0. c as above (c) 4.
4 An oil well produces at 500 stbid for 60 days Initial reservoir pressure = 5050 psi Flowing pressure before shutin = 4728 psi Pressure buildup data: Shutin time (h) Pressure (psi) 0. k. The static pressure is 1800 psia. skin factor and completion factor.50 1.0 6.135 Effective fluid compressibility = 17 X (psi)' = 6 in.7 cp = 1.6 A test on a gas well gives the following results: Flow rate MSCFId Duration fh) Bottom hole pressure (psial .5 2. during which the following pressure record was obtained: Time (h) Pressure (psia) Time (h) Pressure (psia) 3 1438 84 1396 6 1429 96 1395 12 1420 120 1392 18 1415 144 1389 24 1412 168 1386 36 1407 192 1383 48 1403 216 1380 72 1398 240 1377 Calculate the order of magnitude of the oil in place.0 3.25 0.0 9. Example 9.0 18.0 36.365 RBISTB Effective compressibility of fluid in place = 15 x (psi)1 The well was tested at a constant rate of 500 bid. Effective well radius Calculate: kh. A fluid sample has the following properties: Oil formation volume factor = 1.5 A well discovers an undersaturated oil reservoir of thickness 50 ft. and pressure drop across skin.0 1.0 48 4967 4974 4981 4984 4987 4991 4998 5002 5008 5014 5017 Oil viscosity = 0.454 Oil formation volume factor Estimated net formation thickness = 120 ft Average porosity = 0.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE Example 9. Example 9.
Advances in Well Test Analysis. G . . Society of Petroleum Engineers.. (1976). 137. re = 138°F = 2515 psia = 0. (b) Determine permeability and apparent skin factors. D . [IS] Miller.S. J. [2] Matthews. ERCB 7534 (1975). (c) Determine inertial coefficients and inertial pressure drops. 75. [7] Gibson. [3] Dake. Pet.S. and Russell.. A.10 = 0. M. Monograph Series 5 SPE of AIME (1977). A new surface recording down hole pressure gauge. 46. Sci. Eng. Pet. L.2 Over the pressure range considered. Expl.P. W. G.. San Antonio (1972).154 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE The following buildup was then recorded: Shutin time (h) Pressure (psia) 1 2509.A. Well Testing.7 2 2511.7 3 2512.5 5 2513. F.H. The isochronal performance methods of determining the flow characteristics of gas wells. Canada.C.7 1. Calgary. [ l l ] Energy Resources Conservation Board Theory and Practice of Testing Gas Wells. Trans. SPE 4529. and Campbell. SPEJ (Feb. and Hazebroek. Determine A O F and slope.5 2510. (1973).91. M. The isochronal testing of oil wells.B. A method for determination of average pressure in a bounded reservoir. Devel.1 4 2512. A I M E 204 (1955). [5] Edwards. [6] Fetkovich. Pressure Build Up and Flow Tests in Wells. C.B. L . Trans.47rh Ann. A. C. Fall Mtg. 1974). 16(1). [14] Miller. R. SPE 4125. Monograph Series 1 SPE of AIME (1967). W. Dyes. Elsevier (1978).K.J. SPE 3016: 45th Ann. Trans. 1101 Khurana. [8] Energy Resources Conservation Board Guide for the Planning. [9] Hirasake. 182. [4] Cullender. A. 1 References [I] Earlougher. Conducting and Reporting of Subsurface Pressure Tests.0 6 2513. [12] Lee. (July 1974). Fall Mtg. (1970). Fall Mtg.64 = 5000 ft (a) Plot the back pressure curve. 0.. 8. Dallas (1982). Calgary: Canada. Brons. y. Aust.W. S. New generation drillstem testing tools/technology. Seeds.T. The estimation of permeability and reservoir pressure from bottom hole pressure build up characteristics. viscosity and compressibility factor can be considered constant at y = . Reservoir temperature Initial reservoir pressure Well radius Formation thickness Hydrocarbon porosity Gas gravity.48th Ann. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering.H. A I M E 201 (1954). and Shryock.4 ft = 200 ft = 0.017 cp z = 0. and Shira. J .856.J. G. 99. A. A I M E 189 (1950).A.C. 1131 Matthews.3 2.G. P. Influence of tidal phenomena on interpretation of pressure build up and pulse tests. ERCB Report 74T (Nov. Calculating the distance to a discontinuity from DST data. Pulse tests and other early transient pressure analyses for insitu estimation of vertical permeability. R.5 2511. H .J. C. C. and Hutchinson. in Pet. Textbook Series. 1974).
SPE (1975). E. L 2 L . 1975). J P T (May 1966). Ayoub.L. H. 54th Ann. Pet. and Farris. G.. AlHussainy.9 RADIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF WELL PERFORMANCE ' I I I I [16] Odeh. Advances in estimating gas well deliverability.J. W. SPEJ (Sept.P. T. SPE 5607. Off. Use of a well model to determine permeability layering from selective well tests.A. [40] Ramey. Well pressure behaviour of a naturally fractured reservoir. Fall Mtg. Pet.P. [30] Dake. H. (JulySept. J. Tech. J.T. and Colpitts. . 1968). SPE ofAIME (1979). Permagauge . 181. A. et al. Pressure transient testing. Characterisation of a gas well from one flow test sequence... M. 1970). R. and Ramey. J P T (Feb. Application of the repeat formation tester in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands. and Schueler.B. 1 (1951). 183.C. and Wittmann. Y. 196. Mon. Tech. Inflow performance relationships for solution gas drive wells.a review. S. J P T (Nov. ~onceining value of producing time in average pressure determinations from pressure build up analysis. P. 503. Proc. 1500. 1976). [31] Bishlawi.D.J. and Moore. [20] Timmerman. and Crawford. and van GolfRacht.D. A. [34] AlHussainy. Calif. 1 Pressure build up in wells. [32] Bourdet. 83.P. R. 335. Use of pressure derivative in well test interpretation.V. SPEJ (Aug. 205.H. 4 7 . Doc. 1980). [36] Streltsova.R.J. [37] Horner. [33] Gringarten. Can. 1985). and Woodbury. Pet. Reg.50th Ann. Proc.J. (1982).June 1972). The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoirs. Proc. Application of the line source solution to flow in porous media . Pressure derivative approach to transient test analysis: a high permeability North Sea reservoir example. Fall Mtn. SPEJ (June 1978). M081022 Schlumberger (1981). Trans. I171 Raghavan. Can. Interpretation of well block pressure in numerical simulation. J. T. [24] Weeks. Europ. 1972). A. G. S. J. J. Examples of pitfalls in well test analysis. G. [26] Stewart. E. 769. H. SPE (1969). [38] Baldwin. Mtg. and Pirard. J P T the (Nov. Fall Mtg. A Monte Carlo model for pressure transient analysis. . D . 33. (Apr. Pet. 2 5 2 7 . (1984). R. R. Cong.F. I. How areal heterogeneities affect pulse test results. J P T (July 1982). Europ.R. Paper EUR 166. 279. Pet. .54th Ann. [41] McGee. Moreland. Proc. Paper EUR 270. W ~test analysis: well producing by solution gas drive. SPE 8205. Conf. SPE 5587. 111. SPE (1979).E. SPE 2568. SPEJ (Oct. [35] Agarwal. SPEJ (June 1970). AIME 186 (1949) 305. [29] Schlumberger. A comparison between different skin and wellbore storage type curves for early time transient analysis. SPE 12959.J. 1965). 1983). SPE Paper 12777.G. Fall Mtg.a permanent surface recording downhole pressure monitor through a tube. Montrose field reservoir management. P. London (1984). R. L.M. Conf. M. The unified analysis of well tests. I421 Clark.E. G. [39] Erhaghi. H. and Hurst. Conf.31 [21] van Everdingen. Proc. J P T (Jan. H.50th Ann. Interpretation of the pressure response of the repeat formation tester. The flow of real gases through porous media. R. (1980). An investigation of wellbore storage and skin effect in unsteady liquid floilr. 1369. I [18] Ramey. 2023. [19]Ridley. D.44th Ann. i Practical use of drillstem tests. Fall Mtg. [22] Vogel. S. Prod. Pet. SPE 8362.F. [25] Wkestock: A. Europ. 3rd World Pet. J. 624. [28] Peaceman. Proc.E. D. and McKinley. Tech. (Dec. [23] Vela.G. A S .J. Ramey. (May 1967). Off.G. RFT: Essentials of Pressure Test Interpretation. (1975). r271 Pinson. 9. D. and van Poollen.K.
[46] Archer. Europ. J. 1 (Ed. World Oil (May 1983). Conf. Elsevier Applied Science (1985). (Ed. London (1984). 89. SPE 12966. Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation. Cong. E. 1471 Diemer . M. Some well test analysis results for a North Sea oil well.156 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [43] Wilson. 87. Proc. M. Barking (1985). Proc. C. A. Dawe and Wilson).R. [44] Gringarten.S. 11th World Pet. [45] Brouse. Proper equipment and techniques ensure better drill stem tests. In: Developments in Petroleum Engineering. In Developments in Petroleum Eng. . London (1983). Paper PD(l). Elsevier Applied Science. Interpretation of transient well test data. Pressure analysis: the hardware. Pet. Dawe and Wilson).
z G . %] This equation can be arranged in a linear form as shown in Fig. firstly Plz = P. Gp = standard condition volume of cumulative gas produced.P .1. greater than that of the reservoir pore volume: and P.vol1 stand. at Gp = 0 and secondly Gp = G at Plz = 0. energy may be added to the system in the form of injected fluids (secondary recovery).G .. B.).G. 10. = gas formation volume factor (res..vo1. Since the gas formation volume factor represents a ratio between reservoir and standard condition volumes then a simple equation of state can be used in its representation: 10.L) = (GGpIB.1 RECOVERY FROM GAS RESERVOIRS For an isothermal reservoir Ti T. from which The compressibility of gas is generally significantly z. A plot of Plz against the cumulative produced gas volume has two significant intercepts. i = subscript for initial conditions. some of the residual hydrocarbon trapped during conventional recovery processes may be mobilized (tertiary or enhanced oil recovery).Chapter 10 Reservoir Performance Analysis T Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir may make exclusive use of the inherent energy of the system (primary recovery). then G(B. The application of the Plz against Gp plot in the reservoir analysis of a depletion drive gas reservoir .lz. therefore = The expansion of gas in the reservoir pore space as pressure declines during production is the most significant mechanism in analysis of gas reservoirs.cond. in the absence of water influx the volumetric material balance reduces to the following expression or at reservoir conditions: E= 5Ilz zi Initial gas volume at initial pressure = remaining gas volume at lower pressure Using the termhology: G = standard condition volume of gas initially in place.
1 The P/z plot.) are denoted as F and the volume without water influx is therefore particularly useful expansion term (B. In addition.3 shows that the evaluation of We is a forcing exercise. A linear equation which can be solved by assuming values of We to force linearity can be written as follows: Abandonment value The relationship between the values of We indicated and reservoir pressure at the original gaswater contact can be used to establish the performance Fig. Water influx in a gas reservoir lowers the recovery factor GpIG by two mechanisms in comparison to normal depletion. Wp is + Fig. . The variation of field data from linearity is a fairly frequent observation and thus may be an indication of water influx (increasing pressure support) or aquifer depletion (decreasing pressure support by fluid transport to another reservoir).W.Bgi) as Ex. where We is the cumulative volume of water influx at reservoir conditions. steady state. Figure 10.. When the F = We + GEx value of G indicated by the plot is significantly different from volumetric estimates. as shown in Fig. The magnitude of trapped gas saturation is likely to be rate dependent. In this case the material balance equation must be written as follows. tions of reservoir continuity in the field might be questioned.2 shows the more usual representation of limited aquifer influx indicated by production data. Through partial maintenance of reservoir pressure by the influxed water the gas expansion process is arrested.B. 10.158 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE the surface condition volume of water produced from wells and B.3 Aquifer performance. 10. pseudo steady state: unsteady state. is the formation volume factor for water G(B. i. but for many sandstones the sparse literature suggests an .and the linearized equation is. 10. + We . the material balance in providing a further estimate of gas in place by equation becomes extrapolation of early production data.2 Effect of limited aquifer influx on the P/z plot  Figure 10.3. then assump. GP Fig. the water traps gas at relatively high pressures behind the advancing front.) = (GG.e. 10. classification of the aquifer.) B. If the production terms (Gp Bg Wp B.
is attained. Such comparisons often yield water influx: depletion recovery factor ratios of about 0. is the average residual gas saturation in the reservoir. When the critical gas saturation is established and if the potential gradients permit.e. At early times. Once the critical gas saturation has been established. permeability to gas increases. not usually considered separately. but there is considerable evidence to support the view that values may be very low . The permeability to oil will become lower than at initial conditions. or critical gas. the reservoir may be said to be operating under a particular drive. and the three principal categories of reservoir drive are: (1) solution gas drive (or depletion drive) reservoirs.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS order of 40% pore volume. as reservoir pressure declines towards abandonment pressure. (d) invasion of the original oilbearing reservoir by water from an adjacent or underlying aquifer. All replacement processes involve a reduction in pressure in the original oil zone. As more gas comes out of solution. where a = abandonment pressure conditions. so that pressures in undersaturated oil reservoirs will fall rapidly to the bubblepoint if there is no aquifer to provide water drive.1 Solution gas drive: analysis by material balance where Sg. Initially this gas may be a disperse discontinuous phase. the pressure will fall below the bubblepoint pressure and gas will come out of solution. and pressures may stabilize at constant or declining reservoir offtake rates under favourable circumstances. 10.of the order of 1 % to 7 % of the pore volume. a well producing from a closed reservoir will produce at solution GOR.the equilibrium. essentiaily immobile. There are several ways in which oil can be produced from a reservoir. Frequently two or all three mechanisms (together with rock and connate water expansion) may occur simultaneously and result in a combination drive. until some minimum saturation . A comparison of ultimate recovery factors for natural depletion and water influx can be made. gas will be mobile and will flow under whatever potential gradients may be established in the reservoir .77:l. saturation . and the gasoil ratio trend is to oil mobilitj~ reversed. (b) the release of gas from solution in the oil at and below the bubblepoint. (3) water drive reservoirs. and there will be a finite permeability to gas so that the producing gasoil ratio will rise. these expansion mechanisms are . As a result. Initially then. The actual order of values of critical saturation are in some doubt.2 PRIMARY RECOVERY IN OIL RESERVOIRS 1 Oil can be recovered from the pore spaces of a reservoir rock by expansion or only to the extent that the volume originally occupied by the oil is invaded or occupied in some way. Ultimately. i.towards producing wells if the flowing or viscous gradient is dominant . Segregation will be affected by permeability variations in layers but is known to occur even under apparently unfavourable conditions. (c) invasion of the original oilbearing reservoir by gas from a free gas cap. and where one replacement mechanism is dominant. rock and connate water is generally relatively small. Similarly. The analysis of drive mechanisms using a method of material balance follows the general form described by Schilthuis [I3].2. In addition to the effect of gas on saturation of. the producing GOR will decline. as pressure declines and gas comes out of solution. 10. the change in gas formation volume factor offsets the increasing gas ratio. gas will flow towards producing wells. The compressibility of oil. the ratio standard cubic ftlstock tank barrel may decline. and these may be termed mechanisms or drives. although pressure drops may be small if gas caps are large. and aquifers large and permeable. Possible sources of replacement for produced fluids are: (a) expansion of undersaturated oil above the bubblepoint. permeability to oil diminishes and this trend accelerates. and gas saturations increase. If a reservoir at its bubblepoint is put on production. but cannot flow to producing wells. (2) gas cap expansion drive reservoirs.segregating vertically if the gravitational gradient is dominant. although the reservoir GOR may continue to increase in terms of standard volumes.
. this expression becomes Therefore NpBo = N(B. + WinjB.) For oil production of an undersaturated reservoir from Pi down to bubblepoint pressure Pb.P). In well cemented reservoirs. The pressure reduction between initial and later conditions is accompanied by all or some of the following: expansion of remaining oil.. S. As the pressure falls below bubblepoint pressure. At any equilibrium stage a balance is made on the original reservoir content at original pressure and the current reservoir content at current pressure. = reservoir condition volume of oil initially in place.i can be represented as NBoLIVp. down to bubblepoint pressure c.. liberation and expansion of dissolved gas. = solution gasoil ratio (standard volumes) . + cgsg + cf. A reservoir conditions volumetric balance thus . = (B. The methods consider a number of static equilibrium stages of reservoir production during which pressure changes have occurred. The nomenclature for describing these processes between initial pressure Pi and some later pressure P is defined as follows: cumulative gas produced at surface (standard volumes). the pore volume compressibility may be small in comparison to gas and oil compressibility and may be ignored below bubble point. Since initial oil saturation S.. +c fj 4P + Wet The equation thus becomes transformed into Since. production of a cumulative volume of gas. = effective oil compressibility = cjlS. The pore volume compressibility cf is therefore a positive value with respect to fluid pressure reduction. = reservoir condition volume of cumulative oil produced. in the reservoir will fall below R. = AP = pressure change from initiaI conditions (= pi. The cumulative gas oil ratio Rp will then become greater than R.(Boi) Wet = net water influx in reservoir condition The middle term represents the expansion of connate water as fluid pressure is reduced and the compaction of pore volume as grain pressure is increased. 4P We1 The recovery factor for pressures down to bubblepoint becomes + (Boi)coe 4P We1 +. The solution gas drive performance of unconsolidated sand reservoirs and chalk reservoirs (such as those in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea) require consideration and inclusion of pore volume compressibility as it can be of the same order as oil compressibility [I5 221. volume units (= WeJQB. compaction of rock pore volume. = cumulative produced gasoil ratio (standard volumes) (= GpINp). gas from solution is released and may form free gas saturation in the reservoir oriand be produced. and the remaining solution gasoil ratio R. the loss of gas from solution also increases the viscosity of the oil and decreases the formation volume factor of the oil. the solution gasoil ratio remains constant in the reservoir. injection of a cumulative volume of gas. = stock tank volume of cumulative oil produced. = total compressibility = coS.i)l(Bo)iAP then in terms of the effective oil compressibility c.160 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE and permeability to. production of a cumulative volume of water: injection or influx of a cumulative volume of water. = stock tank volume of oil initially in place.B. + c... )c. the decrease in fluid pressure is equal to the increase in grain pressure. or volumetric balance techniques. A reservoir condition volumetric balance is thus NpBo = N B. expansion of connate water. The analysis of performance of a solution gas drive reservoir can be conducted by use of reservoir condition material balance.. . For a constant overburden pressure. oil.NB. production of a cumulative volume of oil.. then i )+ i Vp C. The pore volume is represented by vp.S.
and the current pressure is + and is indicated in Fig. In other situations.) + G.. + WpB.Rs) Bg + A p (cw S w i + cf) (Boil 1 .) N....S. . Production volumes and PVT properties from field data are required for the analysis. .4 (a). Following the nomenclature used by Havlena and Odeh [*I. B. equivalent to total production with the volume change associated with remaining and influxed fluids and adjusted pore volume.NR. (B. 10. The expansion of original oil between pressure PI and current pressure is NB. the energy contribution of compaction drive cannot be ignored even at quite high gas saturations. Values of We are chosen to provide the required linearity and will then indicate the aquifer character. 1 + wef In high pore volume compressibility reservoirs such as chalks and unconsolidated sands. as shown in Fig.R. the production and expansion terms can be grouped as follows: Fig. In the absence of any influx terms.) The expansion of liberated solution gas expressed in reservoir volumes at the current pressure is NR.B..4 (b).10 RESERVOlR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS becomes an equation of the change in reservoir volume.(Boil) + (R$i. 10.RsNpB.) yields a straight line through the origin with slope N. pore volume and connate water compressibility can be small in comparison with gas compressibility and is often ignored in calculations. The change in hydrocarbon pore volume between pressure P. . a plot of F against (E. The material balance equation for a solution gas drive has also been represented in its static form ignoring pore volume compressibility as follows: N= and the balance equation can be represented more easily for calculation purposes as F = N ( E . .N(B.4 Representation of field data using Havlena and Odeh methods. . The production of oil and free gas together with any water is A linearization which yields IV as an intercept and has unit slope is given by NpBo RpNpB. B.Rs) Bg + We' . + E. The net influx terms are represented by We' The balance therefore becomes + (Rsi . 10.B. + Ef.( W e f ) (Bo .
Therefore Fig.).001.~+ AN. D = (B.R.. so Ri(k) represents the estimated value of R at time j for k guesses from k = 1 to n. then for a pressure decrement from Pil to P.e. it is necessary to estimate the average producing gasoil ratio R during the decrement: .We' F. an analysis in terms of unit stock tank volume of oil in place can be written: .0o \ \ \ \ \ Y m \ Y 0. Relative permeability data is required which gives kg/k.e.R.01 b\ \ \ \ \ \ \ 0. \ F~~unit stock tank oil in place this becomes sL The relative permeability ratio kg/k.Swi) material balance equation..h e main expansion terms are in the ctenominator . 10. or (So + SWi) shown in as Fig. .0 (GP)jl R A N .J + Ri(k) R= 2 This is obtained by an iterative process. .6 SO 0. = 1/D Tracy developed the earlier Tarner [I' method using this formulation to predict recovery performance below bubblepoint pressure. . From this.2 0.(lVP).Xg) in the reservoir.1 \ \ \ \ \ 0.NtBoiJ PV = and by calling them D. then: production is (NPlj is A' = NpFo + GpF. = 1 PV. a new estimate 8' of the average producing gasoil ratio can be derived and compared to the original estimate R(k): 1 = N. After (Fo)j + R ( ~ g ) i convergence The average oil saturation in the reservoir at time j is (GpIi= (Gp)jl R AN.F. = 0.v [N .5. .)/D (So)j = PV F.R. 0 I I I U 0.((NpljI(Folj) . i. and Pi the incremental production added to the cumulative production at the time j1 gives the cumulative production at time j. Let initial oil saturation Soi = 1SWiin pore volume NpFo+ G.) B.1%) for the estimated value of AN.B. letting AN. + GpFg If we use the subscript j to represent the time level in which we are interested.F. at time j is obtained as a function of S. " Between Pi.8 I 1. be the cumulative oil production we have (NP)j= (NPljl ANp + and 1 = ((N. 10.. as a function of the average oil saturation or liquid (= 1 .((GpljI(Fglj) until a convergence in R is obtained (say within AN.Boil + (RSi The oil saturation at time j when the cumulative oil . R' = (RJj + I \ \ \ \ 10 1. For the saturation situation where net influx and water production is zero and where pore volume compressibility is insignificant.5 Relative permeability ratio.4 0. The correct value of Ri will be obtained by comparing R ( k ) with a value V/R1 calculated as follows. + given by material balance as follows. = Bg/D F. where Fo = (B. Tracy ['I defined the following (1 . . l 162 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE . i. ) ( F ~ ) ~ + A revised estimate of R is obtained from R = ( ~ ( k ) from which + R1)/2and used in a fresh circuit of calculations 1 . .] (Bo).
in comparison with gas expansion it is small. [ + mE. This may not hold true in chalk reservoirs or other highly compressible unconsolidated sand reservoirs.7 HavlenaOdeh plot using lnflux and injection terms. The material balance equation must be formulated by taking into consideration the expansion of the initial gas cap as well as liberation of solution gas from the oil as pressure declines. = 1. in Havlena and Odeh formulation F = N E. 10.. The pressure at the original gasoil contact is by definition the bubblepoint pressure since the oil must be saturated. data by plotting (FI(Eo + ( l + m ) EL. The functions Fo and F. EL.e.7. then a plot of FIE. as shown in Fig. i.6. . against WelIET gives a line of unit slope and intercept N. B.2 Gas cap expansion drive The presence of a gas cap at initial reservoir conditions serves to retard the decline in reservoir pressure as oil is produced. 10. E T = Eo ( l + m ) EL.2. + + then.)) against (E. The efficient recovery of oil will depend on keeping as much gas as possible in the reservoir to act as an expansion energy completion intervals and location of oil wells are therefore particularly important.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 163 and a check is obtained from N. + mE.e.(Bgi) 1 To solve for net influx and injection terms the value of m must be known and..e. i. F. In the formulation a new term must be added to the righthand side of the solution gas drive equation to represent the gas cap expansion drive process. In the absence of influx and injection terms the material balance equation can be solved to provide estimates for m and N from production and PVT N t we'/ ET + Fig. + We1 t \ LL w + 0 9 00° /* /* y 5 . 10.)) as shown in Fig.+ (1+m) EL. are usually prepared from the PVT data as functions of pressure. 10. 10. Gas cap expansion = G B. i. It is also expected that the term E L . Fo + G. letting ET = E. The volume of gas at initial reservoir conditions is related to the volume of oil initially in place at reservoir conditions by the ratio term m : Fig. + mE. .: In this case We' can include gas injection GI. can usually be ignored since..6 HavlenaOdeh plot in absence of influx and injection terms.+ ( l + m ) %] .I(E.
the movement (generally of gas and oil) of phases and the later life of a reservoir may then be similar to countercurrent to each other. and up to about 15% or so for high permeability reservoirs.164 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE near the wellbore. The producing gasoil ratio is then lower than for solution gas drive alone. lead to higher recovery factors at a given reservoir If the vertical permeability to gas is nonzero.e. with the has an important role in several aspects of reservoir usual effects on k. and So at abandonment.. Gravity drainage plays its greatest role in high zone without any saturation gradients in the vertical direction. Gravity drainage of oil from a slowly advancing gas cap is reported to give extremely low residual oil saturaIt is clear from this relationship that low values of RP tions . the oil possibility of gas reinjection to increase Wfe.less than 10%. migrating to structurally caps. normal GOR.. Under these conditions the recovery efficiencies the gravitational potential g'Ap. The segregated gas may form a secondary gas cap. only briefly referred to.. to minimize gas high positions. Secondly. saturation around wellbores and also to consider the This mechanism has two effects. behaviour is that of gravity segregation . and gas will wells down flank from primary or secondary gas segregate in the reservoir. under the influence of that of gas cap drive reservoirs. Since F = NET+ Wef therefore for no produced water Fig. pressure than high values of R. with oil counterflowing downwards.so that permeability to oil is higher. will slightly exaggerate this behaviour. Considering the solution gas drive reservoir. 10.The saturation in the lower parts of the reservoir is expansion energy of gas caps serves oil production maintained at a value higher than the average oil best by having gas retained in the reservoir rather saturation . The conclusion may however. but will rarely exceed this range. as shown in Fig.IN evaluated at different pressures during the life of a gas cap drive or solution gas drive recovery process is clearly related to the cumulative produced gasoil ratio R.8. so that the pressure decline at One mechanism.3 GRAVITY SEGREGATION volves smaller gross fluid withdrawals than would AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCIES otherwise be the case.if the economic limit is low. possibly behaviour described earlier assumed essentially that very much higher . 10. Firstly. low viscosity oils.) Under these conditions the expected recovery efficiency will depend on the economic limit for wells and could be as low as 23% for low permeability reservoirs with high viscosity and low gasoil ratio oils. but which any given oil cumulative will be smaller. B. the pressure drops plete segregation can take place in the secondary w The recovery factor N. the will be higher .8 Initial conditions rn a reservoir with a gas cap. (Saturation gradients existing as a result of contrast dual porosity systems where almost comhorizontal pressure gradients. . and than by producing it in large quantities with oil. the lower producing gasoil ratio in10. i. there will be a vertical component of gas be translated into practice by completing producing flow under the gravitational potential. permeability to gas lower than for the purely solution gas drive case.and may approach or even gas saturations build up uniformly throughout the oil exceed the range 2040% of oil in place.
Two main aquifer geometries. or is continuous with. is the cumulative water injection and G. Carter and Tracy [61 and Fetkovitch ['I. The determination of aquifer characteristics is important if water injection is not planned. When water is required for pressure support in an oil reservoir. Water injection allows a more immediate replacement of oil zone energy.. AP1. which depends on the dimensionless time each has been effective (TD. and the wells produce throughout at solution gasoil ratio. Typical values are shown in Fig. commenced.4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR RESERVOIRS WITH WATER ENCROACHMENT OR WATER INJECTION If a reservoir is underlain by. although reservoir simulation can cope with irregular volumes.9. is the linear distance from the original OWC L to the puter limit of the aquifer. where the equivalent instantaneous pressure drop occurring at time zero and subsequent times represented as AP.(t~)!). be relatively large (about 1066x10~~ psilf.S.V~AP tion of a continuous pressure decline into periods of instantaneous pressure drop. is the radius of the oil zone.2)for radial systems and for linear systems. The c ) may total compressibility of an aquifer (c. is the fractional encroachment angle of the f radial aquifer = 8"1360°. The total influx into the reservoir is calculated at any time T by superposing the influxes from each pressure drop. steady state instantaneous influx may be a good representation but large aquifers tend to behave in an unsteady state manner.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS porosity system. then reduction in pressure in the oil zone will cause a reduction in pressure in the aquifer. (~D)I is the dimensionless time at which the instantaneous drop Ap.AT+ ET ET where W.. are as follows: + The response time of an aquifer to a change in pressure at the original oilwater contact is of great practical importance. For each instantaneous pressure drop from time zero to the end of the nth time step. Timmerman and McMahon [''I. The properties of an aquifer are rarely known with any confidence since there is usually little well control.AP. In small aquifers.. is the net thickness of the aquifer. r. h is the average width of the linear aquifer. reD is the dimensionless radius equal to raqulilerlro. radial and linear. Gravity drainage is then the predominant mechanism in draining oil to residual saturation in the secondary gas cap. The unsteady state aquifer representation of Hurst and van Everdingen requires the discretiza . TD F (We + W q Bw + G'nj Bg . the unsteady state response of an aquifer may negate its usefulness and external water injection is frequently used instead. This is achieved using the method of van Everdingen. They are used to provide estimates of cumulative water encroachment We in the total influx term We1.=. The basis for unsteady state aquifer analysis is found in the methods of van Everdingen and Hurst [51. is dimensionless time equal in Darcy units to tD kti(Qp~r.. 10. such as that due to Havlena and Odeh I[' and discussed in the previous sections. for radial systems and wLh@ for linear systems. 10. .. . and can be applied in material balance formulations. w WD(tD) is the dimensionless cumulative water influx function for a unit pressure drop at the original reservoir OWC at time t=O and easily read from charts or tables of WD against tD for different values of re^.  The water influx due to each instantaneous pressure drop is calculated as a time function up to the maximum volume indicated by a steady state instantaneous influx. we can write at some time T where: is the dimensionless time equivalent to time T. is the cumulative gas injection both volumes being represented at standard conditions. is the aquifer constant equal in Darcy units U ~ to 2 n f Q h ~ r . may be considered in analytical analyses. and water influx under steady state conditions will obey the rule AV.WpBw) . a large body of water saturated porous rock (an aquifer).
WpBw) or (linear system.) B. time in years.).N.119f@ h r. = volume N(Boi) expansion 1 Injected volumes ~ (G(Gp)c)(Bg)c .309kt / (@p3~') + (We + WiniBw+ GinjBg .309kt / (@yi. tin years) If water injection is employed in a reservoir then natural rate. The combination drive material balance equation which represents a step change from equilibrium at pressure P. = mN(Bo)i. In this formulation the subscripts c and s refer in gas terms to conditions in the gas cap and in solution F = NET + We' where: =N .). = G.1781 w L h @cbbllpsi tD = 2.IN. (G.ro2) (radial system.166 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE In field units where permeability is in mD.R. Setting G(Bg). tin years) F = N (Eo + mEg + ( l + m ) Efi) t. Wi. volume (N. R. (Bo + (RpRs)Bg) EO= (Bo . rate in reservoir barrels per day U = 1. length in feet.to equilibrium at pressure P can be formulated to show all expansion.G(Bg)i I . pressure in psi. and Gp = (G. we can write + (linear system) U = 0.) B. influx may siill occur if the pressure at the original water contact decreases from initial pressure. production and injection terms as shown below. = 2. and Gini are cumulative injection volumes at stock tank conditions.).(BoL))+ ((Rs.2 bbllpsi (radial system) c gas.
10. A water drive reservoir may then be particularly rate sensitive.10.1 0. HavlenaOdeh plot. and the reservoir may behave almost as a depletion reservoir for a long period. This will depend on the transmissibility at the OWC and the pressure gradients established in the aquiferreservoir system.  I 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 I I I l 1 1 l 1 l 0. as shown in Fig.0: 0.0 2 5 10 The aquifer characteristics may be explored and correlated with an appropriate aquifer model by making use of the linearized material balance formulation and validated production and PVT data.4 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 0.5 1. Fig. It is sometimes noted in matching aquifer performance that not all injected water enters the oil zone.10 Combination drive.11. and provided that localized channelling.61  0. Because of the similarity in oil and water viscosities (for light oils at normal depths). In general.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 8  6   4 2 Finite linear aquifer + . 10. as shown in Eig.01 0. more than 85% of the injected water is expected to move towards the oil zone rather than repressure the aquifer.80.11 Water injection near original OWC.02 0. or as an almost complete pressuremaintained water drive reservoir. 10. the displacement of oil by water is reasonably efficient. water drive will generally represent the most efficient of the natural producing mechanisms for oil reservoirs. 1.2 +D Fig.9 Dimensionless water influx functlon WD (tD) at different dimensionless times (tD) for linear and radial (reD = 1. if offtake rates are very large.5m) constant terminal pressure solutions (after l5]). 10. .05 0. if offtake rates are low. 10. fingering or coning of water does not occur. Fig.
or gas injection. and any considerations of maximizing recovery must also involve economic factors. it should be possible to determine a reservoir production rate at which the aquifer response will maintain pressure around the saturation pressure for the whole producing life of the field. corresponding to some cumulative production. Nevertheless. or where substantially higher offtake rates would be possible if natural mechanisms are augmented.3 Pressure dependent oil properties The values of B and R assigned for any value of reservoir pressure and temperature will depend on either: (a) the use of generalized correlations relating oil gravity GOR. With multireservoir fields the individual reservoirs are not always (rarely!) metered separately. However. Obviously. but practically never corresponding to a situation where the whole reservoir is shut in at one time. the limit in this case being dictated by water handling problems. Normally.2 Pressure data For the simplest calculations. and a calculated high recovery factor might simply be the result of underestimating oil in place. Reservoirs pressures at datum in given wells may be assigned volumetric or a real regions of influence in the calculation of weighted average reservoirpressures: = ZP I @ I ~ I A J ~ @ I ~ I A . A single reservoir field then presents no difficulty and N. and the allocation of cumulatives to reservoirs depends on intermittent well testing. and has a potentially large aquifer.1 Production data Cumulative oil production is generally measured accurately for royalty and transfer payments. Although generalized correlations are fair& reliable: &ere is no certainty that they will match the behaviour of 10. Reservoirs now being developed should involve less uncertainty since gas is increasingly a marketable product. . reservoir temperature and vressure to B. All Pressure dependent values refer to this Pressure. This is another aspect of reservoir management in which gravity segregation can play an important (and essentially adverse) part. and under favourable sweep conditions recovery efficiencies of 5060% might be calculated.) The first requirement in maximizing recovery is to establish the probable natural mechanisms of a reservoir and the extent to which these are likely to be rate sensitive. this is not a major source of error.5.. will be the factor most precisely known. gas has generally not been measured with any accuracy. if at all. The average Pressure must be calculated from a series of essentially transient well tests. 10. but the term itself may often be relatively small. calculating a recovery efficiency depends on knowing the initial oil in place. The recovery efficiency of water reservoirs will be governed by an economic limit. and R. if a reservoir is very much undersaturated. reducing the saturation and minimizing the terms So!Bo for any given economic limit. Regardless of the accuracy of the Pressure data itself.5. if the offtake rate did not generate sufficient income to justify the expenditure on field development it would not be an economic rate. Where recovery efficiencies seem likely to be low. a maintained pressure leads to lower viscosities and higher B. this would be either water injection to augment a natural water drive. With wells located in structurally high positions this would give maximum recovery and maximum efficiency. of course. take? at varying times and positions. but the latter being increasingly important because of gas conservation requirements. the whole reservoir is zwmned to be at some average datum Pressure. then pressure maintenance or secondary recovery operations may be initiated to improve recovery factors. the former tending to be more efficient because of mobility ratio considerations. Provided that water can be controlled reasonably. efficiencies of 3040% would be expected. (Ultimately. will be subject to very great uncertainty.5 ACCURACY OF THE GROSS MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION There are several sources of error in material balance calculations. 10. 10. the inter~retation of average Pressure from this data is possibly in error.5.168 PETROLEUMENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE As with the gas cap drive reservoirs. In dealing with past production histories.particularly control of gas or water and the prevention of excessive fingering or channeling of injected fluids. Problems with secondary recovery operations are similar to those of the related primary mechanisms . tank farm and well test data taken intermittently. values at any given saturation. and frequently the cumulative produced gasoil ratio R. Water produced is also very uncertain depending upon interpretation of separator.
2. but the factor which most dominates the accuracy is the denominator term (B. = 0. The problem in this case is the question of whether or not the sample obtained (either as a bottomhole sample or recombined sample) is truly representative of the reservoir fluid.. e. The table below gives the properties of the reservoir fluids and production data for the reservoir.e. = 1. Since this is a difference between two quantities of the same order of magnitude. (rbistb) 1. Pressure (psia) R.5 x lo6 barrels of stock tank oil. but provided that a high degree of relative accuracy can be maintained in the values of B. = 1000mD R.018~~ . All these sources of error contribute to inaccuracy in material balance calculations.3 A reservoir is estimated by a volumetric method to contain approximAtely 14.). or (b) a laboratory analysis of a reservoir fluid sample.3365 and B. this would appear serious. = 1.4%) can lead to a 100% error in the difference.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 169 any given crude system with any particular degree of accuracy. (rbistb) Rp (scfistb)  N (stb) p 0 1715 000 3 430 000 ? 1850* 1600 1300 1000 + 0. Calculate the gasoil ratio for the following conditions: p = 0. .333 1.748 878 996 1100 bubble point B. is SCFibarrel . Even so.8cp .. (rblscf) B. estimate the value of gas in place assuming seismic.00250 1.001162 rbiscf k. = 96 mD Example 10. then systematic errors which affect the absolute values. (scflstb) 690 62 1 535 494 B. In view of the uncertainty in pressure dependent values of . B. provided random errors can be reduced).300 1. and R. log. an error of 5 parts in 1360 (0. if B.594 1.2 Find the expression for the flowing gasoil ratio of a well (volume of gas sclvolume of stock tank oil) in a reservoir having a gas saturation in excess of the critical.437 1.B.363 1.363 rbistb p = 0. B. are less important and the error in the difference may not be too important.B.. (i.00150 0. Examples I Example 10.e. .B.00190 0.258 B. = 500 scflstb k. no gas cap).3600.00124 0.1 Using the data from Problem 4. a small absolute error in either term can lead to a verv large error in the function. but not the differences. There has been no water production.363 1. = 1. material balance calculations at early times of reservoir history are unreliable compared with later calculations when pressure drops are greater and differences in the (B. and geological interpretation have provided the following estimate: I Thickness (average) Area Porosity Water saturation 500 ft 100 sq miles 12% 35 % What is the recoverable gas for an average reservoir abandonment pressure of 500 psia? Example 10.g..) term are greater. and B. originally just saturated at the initial reservoir pressure (i.. is reservoir barrelslSCF R.
00124 0.81 1. Estimated values of porosity and water saturation are 0.300 1.80 and a constant oil production of 60 000 STBld has been maintained. is 5000 psi.) and at subsequent yearly intervals (PI. The PVT properties of the system at reservoir conditions are as follows:  P (psi) Bo (rblstb) R. The aquifer and oil zone net thickness is 200 ft and the aquifer has psi' and water viscosity at aquifer conditions of a porosity of 18%. The radius to the oilwater contact is 9000 ft and the outer radius of the aquifer is 81 000 ft.81 and 1. and the aquifer temperature and pressure is 0.280 x 10'SCF P (psi) 4300 4250 Estimate the cumulative water influx on 1.00 RBIBBL.363 1. the initial average reservoir pressure at reservoir datum being taken as 1850 psi. The pressures at the original oilwater contact have been determined initially (P. (scflstb) 690 62 1 535 494 Bo (rblstb) 1.7 x 10' SCF. What would you expect the cumulative production to be at a reservoir pressure of 1000 psi? Example 10.9 44. (rblscf) 0.5 A reservoir is believed to contain an initial oil in place of 300 x lo6 STB and has an initial gas cap of 120. and a base radius of 3 miles at the oilwater contact. Assume B.P2. The initial pressure at the gasoil contact. which is also a convenient datum.1. (rbiscf) The uniform initial water saturation is 30% and water and pore volume compressibilities are each 3 x psi Production started on 1.170 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Calculate the water influx at cumulative oil production of 1.00150 0.1 x 10' 5. Given the following PVT and production data.437 1.333 1.4 A reservoir may be considered as a right cone with dimensions 750 ft from apex to oilwater contact.82 GP 12. 1. and a fully shutin pressure of 1919 psi was measured at this depth.81.258 B.6 An oil reservoir is totally surrounded by a radial aquifer.430 x lo6 stb.00250 B.045 x lo9 SCF 26. for injected water is 1.4 cp.1.363 1. Water injection started at a constant rate of 70 000 BBLld on 1.594 1. The cumulative gas and reservoir production pressure has been reported as follows: '. Ol density i (rblstb) (lblb3) 1.1. The water compressibility is 3 x psi'.1.1 NP (stb)  P (scflstb) 1100 1350 1800 (est) 31 x lo6 55 x lo6 63 x lo6 (est) 3.1.715 x lo6 and 3.4 43. The oilwater contact is found at 4260 ft subsea. what is your estimate of the cumulative production obtainable by the fall in average reservoir pressure to 1000 psi? Pressure (psi) 1850* 1600 1300 1000 R.5 x 10'  Example 10.82 of the surrounding aquifer Example 10.17 and 0.748 43.24 respectively (bed thicker than the column). P3) after the start of oil zone production as follows: .5 45. (scfistb) B.00190 0.1. The pore volume compressibility is 4 x permeability is 707 mD.
et al. 1107. A. J. R. L I I i I 1 I I I I : I I I > .. 129. 814. A. D. [17] Pirson. Pore volume compressibility of consolidated friable and unconsolidated reservoir rocks under hydrostatic loading.W. [4] Merle.P. 815. [5] van Everdingen. [15] Blanton. 8 Elsevier. Trans.L. 128. McGraw Hill. Paper EUR 41. L.W. Performance calculations for combination drive reservoirs. and Katz. Prediction of formation compaction from laboratory compressibility data. McGraw Hill (1960). [16] Newman. R. A simplified approach to water influx calculationsfinite aquifer systems: JPT (July 1971). Pt I1 Trans.M.L. How different size gas caps and pressure maintenance programs affect the amount of recoverable oil. JPT(Feb. AIME 118 (1936). D. Active oil and reservoir energy. 327.. G. Method for predicting the behaviour of mutually interfering gas reservoirs adjacent to a common aquifer. H. 1983). A. AIME 186 (1949). Trans. References [I] Tracy.D. [14] Poston. and Odeh. Trans.W.an engineering review.H.L. D. 33. and Whiting. Sci.10 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Time Initial E n d year 1 E n d year 2 E n d year 3 P (psia) 5870 5020 4310 3850 Estimate t h e aquifer performance in reservoir barrels of influx at the end of each year assuming unsteady state behaviour and using the method of Van Everdingen and Hurst. (1978).J.R. [9] coats. Dev. AIME 204 (1955). AIME 219 (196). IHRDC (1937). and Aruna. Pet.W. 243.H. Flow of Homogeneous Fluids through Porous Media. Maren field . [8] Tarner.a composite analysis of the behaviour of a compaction drive . M. Deformation of chalk under confining pressure and pore pressure. 1971). M. [lo] van Everdingen. and Tracy. Lubojacky. E.. Pet. [3] Teeuw. J. S. R. Timmerman. 247. 2105.D. S. W. Bass. and Gardener. Pt I Trans. Amsterdam (1978). AIME 198 (1953). The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoirs. 51. [19] Amyx.J. Application of the material balance equation to a partial water drive reservoir. The material balance as an equation of a straight line. Proc. ~ e kM.O. JPT (Sept. [7] Fetkovitch. Petroleum Reservoir Engineering. and McMahon. L. The Bachaquero study . [6] Carter. 415. 92.J.Trans. JPT (Nov.W. T. M. Analysis of gas cap or dissolved gas drive reservoirs.F. Elements of 011 Reservozr Engineering.S. R. AIME 231 (1964).A. AIME 228 (1963). D.J. . and Moscrip. K. 896. AIME 216 (1950). 1973). I181 Dake.H. J. Off. and Hurst. A simplified form of the material balance equations. C. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. SPEJ (Sept. R. Trans. 1 I .L.F. London (1950). 1976). [13] Schilthuis. AIME 207 (1956). [ZO] Muskat. Oil Weekly (12 June 1944'.solution gas drive reservoir. SPEJ (June 1961). A. Europ. G. 263. An improved method for calculating water influx: Trans. [2] Havlena. Conf. [Ill Stone. Trans. H. 32. [12] Wooddy. 305.
M. [23] Tehrani. JPT. 976. . An analysis of a volumetric balance equation for calculation of oil in place and water influx. 1985). i [22] Newman.172 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 1211 Muskat. D.H. 1664. The effect of water chemistry on the laboratory compression and permeability characteristics of some North Sea chalks. G. Physical Principles of Ol Production. IHRDC (1949). (Sept. JPT (May 1983).H.
Since production rate is also dependent on reservoir pressure gradients. the principles of fluid displacement in secondary recovery are reviewed. any fraction of voidage could be replaced if it provides an optimum recovery scheme.e. In offshore field development this is not usually possible and pressure maintenance is implemented early in field life..Chapter 11 Secondary Recovery and Pressure Maintenance Secondary recovery techniques involve supplementing the natural energy of a petroleum reservoir by the injection of fluids.1.1 Operating pressure for natural flow in originally overpressured undersaturated oil reservoir under pressure maintenance. When the reservoir condition volumetric rate of fluid replacement is equal to the reservoir condition volumetric rate of production..*Water . fluid properties and saturations.. We will consider the effects of Pwh Pressure gradient 1 '\\ \ ". reservoir dip angle. however. When this is done such that average reservoir pressure is held constant. then the process is known as pressure maintenance. The level of pressure maintenance in oil production is usually just above bubblepoint pressure such that injection costs are minimized..a depth + 4 O r ~ g ~ npressure of al overpressured reservoir Fig. Proper design of a secondary recovery scheme is best performed after a period of primary recovery... the selection of pressure maintenance level might be determined as shown in Fig..*. reservoir volumetric rate of production is equal to reservoir volumetric rate of fluid replacement. the technique is known as complete voidage replacement. It is assumed that the injected fluid is immiscible with the displaced hydrocarbon. In practice. i. rock characteristics including heterogeneity of permeability. 11. then the choice of pressure maintenance level will also include rate consideration. 11. 11. Hydrostatic /\\ gradient Reservoir datum . normally water or gas. in order to observe the dynamic response of the reservoir. DISPLACEMENT PRINCIPLES I The displacement of oil by water or gas under immiscible conditions occurs both microscopically . In order to provide the capability for natural flow to surface under high water cut. reservoir geometry and lateral continuity. The efficiency of secondary recovery and pressure maintenance schemes can be explored by reference to the physical processes occurring. flow rates and well locations. Firstly.
174
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
and macroscopically in a reservoir. On the micro (since relative permeabilities are considered saturascale we consider the distribution of trapped oil in tion dependent) as follows: pores swept by displacing fluid. The distribution of residual oil will depend on competing viscous, capillary and gravitational forces and is particularly influenced by pore size, pore geometry, wettability and displacement rate. The laboratory determination of residual oil saturation in core plugs provides an estimate of the microscopic displacement efficiency, through measurement of an ultimare residual oil This expression is given in field ,units where the saturation Sor(ULT)for the pore scale recovery injection rate q, is in RBID, the crosssectional area A is in ft3: the absolute permeability k is in mD, the process: are viscosities of oil and water, po and h., in cp, the 1  Swi densities of oil and water (y) are in terms of specific Recovery factor(uLTj= 1  Swi gravities relative to water at 60°F, 14.7 psia, the dip The value of Sor(ULT) may be less than 10% of angle a is in degrees and by convention is positive pore volume, for low rate gravity drainage of oil for updip flow. The terms dP,/dS, and 2Swi2x are below an injected gas cap, to over 40% in a high rate both negative and are normally considered small linear water injection in which imbibition between enough to neglect. Under semisteady state conditions, the flow of oil advancing fingers is restricted. into a wellbore is given by the radial flow equation On an interwell scale, the driving force for displacement is represented by a potential gradient including mechanical skin as follows: (or datum corrected pressure gradient) between an injection well and a producing well. At some economic limiting condition of production rate or fluid cut, the recovery efficiency is represented in terms of an average oil saturation in the reservoir. In field units, where rate is in RBiD, pressures in We may distinguish between an average saturation psia, length terms in feet, permeability in mD and in the swept region of the well pattern so,(,,,,,^ and viscosity in cP, the equation is as follows: an average residual oil saturation in the whole reservoir including noncontacted or swept regions So,. This latter oil saturation should be the same as the material balance residual oil saturation. The term {q, BoI(P  Pwf)) is known as a productiv1  Swi  Sor (swept) ity index (PI) and has a particular dependence on kh Recovery factor (swept zone) = as well as on saturation and pressure influenced 1  Swi terms. For injection wells an expression known as the 1  swi sor injectivity index (11) can be similarly described using Recovery factor (material balance) = 1  SWi the difference between the flowing bottomhole For a homogeneous reservoir with constant injection pressure Pwfand the average reservoir pressure P, in rate and incompressible fluids, the water cut or gas conjunction with the water injection rate Q, in cut will be controlled by the saturation at a produc RB/D: ing well. Welge's equations allow a representation of the producing well performance in terms of the average material balance saturation S,, the producing well saturation S2, the fractional oil flow fO2 at the producing well, and the gradient of the fractional where k.kr is the same as the effective fluid flow curve at the saturation S2, i.e. permeability k,. Well inflow equations are linked to pressure loss calculations in production strings to evaluate producing rates consistent with wellhead choke and The fractional flow of displacing phase (water or separator conditions. The particular influence of k,h gas) is given as a saturation dependent expression at well locations may influence the total well number
11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
175
requirements for a given voidage replacement scheme. In water saturated regions of many reservoirs, diagenetic damage to pore space may have reduced absolute permeability by several orders of magnitude compared with that in the oil zone. In such instances the injectivity of water into an oil zone may prove more attractive than injection into the water at an oilwater contact, even though the relative permeability to water in the presence of residual oil may be less than 30%.
X
Fig. 11.2 Saturation profile before breakthrough.
11.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE SCHEMES 11.2.1 Mobility ratio
The mobility ratio expresses the ratio of the mobility of the displacing phase to the mobility of the displaced phase. If we consider the case of water displacing oil, then Mobility of water = h,
 effective pesmeabilit!. to \\.ates
M ' = k '. k "
k'o Figure 11.3 shows results of experimental data from 5 spot patterns for wateroil, gasoil and miscible displacements. The effect of the volume of displacing fluid injected on total swept area after breakthrough can also be represented as a function of mobility ratio. Using datall01for a direct line drive, and representing the number of displaceable volumes injected as V d ,Fig. 11.4 has been prepared. In this figure the numerical value of Vdis (volume of injected fluidl(1 S,,S,,)PV).
Clw
k,, Similarly,
viscosity of water
11.2.2 Reservoir dip angle
Reservoir dip has an effect on gravity stabilization during immiscible displacement and, by inspection of the fractional flow equation, it can be seen that dip angle influences oil cut. As shown in Fig. 11.5, the magnitude of the effect of dip angle on fractional flow depends on the wetting preference of the rockfluid system and on the direction of displacement. Compared with the fractional flow curve of a horizontal reservoir with no particular strong wetting preference, a strongly oil wet horizontal reservoir will show a higher water cut at a given saturation, and a strongly water wet one will show a lower water cut at the same saturation. At any given wettability the fractional water flow for updip displacement of oil by water will be lower at a given saturation than for downdip flow. This is a direct result of gravity stabilization of fluids of differing densities. Increasing reservoir dip angle accentuates the stabilization for updip flow and decreases stabilization for downdip water flow. For gas injection. the fractional flow equation indicates that better gravity stabilization will be obtained by updip injection with downdip gas flow at high reservoir dip angles. The density difference between immiscible fluids
It is clear that the effective permeabilities of oil and water are saturation and direction dependent. The mobility ratio could therefore be expressed at any saturation condition during a displacement. In general usage, the water mobility is frequently defined at the average water saturation in the water contacted region of a reservoir. For efficient displacement this is often represented as a piston front condition. As shown in Fig. 11.2, a plot of water saturation distribution versus distance (x) from the injection point in a linear system, the frontal saturation Sfoccurs at position xf The mobility ratio at prior to breakthr~ugh a well (location x = L ) will use
=
ho
]
.
Clw
[r]
ko s ,
s ,
A particular case of mobility ratio representation known as endpoint mobility ratio (M') defines k, as k, at So, and k, as k, at SWi:
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE
0 1
0.5
1.O
Mobility ratio
5
10
Fig. 11.3 Effect of mobility ratio on areal sweep efficiency at breakthrough: 5 spot pattern (afterl31).
1.0
0.90.8 
2 5 .
0.6 0.5 0.4
0.75 \ 0.5 wd
Direct line drive Areal sweep efficiency ( E A ) vs. mobility ratio ( M ) for different displaceable pore volumes of injected fluid ( V d j
"'1
0.2
Mobility ratio, M

Fig. 11.4 Direct line drive areal sweep efficiency against mobility ratio for different displaceable pore volumes (Vd = volume of injected fluid) of injected fluid. (Data
PV(1 sw,  So,)
11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
Horizontal reservoir, strongly oil wet
177
It should be noted that for an endpoint mobility ratio of unity (M' = 1 ) the displacement is unconditionally stable at any rate.
(a) U p d p flow
(b) Downd~p flow
Segregated d~spiocement
Fig. 11.6 Segregated displacement. (a) Updip (positive) flow, (b) downdip (negative) flow.
Fig. 11.5 Effect of dip angle and wettability on fractional flow.
11.2.3 Reservoir heterogeneity
Although reservoir heterogeneity can imply many variations in rock properties at different scales of influence, only permeability variation will be considered for the present. So far the representation of reservoir performance by use of a fractional flow equation has assumed a homqgeneous reservoir with constant vertical and lateral permeability character. The fractional flow curve can, however, be used in the performance analysis of systems with vertical permeability variation. When there is no crossflow between layers, then the methods of Stiles["] and Dykstra and Parsons["] may be appropriate in generating fractional oil flow performance. When there is pressure communication between vertical layers or different rock properties, static or dynamic pseudorelative permeability functions have to be '1. In Fig. 11.7 a vertical section generated LZ4, through a northern North Sea production well has a permeability profile as shown. In reservoir analysis, the connection between vertically adjacent sands is important, as well as the degree of contrast in permeability in a given unit. Where a nonreservoir interval is indicated by core and log in a given well, the geometry of the nonreservoir material becomes significant in assessing whether or not vertical sand connections will occur around the nonreservoir unit at some distance away from the well. The combination of core absolute permeability data, with well test derived effective permeability, and with dynamic RFT response in new wells drilled in producing fields, allows judgement of these possibilities. Figure 11.8 shows RFT data obtained in a Dunlin well in the Brent Sand region of the UKCS North Sea
"3
may lead to segregation. In steeply dipping reservoirs, the gravity segregation forces may dominate capillary forces, and displacement behaviour is controlled by viscous: gravity force ratios. The mechanism of this process has been presented by Dietz and others [13.151 and involves the calculation of a critical displacement rate. For rates less than critical, the displacement is stable and underrun or override of displacing fluid through tongue formation should not occur. If the endpoint mobility ratio is defined as M', displacing fluid subscripted D, and the dip angle a considered positive for updip flow, then, as indicated in Fig. 11.6, we have: in Darcy units
k k : A ( p ~  p 0 ) gsina ~ r 1.0133 x lo6 yo (MI1) in field units 4.9 x k k:D A (yDyo) sina
qcrii = qcrit =
E"D (MI1)
The field units used above are as follows:
qO, = rbiday; k =mD; A = ft2; = res.cond.specific gravity relative to water y at standard conditions; a = degrees; 1.1 = centipoise.
178
core ~ e r r n e a b i l i i y (Dcrcyl
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
Torbert Sonds
Upper Ness Sands
100
n
a
0
+
2
P
"s
E
+
2: 200
E t v e Sands
300
Ronnoch Sonds
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0 1 1 1 2
Fig. 11.7 Permeability distribution through a vertical section of a Brent Sand well in the northern North Sea (UKCS).
\5
compared with detailed sedimentological analysis of nearby core [43]. The degree of vertical connection between sand bodies is suggested from the RFT gradients and may be matched by reservoir simulation. The effect of characteristic sand body types on the flow of injected water and on oil displacement may be anticipated [261 with reference to Figs 11.9 and 11.10. In Fig. 11.9 the depositional environment represents channel sands developed as a lateral accretion surface. Without further significant diagenetic alteration the gamma ray profile and core permeability profile may be as shzwn. The unit permeability thickness product (kh) would be obtained from z k j h j by subdivision into n sublayers. Water injection into such a sand body would probably result in the combination of gravity forces and viscous forces giving a profile with poor vertical sweep as shown. The sweep will depend particularly on the permeability contrast and the bed thickness. Figure 11.10 shows the behaviour of a bed with the same (Eh) product as the channsl sand but with the higher permeability sands at the top of the unit. This arrangement frequently results from bar sand deposition. In waterflooding such a unit, the viscous and gravity forces counteract each other and a more efficient sweep may be obtained. Pseudorelative permeability curves are required if such units are to
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\
b
y
Et!;;",:"
r e 211/242 
\%
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Upper Juross~cshales
\.
Dunlinwel
9\
\
\P \"
\ \
.
         1
Extensive morlns sheets~nds
Upper Brent sand ( TARBERT)
A07
\ \
\
92001
T
i
6
4
        L o c a s e d barsands       Loc(111sed b~rsonds   Carrelot~ve mouth badtdol f o l s complex
\
Mlddle Brenf sond (NESS I
\
   
     
\\
\ \
C Extenswe d ~ fiats_ $   ~ Extenswecoastal :i: v ~barrisrsond a r 5 l ~ M
  ~
~
        
(ETIVE)
       ,     7 \\ 9700jI
\ \ \
s \,
\ I 64C0
I
I
I
I
I
I
Extens~veshallow morinesheetsond
M~caceour sand IRANNOCHI
~~~~t sand
Extsnslve marne prodelto shole  .    L~ttoroi~~nd body
     
      
oa:iB,dasar
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000
6200
I
Pressure ( p s ~ g )
Fig. 11.8 RFT pressure response in a producing reservoir (after [291).
I f SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE
Depth
( a ) Unfavourable
Fig. 11.9 Effect of unfavourable permeability distribution in waterflooding.
Sea level coarser sediment In shallow turbulent wqter
F~ne sediment in deeper quiet water
GR
profile ( A )
Note: Thevertical sequence ( a t profile B ) ~ s t h e same as the lateral sequence being deposited at one time
,
GR proflie ( B )
Permeabil~tyt
Depth
( b ) Favourable
P I
Fig. 11.10 Effect of favourable permeability distribution in waterflooding.
180
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
be represented as single layers in numerical calculations. Even very thin, low permeability layers sandwiched between higher productivity sands can be significant. A thin 12 ft very micaceous sand near the top of some North Sea Rannoch Sand reservoirs [431 have had, for example, a major effect on waterflooding. The micaceous sand is not a total seal, but under dynamic conditions prevents vertical movement of injected water. This particular situation has been described by Dake 13']. In a particular example, the consequence of ignoring its presence in waterflood calculations is to predict water breakthrough significantly later than reality.
Original oil water contact
.
/
, ,'
, , ,
\/*+;..
0y
Proposed site for ~njector
Poorly characterised faults
I
'
proposed otl producer
Proposed oil producer
11.2.4 Reservoir geometry and continuity
Sandbody continuity is largely determined from integration of detailed sedimentological observations with petrophysical and pressure data. The vertical pressure gradients measured in dynamic and static reservoir environments by RFT tools have probably allowed the greatest advances in prediction of continuity. It is fairly obvious that the continuity and directional aspects of sandbodies have significance in the design of water and gas injection facilities. Effective vertical communication dominates the distribution of gas in gas injection schemes, whilst lateral connections and permeability contrast are significant in design of water injection schemes. The areal geometry of a reservoir will influence well spacing and, if offshore, will influence the location and number of platforms required. The position of production and injection wells with respect to faults and original oil water contacts is important. Figure 11.11 shows the effect of a high rate oil producing well in the distortion of an oilwater contact with
Fig. 11.12 Effect of inreservoir faults on injection! production well locations.
resulting poor sweep efficiency. Figure 11.12 shows how characterization of partly sealing faults may influence design location of water injection wells. Recognition of effective dynamic separation of reservoir beds in complex depositional environments leads to the design of separate injection production facilities for efficient reservoir management. This is illustrated in Fig. 11.13.
11.2.5 Production rate effects
In homogeneous systems there is a lot of evidence to support the contention that rate of oil production. or injection rate, does not affect commercially recoverable oil volume. This assumes that the velocity of oil in a linear geometry is in the order of 0.11 miday and that well spacing ensures high sweep efficiency. In offshore oilfield production, current economic factors require high initial production rates in order to pay off capital investment. A rule of thumb for a reservoir is to base peak plateau rate on about 10% of the recoverable reserve per annum, or else on about 4 % of stock tank oil initially in place (STOIIP) per annum. This is in contrast with traditional onshore operations where peak rates may be around 12% of recoverable reserve per annum. Economic factors set the target rates  reservoir characteristics determine whether they are reasonable and prudent. Reservoir heterogeneity and geometry can lead to lower recoveries than might have been calculated assuming homogeneous properties. The effect of
1 j
4
I
High rate well
k u t
rnntrni
1
Fig. 11.I 1 Effect on oilwater contact.
14 Crosssection of a stable water cone.1.4. 11.Ness/Etive/Rannoch 1. analysis of the radial mechanisms require low rate and high dip angle to flow behaviour of reservoir fluids moving towards a promote segregation. Ness e LL 1.1979 Stort of water injection L.producing well shows that the rate dependent meability contrast but having vertical pressure com.1980 1 0 1.13 Pressure history in the UKCS Dunlin reservoir showing dynamic separation of major reservoir units (after. These operate at both pore scale and higher permeability regions.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE . interwell scale to differing degrees. reservoir flow rate must be reviewed in the context munication may require lower rates to promote of competing forces of capillarity.phenomenon of coning may be important["].1~80 20 Cumulative production (10' STB) 30 40 Fig.4.1980 Tarbert/U. Coning . Reservoirs with high per. gravity and crossflow by imbibition from low permeability to viscous flow. 11. Gravity drainage In a homogeneous reservoir.)I"[ OWC lsopotent~al line 1 OWC I Fig.
.15 Water and gas cone formation. . 11. Note that at critical rate 11... (a) shows the potential gradient for a stable water cone and (b) shows the gradient at critical rate.182 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ( a ) Low rate: stable . The effect of increasing fluid velocity and energy loss in the vicinity of such a well leads to the local distortion of a gasoil contact or a wateroil contact. From the viscous gravity balance A@' = gt Therefore. Figure 11. 11. and requires average saturation dependent well pseudofunctions to represent well performance in Cartesian grid cell simulators. the viscous gravity balance equation for cone height is Fig.16 Cone stability. 11. The most frequently cited ... (c) prediction of fluid production rates after cone arrival and (d) design of preferred well spacing. (a) Patterns The majority of well patterns defined historically pay no attention to gravity effects in dipping reservoirs or to vertical heterogeneity. p in specific gravity and g' = 0.. Areal sweep efficiency at breakthrough and recovery efficiency calculations are often determined by consideration of wells in particular pattern units.. A fairly simplistic representation of the maximum oil potential gradient possible for a stable cone can be written in terms of cone height x and the potential @' (or datum corrected pressure). The gas and water in the vicinity of the producing wellbore can therefore flow towards the perforations.higher rates will cause an advance towards the perforations.. Fig.2.433 psilftglcc.@2 behaviour has been studied analytically [4.. The local saturations can be significantly different from the bulk average saturations (at distances such as a few hundred metres from the wellbore) as indicated in Fig.. ( b ) Critical rate [.14 shows the potential and stream line contours around a producing well. " = 0... x (pwPO)  Oil For field units with @ ' in psi.16.15.. Referring to Fig. (a) Low rate: stable.. It is more difficult to apply in offshore development and development from pad locations. 11.. (b) critical rate. The relative permeability to oil in the pore spaces around the wellbore decreases as gas and water saturation increase.433 (Ap) To progress any further in analysis the reader is directed to the works listed in the references at the '4 ' 18 19 20 48 551 1 end of this The nomenclature of coning recognizes a stable cone as existing in steady state conditions where gravity and viscous forces are balanced.@2 h... The prediction of coning behaviour is important since it leads to decisions regarding (a) preferred initial completions.. A t the critical production rate the elevation of the cone from the bulk fluid contact is known as the critical cone height. The main arrangements of wells are shown in the following figures and paragraphs. The maximum producing rate at which a stable cone can exist is known as the critical production rate for coning ..."J81..6 Well locations and patterns The development well pattern was established for onshore fields from analysis of areal sweep efficiency. A n unstable cone is one that is in the process of advancing or receding. and in reservoir simulation mode^':^^^^. (b) estimation of cone arrival time at a producing well.
line drives. 11.A + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Dlrect line drive a O A I I O A + I A I oiololo I I I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 l I AA9 i II + O A O + I I AAAAA I . o ' \ . 11. I 7 Well patterns for areal sweep.!.A AAA Staggered I ~ n drive e A O A I I O A I Nine spot Fig. although reservoir simulation is more mon.AAAAl I I 0 1 I l l A . The conversion of middip producers to injectors after break(b) Well arrangements recognizing structural dip through may be possible in some reservoirs to Figure 11.. The peripheral poses. between ~ r o d u c e r sand iniectors so that reservoir energy is restored quickly and pressure maintenance 113QUALITY OF INJECT~ONFLUIDS can be employed.A . 11. Oil producer / Fig. A / / . patterns are shown in Fig. For analytical purencountered for dipping reservoirs. nine spot. Its success depends on low pressure gradients frequently employed.A . direct line drive and staggered line drive. Crestal injection is usually reserved for gas injectors.17 as the five spot.. well patterns may be analysed as segments of water injection scheme is probably the most com. although in shallow dips pressure maintenance with water injectors may provide a pressure support that flank wells alone cannot achieve.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE 00000 I l l 1 1 I I I I I I ! ! I I l l l l l 00000 AAAA / I l I I I I I l l I I l l ! I A 1 l I I I I I I 0 LoLo.18 Well arrangements for dipping reservoirs.oLo I I / I 1 I / l I 1 I l l l 1 . In &me North s e a reservo& diagenetic The design of secondary recovery and pressure damage has reduced water zone permeability by two maintenance schemes requires attention to the orders of magnitude in comparison with oil zone quality of injection fluids and their compatibility permeability. Inverted patterns are those with injector locations and producter locations exchanged./ 0 o ? Flank water encroachment and A Injectors o Producers . .A.18 shows the arrangements frequently minimize interwell gradients. The ratio of producers to injectors AND DISPOSAL OF BRINES d e ~ e n d verv much on the ~ermeabilitv the water s in zoke. ' j " .
l9Magnus Field . water and gas i i m ~ of platform well t 20" Gasline t o FLAGS line 24" Crude oil pipeline to Ninian and Sullorn Voe . The sea water must be demonstrated to have compatibility with formation water and must not lead to destabilization of clay material in the pore structure. The general arrangement shows the platform and subsea wells for oil production by water injection.schematic plan view of production facilities . Sea water must be filtered and deaerated and biocides added to prevent bacterial 343 growths. Filtering is designed to a degree which prevents formation plugging with fines. j4].184 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE with reservoir fluids. 39. 51. and injectivity calculations are generally made using the higher viscosity. It is beyond the scope here to deal with these matters in any detail. "Fig. and the reader is referred to the reference list for more information 1'. as shown in Fig. Figure 11. together with pipeline transport of produced hydrocarbons. 11. 11.21. In Fig. The viscosity of injection water may be significantly higher than formation water as a result of temperature difference.19 the schematic plan view of the production facilities designed for the Magnus field (Quadrant 211 of UKCS) is shown. 3'. I I Oil producer \ I I I I 0 O Water injection Producer/injector Subsea wellhead i / /' \i I I The length of the Magnus f ~ e l d from NE to SW IS about 16km. 42.20 is a simplified flow sheet indicating the principal components of an offshore productioninjection system. 11. as well as attention to reservoir displacement efficiency. Produced fluids entering the inlet separator undergo primary separation into oil. In the same context we may consider the disposal of nonhydrocarbon produced fluids.
11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Water lift pump Filters. . /' ' Measurement point I D E bulk 1 hopper I / Hypochlorite Turb~dity Overboard dump Fig.20 Simplified flow sheet for offshore secondary recovery/pressure maintenance. 11. Turbid~ty \ . 11.21 Example of offshore UKCS water injection layout. ' '~. deaerators Water injection pump Oily water treatment Coalescer Storage cell Flash drum Inlet separator Production manifold 13 Metering station Fig..
500 cp. 11. .  PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE . and final separator conditions therefore differ. When the reinjection gas is a mixture from several reservoirs. . a lower vapour pressure crude is required than for pipeline transportation. . scrubbing and compression for gas sales or reinjection.23) before disposal into the sea. as shown in Fig. = 0. and workover treatments may then be required. 5 cp. 13. The products from the final coalescer represent the final separation condition and water passes to the oily water treater (Fig. In North Sea operations the tanker loading is often facilitated by use of an articulated loading platform which allows the tankers to take up preferred orientation with respect to winds during loading (Fig.I Show the effect on productivity index of oil viscosity for oils of increasing 'viscosity' in the range 0..3). = 0. and oil passes perhaps to temporary storage or direct to a pipelinelpump system.2 Estimate the ratio in injectivity indices for calculations assuming injection water is colder than formation water (y. h = 100 ft and k = 1325 mD. This may have an influence on displacement calculations. the gas composition also requires careful control. .. . the change in PVT properties may be even more significant.6...22 Example of offshore UKCS process layout.55 cp) and calculations assuming it is the same temperature as formation water (y. . = 0. Example 11. k. Assume the reservoir properties are as follows: re = 1500 ft. The gases injected may change PVT properties in the gas cap as they will generally be leaner than the original gas. phases..5 ft. = 0. 11.  . 5000 cp. ... All gases separated at decreasing pressures and temperatures in the separator train may undergo liquid knockout. injectivity may be impaired over a period of time by precipitation in the formation of greases from compressor lubricants. For reinjection at miscible rather than immiscible pressures with oil. There is a facility for fluids from this separator to be flared in the event of emergency. .22. s = +4.35 cp) in a particular reservoir. .5 cp. 50 cp. For offshore loading of crude oil into tankers.186 . . Fue! gas .   I I Compressor drum ( n o hydrocarbon flow) ' 1 storage wells storage Crude transfer pumps CD Test separator plus NGL'S t o pipeline or tanker Fig. . 11. When gas is reinjected into the reservoir... Examples Example 1 1. r . .
85. I Example 11. Grav~ty flow imless pump sbo wn Fig.4.t :o : E>I I I I I 01 1 dehydrator  L .23 Maureen field oily water treatment (after 13']).d l SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE Adjustable wler flow splitterbox 01Iy water surge tank Produced water train F7i 011 H C to sectlon of d r a m tgnks 1 or r. 11. . and of crosssection dimensions 4 miles wide by 98 ft net thickness. The water formation volume factor for injected water is 1.4 cp and the water viscosity is 0. (ZT 01ly water toD dra~ns tanks \ \ \ To sea via 30" calsson 01ly water CPS u n ~ t \ \ seawater  Fro". Estimate the areal sweep efficiency of the scheme after 10 years if the average daily water injection rate is 53 000 BBLIday. The oil viscosity at reservoir conditions is 3. Example 11. At reservoir conditions the specific gravity of the formation water is 1.81.4 cp._ &T 011 H C to sectlon of drams tanks Cellar DK 011to H C sectlon of drams tanks . The average porosity is 25% and the relative permeability to water in the presence of the residual oil saturation of 30% is 0. 3 1 0 0 MB/D  > 011 to 2 n d stage separator / Ta oil storage t Emergency overflow to sea desalter! 0 f\le : 1 A II .01 and the specific gravity of the oil is 0. JT>.4 An oil well is perforated to within 50 ft of a static water table.005 RBIBBL. 'J to sea sect~on dralns tanks SW from SW return HDR r . For a stable cone to form just below the lowest perforation what is the maximum potential difference (datum corrected pressure differential) that can be allowed during production? . Seawater train I) I 011 stompe/watersurge tank c A 4  Seawater CPS unlt .3 A line drive water injection scheme is being operated in a reservoir of length 1 mile between injection and production wells. Dra~nstanks s~mpllfled(API separator p r ~ n c ~ p l e ) Note. The relative permeability to oil at the initial water saturation of 30% is 0..
D. [2] Muskat. SPEJ (Dec. [12] Hubbert.H. Prediction of waterflood behaviour in a stratified system. 8 (1978).. . McGrawHill Book Co. A theoretical approach to the problem of encroaching and bypassing edge water. [4] Muskat. Elsevier.F. Trans. Use of simple mathematical models for predicting reservoir behaviour. [21] Stiles. Europ. AIME 195 (1952).. J.B. Off. Dallas. and Cornelius.L. J. 11. G. [20] Letkeman. van Wetenschappen. D.M. JPT (Sept. A systematic study of gas and water coning by potentiometric models. L.as influenced by mobility ratio. 160. [6] Warren.E. Akad. 81. i The Prediction of Ol Recovery by Waterflooding. [18] Sobocinski. G. SPE Monograph Vol3 (1971).N. Caudle.J. Conf.J. and Hancock.P. 83. 149. JPT (July 1979). and Cosgrove. SPEJ (June 1964). A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media. A model of oilwater coning for 2Dareal reservoir simulation. H. 1974). Use of permeability distribution in waterflood calculations.P. Simulation of stratified waterflooding by pseudo relative permeability curves. Trans. [lo] Dyes.. = .G. V56B. [22] Koval. and Pizzi. 594. L L . 1141 Richardson. ~aterflodd prediction methods compared to pilot performance in carbonate reservoirs. J.H. J. J. [26] Archer.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE References 1 [I1 Hancock. AIME 207 (1956).L. Trans. (1937). Caudle. JPT (Oct 1959). M.R. JPT (May 1965). Inc. Amsterdam (1953). 805. and Cooper. NY (1950). [17] Chierici.H. 829. Amsterdam.. Pet. M. Pet. Proc. [I61 Berruin. The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids through Porous Media. AIME 261 (1976). G. Proc. Ciucci. C. H. 91. 65. AIME 228 (1963). 276. Trans. 171 Abernathy. J.A. M. Oil production after breakthrough . R. F. A simplified method for computing oil recovery by gas or water drive. B. 1970). [Ill Kimber. N. Darcy's law and the field equations of the flow of underground fluids. Evaluation of waterflood prospects. 1145. E. An appreciation of Middle Brent Sand reservoir features by analogy with Yorkshire coast outcrops. SPE (August 1975). H .E. [25] Kyte. R.K. New pseudo functions to control numerical dispersion.S. Trans. Physical Principles o. 222. Secondary Recovery of Oil in the United States. NY (1950). Trans.E. [24] Hearn. J. (1980). R. 923. 1963. R . [8] Calloway. [19] Chappelear.J. 145. and Hirasaki. AIME 201 (1954). JPT (March 1964). McGrawHill Book Co. B.418. Pet. Texas. AIME231 (1964).L. and Berry. O. W. Paper EUR 197. G. Areal sweepout behaviour in a ninespot injection pattern. Soc. Dev. [15] Hagoort. 1971). and Morse.W. A correlation for predicting water coning time. 199.J. Trans. JPT (Aug. 1964). A. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. F. [5] welge. R. 501. and Ridings. SPEJ (Feb. JPT (July 1971). 1131 Dietz. B .P.. and Blackwell. 1983). [23] Dykstra. > The xeservoir Engineering Aspects of Water Flooding. Waterflood performance of heterogeneous systems. D . and Parsons.E. J. and Erickson. N.F. Displacement stability of water drives in water wet connate water bearing reservoirs. Eng. 269. A. API. JPT n (Nov.K. W. A numerical coning model.L. [9] Dake. r31 Crain.P ~ e v e l o ~ h eof ta reliable gas injection operation for the North Sea's largest capacity production platform. AIME 186 (1949). Sci.f Oil Production. Inc. J. 63.J.
Magnus subsea wells: design. and Whittingham. 217. (1978). ~ e v e l o ~ h eof t Beryl 'A' field. Europ. Off. 1190 r331 Marcum. The Dunlin field . [49] Sandrea. Frigg.E.P. Off. M. Proc. Reinhold Pub.R. and Adams. [48] Smith. (1980). Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering. J.drainage mechanism model. [30] Stewart. (1975). (1980). 9. C. G. Conf. T. Europ. F.M. A. Proc. Analysis and treatment of formation damage at Prudhoe Bay. [40] Simmons.C. G. Pet.T. 1371 . (1984). 1421 .L. Proc. Pet. Europ. NJ (1959).P. Proc.T. API Bull 14D (1967). Europ. R . et al. Gulf Publ. Pet. 407. Conf. 511. Paper EUR 298. (1980). (19821. Paper EUR 165. 99.E. and Murray. JPT (April. A review of the N. Conf. McCardell. (1982). 185. 1361 Dufond. K. Effects of rate on oil recovery by waterflooding. Proc.Pet. Houston. Conf. 81. Pet. Texas (1974). R.C.and Moore. Proc. L. Application of the repeat formation tester in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands. Pet.R. [32] Tyler. Paper SPE 12960.N. R. L 2 > L 2 L 2 L J L 2 . [38] Tosdevin.North Sea's Beryl field after seven years production. Llandudno. NY (1966). Conf. R. and Westbv. Off. Europ. Paper EUR 108. Pet.M.~ a w s b nA. SPEJ (June 1961).review of field development and performance to date. Paper EUR 166. (1978). et al. J. Proc. B. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1974). Europ. Off.P. M. Pet. M. JPT (June 1985) 1010. Off. Europ. Europ. and Hawkins.51. Europ. [45] Deppe. Dynamics of Petroleum Reservoirs under Gas Injection. The development of the Brent field. Conf. [46] Arps.H. Secondary and Tertiary Oil Recovery Processes. B. Paper EUR 98. and Twyford.. Europ. C. Pet. Development planning of the Brent field. Metzger. R. J. Europ. RRIIERC. 205. Prentice Hall Inc. (1984). North Sea offshore compression . J. W. Proc. Tech. 207. ~ontrosk field management.Sea . 1311 Nichols. Cobb. 33. Pet. L. R. r411 Steele. Conf. M.. M. Europ. [50] Poettmann. . N.. The selection of scale inhibitors for the Forties field. Paper EUR 231. 193 r281 Bishlawi. (1978). Pet. Proc. Paper EUR 168. 133.K. Off.H.R. Dake. Conf. [33] Gesink. [47] Craft. [32] Kingston. and Neilsen. Thistle field development. P.341. 1985) 711. L. Oil GJ (13 May 1957). Conf.J. Europ. area swept and pattern.F. and Dimmock. Conf.V. J. Conf. [39] Hughes.reservoir engineering.C. [44] Jordan. Con5 (1982). A statistical study of recovery efficiency. Paper EUR 97. C. F. Use of gamma rayemitting tracers and subsequent gamma ray logging in an observation well to determine the preferential flow zones in a reservoir. 1nnovaGve engineering hakes Maureen development a reality. Pet.. [43] Robertson Research InternationalIERC Energy Resource Consultants Ltd The Brent Sand in the N.R. Paper EUR 152. Off.A. P. (1982). etal. Proc. L. H . Proc. Pet. Off.F.. Off. 397. Pet. Auk Lower Zechstein . Proc. Alaska.. Proc. Proc. Pet. Conf. J. R. 325.E . O"f" f . (1978). Paper EUR 270. Wales (1980). Injection rates the effect of mobility ratio. (1980). Conf. (1980).A Sedimentological and Reservoir Engineering Study. Off. Off. and Niko. . P. Paper SPE 12973.E.A. Paper EUR 331. Europ. Europ.11 SECONDARY RECOVERY AND PRESSURE MAINTENANCE [27] Nadir. and Laffont. Piper field . Off. the first giant gas field in the northern North Sea. et al.R. Viking Graben.. [29] van Rijswijk. J. Paper EUR 313. Paper EUR 110. Pet. N.future needs. AlHussainv. Proc. Reservoir development planning for the Forties field. Conf. installation and early operational experience. [35] Diehl. 319 n the r341 Hillier. Mechanics of Secondary Oil Recovery. K. and Hocott.
. SPE 12984. C. Norman. A. An analytical extension of the DykestraParsons vert~calstratification discrete solution to a continuous realtime basis. G.A.C. Pennwell. R. Enick. Pet.M. [53] Thomas. Con$ (Oct. Okl. Oilfield Water Systems. Design and operating factors that affect waterflood performance in Michigan. 1983). Campbell Pet Series. 1521 Reznick. [55] Hurst. North Sea development: historic costs and future trends. Europ. Reservoir Engineering and Conformal Mapping of Oil and Gas Fields. 1984. Tulsa (1979). 19841. 19841. I541 Tinker.E. 227. and Panvelker. (1977).A. L 2 .643. W. JPT (Oct.190 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [51] Patton. SPEJ 24 (Dec. W. Proc. B.
there must be consideration of techniques to dered conventional recovery processes.oil. core recovery with fluid control and by gravitational to capillary forces is represented by NB material balance. 12. high pressure gas condensate limited in terms of design of the recovery mechan. [1. For the literature and Fig. This chapter is designed solely as an pletion and compression choice. and very low ism. well com. In practice.4 ll]. These tech. Any improvement to gas recovery is very less that 20" API). In this latter category we 7080% and oil recovery factors in the range may consider higher viscosity heavy oil (API gravity 2050%.Chapter 12 Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery mate potentially recoverable oil by improved processes. the distribution of residual oil in a reservoir is of particular significance.2 THE INFLUENCE OF RECOVERY that infill drilling is an effective improved recovery MECHANISM IN RESIDUAL OIL process [831 as is increasing produced water handling facilities. capillary redistribution and residual oil saturation. appear to offer significant bon recovery and the bibliography and reference list potential for further reducing residual oil saturation at the end of the chapter should be used as an entry into the more detailed literature. It can be argued 12. These techniques are discussed in the Bond number (= g'k (p. on the other hand. and Table 12. The ratio of methods. however.introduction to possibilities in improved hydrocarjects.reservoirs. the competing made about microscale and macroscale definitions of forces of viscous flow. the possible terminology. gravity oil measurements may be influenced by stripping in forces have in general been neglected and a term the vicinity of an injection well and thus underesti.1 TARGETS .p. The term residual oil implies nothing absolute about oil saturation and it is process and In a fully contacted region of a homogeneous oil reservoir property dependent.1 shows some of gravity segregation will influence local oil saturation. Distinctions can be reservoir undergoing displacement.reservoirs and volatile oil reservoirs.)/(+o cos 0)) which in normal waterfloods. Oil recovery pro. can be consi.Capillary number (N. and the recovery from reservoirs containing distributions of residual of relatively dry gases by expansion.1 shows some data on has a value around comparative measurements. more so than the total oil volume.) is used to represent the ratio 'a8 12.develop reservoirs which might not be developed by niques lead to gas recovery factors in the range conventional processes. In addition to the potential for further recovery The recovery of light and medium gravity oils by displacement with gas and water. Near wellbore residual systems modelled by core flood experiments. and efficiency increase mainly involves accel.2.3. Measurement of residual The pore geometry of the system will particularly oil saturation in the field may be by logging influence capillary trapping of oil.productivity (low permeabilitythickness) oil and gas eration of income through well location.
Heterogeneity modification. Usual to provide estimate of So.hole logs  CCI End point relative permeability ' This is a modified .a TDTK with T D T .192 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12. from core floods in totally bounded system.G electronics sourcedetector spacing of 6 0 c m .1 Residual oil saturation (So. Solimits are attained at economically limiting oil rates or oil cut in produced fluids. These conditions relate to well and gathering centre design capabilities to handle fluids. All systems . 2D areal system So from material balance. Approach to So. Readings are taking while stationary. Near wellbore So can be different from other regions. 2D crosssection Sofrom material balance. So in contacted region contrasts with So in uncontacted regions. 12. Sofrom material balance generated from integration throughout system. Saturation of core piug at 12. Vertical sweep < 100%.flood out conditions Residual oil saturation (12910'12920') * LIL (TDTL)'  * Conventional core analysis" +  * L * Open . No indication of sweep. Macroscale So from material balance. Use of pseudofunctions. Fig.5 standard deviattons from the average. Could be changed in changed economic climate. Practical. 3D systems Core flood data only useful in discrete regions. The saturation of thts plug was more than 2. Need to validate if gravity effects important. depends on wettability. . viscosity ratio and core heterogeneity. Crossflow possibility. at less than 1 part oil 1000 in flowing effluent in core flood experiments. 100% sweep contact. Areal sweep assumed 100%.1 Residual oil measurements by different techniques in the interval of a single well (after 13']). Core flood data may require modification in thick sections. Core flood data may be applied in analysis.and So) System 1D linear system Microscale So.918ft is omitted.
The stability of surfactants at reservoir 0 is the upstream equilibrium contact angle. polymers are complex and involve nonNewtonian essentially constant So.. portion of the figure is flow. 12. = o cos 0 represented by ocose are dominant and may control Taber in a review paper entitled Research on So. is the equilibrium average oil saturation remaining in equilibrium approach and economic factors. The same comments apply to high viscosity interpretation of these data in terms of conventional polymer fluids which could be added to displacing recovery and enhanced oil recovery potential water to increase the viscosity term in the capillary focuses on an extrapolation and scaling of the number. Their particular interest at present seems more considered equivalent to conventional field scale in the role of diverting agents where they may enter displacement mechanisms and covers several orders a floodedout high permeability region and divert of magnitude of displacement velocity at normal flood water into less permeable higher oil saturation field interfacial tension and wettability conditions. z . Units conditions of temperature and salinity is also quesare generally Darcy units with a in dyneslcm. '. a number in the years 1935 to 1979. For practical purposes there is pressure gas condensates. The reservoir heterogeneity and adsorparea of the core plug face. and these factors together with effective permeability improvement cannot be changed sufficiently to give much change in So. A t very lour displacement rates.systems are then considered as heavy oils and high tive permeability..3 PERMEABILITY IMPROVEMENT \ \ v. Improvement can be considered in terms of increased rate of oil production without increase in ultimate volume of recovery (an acceleration project) and in terms of increased total volume of recovery. The general becomes zero as all fluids in a system become relationship for core plugs and bounded h e a r flow miscible. The tionable. the saturation dependent rela. appear very attractive. A @ / L can be equivalenced to the group V p D . but in practice their efficienagainst So. So. al headings of permeability improvement. which may VPD approach spontaneous imbibition.2. 12. capillary forces N.. miscible where AWL is the potential gradient. The flat. the most significant being o.. Low the core plug. The potential for reduction of residual oil enhanced oil recovery: past. Nonconventional permeability and k . The most frequently used form of the capillary number is that of Moore and Slobod (1956) 12. and displacing phase and is equal to the constant several processes have worked well in laboratory volumetric flow rate divided by the crosssection conditions. k the absolute processes and chemical processes. cy will be controlled by reservoir heterogeneity. between viscous and cap~llary forces and its effect on oil saturation. is as shown in Fig. Well workover activities may be considered as acceleration projects while massive fracture projects may open up otherwise unrecoverable hydrocarbons. l '\ ' \ \ l l l l l l l l l ' l lo' N=YtLD ccar8 Fig.*on modification of the summarized different formulations of the capillary terms.. interfacial tension (IFT) systems are another V is the apparent or superficial velocity of the approach to reducing residual oil saturation. In the limit. pD is the Newtonian tion of chemical agents inducing the IFT (surfacviscosity of the displacing phase. This topic focuses attention on the near wellbore region.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 193 only a limited range of field operation for potential gradients and superficial velocity. 0 \ 1 o50\\ 025 0 oL '. The improved oil recovery mechanisms may Through Darcy's law for linear systems. a is the interfacial tants) tend to lead to adverse economics in field scale tension between the displacing phase and the oil and applications.. is the initial uniform oil saturation.. the group be considered for conventional oils under the generk k . regions. Miscible displacement processes therefore systems suggests that the form of the relationship N. Well productivity improvement can be most easily understood by reference to the semisteady state ..2 Capillary number correlation. present and future ['I1 has saturation is concentrated. The mechanisms for oil displacement using laboratory phenomena to field conditions. In this figure So.
yo is the oil viscosity at reservoir conditions.3 in terms of pressure drops across a skin zone compared with the zero skin case. the relative permeability to oil at a saturation in the vicinity of the well. These factors are largely obvious and receive considerable attention in the literature. reducing substantially the residual oil saturation. lean hydrocarbon gases or high pressure nonhydrocarbon gases such as COz. . perforating techniques. The resultant oil is of lower It is clear that when k > k. acidization and rate dependent sand particle flow. fracturing. 12. completion fluid interaction with formation and formation fluids. in this zone to the bulk formation permeability as follows (see Chapter 9): changes causing decrease in permeability. precipitation and destabilization of natural formation cements. In a multicontact system. injection fluid incompatibility including plugging. 12. The minimum miscibility pressure can be defined in such a diagram as the pressure at which the oil composition lies just to the right of the limiting tie line passing through the critical point. The extension of the simple isotropic radial flow system under semisteady state conditions to stratified heterogeneous reservoir performance under transient flow control (particularly in low permeability reservoirs) introduces considerable analytical complexity.4. and if they are equal S will be zero.e. i. k the permeability of the bulk formation. temperature and composition that are required for miscibility (i. The phase behaviour for miscibility is indicated in Fig. where an extended vapour liquid tie line from the two phase region must not pass through the oil composition. the elimination of an interface between residual oil and the displacing fluid). h is the average net thickness of the tested interval. It is therefore clear that miscibility between lean gas and oil will occur at pressure P2 but not at pressure P I . whether on first contact or after multiple contacts. is influenced by many factors including drilling. borehole rugosity. 12. r. is the reservoir condition volumetric oil flow rate. The magnitude of AP. P the volumetric weighted average reservoir pressure. In Darcy units q.4 MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT MECHANISMS The displacement of oil by nonaqueous injection of hydrocarbon solvents. drilling fluids. The effect on near wellbore pressure is shown on Fig.e.194 PET'ROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE radial flow equation for oil flow in an isotropic horizontal system. then S will be positive. The effect of hydraulically fracturing wells or acidizing them may be to make k. Pwf the flowing bottomhole pressure at the sand face.e. NZor flue gases are generally described as miscible floods. i. An important factor in most improved oil recovery processes is that of mass transfer between the displaced and displacing phases. re is the radial distance from the well to the external boundary of wellbore the system. > k and S then becomes negative. k . costs of treatment versus incrementally assigned production increase. These models are not generally validated and productivity improvement tends to be assessed simplistically on economic criteria.3 Pressure distribution around producing well. Another mechanism called condensing gas drive involves the transfer of intermediate components from the displacing gas to the residual oil and results in a swollen residual oil. mud cake invasion. is the radius of the effectiv~ and S is the skin which causes an incremental pressure change in the real system compared with that of a system with bulk formation properties. The analysis of permeability improvement in real heterogeneous reservoirs requires recognition of proper models for perforation. Hawkins defined the relationship between the radius of the skin zone around a well and the permeability k. are dealt with comprehensively in the literature. saturation PWf for S = negative 14 I + PWffor S = positive I well bore Fig. residual oil behind the displacement front may be stripped of light and intermediate fractions. This mechanism is known as vaporizing gas drive. The various conditions of pressure. 12.
771. Nitrogen has a higher miscibility pressure than C 0 2 or hydrocarbon fluids but is less effective. Lean hydrocarbon has a relatively high miscibility pressure as measured from slim tube experiments.e. and under favourable pressure and temperature conditions there is a rapid approach to miscibility. viscosity and has an increased oil permeability. with C 0 2 . but the risk and expense in using them may not be enough to balance their immediate sale value. Where the formation is contracted by the miscible solvent it is expected that oil recovery is complete. The more usual ones together with fluid vroverties are summarized in ~cble 12. These volume effects can be significant even when full miscibility is not attained. the conclusion is that projects must be started while cash flow from conventional operations exists. 12.2 Properties of miscible fluids Fluid or solvent Reservoir condition densitv 646 450 300 190 650 240 (40) (2530) (19) (12) (41 (14. 12. In implementation of pilot projects in offshore fields.2 for reservbir conditions of 4000 psia and 200°F. The presence of additional compounds increases miscibility pressure.5 MISCIBLE FLOOD APPLICATIONS Displacement stability and the potential for gravity override must be considered in the evaluation of miscible schemes l9 j 27 31 32 34 36. the fractional flow of oil may be very low in early time. Flue gas has been considered in miscible processes as it is predominantly nitrogen. although viscous instability may TABLE 12.66 0.. Heavy hydrocarbons are volatilized into the gas phase. discontinuous residual oil phase leads to the formation of an oil bank which may then itself scavenge residual oil as it moves through the formation. Recent North Sea experience suggests that reinjected gas cushions at pressures below expected miscibility undergo significant mass transfer and approach a vaporizing gas drive process. The oil bank formed by mobilization of previously residual oil may in many instances be of low oil saturation in the presence of the previous displacing fluid (i.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 195 c 7+ c26 Fig.80 0. O2 and SO.6) Formation volume factor 267 Viscosity (cp) Light reservoir oil Liquefied petroleum gas Rich hydrocarbon gas Lean hydrocarbon gas Carbon dioxide Nitrogen  0.4 Miscibility in a vaporizing gas process. or at least a very large capillary number. Several fluids are potentially capable of attaining miscibility with residual oil. the swelling and mobilization of the disperse. Consequently. water). Trapping behind the oil bank is prevented by the existence there of miscible conditions.95 . so that the characteristics of the scheme can be defined and evaluated.50 0. Carbon dioxide has been shown experimentally to be superior to dry hydrocarbon gas in miscible displacements. Heterogeneity and nonequilibria therefore lead to less than ideal recovery. In an ideal process. Rich hydrocarbon gases have found use in relatively low pressure environments in condensing gas drive mechanisms. Stability problems are likely to be the least with C 0 2 which will tend to be gravity stable. Experience in the USA has indicated that LPG and NGL can be used in slygs in excess of 10% PV.
6 CHEMICAL FLOOD PROCESSES Chemical processes for oil displacement are dependent on changes in p.7. 12. 12. Offshore generation of C 0 2 or N2 will require additional platform facilities which may render projects uneconomic. The fluid choice for miscible displacement projects in North Sea reservoirs is firstly with hydrocarbon gas and secondly consideration of the relative merits of C 0 2 and N2. 12. Wettability change alters both shape and endpoints of relative permeability curves and thus leads to improved fractional flow and reduced residual oil saturation in favourable conditions. is more corrosive than N2 and is more expensive to produce than N2. C 0 2 is soluble in formation water. a.15 17. as shown in Fig. In the North Sea. Nearly twice as much C 0 2 would be needed as N2 to occupy one reservoir barrel of pore space. cause concern and will accentuate effects of slug breakdown caused by heterogeneity. In addition. austic solutions have been reported to change reservoir rockfluid wettability and generate in situ surfactants. PSlA Fig. . Ideal reservoir candidates in a gravity stable miscible process should have steeply dipping beds of good permeability or else be high relief reservoirs with high vertical permeability. Classic examples of field miscible schemes are the Weeks Island gravity stable C 0 2 displacement and the Golden Spike LPG flood. a degree of miscibility has been achieved with temporary gas reinjection in the Beryl field and into the Statfjord formations of the Brent and Statfjord fields. 0 and on the capillary number [12.8.5 Solubility of C 0 2 in water at 1OO"F (after [641).196 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fresh water 100 000 ppm salt water 200 000 ppm salt water I iobo 2doo 30'00 40'00 50b0 6000 70'00 Pressure.221 C . although it appears that results are unpredictable.5.
Figure 12. 12. Surfactant processes concentrate on reduction of interfacial tension to increase capillary number and reduce So. Most polymer systems considered for oil displacement are prone to adsorption on reservoir rock surfaces.7 Surfactantbrine4 ternary diagrams. The usual representation (Fig. Although many real systems will be significantly more complex. Depending on the overall composition. a pseudo threecomponent system can be used to represent phase behaviour at varying compositions.15% polymer solutions in 33 000 ppm TDS brine with dissolved oxygen less than 0. The process becomes unattractive when significant crossflow between layers exists as the polymer solution may become ineffective some distance from the wellbore. particularly shaly sites.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY Polymer applications are centred on thickening of injection water with water soluble polymers and either use as diverting agents or in the consequent improvement in mobility ratio and increased sweep efficiency [2022j. Biopolymers such as xanthan gums exhibit decreased viscosities at high flow rates and are known as shear thinning fluids. high salinity environments.7) is in the form of equilibrium ternary diagrams with 100% surfactant concentration at the top. The basic ingredients in a surfactant system are oil.6 Thermal stability of polymer solutions (after ['21) Fig. brine and surfactant (plus consurfactants such as alcohols). The particular interest in polymer solutions in stratified reservoir systems is in blocking high permeability depleted layers and allowing displacement in the lower permeability thickness layers. 12. in the swept zone. 12. For application in high temperature. the thermal stability of polymer systems must be demonstrated.02 ppm. whereas targets of at least five years might be set.1 1 1 0 100 1000 Days stored at 205' F + Fig. The thermal degradation of both polyacrylamide and xanthan solutions was essentially complete in a few hundred days. The polymer solutions are in general nonNewtonian in behaviour. Polyacrylamides tend to have increased viscosity at higher rates and are viscoelastic. an equilibP TY~e I1 100% Surfactont Point Aequilibrotes to oil and microemulsion 100% Brine 100% Type IT + looO/o Surfactant A Point A equilibrates to microemulsion and brine 100% Brine c a looO/o oi\ Type 100% Surfactant PointAequiIibrates to oil and microemulsion and brine 2 phase 0. which decrease their effectiveness. 100% brine to the left and 100% oil to the right.6 shows the results of a test at 205°F on 0. .
12.I'[ PIT. two o r three phases are present. Pope and Nelson [241 have demonstrated that. Under such conditions a singlephase system is unlikely with any practical surfactant. however."] have demonstrated that the Type I11 condition corresponds to a hydrophiliclipophilic balance in the middle phase which will lead to maximum oil mobilization. will alter the position of hydrophiliclipophilic balance. introduced into a reservoir in a saline aqueous phase. In multiphase environments a homogeneous phase containing oil. Hydrophiliclipophilic balance microemulsion "C j 1 microemulsion 1 ! I fl ! Excess brine . brine and surfactant.198 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12.9 Shinoda diagram (after [''I).8 Equilibrium representation of phase distribution in a cell . The Type IIt system shown in Fig. inevitable that during the passage of any chemical mixture between an injection location and a production location there will be changes in mixture composition and a continuous change in phase equilibrium. 1 Q p . 12. the Type 11. the optimal point B. flood performance can be calculated as a number of equilibrium steps. The terminology of surfactant systemphase diagrams has developed through Winsor c8].system equilibrates with a lower microemulsion phase and an upper excess oil phase and is characterized with the lines of negative slope in the twophase region. or (ii) lower concentration surfactant in flood water without polymer chase.9 shows a plot known as a Shinoda diagram in which the balance variable B is plotted against the fraction of total fluid (oil + brine + microemulsion) that is microemulsion. The Type I11 system in Fig. It is. Salinity can sometimes be modified from high to low by preflush.a threephase system at some location in the reservoir at some time.7 equilibrates with a middle microemulsion phase. Figure 12. The onshore North American experience. when B is salinity the balance point is known as optimal salinity. higher concentration surfactant slug. I1 indicates a twophase system and I11 a threephase system. There are a number of parameters that. the balance Oil I Brine I Fig. 12. Shinoda and others [12. balance var~able+ Fig. As shown in Fig.3 Equivalent terminologies Winsor Type 1 Type II Type Ill Nelson and Pope Type IIType II+ Type Ill Reed and Healy Lower phase (microemulsion) Upper phase (microemulsion) Middle phase (microemulsion) rium can exist in which one. for practical purposes. 12. 12. The current North Sea interest is in low surfactant concentrations. for a given surfactantoil system. but this introduces the possibility of formation damage in clay sensitive sands. The main options in surfactant flooding with preselected optimal surfactants are either (i) lower volume.8.3 Following the Nelson and Pope nomenclature. When B is temperature. point is called the phase inversion temperature . can form. as illustrated in Fig. and known as a microemulsion. Surfactants must therefore be formulated for performance at a PIT equivalent to the reservoir temperature.7. chased by a mobility control polymer. A Type I11 condition during chemical flood displacement may therefore be an important target in flood design. I I V . The microemulsion can be considered in thermodynamic equilibrium with any other phase present in the system.7 equilibrates with an upper microemulsion phase and a lower excess brine phase and has tie lines with a positive slope in the twophase region. 12. . an upper excess oil phase and a lower excess brine phase. Nelson and Pope rZ31 and Reed and Healy and is approximately equivalenced in Table 12.
0(EO). tends to be of the higher concentration slug type. micellar polymer mainly using petroleum sulphonate surfactants and their derivatives. ['I and has a formulation C. For low surfactant concentration in continuous seawater floods. In core floods a comparison is made between recovery after waterflooding at reservoir temperature and recovery after surfactant flooding at reservoir temperature and at preferred concentration. the majority of effort at present is concentrated on surfactant chemical formulation to meet optimal condition. 12. With increasing salinity the phase system moves from Type I11 towards Type II+ and is analogous to the shift from Type 11. In this context.C3S03Na where (EO) represents an ethylene oxide group (CH2CH20).10 Chemical flooding. It has been shown that minimum. The adsorption of surfactant on the particular reservoir rock is considered sacrificial in these circumstances and although it can be quantified it probably cannot be changed much. The circumstances leading to this route have recently been discussed by Grist et al.through Type I11 to Type IIt shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 12. A potentially interesting group of oxyalkylated suplhanates with high temperature and high salinity tolerance has been identified by Mattax et al.11 and reported for petroleum sulphonate systems. low salinity might be around 6000 ppm TDS and high salinity around 120 000 TDS. These synthetic surfactant systems are designed to equilibrate in the Type 111 to Type II+ phase systems. A concentration target for the seawater additive system appears to be around 12%.10 Iz21. If adsorption is too great to give an economic flood then that surfactantlreservoir system should be rejected.I Fig. 12. even though perhaps significant adsorption occurs around the hydrophiliclipophilic balance condition. Synthetic surfactants. The philosophy adopted in the design of a low concentration surfactant flood involves development of a surfactant which exhibits Type IIIIII+ behaviour and stability at reservoir temperature and salinities and which has an acceptable adsorption character in the specific reservoir. [I5] and centre on the difficulties of offshore handling bulk chemical in volumes needed for higher concentration slugs. Although there is no particular consensus in the . Preliminary surfactant interest can be assessed from ability to mobilize oil from a static residual column and is a precursor to laboratory core floods. although costly. can be manufactured with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions.For offshore North Sea reservoirs the interest has focused on the low concentration synthetic surfactant additive to a seawater high volume flood.
Design freld flood or next pilot. (d) dark colour.7. V. 12. heat change and adsorption Isotherm techniques.12 is based on vacuum distillation of the crude oil which results in a volatile component. . The residue is mixed with cold apentane which separates asphaltene from polar compounds. it is suggested that tests should eventually be conducted on reservoir zone core lengths up to 2 m. (b) high viscosity at normal reservoir conditions (PO> 20 CP). Select formulation so that oil solubility is largest at a given blend and concentration. Define phase equilibria for salin~ty scan. but are in offshore reservoirs difficult to develop for many reasons. North Sea heavy crude oils are not very well documented. Y i i Blend surfactants at reservoir temperature using equal volumes of reservoir brine and crude oil.).4 The screening of potential surfactants for use in field operations Define reservoir sallnity and surfactant concentration range. Check adsorption characteristics in flow loop using surfactant compositron.1 i 1 literature. Table 12. In the USA some 127 x . 12. . Table 12./y. The core experiments to recovery potential will show an upper since residual oil saturations will be those of a c o m ~ l e t e swept 'One. Run pllot flood and retune s~mulator.4. key Run experiment for valldatlon. 1 L .7 HEAVY OIL RECOVERY 12. Any particular heavy oil may have some of these properties and there is nothing absolute in any classification. (g) asphaltene content (up to +50% weight). The 'Ombination l~ of phase equilibrium experiments and core flood experiments will allow calibration of a linear surfactant core flood simulator. The crude oil composition as plotted on the ternary diagram can be used to distinguish thermally mature oils from weathered and biodegraded heavy oils. Tune simulator parameters and pred~ct core flood outcome. A genera' tant reservoir system potential is shown in Table 12. =500 ppm). Use simulator to design pilot flood. (f) metal content (Ni. The presentation shown in Fig.6 contrasts some selecteci examples of heavy oils from other parts of the world It is clear that some recognition of the characteristics of heavy oil crudes from around the world might be used to guide expected properties from heavy oils to be found in the UKCS. The majority of these oils are not heavy in a world wide characterization.200 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12.5 illustrates some characteristics of heavy crudes in the UK sector. This incidentally indicates that some preplanning is necessary if preserved core of in situ wettability is to be available. (c) poor reservoir mobility (k. Find surfactants having optimal salin~ty above and below resident brine salinity and check phase representations.1 Characterization of heavy oil crude A generalized 'lassification of considers an association of the following properties: (a) low API gravity less than 20". (e) sulphur content (> 3% weight). A method proposed by Yen has been used 1611 to distinguish the pseudoternary composition and origin of heavy oils.1 Initiate short and long core flood tests at reservoir conditions and model results using compositional simulator. of which several versions have been to assessing surfacdescribed. mainly hydrocarbons and a potresidue.
12 Yen classification. lnvasiant point moves continuously from 100% brine point to 100% oil point as salinity increases. Yen classification based on vacuum distillation and npentane solubility of pot residue Invariant point moves continuously from 100°/o brine ~ o i nto 100% t oil point as solinit. increases Hydrocarbons (volotiles) Fig.5 12 8 101 8 101 2 121 5 14 14 Estimated viscosity CPJ(rc) 80220 25 (25) 650 3700 6200 3000 100 000 801 00 4200 1600 .5 Characterist~cs UKCS heavy crude oils of Reservoir condition UKCS quadrant 2 3 9 14 16 206 Gravity ("A PI) 20. TABLE 12. Californ~a 01 1gfavlty 81 3 19 20 1220 1823 1923 12.524 1115 1526 25 23 23 Temperature pF/ 120 115 120 175 130 135 Viscosity (CP) Reservoir Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone 81 4 1502750 (30) 4 5 3. 12.11 Effect of balance variables on phase distribution. Texas USA. Fig.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY lOO0/0 Asphaltene . Texas USA.5 TABLE 12.6 Examples of heavy oil reservoirs Field Gela Ragusa Dur~ Darius Harbur Karatchok Bat1 Raman Tia Juana Jobo Lloydminster Cold Lake San Miguel Kern River Midway Sunset Country Italy Italy Sumatra Iran Oman Syria Turkey Venezuela Venezuela Canada Canada USA. 12. a.
At surface.7.13 shows the form of relationship between oil viscosity at surface and reservoir temperature conditions for different gravity oils.202 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 12.8 illustrates some pore volume compressibilities in reservoir rocks having porosities greater than 20%. the recovered core may be quick frozen and packed with Temperature. The US experience in distribution of heavy oil in terms of gravity. Reservoir rock and fluid properties are often difficult to obtain as coring can be unsuccessful and the fluids may not flow to surface.2 Properties of heavy oil reservoirs Many of the North Sea examples of heavy oil reservoirs are found in relatively young. This figure excludes tar sands and is similar to the volume of medium and light oil historically identified. 12OAPI crude oil 12. '. Figure 12. The reconstituted samples may not reflect in situ reservoir stresses when used in conventional processes for measuring porosity and saturation. Table 12. and the figures are given in Table 12. The interpretation of porosity from . friable sandstones of Palaeocene and Eocene age. as well as reservoir rock and fluid properties. These data from a mature exploration area show that heavy oil is widespread geographically and that volumes in place approach that of conventional oil. In the North Sea the heavy oil reservoir potential is linked through economic considerations to reservoir size. The tables show us nothing of the reservoir sizes and only suggest that production from heavy oil reservoirs is disproportionately small. typically providing 7 m core lengths. Friable and unconsolidated sands can exhibit high pore volume compressibilities in comparison with the often used literature values of Hall around 2 x lo6 psi1. The pore volume compressibility is important in correlating core and log data at the same in situ stress condition.7. Recovery factors from heavy oil reservoirs are not a good guide to their potential since they are production process dependent. geometry. water depth and subsea depth. 50% 8% 48% 52% 20% 35 % 45 % Heavy oil gravity: 2025"API less than 20" API Heavy oil reservoir depths less than 500 m between 5001 000 m more than 1000 m Heavy oil reservoir lithology limestone reservoirs sandstone reservoirs more than 3 m thick and shallower than 1000 metres lo9 STB of heavy crude oil in place has been identified [611. Cores may be more successfully obtained from friable sands using rubber sleeved or fibre glassed core barrels. Oil viscosity at reservoir conditions may be roughly estimated from dead oil viscosity where the oil is relatively gas free. 12. deg F Fig. reservoirs and depths might also serve as some kind of guide to expectations.13 Relationship between kinematic viscosity and temperature solid C 0 2 for transportation to a laboratory.7 Heavy oil resource distribution in USA Heavy oil as percentage of all crude (STOIIP) Heavy oil production as percentage of all crude (annual) .
p. In the relationship for PI the particular effect of variation in viscosity is shown in Fig.25 0.8 Reservoir rock Pore volume compressibility of reservoir rocks Surface porosity (Frac) 0.14 Porosity interpretation from FDC log in North Sea heavy oil well. i.T where k is the formation permeability.14 shows a density log response in an Eocene heavy oil reservoir from the North Sea [jq.15 Effect of oil viscosity on PI.A ~ N STOIIP = =(So cp) DOL Formation density RHOB (g/cc) where A = area. 12. it is flow properties that determine performance..P. c = porosity and Boi = initial oil formation volume $ factor. the relative permeability to oil and po the oil viscosity.30 0. temperature ( 'and saturation (S) may be written as [kkro/po]s. = saturation.5 x lo4 3. 12.39 Pore volume compressibility (psi') 1. Using a mud filtrate density rather than an oil density in the porosity calculation leads to an overestimation by 3 porosity percentage units. The key parameter in the flow of heavy oil in a reservoir is the mobility.4 x lo6 6. be recognized that mud filtrate invasion and oil displacement is likely to be very low. Gamma ray API units 12. Figure 12. however. ..15. which at some 7) given reservoir pressure (P).7. and the density of fluid in the interpreted zone is best represented by that of the heavy oil.33 0. k. 12. 3.5 x lo4 > 20 x lo6 Oilfield sands (Hall) Frio sand Berea sand Weakly cemented sand Athabasca sand Ottawa sand (c109) North Sea Chalk formation density logs and their derivatives has been reasonably successful in openhole conditions.8 x low6 5.21 0.30 0. EN = net thickness. Eocene Fig. on The effect of the term [kkrol~o]S.345 0.e.75 x 3. It should.8 x 14.0 x 10.3 Production characteristics of heavy oil reservoirs Porosity distribution and oil saturation are required for determination of hydrocarbon in place for a heavy oil reservoir.T semisteady state radial flow productivity index is dramatic. However. Oil viscosity (cp) Fig.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 203 TABLE 12.
12. These changes are observed empirically with particular reservoir rocks and may be partly controlled by pore filling minerals. m m + Oil Relative permeability relationship fluences the nature of any improvement in permeability. hot water k . In fracturing and acidization of reservoir rock.16. 12. as well as introduction of chemicals such as caustic solutions. Introduction of carbon dioxide in a heavy oil reservoir can also lead to viscosity reduction of the oil in some circumstances. may shift relative permeability curves as shown in Fig. The all these processes. 12. The economics of a particular process can be Improvement in the productivity of heavy oil assessed in terms of an energy balance as cost of reservoirs can be considered through modification of total energy as compared with value of the product after operating costs and taxes. particular consideration must be paid to rock debris flow. 12. .204 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE This illustrates one of the reasons why thermal expansion of oil and reduction in viscosity by the addition of thermal energy is attractive for heavy oil systems. proppants and rock strength. 12. 12. Uncertainties are attached to the description of induced fractures and acidized permeability and the proper representation of dual porositylpermeability .8 Water saturation (frac PV) / / Noteffect solely always n . The time changing magnitude of improvement as saturation and pressures change is important in the economic assessment of improvement.o not well 0.16 Effect of heavy oil viscosity on fractional flow of water. The effect of the ratio between oil viscosity and water viscosity on fractional flow of water in horizontal homogenous reservoirs can also be illustrated as in Fig. drive and a variety of combustion processes from Productivity = Po forward to reverse and from air to oxygen with and Increase in permeability may be achievable through without water injection (see Figs.kr. From a design standpoint.' of temperature Fig.17 Effect of temperature on relative permeability. Relative permeability improvement relates to wettability change as well as to changes in irreducible saturations.20). consideration must be given to reservoir lithology and heterogeneity obviously in. Thermal injection the terms in the following relationship: processes include steam soak. Temperature change.8 THERMAL ENERGY The introduction of thermal energy into a heavy oil reservoir should result in improvement in productivity. steam drive.the volume of the heated zone and the mechanisms Fig.17. 1 . The mechanisms of relative permeability change are not well understood and are not capable of being incorporated directly in productivity design.1812.
.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 205 SOAK (shutin phase) fi days HUFF (injection phase) days to weeks PUFF (production phase) weeks to months Fig.18 Cyclic steam simulation. Stack gas scrubber  Fig. 12.19 Steam flooding. 12.
Typical data required in calculations of thermal processes are shown in Table 12. equivalent to a depth of some 5000 ft SS in a normally pressured reservoir. of heat transfer which result in productivity improvement. 12. It is clear also that reservoir structure. The characterization of reservoir transmissibility and continuity is probably a greater uncertainty than any error in fluid and rock properties introduced by use of literature correlations. can be represented for consideration of thermal properties in the following form: Vrh= Complex function ' Recoverable [latent heat conductivity ] Thermal [diffusivity ] [%city] [Time] ' I Temperature gradient injector .9. In processes typically considered for thermal stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs. For details of the various processes and explanation of mechanisms there is a wealth of current literature [2. 12. capillary pressure and PVT properties. For deep reservoirs steam may not condense. oil. Some of these data can be obtained quite satisfactorily from correlations and others require specific determination for a given reservoir fluidrock system. gravity override of hot gases.42613621. thermal conductivity (A) and thermal diffusivity (D = hlCp) are applied to the reservoir and the rocks overlying and underlying the reservoir.20 Insitu combustion. pressure and saturation dependent empirical relationships for relative permeability. Appreciable latent heat release is not achieved at pressures greater than 2200 psi. heterogeneity and geometry will influence well spacing and heat transfer.e. consideration of full threedimensional geometry is important as fluid density differences (i. In order to solve equations for heated zone volume. designated V r . combustion gases. Steam override mechanisms have been the subject of laboratory investigations and results support the current interest in application of horizontal well technology. Steam properties indicate that superheat at elevated reservoir pressures and temperatures is not proportionately beneficial. steam.producer The heat capacity (C) is applied to reservoir rocks and fluids. Steam properties will also be important. particularly steam. water) play an important role in displacement efficiency.2 psia and 705. Data requirements include thermal properties of rocks and reservoir fluids together with temperature.206 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ~ Fig. The critical point for steam is shown in Fig.3.21 as 3206. The volume of a heated zone in a reservoir. .4"F. will be important.
n 12.22 Gas condensate phase diagram.9 GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS A pressuretemperature phase envelope of a hydrocarbon mixture known as a gas condensate is shown in Fig.) Correlation (Lit. Fig. Thermal conductivity Permeability Pore volume compressibility Porosity Source Measured Calculated Measured Measured Measured (fn 7) \ Sl units 912.5 Btulftday"F psi 6 Water and steam Reservoir rock Steam tables Correlation (Lit.) Correlation (Lit.00029"F' 0.3 Btu/ft3"F 38.4 M J / K ~ 96.5" API 5x psi' 0.) Measured Measured Measured Measured Measured Overburden Heat capacity and underburden Thermal conductivity Oilwater Gasliquid Relative permeability Capillary pressure Relative permeability Capillary pressure Solubility Pa Pa m3/m3 psi SCFISTB  (P.00073 Pa' 0.2 psia and 705.1 6 Btulftday°F mD psi' fraction 21 Btu!ft3"F 15. 12.00052 K' 1.) Measured Measured Measured Correlation (Lit. thermal expan. 12. Heat capacity Viscosity Density Compressibility Heat capacity Latent heat Heat capacity .469 Btu/lb°F 5 cp at 212°F Ib!ft3 psi' Btu/lb°F Btuilb 25. It can be seen that if the reservoir temperature of the gas phase mixture is above critical and below the Liqud Gas 0 400 300 : 40 80 120 160 l I I I I I I I I I 200 I I Critical Pressure ( b a r ) // / / .22 for a constant composition system.4OF) I Temperature Fig. 12.21 Properties of steam.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 207 TABLE 12.  .3 kJ/mdayK Field units 23.963 kJikgK 5 mPa at 373 K kgim3 Pa' kJikgK kJikg 1.9 Example data requirementsfor steamdrive analysis Typical value or units System Oil Propefly Density (21"C) Compressibility Coef.7 MJ/m3 K 238 kJ/mdayK pm2 Pa' fraction ~ 1.A0 ' ' 0 / point ( 3206.7 kg/m3 0.
The mechanisms of liquid drop out and its effect on hydrocarbon recovery and well productivity are not yet fully understood.56 4. and validation depends as much as anything on representation of the well stream fluid in sampling. 4. This behaviour is characteristic of a gas condensate.59 2.57 1. Liquid drop out character during isothermal constant volume expansion is shown for three samples with different single stage separator gasoil ratios in Fig.63 3. For more detail the reader is referred to the current literature.97 Specific gravity C7+ 0.40 0.7 psi 2. during isothermal pressure reduction.1 40 lblft 705 580 Iblday Mole % 0. Relative permeability behaviour of condensate systems are also the subject of considerable uncertainty. Relative permeability and oil trapping phenomena will play a large part in well productivity. factor can be used to check if liquid samples are indeed characteristic of the condensate. The nonequilibrium conditions occurring around a wellbore might invalidate such a calculation. The magnitude and location in the reservoir of liquid drop out from a condensate reservoir undergoing pressure depletion i~ vital to the design of a produotion scheme.95 0.. is around 12 for a condensate system and 11. TABLE 12.36 0.7802 Avg. In addition the API gravity of resultant stock tank oil is likely to be greater than 45" and producing gasoil ratios are often in excess of 3000 SCFISTB.208 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE cricondentherm then.5579 ~0 '5178 4 8 4 5 7 3 B + .6" F 707. It might be predicted from radial flow pressure drop and constant volume depletion data where liquid drop out might occur [66j.84573 The K. The numerical modelling of gas condensate reservoir systems is limited by proper representation of flow physics and thermodynamic behaviour in addition to normal reservoir description.03% wt K C7+from: . Bottomhole sampling may frequently fail to represent total reservoir fluid. and recombined surface separator samples in these particular conditions are often preferred. Condensate PVT properties require matching with equations of state.6942 H2S 10 ppm Oil analysis Separator temperature Separator pressure Flowing density Mass flow Nitrogen Carbon dioxide Methane Ethane Propane Isobutane nbutane Isopentane npentane Hexanes Heptanes 157. the liquid content of the mixture may increase and then decrease in a phenomenon known as retrograde condensation. Sampling gas condensate reservoirs is notoriously difficult because of proximity to critical conditions and retrograde behaviour.37 4.) of the C.90 for a black oil using the relationship between liquid specific gravity (y) and molecular weight (M) as follows: K W = 4.6 IbiBBL 232440 Iblday Mole % 0.2 psig 226.09 83. 12.01 0.63 13.5579 M (0 15178) Y 0. S content C7+0.10 shows an example of a separator gas and liquid composition from a condensate reservoir..30 54.49 4.04 0. The stock tank liquid is often very pale yellow in colour and the Watson characterization factor (K.52 0.16 2. Figure 12. wt. C7+ 143.4 Avg.24 shows schematically a liquid saturation and pressure profile in radial flow towards a wellbore of radius r. mol.36 10. Table 12.1 0 Condensate analysis (after Oil flow rate 525 BOPD Gas flow rate 13475MSCFD Natural gas analysis 146°F 664. A typical K.49 0.84 7.12 Gas gravity = 0.55 3.23. fraction is significantly different from black oils.
..' \ \ ." .. Nonequilibrium &liquid drop out '\end kr effects .*" \\ ...' ' .....this would be particularly true in offshore development of deep reservoirs. I / Production methods for gas condensate reservoirs include [37]: (a) pressure depletion._I 1 0  0 G O R = 3 0 0 0 0 SCF/STB 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Pressure (psia) Fig. 1 I i The water drive mechanism may be appropriate for high pressure reservoirs where dry gas compression and reinjection could be costly .. ...... ___ Liquid saturation ccC Max saturation according to Constant volume depletion t J 0) ... (c) partial or full pressure maintenance by water drive. ...... 12. (b) pressure depletion with dry gas recycling. ..a"\\ ' ."... 12... Partial pressure maintenance in gas condensate @/. pressure P\'! .12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY GOR = 5 0 0 0 SCF/STB (s~ngle stage) 30a & a C GOR = 7 0 0 0 SCF/STB 20 2 + e C 0 g .24 Pressure and saturation profiles. n f kevaporisation mechanisms~.23 Liquid content during isothermal constant volume expansion of some condensates....... *' Wellbore influence On Compositional transport rw r Fig.a +/.... *A /' ......
The performance prediction of a gas condensate using the laboratory PVT data assumes that liquid saturation remains below some critical value and is thus immobile. The gas condensate formation volume factor B. At low rates it is possible that some trapped gas could be recovered during blowdown. is the effective hydrocarbon net thickness. Recovery calculations must.7) can be used to derive a value for Z at datum. In consideration of processes involving water drive in gas condensate systems.4 ft3 at 60°F and 14. $ is the volume weighted average porosity and S. After contact of all wet gas and recovery of liquids at surface conditions.e.. and gravity override may occur at quite low rates.4 1blft3 at the same condition. Pressure depletion alone would result in unacceptable recovery factors in most instances.7 psia. At separator conditions the dry gas is that fraction of the total moles of reservoir fluid that are gas. and that water has a density of 62.) (28. h. however.210 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE reservoirs is conducted with the aim of keeping pressure above dewpoint. It is this result that focuses interest in dry gas recycling and pressure maintenancelwaterdrive projects. at initial datum conditions.11 shows the type of information available from a laboratory constant volume depletion and Table 12. the weight of oil and gas produced at stock tank conditions for each 1 STB liquid is W as follows: (Ry.4 1 Similarly.97) W = (5. = RCFISCF P The reservoir hydrocarbon pore volume estimated volumetrically is related to the standard condition volume Vsc as   R p yg Mo = = = total gasoil ratio of the system (scflstb). the average saturation of gas condensate in the hydrocarbon region. 4. ["13:9'4 Assuming that one pound mole of gas occupies a volume of 379. and ultimate recovery can be judged from laboratory simulation of a constant volume depletion using a valid fluid sample. At the pseudoreduced temperature and pressure in the reservoir the Standing and Katz chart (Fig. the displacement will then tend to be unstable in terms of Dietz criteria (Chapter 7). i.). The determination of the dry gas and oil in place equivalent to the wet condensate volume can be estimated as follows. P (psia) and T ( O F ) . consid .02829 z (T+460) B gz. where A is the effective hydrocarbon reservoir area in ft3. From PVT laboratory data the following information is available: For each 1 STB of liquid produced the number of moles (n) produced is therefore The molecular weight of the reservoir condition fluid (MW).615 x 62. one of the significant uncertainties is trapped gas saturation at high pressure and the effects of pore geometry.SCF Dry gas volume = V.. gas gravity (relative to air = 1). the reservoir should contain a singlephase leaner gas which is itself recoverable by pressure depletion or blowdown as if it were a dry gas reservoir. can therefore be estimated from The reservoir condition gas condensate gravity (y. if reliability is placed in the compositional data. the oil content at stock tank conditions is given by + Table 12. 4.03p]. although the mechanism would be a complicated threephase process. A design drawback to the recovery process is viscous instability which is accentuated by reservoir heterogeneity. is therefore The critical properties of the gas condensate can then be obtained from the pseudocritical property chart (see Fig. Since wet gas might have a significantly greater viscosity at reservoir conditions than dry gas.12 indicates that liquid recovery is quite poor.. =molecular weight of liquid (estimate from Mo = 44. liquid density (g/cm3).7) or by use of Kay's rule. .4 x p) 379. capillary number and Bond number on its magnitude. as well as a greater density. Gas recycling is a miscible recovery process with mass transfer between advancing dry gas and wet gas in the pore space. is thus 0.3p1[1.
2051 0.1074 0.0847 0.1203 0.7568 C5+ plant recovery (gall/gall) 0 0.10 VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIRS Above bubblepoint pressure a volatile oil reservoir can be treated as a black oil system.0446 0.5821 0. Economic considerations are particularly important in evaluation of gas condensate potential.2052 0.5434 0.47 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid Total plant products in wellstream fluid C 878 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid .0445 0.2157 0.1288 Primary separator gas recovery (SCFISCF) 0 0.14 BBLIMMSCF original fluid 8.87 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid C3: 814 galionsiMMSCF original fluid C 489 gallonslMMSCF original fluid .7040 Stock tank liquid recovery (STB/STB) 0 0. TABLE 12.1 195 0.3958 0.0851 0.0502 0. Equations of state may be used to calculate the behaviour of the original fluid composition during production. These equations of state often require tuning of coefficients using PVT data.3 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid Stock tank fluid Liquid Gas 0 psig and 60°F 102. C4 564 gallons1MMSCF original fluid C5+ 5416 gallonsiMMSCF original fiuid Reservoir fluid initially at 5750 psig TABLE 12.1 093 0.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 21 1 er the effects of reservoir heterogeneities and constraints imposed by wellbore conditions and processing equipment.1 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid C5+:6.64 STBIMMSCF original fluid 5.1610 0.0727 0. oil and gas mobility and reservoir heterogeneity control performance.1289 Second stage liquid recovery (SSBBL/SSBBL) 0 0. 12. Compositional I' approaches to reservoir calculations are used ' [ and equilibrium constants (kvalues) are required to predict molar relationships between phases.1079 0. : C5+:997 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid Second stage separation at 100 psig and 120°F Liquid Gas Gas products 109.12 Recovery of fluids by depletion Pressure (psi) Original fluid recovery (SCF/SCF) 0 0.3720 0.0746 0.11 Constant volume depletion data: example system Distribution of original fluid between separation stages Primary separation at 500 psig and 220°F Gas Gas products 912.6 gallonsIMMSCF original fluid C4:5.2450 . Below bubblepoint.26 MSCFIMMSCF original fluid C3: 10.
(h.Ihl in field units and the viscous gravity force ratio is given by 2050yUL/(khAp).and a twophase region and can be represented on a ternary diagram. (b) On a five spot pattern with L = 2000 ft and thickness 50 ft..1 (see Appendix 1 ) estimate the breakthrough 1 sweepout efficiency and the dominant flow regime in the following displacements.64 g/cm3 and 0. 717% oil? Example 12.(T.25 q. Assume that the horizontal permeability is represented as 3 mD and the vertical permeability by 1mD. It has only a single. Other thermal data may be assumed as follows: Enthalpy of liquid water at T. and can be represented as 130 mD. The wellbore radius is 0. 77% oil? (c) What weight of surfactant must be added to 100 g of 20% oil in brine mixture to make it just single phase? What is the composition of this final mixture? (d) What is the composition of the mixture when 150 g of a solution containing 10% oil... The sand is 60 ft thick and has a permeability to oil at reservoir temperature of 1000 mD.1 Using the Stalkup relationships shown in Figure A12. (b) What is the composition and weight fraction for the equilibrium separated phases for 200 g mixture of total composition 4% surfactant. The density and viscosity of C 0 2 at reservoir conditions are taken as 0. The reservoir condition densities of gas and oil are 0. 40% surfactant? (e) What is the composition of the resulting phases when 100 g of a solution composed of 12% surfactant 5% oil is added to 100 g solution composed of 20% surfactant.v(T.. The viscosity of the injected gas is 0.75 g/cm3 and 0. The following phase equilibrium data have been obtained for the twophase part of the system.)) = 355 Btullb m Latent heat of vaporization at Ts.055 cp.5 ft. Surfactant Ol i Surfactant Ol i (a) Plot the data and construct the phase envelope.3 Contrast development by steam stimulationlinjection and conventional water injection on a 9 acre fivespot pattern of a reservoir sand containing 150 cp oil at the reservoir temperature of 100°F. The compositions are in weight percent. The reservoirs have not been waterflooded previously.36 cp. The oil density and viscosity at reservoir conditions are 0. (h. with oilbrinesurfactant being the components.02 cp and the oil viscosity is 0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 12.5 cp. Assume that the permeability of the reservoir is isotropic. carbon dioxide is being injected at 1000 RBld. (Lvdh) 845 Btuilb rn = . (a) On a five spot pattern with L = 1500 ft and thickness h = 70 ft 9 gas is being injected at 4000 RBld..75..8 glcm".4 and 0. Example 12. Assume the steam is injected at a bottom hole temperature at 380°F with a quality ratio (fsdh) of 0. Estimate the composition of the plait (critical) point. 40% surfactant is added to 150 g of a solution 50% oil..)) = 69 Btullb m Enthalpy of liquid water at TS..2 A simple surfactant system has been discovered. For five spot patterns assume the Darcy flow veIocity can be approximated by 1. A is in equilibrium with B.
(Ed. [5] Klins. [8] Shah.58 Total gasoil ratio = 5000 scflstb References [I] Bond.0. London (1980). ~ . IHRDC. A . (Ed. .75 f t 2 i ~ a y In the five spot pattern the side distance. Soc. Graham and Trotman.96401 For a steam heated injector and a cyclic steam stimulated producer assume that the flow resistance compared to nonsteam injection reduces by a factor of 5. The minimum flowing bottom hole pressure permitted in the shallow reservoir is 200 psi and the maximum bottom hole injection pressure is 900 psi. which for the five spot is 2 [ln(L'/r.) . R. [2] Poettman.)= 0. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1978).L. 1 Example 12. Dallas (1983).S. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (1974).) Surface Phenomena zn Enhanced 011 Recovery. Steam injection should be planned until the steam zone occupies 50% of the pattern volume.5 years from the start of injection. Penwell Books. H. 11th World Pet. Oklahoma. SPE Monograph No 8.4 Determine the dry gas volume and liquid volume at standard conditions for a gas condensate reservoir with the following characteristics: Net thickness = 300 ft Effective radius = 3 miles Average porosity = 18% Average connate water saturation = 25% Reservoir temperature at datum = 210°F Reservoir pressure at datum = 4500 psi Separator liquid gravity = 57. for times between 1and 2. F.. D. Miscible Displacement. D. R. M. Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery. [9] Katz. F. and Schechter. steady state flow resistance for injectivity and productivity is considered The equal and can be represented by where AP is the pressure difference at bottom hole flowing conditions between injectors and producers (psi). Pet. IFP Publications. [7] Shah. Oil recovery by miscible displacement. Engr. Academic Press (1977).O t~ F Thermal diffusivity of surrounding rocks (a. (1984).) Secondary and Tertzary Oil Recovery Processes.71 ( A ) ' ."F t~ Heat capacity of surrounding rocks (M. Enhanced Oil Recovery.O. D.H. qinjis the injection (or production) rate in rbld p. M. and Stalkup. is the reservoir condition oil viscosity (cp) h is the reservoir thickness (ft) FG is the pattern geometric factor. Plenum Press.) = 45 ~ t u i f. M. London (1983).C. N Y (1981). [3] Latil. [6] Stalkup. [4] van Poollen.I. Boston.K.) i Determination o f Residual Oil Saturation.A.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY Heat capacity of reservoir (MR) = 35 ~ t u i f. (Eds) Improved Ozl Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding. Carbon Dioxide Flooding. Cong. Oklahoma.I.O.2" API Separator gas gravity (re1 air) = 0. Tulsa (1980). RTD 2 (1). by the relationship L ' = 208. L': is related to the well spacing in acresipattern. Proc. (Ed.
.f. North Sea stimulation logistics and requirements. [31] Chase. V. van der Burgh. (1978).G. D. 18 (5). Blackwell. G.R. [ l l ] Bath. A ternary. on Enhanced Oil Recovery. Cong. Design concepts of a heavyoil recovery process by an immiscible C 0 2 application. Research on EOR.J. SPEJ 24 (1984). Numerical simulation of COPflood performance. Symp. A chemical flooding compositional simulator. 275. SPEJ24 (1984). Proc. Effect of C7+properties on equation of state predictions.. Enhanced oil recovery in the North Sea. 1281 Whitsoh. 606.A. RP13. JPT (June 1972). Pet. Thermal properties of resen70ir rocks and fluids. 1st Europ. l l t h World Pet.. J. London (1983).C.C. Symp. [19] Cooper. Ertekin. E. Polymer flooding calculations for highly stratified Brent sands in the North Sea. [30] Thomas. R. and Kirkwood. and Archer? J. Bosio. J. SPEJ (1984). C. and Caudle. . [32] Kantar. R. In Surface Phenomena in EOR (Ed. ATD 2 (2). H. J.W.O. and ElArabi The displacement of crude oil by C 0 2 and N2 in gravity stabilised systems. A . Con. 1171 Archer. P. and Stosor. and Foulser. D. Paris (1982). and Simandoux: P.O. Modelling of a miscellarlpolymer process. Soc. Europ. [25] National Petroleum Council Enhanced Oil Recovery. The efficiency of enhanced oil recovery techniques: a review of significant field tests. G. S.P.W. RTD 2 (4). l l t h World Pet. Robets.J. Bournemouth (1981).J. Pet. 1121 Mattax.R. In Developments in Petroleum EngineeringI. Houston (1984). and Bolland. Proc. B. R. London (1983). C. SPEJ (1984). and Pope. NY (1981). Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery. Effective diversion during matrix acidisation of water injection wells.A. E. 513. 13. 16th Ann. 325. 593.. Phase relationships in chemical flooding. London (1983). C.F. 11th World Pet. Surfactants and polymers .A. 1201 Sorbie.on Improved Oil Recovery. past. and Ypma. K. 1161 Passmore. [24] Pope. T.D.S.G. Lambrid. London (1983). 339. and Winter. Hammershaimb. 1.D. JPT (Feb. [I51 Grist. 2 phase mathematical model of oil recovery with surfactant systems. and Tomich. [33] Fulscher. RTD (3). R. B. JPT (Feb. JPT (July 1977). J. G. IP 84008 reprinted from Petroleum Review (July 1984). Proc. The advantage of high proppant concentration in fracture simulation. 1131 Putz. 1261 Coulter.C. JPT (April 1979). J. J. K. and Wells. andNelson.S. [23] Nelson. R... F. Soc. Conf.D. Proc.C.A. [22] Shah. Fleming.S. [18] Macadam. W. Effect of capillary number and its constituents on two phase relative permeability curves.E. SPEJ24 (1984). Dawe and Wilson): Elsevier: Amsterdam (1985). W. M. Recent advances in surfactant flooding.214 2 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 1101 Thomas.. 1291 Bang..M. 1985). J. 1984).M.E. l l t h World Pet.. Engr. J. R. Fundamental aspects of surfactant polymer flooding processes.G. Pet.state of the art. Aberdeeil (Nov.J. [21] Taber. 249. 1271 Doscher. Cong. 597. Cong. NPC Report (June 1984). 1985). Eng.M. SREA. and Callow. London 1984.H. Proc. . Plenum Pub. G.C. T. 867. Pool description and performance analysis leads to understanding Golden Spike's miscible flood. J. [14] Kuuskraa. C. P.A. and Todd: M. OTC 4795. Cong. Proc. [34] Reitzel. R. (Ed. Off. Proc. 617. 40.A. 643. Determining swept zone residual oil saturation in a slightly consolidated Gulf Coast sandstone reservoir. and Ausburn. Summary of recent French work on surfactant injection. 685. et al. R. Washington. SPEJ 18 (1979).H. Shah).H. Proc. L. OTC. C.P. Oyekan. SPE 12999. 2nd Europ. present and future. and Stahl. G. Proc. Hill. V. EOR. J.
1st Europ. Soc. G.G. 1st Europ. Proc. Wright. EOR Bournemouth (1981). A recipe for residual oil saturation determination. P. Bournemouth (1981). et al. and Pusch.M. SPEJ (April 1982).. and Wade. [36] Perry. 56th Ann. E O R 7Bournemouth (1981).H. Vienna (Aug. D O E Symp.A. Laboratory C 0 2 floods and their computer simulation. 243.J. and Kidwell. C. Proc. Tan. Symp. Proc. [53] Lemonnier. Eng. 179. C. C. Three dimensional numerical simulation of steam injection. Symp. Control of numerical dispersion in compositional simulation.S.C. J.M. P. 1st Europ.K. D. 1973). EOR. F. C. Europ. and Dawe.. Clark. A.. The role of diffusion and mass transfer phenomena in the mobilisation of oil during miscible displacement. C. R. Eng. 219.S. 3 (1979). R. Proc. EUR 329. 1649.G. R. C. 563. [41] Schechter. Mobilisation of residual oil under equilibrium and non equilibrium conditions. EOR (1982). [42] Mahers. and Guillory. [56] Vogel.H. (Oct. [55] Sayegh. Lam. Dalen. C. JPT (Dec. SPEJ (June 1963). H. CO. A method for predicting the performance of unstable miscible displacement in heterogeneous media. and Dawe. 1344. E O R Bournemouth (1981). and Casinader. Fall Mtg.M. Pet. Pet. and Perkins. Proc. J. JPT (Nov.L.. r451 Bristow. The provision of laboratory data for EOR simulation. P. P. [37] ~ i l s d nD . [47] Claridge. and Fishman: D. V and Jensen. Con$ London (19821. 5th Ann. EOR. Europ. [44] Aziz. Symp. Symp. Proc. E. R. Phase equilibriom calculations in the near critical region. 1st Europ. and McAuliffe. and McCafferty. 379. Tech.I.A.C. SPE 10198. 1978). Symp..C. Proc. J.C. Predicting phase behaviour of condensatelcrude oil systems using methane interaction coefficients. T. Symp. B. Symp. EOR.R. Some aspects of the injectivity of non Newtonian fluids in porous media. F. E. M. Role of capillary forces in determining microscopic displacement efficiency for oil recovery by waterflooding. The adverse effects of heterogeneities on chemical slugs in EOR.J.J. Proc. G. 367. R. C. Cong.E.Y. Pet. 175. Johnson. Effects of impurities on minimum miscibility pressures and minimum enrichment levels for C 0 2 and rich gas displacements.A. Bournemouth (1981).S. . Proc. (1981). EOR Bournemouth (1981). E. Bournemouth (1981): 425. Wheat. Symp. [54] Risnes. Proc. 1st Europ.G. 10th World Pet. 81. A caustic waterflooding process for heavy oils.... Europ. and Langley. [SO] Jennings. [43] Wall. Braun. [38] Sigmund. Prior.12 IMPROVED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY 215 i I I I 1 I1 1 I I [35] Kidwell. flooding strategy in a communicating layered reservoir. EOR 11979). [51] Melrose.E. JPT (Nov. 145. T. Soc. 467. and Brandner. 329. Complete modelling of EOR processes. Proc. 285. de The use of slim tube displacement experiments in the assessment of miscible gas projects. I E A Workshop on EOR. [49] Metcalfe. Reservoir waterflood residual oil saturation from laboratory tests. JPT (Dec.D.S. EOR Bournemouth (1981). 1st Europ. E . [40] Rathmell. [52] Chesters. Proc.O.F.J. Weeks Island 'S' sand reservoir B gravity stable miscible C 0 2 displacement. 1999.G. G. Europ. 1980).C. J. A. 1974). 54. JPT (Feb. W. S. 1983). Proc. D. R. D. P.L. J.A. Europ. > L A . Laboratory testing procedures for miscible floods. [46] Wilson. and Riddiford.. Pet. and Firoozabadi. [57] Brown. 1982): 2746.M. 1974).E. [48] Koval. EOR Bournemouth (1981). Downhole steam generation using a pulsed burner. r391 Katz. Proc. Symp. Proc. An analysis of recovery techniques in large offshore gas condensate fields. symp. C.Can. K.
Proc. Flow of condensate Bnd highly volatile oils through porous media. Problems Associated with the Production of Heavy Oil. 1973). JPT(Jan. [75] Holst. B. EOR. Syrnp. and Phillips. [70] Eaton. Compositional simulation for effective reservoir management. K. [73] Katz. H. J. Proc. [79] Greaves. Reservoir depletion calculations for gas condensates using extended analyses in the PengRobinson equation of state. steam. 56 (Oct. J. 1978). 359. [67] Ham.D.E. R. [77] Perry. Pet.N. Symp. R.K. and Krause. 175. EOR (April 1982).C. Proc.H.Dec. Chern. (Nov. SPEiDOE Fourth Symp. Simulation of gas condensate reservoirs. Symp. Nato AS1 Series. Steam generation with high TDS feedwater. [72] Firoozabadi. 1131. Conf.. J. JPT (Feb 1971). and Katz.P. [59] White. Symp. A I M E 195 (1952). Possibility of cycling deep depleted oil reservoirs after compression to a single phase. D. Can. A new depletion performance correlation for gas condensate reservoir fluid. Thermal properties of heavy oil rock and fluid systems. B. Merrick. J. and Caudle. and Wade. 635. . (Ed. and Hinds.D. B. EOR Bournemouth (Sept. [76] Fernandes Luque. E O R (April 1984). [63] Nakorthap.L.M. R. J. J. (1984). T. A .R. Parameters for computing pressure gradients and the equilibrium saturation of gas condensate fluids flowing in sandstones. R. A. 2nd Europ. SPE (Sept. Proc. D. JPT (July 1965). Oyez Scientific and Technical Services (March 1985).H. M. R . Trans..H. R. T. L. 1957).W. Graham and Trotman.L. Duns. 1984). [62] Offeringa. Modification of a black oil model for simulation of volatile oil reservoirs. W. J. Adverse influence of stratification on a gas cycling project. Tulsa (April 1980). . SPE 4271. and Handv. SPE 8819. Proc. Paris (Nov. [81] Monslave. and Bossie Codreanu.L. water systems. Houston. 1681 Saeidi. and Eilerts. Johnstone. and Jacoby. J. ~ e s e a r c 5 improved hydrocarbon recovery from chalk deposits. H. SPEIDOE 12661. 1982). Proc. SPE 11217. G. J. and van der Vlis. [69] us sell.D. 203. and Steele. 2nd Europ. P. Sabathier. Hekim. E. 610. 852.E. 1st Europ. and Evans. and Lomas.. California Reg. Proc. Goddard.. EOR.M. 1982).A.T. 1661 Dvstra. Proc. Conf.L. [60] Bing. Symp.C.F. The future of heavy crude oils and tar sands.O. Proc. H. K. A. EOR. [65] Spivak. 57th Ann. SPE J. [61] Meyer. SPEIDOE 10695. 19. Barthel. Keynote paper: thermal recovery methods. Proc. calculated pressure build up for a low permeability gas condensate well. 527. Mtg. 860. 1st Int. A . 3rd Jt. and Patel. NY). Ruedelhuber. J. 191. Martinus Nijhoff Pub. C. and Weijdema. Paris (Nov. (June 1979). 1st Jt. J.) Heavy Crude Oil Recovery.3rd Symp. 143. R. Tech. Eng. [64] Okandan. SPE 4891. Proc. 99. Fall Mtn. Luxembourg (1979).F. ~ A L A A .. 1982). Y. [80] Rovere.D. JPT (NOV. P. Can. UNITAR (McGraw Hill Inc. [78] Elias. JPT (March 1982).C. J.H.S. 309. [74] Sprinkle.216 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [58] Archer. A model for forecasting the economic potential for enhanced oil recovery in Canada. 1981). Surfactant dispersion in porous media. Temperature dependent relative permeability and its effect on oil displacement by thermal methods. D. R. 1711 . T. . JPT (July 1973). Use of polymers to control water production in oil wells. F. (June 1974). SPEiDOE Syrnp. R. A compositional material balance method for prediction of recovery from volatile oil depletion drive reservoirs. and Zadick. C. (April 1974). Relative permeabilities of surfactant. JPT (Feb. New Technologies for Exploration on and Exploitation of Oil and Gas Resources. J. A. Los Angeles. Bowers.L. Numerical Simulation (1973). Single well performance prediction for gas condensate reservoirs. Schechter. 1961). A. Brill. and Dixon. The Hague. 44.S. Weeks Island 'S' sand reservoir B gravity stable miscible C 0 2 displacement. D . 315.. R. 75.
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1 THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM The total production system is a complex. 13. packer selection. completion equipment. dehydration. The total field of production engineering is very much wider than the subject matter of this chapter and can comprise: (a) Reservoir performance Completion intervals. prediction: (d) Stigulation and remedial operations Acidization. (f) Produced water and injection water treatment. completion practices. (c) Wellperformance analysis Natural flow performance. 218 Fig. safety valves.Chapter 13 Factors Influencing Production Operations This chapter is concerned with providing a brief introduction to the principal elements of production systems.) . 13. multiwell. system of producing wells. possibly multireservoir. remedial acceleration. tubular selection. performance analysis. fracturing. 13. artificial lift requirements. (Photo courtesy of BP. (b) Well equipment Stress analysis for tubulars and packers. Fig. corrosionlerosion considerations. perforations performance.1 Jackup rig being used to work over a well on a remote jacket platform. recompletions redrilling. (e) Oil and gas processing Separation. wellhead selections. sweetening. wireline services1 facilities.1 shows a jackup rig used for a workover at a remote jacket.
14. 13.contract quantities. At this stage. Interaction with other elements of a complex system is assumed to be defined by constraints on flowline pressure and/or well flow rate. the flow string and the choke system . a common alternative to pipeline transportation.and of economic factors . optimum or design rates of production can be maintained at minimum costs.the reservoir. 1 Fig. Flow from the reservoir to the flowline through the three elements concerned . 13. The rates of production required will be checked by a combination of technical factors . 13. 13. pipelines and stations in a gas field development. or where wells are required beyond deviation angles of platforms. capital investment and market requirements. flowlines. The use of subsea wellheads is more appropriate in deeper water fields.4). surface control chokes and delivery to the flowline.3 Offshore loading of oil by tanker from a spar.is the system to be considered (Fig. ~ffshbre alternatives t o fixed platfGrm developments are shown in Fig. 13. the principal concern is the design of one representative element of a production system one producing well: This comprises the associated reservoir volume. the wellbore and flow string. Debottlenecking is an important aspect of production engineering. The principal objectives are to determine the initial deliverability of a well under specified conditions. Figure 13.) .13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS / Field A / / Field B Fig. The analysis of an existing system to identify bottlenecks or constraints and to modify such a system for improved performance. (Photo courtesy of BP.especially reservoir and well characteristics . One of the primary purposes of production engineering is the evaluation of producing system characteristics and their interactions so that maximum.2 Complex system of reservoirs.2). The further considerations of changes in deliverability and prediction of artificial lift or compression requirements belong in a more advanced treatment.3 shows offshore loading of oil to a tanker. primary process facilities and delivery lines (Fig.
and the "gel IPR is Qmax 4 = 1 .2 . static pressure. the product . In practice..2.2 RESERVOIR BEHAVIOUR IN PRODUCTION ENGINEERING It is evident that no more oil or gas can be produced from a well than will flow into that well from the reservoir. and any study of well performance must start with an assessment of reservoirlwell interactions.P. 1 k. q. dp 13.  between flow rate q and drawdown ( P .0. P = or reservoir average or static pressure.Pwf). A general dimensionless quadratic equation can be defined as 13.2. and as a basis for analysis. or if inertial effects become significant at high rates. where q = rate of production m 3 / ~ b/D. so that the PI is approximately constant for these conditions if inertial effects are absent. kh 9= I 1 0 B. are functions of pressure.. = hypothetical rate at zero bottomhole flowing pressure.u. Particular care is needed in planning if test rates are artifically restricted to values very much lower than anticipated development well rates. The use of this index implies that it is a constant characteristic of a well. For an oil well with no inertial effects an equation can be written constant. function of saturation. and idealized radial flow equations are modified for this purpose. The complete relationship between flow rate and drawdown (or flowing bottomhole pressure) is defined as the inflow performance relationship (IPR) . P = flowing * bottomhole pressure at the rate q.1 Productivity index and well y inflow performance A simple index of well performance is the productivity index (PI) of the well.2 Dimensionless IPRs for oil wells It has been found that the curvature of the inflow performance relationship is reasonably well fitted by a quadratic equation for a very wide range of reservoir conditions.220 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Fig. defined by rate of production . Above the bubblepoint. is approximately constant and k.q PI=J= drawdown P.and at any one instant of time the relationship would be linear with Pwf The flow rate of a well is then determined uniquely by a specified flowing bottomhole pressure. For production engineering purposes a fairly simplified criterion of reservoir behaviour is needed. and when straight line extrapolation may be overoptimistic. productivity index will vary with flow rate if the range is large and inertial effects arise.B. and the IPR becomes curvilinear. pwf = flowing bottomhole Pressure at the rate 4. The a was found by VOgel be 0. but it has long been used as a basis for representing well productivity. which is by no means true. then the PI is not constant. 13. and k . If the pressure near the wellbore drops below the bubblepoint. and with time as oil. is a . is 1 at zero water saturation. For a constant PI a linear relationship would exist \ I \ I where P = reservoir average. where p B. will vary with pressure if gas evolves. with effective oil permeability. 13.2.4 The flow system. gas and water saturations and viscosities change. rather than advanced reservoir engineering.
the determination of the flow rate that can be sustained from the reservoir depth to the wellhead.2 Flow of oil The flow of crude oil in a wellbore can be very complex.2.1. Tubing flow characteristics can be established for a range of diameters and specified wellhead pressures. the local ratios of gas to oil will change substantially due to gas expansion and to continued increasing evolutior.5 .? .the next element of the system is the wellbore itself ./. The use of these can be justified [2135] because the principal element in the head loss is the hydrostatic term. and the intersections with the IPR for the well establishes the well deliverability for those conditions. mean temperature (absolute) gas deviation factor f friction factor (see Fig.1 Flow of gases Although the flow of gas in a wellbore is not strictly singlephase (since gas must be saturated with water at reservoir temperature). Alternatively.)~ where n is expected normally to have a value between 0. 13..5 and 1.P.3 IPRs for gas wells It has been conventional for many years to test gas wells at a series of flow rates and to express the results in the form of a back pressure equation: Q = constant (P2 .HIZT H = vertical depth to tubing shoe T z = = = = 13. Alternative cases will be considered thereafter. it is important to use accurate volumetric data on the gas and oil concerned. but even complex iterative calculation is subject to substantial error in calculating overall pressure drops.3 WELLBORE FLOW The general assumption will first be made that a specified wellhead pressure should be maintained. and a simple approach usually involves the use of generalized pressure traverses or lift curves.. Under these conditions the patterns or regimes of flow possible in twophase flow may change continuously. then the constant is 0. against This equation enables a further plot of Pwf rate to be established. since under most conditions pressures will fall below the bubblepoint and gas will be evolved from solution. which can be used for different flow string diameters and drilled depths of wells. With a very large pressure drop from reservoir to wellhead.6.5) L tubing length S = dummy variable = constant y. =AQ +B Q ~ In each case it is possible to fit observed data and to generate a complete IPR plot of Pwfagainst rate Having considered the reservoir performance the deliverability from reservoir to wellbore .3. Obviously simulation studies could generate IPRs for complex conditions but this is not an objective of production engineering. data may be expressed in the form When f is a Fanning friction factor.. but as a first approximation to the curvilinear IPR the Vogel relationship will be considered adequate at this stage.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS Theoretically this relationship should be used below the bubblepoint pressure and a linear relationship above the bubblepoint. = volume rate of flow of gas at base conditions flowing well pressure wellhead pressure pipe internal diameter gas specific gravity relative to air I 0. Figure 13. Such an equation is Qb = constant (P.. L insfeet. P in psi and T in degrees Rankine.0. There can be no simple single equation for flow under these conditions. of gas. When field data is available for matching it may be possible to derive a locally valid equation: P2.es p:)d5 S (es . 13. Since the majority of the head loss in wellbores is the hydrostatic head. densities of oil and gas vary only 13. and Q is in MCSFld. and an approximate analytical equation used to describe the pressure drop:flow rate relation in the wellbore. as shown in Fig. and the calculation of local density and friction loss can be difficult. d in inches. 13.? 4.TfzL where Qb = Pwf= P..3. unless such traverses have been specifically established for a field. 13. it can frequently be approximated as such. = d = .7 illustrates a typical set of pressure traverses where pressure: relative depth relations for one single flow rate and a series of gasliquid ratios are illustrated.1) y.P.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE .
The reservoir depth is assumed to be 5000 ft below this. 13. This constitutes one point on the flowing bottomhole pressure: rate relation. It must be remembered that the depth scale is in no sense an absolute one . The pressure at this point is found to be 1520 psi at point C. Reference to further pressure traverses gives plots of additional data points. other factors are of minor importance. 100 psig Fig.7 Example flowing pressure gradient.6 Gas well performance. For example.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 223 ?? V) a ? ?  Max rate for the spec~fieddiameter and wellhead pressure Rote q l o w Performance ) Fig. viscosity is not a factor in the highly turbulent flow involved. 13. . a wellhead pressure of 200 psi is specified for a well with a gasoil ratio of 200 SCFlb. 13. to generate an operating relationship as shown in Fig.. i. not their positions in space. This gives a relative depth of 2550 ft. 13.8. referring to Fig.only the intervals existing between points of different pressure are represented.e. at a relative depth of 7550 ft (point B).7 at a rate of 1500 bid in a flow string of diameter 4 in. Pressure n over small ranges.
heated or inhibited very' near to the wellhead. nearly all natural gases contain small proportions of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons which will condense on reduction of temperature. All natural gases are produced saturated with water vapour. even when ambient temperatures are above hydrate formation temperatures. will precipitate a few parts per million (on a volume basis) of liquid hydrocarbons.which are corrosive and. Increasingly. offshore processing may be supplemCnted. is to take steps to remove water and water vapour before delivery to a pipeline. In the case of offshore fields. a delivery pressure. Water and hydrocarbons can combine together to form crystalline materials known as hydrates. as in the case of the UK east coast gas process plants for gas. since they coexist in the reservoir at reservoir temperature with interstitial water in the reservoir. of carbonaceous origin. Rate Fig. toxic. associated gas streams are processed for liquid recovery before gas is flared. or duplicated.carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide .4 FIELD PROCESS FACILITIES Field processing involves all the mass.1 Processing of dry natural gas The first requirement. but are in general formed only at low temperatures (generally below 70°F). A typical process flow stream for the offshore processing of natural gas is shown in Fig.the temperature at which liquid hydrocarbons will condense from the gas stream. also.5. The well stream is passed to a simple separator (knock out drum) in which free liquid is separated.224 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (b) characteristic (multiphase flow) (c) (d) (e) Performance Reiat~onsh~p which must be lower than any temperature likely to occur. a calorific value (possibly associated with the gas density in an index of burner performance or suitability).5 NATURAL GAS PROCESSING A sales specification for a natural gas will usually involve: (a) a water dewpoint .8 Oil + water (+ gas) well performance. but in other cases moderately sophisticated processing will be necessary . by onshore processing. and the Sullom Voe terminal for crude oil handling. Even the driest gases. These icelike materials are dependent upon both pressure and temperature. (c) meet any statutory requirements for the disposal of any part of the production. Also.5. gases must generally be dried. (b) optimize the economic value of hydrocarbons produced. 13. 13. (d) meet any specification necessary for fluids for reinjection into the reservoir. Drying may be effected by: . which also must be lower than any temperature likely to occur. 13. Hydrates are inhibited by the presence of alcohols. 13.9.2 Natural gas dehydration 13. a hydrocarbon dewpoint . and methanol and glycol may be used as inhibitors. In some cases the objectives are easily met by very simple processing. The (wet) gas is then heated and passed to a drying column. heat and momentum transfer processes that are necessary to: (a) meet sales or delivery specifications of hydrocarbons (whether to pipeline or tanker).the temperature at which water will condense from the gas stream. so that a stable. and such liquid recovery will usually be necessary to meet sales gas specifications. low vapour pressure product must be delivered.particularly where delivery is to a tanker. The expansion of gas through valves and fittings can cause such locally low temperatures. at the wellhead. in the latter case. if wellheads. 13. severely restricted maximum values of acid gas content . flowlines and pipelines are not to be subject to the hazard of hydrate blocking. Very rich condensate streams may produce more than 1000 m3 liquid condensate per million m3 of gas produced. Consequently.
In production from offshore natural gas reservoirs. liquid counterflow process (e.. 13. Figure 13.. and the condensate is usually spiked back in to the dry natural gas line for recovery in onshore processing.5..g.Gas to shore Fig. If an offshore field has a significant content of acid gases and a dedicated pipeline to shore. patent processes ..e. 1 ! 1 I coaiescer Condensate . i. The drying Drocesses also knock out hvdrocarbon condensate.9 Offshore dehydration (S. ethylene glycol). Sweetening is accomplished in a manner similar to that of dehydration.. Wet condensate . 13.... the light hydrocarbons involved separating very easily from water. and the dry glycol is recirculated to the column.10 Onshore processing.g... ?his is recovered by simpie separation. The intake gas is first chilled by heat exchange with the cool processed gas. 13. silica gel).ethanolamine or diethanolamine. sieve trays or valve trays. the normal procedure would be to transport the sour gas to shore after dehydration (inhibiting if necessary) and to sweeten the gas on shore...4 Onshore processing The processing necessary to meet dewpoint specifications is normally a moderately cheap refrigeration process. there is rarely sufficient condensate produced to justify a separate pipeline.3 Natural gas sweetening Sweetening is the process of removing acid gases from natural gas.. The gas passes in counterflow cap through a equipped with a few trays... or fields (some sweet. Other processes are also available. .. gas from one or more reservoirs... The dry gas passes to a pipeline... potassium carbonate wash. suitable wash agents are: amine wash.Sulfinal and Vetrocoke.5. was to be commingled in a single pipeline system would offshore sweetening normally be conducted. 13. the offshore processing of a small part of the total gas stream might be more attractive than the onshore processing of a very large gas flow. glycol being Stream I..10 shows a typical process flow diagram. counterflow with a wash agent in a bubble cap tower. I I I Heat el pr?Gel exchanger Separator ... The of Fig' 13" shows a liquid 'Ounterflow process. Only if i L  t Sales Fig. For hydrogen sulphides removal: amine . The wet glycol is passed to a regenerator where water is boiled off. For C 0 2 removal only. some sour).North Sea).13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 225 dry desiccant process (e. In this case. and is stripped of water by the glycol..
In this case. the vapour pressure specification will not be stringent. In the case of pipeline transport to an onshore process plant. the removal of salt to meet a refinery specification. 13. In this case optimization of the separation process is highly desirable. With a large crude oil flow this can be highly significant in cash flow terms. the produced water can flash to the vapour phase. This can be a problem when crude oil is produced with small proportions of water and first stage separation occurs at high temperatures. together with maximum retention of intermediate hydrocarbons is desirable. and a process involving several (34) stages of separation with carefully designed separator pressure will be necessary. a dry natural gas will meet the usual calorific valueldensity specifications. Alternatively. and dewpoint specifications are met.6 CRUDE OIL PROCESSING The processing of crude oil will have as its objectives: (a) production of a liquid stream which meets a transport specification. Simple freshwater washing is the only necessary process. gas stream processing will not be justified. For tanker transport. The process adoptkd will depend primarily on the subsequent use of gas. The gas then passes to a refrigeration unit (either using freon as a refrigerant.5. Under these conditions. the removal of any noxious or toxic materials . the necessary is preferably installed as far upstream as is possible (i. When gas is to be disposed of by a sales outlet.226 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE added to inhibit hydrate formation.1 Light oil processing In this case. (e) lines. the accurate metering of mass is desirable for equity considerations. as liquids will not be recovered to any significant extent from the gas stream.5 Calorific value If no inert gas is present. and field and finM Process plant are ion be installed at the process plant. the cool gas being heated first by heat exchange with incoming gas. and then by a fired heater before measurement and transfer. C3H8) gives an excessively high calorific value. However. This is done by adding propane (or liquefied petroleum gas) in small quantities. with common carrier . gasoil separation is the major objective. The liquids are boiled off to separate water. a large industrial user may take a nonspecification gas using burners designed for the appropriate calorific value. In the rare cases where the high paraffin content of gas (C2H6. the separation of produced water. and fields). Liquids from slug catchers and knockouts are blended in. and possibly the processing of the gas to meet a sales specification. this can be reduced by dilution with nitrogen.6. If there is a significant content of nitrogen. the separation of gas to meet vapour pressure specification. Where gas surplus to fuel requirements is simply to be flared. This latter is ideal for fuel.especially hydrogen sulphide . the liquids will be spiked back into the crude oil stream and recovered in this way. 13. and the resulting stream stabilized to give a stable condensate fraction and a nonspecification gas stream.ocarbons. enrichment may be necessary if the gas is to be put into a national grid. leaving salt as a residue. a stringent vapour pressure specification is necessary .6 Compression When is needed to meet a specification !as be the case with a with water drive gas depletion gas field.crude stabilized at 1 atmosphere and ambient temperature if necessary. (b) (c) (d) 13. 13. but this then involves further water separation. optimization of a separator process can yield a few extra percentage points of stabilized liquid and can make a difference of one or two degrees in the API gravity of the product. condensate and glycol.from the crude oil prior to delivery.e. the associated gas will be processed to recover intermediate hydrocarbons and obtain a sales gas specification. near the 'Ihisreduces power rewhere Pressure losses between quirements. The resulting gasliquid mixture is separated. and the breaking of any produced emulsions to meet a refinery specification. or less efficiently propane from the condensate stream) where it is cooled to 18°C. together with maximum recovery of intermediate hyd.5.
.2 Separator design considerations Separator vessels may be very simple. the pressures and temperatures of each stage of separation are important to the efficiency of separation (Fig. about 0. and gas bubbles can rise and separate upstream and downstream of the weir.12).6. The important factor in this phase of separation is the residence time. 13.3 Foaming problems With light gassy crude oils. F~rst t a g e s e p a r a t o r s YNGL Meter +P~pe I~ne Meter prover t I Oily w a t e r W a t e r dump Fig.11 shows a separator of moderate complexity. 13. Figure 13. coalesce and drip back into the liquid phase.).). and a rule of thumb expression for maximum gas velocity i s 1 1 Cooescer ootes Dernlsler G050utlet where Vis the critical entrainment velocity (ftls.350. or may contain several separation elements. depending upon the difficulty of processing. the liquid being decelerated and deflected to the lower part of the vessel. Inlet The gas phase may pass through a coalescer in which liquid droplets impinge. p p are fluid densities. the gas passes through a demister section (a pad of wire mesh). C is the separator coefficient (empirical. a separation problem can occur if foams form with flow through the restric woterouileig Fig. 13. Level controls. further to entrap and coalesce entrained liquid droplets. gas velocity is the critical design factor.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 227 13. or by computation. After the coalescer. A weir retains a high liquid level and. Wells Gas treatment h G a s to p ~ p e l ~ n e or reservoir . water separates and a level controller maintains an oilwater level within limits. In the gas region of a separator. With multiple stages of separation.6. Woter control Level  vortex :. The well stream impinges upon a deflector which effects a crude separation of liquid and gas.11 Threephase separator.Manifold 1 .$I b~kers outlet 13. . .12 Mult~stage separator. and separators are usually designed to give a residence time of three to five minutes. Oil spills over the weir.50 ftis. Optimum values can be found by laboratory experiment on field samples. behind this weir. level warnings and shutdown svstems will k e e ~ the separator w&king within its design limits.
Alternatively. Additionally.. The first procedure adopted in difficult cases is to heat the well stream to reduce viscosity. Figure 13. 13..13 Produced water treatment on offshore platform. In this case. Chemical treatment followed by heat treatment will deal with most problems. When used they should be applied as far upstream as is possible . . Sand tosea Q To seq via caisson Fig. the oil may pass to a heated storage tank where very long residence times may give the necessary separation. chemical inhibitors apparently acting to prevent growth and crystal development of the wax. and it is the separation of produced water that is the greater difficulty . heavy crude oils have a greater propensity to emulsion formation than have lighter crudes. These waxes may precipitate if the temperature falls below some critical value. Again chemical treatment is effective.the high viscosity of produced crude greatly retarding gravity settling of water. After first gas and water separation. done in a heater (direct or indirect fired) upstream of the first stage separator.7 HEAVY OIL PROCESSING With heavy oils.~ 228 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE tions of a typical separation system.. This requires that water from all stages of separation and any oily slops or washings should be cleaned before disposal. 13.8 PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT There are stringent specifications for the disposal of water within oilfields . The essential procedures are mainly gravity settling. j. and wax buildup in well tubing strings. gasoil ratios are usually low. or in a combined heatertreater. but in a few cases of very obstinate emulsions. the addition of a silicone liquid upstream of the separators being highly effective in promoting foam drainage and breakdown.disposal into the North Sea currently requiring a hydrocarbon content of less than 50 ppm. e s O D a r * 1 Sand wash . the residence times necessary for foams to drain effectively and break can be prohibitive and separation highly inefficient. flowlines and pipelines may occur. and the heaviest components may be paraffin waxes. This may be . chemical demulsifiers may be used.C e D Bubble coeleser Oily water to slops 1 . Most systems installed are capable of reducing the hydrocarbon content to less than 30 ppm. electrostatic precipitation may be necessary as a final last resort.6. Oily water to slops Oily water to slops 13. When stable emulsions are formed and are a problem which cannot be remedied by heat and settling time.13 shows a typical schematic. oily skimmings from a series of settling tanks being recirculated and the final water being treated in a plate or a foam coalescer before disposal. trace heating or periodic heat treatment and scraping can be used to remove wax after it has built up. The most effective remedy is chemical foam breaking. 13.possibly by injection at a downhole pump intake or at least below the wellhead.4 Wax problems Light oils are generally paraffins.
10 CRUDE OIL METERING Metering of crude oil and gas streams is necessary for transfer and sales purposes. This itself is recalibrated by means of calibrated tanks. the water supply will usually be taken from a level where suspended solids and dissolved oxygen are low which will be an intermediate depth. may be by means of: (a) sand andlor anthracite graded beds. will be followed by the addition of any oxygen scavenger (sodium sulphite) and further filtration. Deaeration. although other types of meter are under study. 13.9 INJECTION WATER TREATMENT Water for injection may need to be highly purified before injection into a reservoir. This requires that each contributor with a common pipeline system should maintain a record both of volume delivered. The turbine meters themselves are calibrated regularly by means of meter provers . organic material or bacteria may generate slimes.a positive displacement device which delivers a measured quantity through the meter. and oxygen may promote bacterial growth and cause corrosion.14 Deeper water development alternatives. (c) polypropylene filter cartridges. Crude oil streams are metered by turbine meters for the most part. Tension leg platform Semisubmersible Tanker base system Fig. . depending on the degree of filtration needed. with density being recorded simultaneously. and in the North Sea both very fine filtration and virtually no filtration have both been adopted with success. Gas flow rates are usually metered by orifice meter. This filtration.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTlON OPERATIONS 229 13. and keep records of the overall compositions. Offshore. 13. The degree of solids removal necessary is a matter for experiment and experience. Metering of crude oil into a common carrier system requires particular care since volumes of mixing of crude oil of different crudes is not the sum of the volumes of the component crude oils. The final treatment is likely to be a bactericide addition. The diatomaceous earth filters are capable of removing practically all solids down to one micron should this be necessary. Fine solid materials may plug formations. A biocide will be used at the pump intake sometimes by insitu electrolysis of sea water followed by a coarse filtration at the surface. either by counterflow in a column or by vacuum deaeration. Only then can the production from a common carrier system be allocated equitably back to the contributors. (b) diatomaceous earthiasbestos filter cakes. and of the density of the material delivered. and for fiscal L purposes.
The oil residence time should be 3 min and the oilgas interface should be half way in the separator volume. A new concept in floating production systems. 126. M. Prod. Proc. ~ k v e l o ~ m e oft a new high reliability downhole pumping system for large horsepowers. Conf.133. SPE 12986. Europ. seam to seam should be between 3 and 4 and the separator must be at least 3 m in length. (ed. n Pet. Oilfield Water Systems. D.R. Norman (1977). installation and early operational experience. TI31 Rvall. The fundamental issues in future field development concepts (100 . 1984). 1976).V.C. The density of air at 0°C and 1bar is 1. 19841. flow string for the well.A. C. [5] Vogel. 107. Campbell Pet.3 Determine the size of a horizontal separator to separate 1000 m3/day of crude oil from its associated gas (SG = 0. Proc.V. [7] Steele. [6] Vogel. API Drill. Proc.230 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Examples Example 13. T. (Oct.D. If a flowing wellhead pressure of 400 psig is needed on production. 245. Conf. If the wellhead pressure is 400 psi. B. The maximum gas velocity in the separator is given in mls by References [I] Katz. NY (1981).S. Inflow performance relationships for solution gas drive wells.V. SPE 12971. (Oct. Con6 (Oct. SPE 12973. The oil has a density of 796 kg/m3 and a solution gasoil ratio of 95 m3/m3oil at 0°C and 1bar.275 kg/m3.I. [I11 Patel. The design ratio of diameter to length.49. [9] Boles. A. Europ. SPEJ (Oct. The Vogel IPR relationship is assumed to apply. M..75) at a pressure of 20 bar and a temperature of 40°C. [lo] Dawson. n Pet. J. M. W. Example 13. C. The well depth is 5500 ft deep. [4] Frick. Practice (1954).C.E. JPT (Jan.1205. flow string. Pet. SPE (1962). Conf. A.P. 1 (Mathematics and production equipment). [2] Nind. Europ. Europ.L. JPT (June 1983).) Petroleum Production Handbook Vol. what is the estimated flowing bhp? (b) A well 5000 ft deep has a flowing bhp of 1200 psi producing 3000 b/d at a GOR of 500 SCFibarrel. SPE 12987. evaluate and comment on the performance of a 4 in.250 r waterdepth). Montgomery. (Oct.W. 1968). 1982).502. 1984). and Worley. [12] Wray. EUR 276. R. McGraw Hill. and the GOR is 200 SCFlbarrel. Subsea production control (Beryl field). Proc. What is the estimated wellhead pressure? Example 13.2 A drill stem test on a well indicates a flowing bottom hole pressure of 1500 psig at a rate of 3315 bid. [3] Gilbert. 117. T. Principles of Oil Well Production.E. A field test and analytical study of intermittent gas lift. Proc. and Grant. J. Conf. Pet. Flowing and gaslift well performance. (Oct. 19741. [8] Patton.D. OGJ (Dec. Magnus subsea wells: design. M. Engineering and economics used to optimize artificial lift methods. Elcrop.83. with a reservoir static pressure of 2600 psig. 257.1 (a) A well 6000 ft deep is flowing 2000 bid at a GOR of 200 SCF/barrel on a 4 in. Pet. 1984).H. J.L. and Murray. Overview of phase behaviour in oil and gas production. L A . Series.
20 (1983). Proc. H. Europ. and Stephen.E.M. ' ~ . Conf. J. Europ.W. Water cl. . [17] Thambynayagam. (Oct. 511. Pet.D. Proc. Can. W. Conf.M. Vol. [19] Aziz. and Roberts. J. 1983). EUR 38. 73. Conf.P. Pressure drop in wells producing oil and gas. G. E. 1980). World 011. A. (Oct. Tulsa (Feb. Vol. and Brill.W.Sept. [I51 Hankinson. r221 Nisbet. K. R. Conf. Pet. JPT (Feb. Pet.A. andTiemann. Europ.E. Proc. P. Bornea.O. K. [21] Brown. J. and Stubbs. and Bristow. Liquid holdup correlations for inclined two phase flow. ~ . . A study of two phase flow in inclined pipes. Proc. 2).W. Separation of oil from water. Pet. P. Eickmeier. J. EUR 208. Design calculations for three phase flow behaviour in wells and flowlines and some problems in their application to .E. 15. Pet. (Oct. Pet. 1). 1003. Int. 45 (Vol. J.E. J. [39] Mukierjee.. piperYfikld: Surface facilities operating performance and problems experienced. (Oct. 1). Some rockmechanical aspects of oil and gas well completions. (Oct. AIChEJ (May 1980). 1980). (1978). Europ. Artificial lift by electric submersible pumps in Forties. r241 Wottne. [25] DeMoss.C. North Sea offshore compression .. R. 607. Efficient operations in a mature oil and gas producing area. 711. T. H. JPT (May 1973). and Nimitz. Tech.. (Oct. 38. (1973). T. Penwell Books. Conf. Europ. K. and Fogarasi. 1982).E. W. (Dec. Govier. 2). 1979). Prediction and control of natural gas hydrates. M. Pet. Europ. h 1331 McLeod. (Nov. (July . 2). Symp. L A L A . Europ. EUR 116. Proc. and Stewart. D. 1984) 87. EUR 189. Petroleum Publishing Corp. [20] Taitel.M.Planeix. Fogarasi. Conf. Spencer.. Conf. M. and Dukler. 159 (Vol. Proc. Conf. 43 (Vol. T. Conf. (Oct. Europ. Proc. Proc.Assuring the reliability of offshore gas compression systems. Gas Lift Theory and Practice. Proc. (Oct.W. EUR 278. [26] ROSS. K. EUR 231. Simulation: a new tool in production operations. (Oct. (Oct. Pet. EUR 205. Pet.. (Oct. Proc. [18] Beggs. [37] Arnold. 1972). Inst. Europ. Proc. 1984) 73. (Oct. 276. Conf. [16] Simmons. 2). 1. 1271 Wachel. 1). Europ. A. Europ. 1980). Met.. 17 (Vol. J..future needs. and Westby. Production Operations (Vols 1and 2).ality aspects of ~ o r t Sea injection water. Porter. EUR 331. Modelling the Brents System production facilities. 1980). The Technology ofArtificia1 Lijt Methods. 1982). Tulsa (1980). 1978). Prod. Min.M. Conf. Proc. Pet. r291 .R. [31] Nichols. The characteristics of shuttle and buffer tankers for offshore fields. K. 1982). EUR 228. Phase behaviour and dense phase design concepts for application to the supercritical fluid pipeline system. 437 (Vol. 263 (Vol. (Oct. SPE 7797. 1980). Conf. 2). K. 1980). 449 (Vol. W.K. M. Design concepts for offshore produced water treating and disposal systems. Sp. EUR 190. and Schmidt. G . Gregory. Y. R. D.. [35] Aziz. [38] Geertsma. EUR 358.E. (Oct. Europ.R. Europ. Proc. [30] ~on'es. Gas lift increases high volume production from Claymore field. (March 1985) 69. Innovative engineering makes Maureen development a reality. 1). 345. Monogr.A. R. Conf.M. London (1978). J. JPT (May 1983). 1980). Proc.13 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 231 [I41 van Staa. Pet. [34] Allen. 559 (Val.P. and Finch. L A (Vol.= the North Sea. and Gradient Curves for Well Analysis and Design.D. Oil and Gas Cons.D. [23] Brown. Conf. Modelling flow pattern transitions for steady upward gasliquid flow in vertical tubes. R. Pet. Europ. and Brill.: ~ u y s s eA.W. 429 (Vol. Proc. [28] ~ a y l o r . EUR 213. EUR 33. Proc. D . Pet. t 1321 kitEhiil. R. [36] Arnold. Pet. J. and Macduff.H. 505. EUR 153. 1). 301. K. T.C. G.G. 1980).E. 185 b . J. Pet.A. Conf. 1982). Pet. 1980). EUR 330. K. Designing oil and gas producing systems.H. Can. Europ.
JPT (April 1985) 583. [48] Eissler. JPT (April 1985) 701.E. Scale deposition in surface and subsurface production equipment in the Gulf of Suez. M. I411 Cox. J.E. 1640. K.J. T. Arun Field high pressure gas reinjection facilities. Multiphase flow measurements at production platforms. S. R. [45] Brown. l 1421 Ashkuri. Multiphase measurement problems and techniques for crude oil production systems. et al. Petroleum Review (Nov. 14.C. Occurrence and Recovery. Butterworth (Ann Arbor Science Books). OGCI (1984). Production Engineering (1986) IHRDC. J. L > L J . E. 23. 1985). and McKee.J.D. Measurement of multiphase flows in crude oil production systems. Gas Production Operations. A. Offshore production operations. 1461 ElHattab. A. ~ a t i r aGas Hydrates: Properties.R. 1985). 1983. Nodal systems analysis of oil and gas wells.C. 1985) 18. JPT (Oct 1985) 1751. [47] Beggs. [49] Giles. R. M.L. V. 1985). M. and Hill.I.F. [44] Jamieson. and Lea. . JPT (Sept.232 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [40] Goland. [43] Baker. Petroleum Review (Nov. and Hayes.W. Boston. Petroleum Review (Nov.
which can be solved approximately 31 44 46 471 or finite element using finite difference mathematics [8q. 14. cores and core plugs. multiphase. the choice of approach lies with the petroleum engineer [I5]. Mathematical models are designed to describe reservoir volumetrics and flow behaviour using the Darcy relationship and conservation of mass. L3O5 (1) The ability of the equations to represent . 32 38. 60. together with empirical parametric relationships. 1 0 111 Conceptual models provide a basis for exploration of physical processes and are used to guide quantitative estimation.Chapter 14 Concepts in Reservoir Modelling and Application to Development Planning In this chapter the principles of . In a predictive sense a geological conceptual model is used to guide the values attributed to reservoir properties away from direct well control. 7 . Physical models include sand packs. and emphasis is placed on reservoir description and displacement mechanisms. flow patterns. Multidimensional. linear or radial onedimensional (1D) displacement). residual saturations and other parameters which may define boundary conditions and perhaps allow scaling to reservoir [ 6 . The main types of conceptual models involved in reservoir modelling concern geological models [I2 26. 9 . The su>cess of a numerical model depends on two particular conditions. multicomponent) flow models. The application of reservoir models in field development and resource management is illustrated in the rest of the chapter. Revised geological models develop from consideration of reservoir performance data as well as from new geological evidence alone [I7]. multiphase reservoir analysis requires definition of a reservoir in discrete regions with given properties and rules of flow. The definition of such regions may be cells or nodes (Fig.1 MODELS In petroleum reservoir development a broad definition of modelling is adopted in which a model is any device by which a predictive understanding of reservoir performance andlor description can be obtained. The objective in using physical models is to define physical behaviour. The numerical solution of these reservoir equations using high speed computers is known as reservoir simulation modelling. Depending on the definition of the problem and the availability of data. Hele Shaw models and micromodels. In this sense it may be physical. 891. the former of which is more likely to be satisfied.gg$&jgg using reservoir simulators are presented. 14. Depositional and diagenetic history of sediments are presented to account for present day observations of facies character and petrophysical property distribution. A n interactive analysis of geological models results from testing their predictions against new well data using fluid flow and vertical pressure gradients. or complex (multidimensional.1) and leads to the formulation of relationships between saturation and pressure as nonlinear differential equations. conceptual or mathematical. 66 67 '. Mathematical models may be simple (tank models.
. For a conservation term in stock tank units (broadly equivalent to mass. 14. we can write for the cell illustrated in Fig.C' l~.2 EQUATIONS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW These will be illustrated in a linear system for simplicity. In order to provide a . A n extension to three dimensions simply The equations presented here show that at any point in space there are at least six unknowns.J. For the gas phase the equation must include both free gas and gas from solution in the oil (we could at this stage ignore gas dissolved in water)..234 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE consists of adding terms in 2l2y and 3/22 and in accounting for gravity effects.of flow and equilibrium in the reservoirlwell system. D. 1. D.I. The limit equation thus becomes 14. The values of cell porosity and directional permeability are defined at the cell centre (Fig. within a particular cell of dimensions D. Mass rate in .T Reservoir split into blocks Write equations for flow in and out of each block Mass rate in Fig.mass rate out = mass rate of accumulation 4 Fig. physics. 14. and midpoint depth E from a reference datum. 14. P . For the oil phase we have which in the limit becomes FWL \L For the water phase we have a similar equation: Fig. 14. S.I/.1 Methodology. So. 14.3 I '\ I '. and identical if the API gravity is constant).3 Unit cell..@ I . S...I1 I I I i J I /.2). (2) the ability of cell or node properties to represent the true threedimensional (3D) reservoir description.2 Individual cell or grid block properties. namely Po.C.L.. P.
The effects of cell size and solution time step size are interlinked in the efficiency of solution algorithms.~+ (q0)iI + (qo)i+~ A x + (qO)i+N. 14.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING solution we therefore require three further linking equations defining saturation and capillary pressures of the oilwater and gasoil systems. The solution of these equations may be approached by direct solution (Gaussian or matrix decomposition) or by a number of iterative algorithms.4 Flow into celli from neighbours in different geometries. phases or components. Selection is based on the nature and definitions of the task.5.4 the rate of accumulation at cell is given by ( ~ o ) ~ . This should provide an indication of required cell sizes and time steps.+N. Iteration procedures terminate when convergence criteria are satisfied. and the substance of the simulator is contained in subroutines.4 SIMULATOR APPLICATION As is clear from the number of simulator combinations available. meaning IMplicit in Pressure. Just about all the combinations suggested exist for finite difference simulators. as shown in Table 14. 14.6. Part of the smearing may result from the definition of an appropriate effective permeability solely at the boundary between two cells undergoing fluid exchange. The use of the effective permeability in the upstream cell only during a time step is widespread. One of the most important tests of reservoir simulation accuracy that can be made concerns numerical dispersion or the smearing of a saturation front across several cells. The arrangement of a simulator tends to be as shown in Fig. Finite element methods which should be superior in frontal saturation tracking are not common in a 3Dl3phase mode. the selection process for a particular task falls to the reservoir engineer. the data . irreducible saturations and .A ~ + (:q o ) z . relative permeability. phases or composition components. Explicit in Saturation. 14.P. Algorithms for several iterative solutions have been published and treat pressure and saturation in all combinations from fully explicit (data knswn at start time level for the time step) to fully implicit (data known at end time level for the time step). A particularly utilized method of arranging the differential equations in finite difference form results in a solution known as IMPES. Examples of such sensitivity parameters may well be transmissibility [kAIL]. 2phase (2P) simulation. availability and the economic value of the resultI''[ Analytical analyses of a simplified representation of the reservoir and its contents can provide an insight into proper selection of simulator tools and gives a basis for comparison of results. The main program directs the calculation and reporting procedures. For complex geometry systems there can be no analytical check on results . itNxtNy Fig. the direct solution method may involve excessive computer time. so+ s. For models involving large numbers of cells.1 and in Fig. Tubing flow is usually considered explicitly in a time step. The problem is usually assessed by comparing the results of an analytical Buckley Leverett I[' frontal movement with that predicted by 1D.Po PC. + (qo)i+N. For the threedimensional system shown in Fig. 14.3 SIMULATOR CLASSIFICATIONS General classification of reservoir simulators is by dimensionality.only comparison with gross simplified analytical estimates and reasonableness. 14. = Po . 14. For discussion of these techniques the reader is directed to specialist texts The treatment of error in finite difference and finite element formulations is important in several applications. = 1 Pcg= Pg . as at present any implicit treatment is excessive in computing time. grid arrangement and solution approach. Simulations are frequently conducted to provide information on the sensitivity of illdefined parameters in reservoir performance prediction. The connection of well and operating constraints further serves to delineate different models. + s.
6 Arrangement of simulator routines..1 Classification of simulators Dimensions Phases/ composition 1P IP 2P 2P gas water black oilw black oilg Grid/node arrangement Cartesian (regular) Cartesian (irregular) Radial (vertical wells) Radial (horizontal wells) Nodal Options for solution Finite element Finite difference . single cell m 1 Input processor/HCIIP Cefln~tlon dlmenslons and of spat~al positions of cells or with nodes and ossoc~at~on petrophysicol propertles and across bedding planes (vertical) 1 II along bedding planes (horizontal) of fluid d\strtbut~on hydro and carbon and water ~nplace 11 1 propert~es L H I ~ areal ~ . gas cuts etc from ~nd~viduol weilsor gathering dI ~ / ~ e l l Tublng flow ond pressure drop methods 3D: full 3dkmens~ong e o m e t r M a ~ programme n Solut~on o u t ~ n e r 0 1 motrlx doto for solvlnq 1 molerlal bolonceond flow eq~atlons incorporated lnto the non llnear dlfferentlol form Selects solver subroutine fromcha~ceselected .llme on/offond bosls for ~ t coiculollon of rate Any s constra~nts terms of lhmltlng rates. . Fig.direct soln . . . 14. 14.implicit . I away ond l w ~ c oh s l s i for slmuiator lterot~ve~lut~ons cho~ce1 2etc I Can b Logarithmic c e l l r a d ~ i from w e l l b o r e Output processor Organlsatlon of output record data from solut~on ~nterms well and of gathering centres Tmnsfer tosdlt fils for furthur analysis of eoch tome defined output recwd Edlt flle recad I Fleld data compar~son for hlstory mdch 360' Fig.. In pressures.5 Simulator types.gas condensate Zero: Material balance.IMPES Semi implicit .section f~ne l cross ~ ~ ~ ~ the reservotr~ I" ~ ~ ~ termsof locatlon.miscible process . .inert gas process .236 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14.volatile oil . water cuts. ~ coarse or mesh R a d ~ a lg e o m e t r y .explicit Conformal mapping 0D (material balance) 1D linear 1D vertical 2D crosssection 2D areal 3D sector 3D full field 3P bowg N component N pseudocomponents N compchemicalflood thermal process . .
length.Saturat~on distribution Non. applied to faulted (but not sealing) reservoir intervals. and to vertical restrictions to flow and which result from lithology and facies change in stratified units.7. preferred well locations and completion intervals can be studied. The reasons why reservoir simulation is so attractive are fairly obvious: since a real reservoir can be produced only once. The validity of the initialization reservoir model is largely dependent on the geological model and the flow performance is linked to reservoir and production engineering description. + 14. and are illustrated in Fig. 2 x106 1012 5m 7m g I Wireline log interval Core plug Geologicalthinsection 3 5x10~ 1 XIO~ lo8 200 1 Fig. None of these things necessarily provide a true answer. as well as static and dynamic distributions of vertical and lateral pressure gradients. 14. the single most important history match parameter is transmissibility. a series of case studies using a simulator can e x ~ l o r euncertainties in data and resource management options. At such time a history match between reservoir model predicted performance and field observations can lead to improved confidence in future performance predictions. The basis of a history match should include well rates for all fluids. The validation of a particular simulation in a reservoir cannot be approached until the reservoir has produced for some time (usually several years).14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING aquifer character. In black oil modelling of North Sea reservoirs. 14. The RFT pressure response of a new well in a producing field provides useful history match data.5 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION IN MODELLING Whether a complex or a simple reservoir model is being applied. When miscible or partly miscible processes are being modelled. a number of steps in analysis and data requirements are common. width t thickness distribution JGROSS ROCK VOLUME^ *Fluids and contacts . In addition. then compositional matches with produced fluids are also needed. or condensatelvolatile oil reservoirs are modelled. 14.8 Relative scale of representation. =Shape of reservoir .7 Steps needed to build a reservoir model. only a comparison with some base case set of assumptions. Thermal processes and chemical flood matches require even more history match to provide confidence in performance predictions. . Petrophysical Bulk Relative volume(rn3) volume 5 HETEROGENEOUS W e test 14x106 1014 Reservoir model g r i d 0 .reservoir zones/ poros~ty *Permeability dlstribution *Capillary pressure character~st~cs *Relative permeability characteristics [FLOW CHARACTERISTICS~ *Fluid properties *Rock compressibility Aqulfer size *Pressure dlstribution + IRESERVOIR ENERGY] Well locat~ons Production / lnjection constraints t 1 RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE^ Fig.
(c) conceptual arrangement of sands and shale in Cormorant reservoir (Ness unit) North Sea.9 Examples of sandbody continuity. and shale bodies (after il2'). .238 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Top Zechstein N (b) Shales GR log Well location Sands I Isolated shale plug / Continuous shale I 1 Shale tongue Continuous shale Local shale lens Basal marker shale (b) lateral extent of sand Fig. (a)Rotliegendes/Zechstein (North Sea. 14.
These may then be subdivided as shown in Fig. correlation between well control and matching with seismic profiles.k r A T. which can also show characteristic facies Flow f'\ I I 2 k H . cores and log data. The geological model(s) provide the main basis for predicting reservoir description away from direct well control and some discussion of their development and uncertainty is appropriate. 14. ( = x . Deltaic models provide a good example of the influence of conceptual models in reservoir simulation. The simplest subdivision of gross deltaic environments is into delta top or delta plain. active systems leads to an expectation of particular geometries in particular sedimentary forms. Both these specialities are directed towards an understanding of the sedimentary processes by which a reservoir has formed and the subsequent diagenetic modification of pore space. The extrapolation and correlation of reservoir sands can be severely interrupted by localized faulting subsequent to deposition.841. and delta front.11 Subdivision of the gross deltaic environment (after 1 . is of paramount importance in the development of conceptual geological models and in using them effectively in reservoir simulation. This involves recognition of lithology and facies types. such reconstructions may be made .2 Reservoir geometry and continuity The typical continuity of reservoir sands and shales is shown in Fig. Higher delta plain distributary channels Lower delta plain ~nterdistributary lakes marshes and swamps Continuous shoreline sand 1 14.8). using core data particularly.9. Recognition of appropriate continuity models will allow significant control over recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs and influences the type of development scheme employed. The recognition of sandbody type. 14. tically according to the depositional environment of individual sandbodies. Increasingly. 14.10 Transmissibility in cell models. The particular information available for generating such models tends to be cuttings. Continuity is usually represented between cells by modification of transmissibility in any dimension or direction (Fig. In deltaic reservoir models. and some detailed petrophysical interpretation. and will be used here. which can place reservoir and nonreservoir units against each other. The identification of faults may be apparent from geophysical surveys. continuity can vary drama Fig. 14.10).direction transmissibility) = ( L 1+ L 2 ) Fig.11.5.this adopts the principles defined in Walther's law of facies [83. Core data provides the single most important data base and. 14. rock type and saturation representation (Fig. The association by analogy of sedimentary processes in ancient systems with observations in modern. 14.5.1 Integration of geological and engineering data The development of a valid geological model is of necessity an interactive process. development geologists are finding improvements in their geological models result by incorporating pressure analysis data. The aim is to define vertical and lateral distribution of reservoir and nonreservoir rock in the field (and perhaps in any associated aquifer). Since the vertical record of sediments in a well is related to the lateral processes of sediarentation occurring over a wide area at one time. through analysis.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING analysis falls between the two since zonation and grid size scale effects must be rationalized and proper attention paid to porefilling minerals. a palaeogeographical reconstruction of the reservoir may be obtained. from geological hypotheses required to make correlations and from analysis of the pressure versus time behaviour of well tests. 14. The particular specialities needed by geologists working with engineers on the generation of the geological framework for reservoir simulation studies are in the fields of sedimentology and palynofacies.
levees. Few feet to hundreds of feet thick. coal.13 Delta top crosssection. using deltaic systems as an example. In fluvial reservoir environments there is a characteristic sequence of sedimentary structures related to increasing current strength.4 illustrate reservoir geometry and quality expectations from conceptual models. laminated. Sand is deposited in the lower partsof river channels.2. . clay. May be several square miles (time markers). silt. miles. Overbank sediments (top of point bars. None Channel fill Fair to excellent depending on size Point bar Well sorted. Zero thickness Fig.. . crevasses splays) include much silt and clay. Depends on size of the distributary. Tables 14. Excellent associations for each subdivision. medium to fine grained sand coarsens downward with increased scale cross bedding. .PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14. and at the upstream end the delta plain passes into a river valley flood plain. . Hundreds of feet to tens of miles along length. clay plant debris.2 Delta top characteristics  Character Crevasse splay Sandsilty sand interbeds. Linear extent along channel for tens of miles. Slumps and contorted bedding. current rippled. May be a mile or more wide. f4. few feet to tens of feet thick. Thickness from few inches to tens of feet. wood. There are complete gradations between the different divisions.3 and 14. INCREASING CURRENT DECREASING CURRENT Fig.12 Crevasse splay. Trough cross bedding. ~eservz potential Poor Natural levee Sand. . Multiple point bars extend many miles. several tens of feet thick. may show fining upward sequence. plant remains. Very poor Marshiswamp Silt. Dimensions Small areal extent: individual sands rarely more than few sq. . . 14. The sedimentary structures can be used to deduce the current as follows: (a) Plane bed without movement (b) Small ripples (c) Megaripples or dunes (d) Plane bed with sediment movement . Disturbed bedding. Most extensive fluvial deposits occupy large areas in lower reaches of rivers and gradually grade into the upper deltaic plain. 14. . (e) Antidunes Max~mum . Few feet thick.
.... 1060' thick. .. Excellent Sediment bar Straight channel += A Typically deltaic distributaries.... 1002000' wide.. Fair to excellent depending on size Coalesced channels . multiple sands of meander belt may extend for many miles.... 3100' thick. ... Meandering channel Point Typically downstream part of flood plain.width mile to 8 miles. length may be hundreds of miles.. 14. thickness up to 501.... . .14 Delta progradation... Vertical stacking (Map: belt) (Map: continuous sheet) Isolated stacking (Map: discontinuous sheet) ...3 Fluvial environments of flood plain and delta top Single channels Appearance Dimensions Reservoir potential Braided channel ~ bar h a d e3ry26" n n e e A  & _ + " Typically upstream part of flood plain... Reservoir quality depends on size and stacking pattern.. TABLE 14.. Excellent .. up to 10 miles long......1 4 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING Sea level Fig.
Tens of feet thick. which are then related to quantitative estimates of porosity. 14. tens to hundreds of miles long. a few grains start rolling and may produce horizontal laminations if sufficient sediment is available and the process continues for a certain length of time. The validity of poroperm data from core analysis and porosity from log analysis depends very much on recognition of the effects of clay minerals in the pore space and lithological variations from the bulk reservoir properties. often burrowed.4 0. Figure 14.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE TABLE 14. Clean well sorted sand at top grading into silty sand at base. 14.2 0.16 for a deltaic system["]. In this exercise the proposed geological zonation must be compared with petrophysical zonation based largely on porosity and permeability (poroperm). In Fig. Tens to hundreds of feet thick.15 Bedforms in relation to grain size and stream power (after [8'. Such a model is shown in Fig. The resultant models often contain an expectation of vertical and lateral zonation of reservoir properties. May be hundreds of square miles. Miles in length and width. At low energy conditions. Length up to 15 miles in cases of progradational growth. May be smaller in shallower water. Tens of feet thick. Thickness from few inches to tens of feet.8 1. permeability and saturation. Few miles wide. 14.821). Sheetlike cover of area of delta lobe. Interaction with the geological observations based on Xray analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies often helps explain a basis for diagenetic change in pore character. Reservoir potential Good Distributary mouth bar Well sorted sand grading downwards and outwards into finer grained sediment.0. tidal range and current directions. may prograde and so greatly increase width.0 mm Fig. Possibly cut by tidal channels and forming associated ebbtide deltas.6 Grain size 0. Possible direction in tidal channel permeability. Well sorted sand Very poor Excellent Shore face Smooth seaward and irregular landward margins.17 the reservoir character of channel and bar sands are contrasted. parallel laminations and local lowangle cross beds. Plane bed L " 3 Lower regime (tranquil flow) 0 0. Under the influence of flowing water. Observation and correlation from wells can then lead to an expected.0 Antidunes Upper regime (rapid flow) > 1. Fair to good Basal marine sand Continuous marker shale association I None > " 4. Interdistributary bay Barrier beach Silt and shale with sand lenses and laminae. The detailed shapes are based on energy for sorting sediments and result from consideration of depositional flow regimes. sediment movement starts in a noncohesive bed. which can be applied as a function of . consistent model to explain reservoir distribution at a given time or horizon.15 depicts graphically various bedforms and their relationship to grain size and stream power.4 Delta front characteristics Character Dimensions Typically up to 80' thick and 2 miles wide.
I DELTA P L A I N Fig. 14.16 Palaeogeographic representation of complex environments (after .
14. The boundary between sands 3 and 4 has been removed because permeability thickness contrast was less than a few times.244 TYPE Top TEXTURE Grain size Sorting Finest Best I I CHANNELS Bottom Coarsest Poorest Top 1 Coarsest Best .any extension to include areal geometry leads to greater complexity in effective transmissibility representation. . One of the most difficult stages in constructing a reservoir model is compromising scales of observation of geological and petrophysical properties with the scale of model grid cells (Fig. A coarse grid model of this region (Fig. A fine grid model recognizes the boundaries between sand units which might control crossflow (Fig.a factor of zero indicates that the shale is sealing and unity indicates that crossflow is controlled by sandsand contact. P CAPILLARITY Permeability S . the minimization of the number of grid cells used to define a reservoir is often required..1 10 7000 ' Lowest Lowest Best Highest Highest I Highest Large I 1 Best Deltaic sit 1 Feet bar d e ~ o1000s 0.hN). The averaging of poroperm saturation data in volumetric calculation is of less significance thansthe representation of flow properties by pseudofunctions in stratified reservoir intervals for dynamic reservoir performance calculations. but the boundary between sands 2 and 3 is retained.Figure 14.18 indicates a progression in reservoir description within a region of a crosssection model . The micaceous zone is removed from the pore volume of the model but its effect retained as a multiplication factor on the harmonic average vertical permeability calculated between sands 34 and 5. Reservoir zones should represent regions of differing flow properties. PORE SPACE Porosity Pore size Lowest Very fine Highest Large PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Deltaic channel CONTINUITY Feet Deteriorates U '". The upper diagram represents a sandy sequence containing a laterally discontinuous shale and a continuous thin micaceous stratum. This model has the same fluid content and pore volume as the geological model and is used to study the sensitivity to reservoir description of dynamic saturation distributions.18 (b)). The model again contains the same total fluid and pore volume as the geological model. A similar vertical transmissibility multiplyer approach is used between sands 1 and 2 to account for the shale wedge . It should be expected that zones exhibiting diagenetic damage will have different irreducible saturations or relative permeabilities from other zones.a Grain size depth. primarily dependent on net effective permeability thickness (k. Fig.18 (c)) can be developed to reduce computer time in field performance prediction studies. 14. 14. A reservoir simulation model must recognize the role of vertical communication between the sands in controlling saturation distribution and frontal movement under dynamic displacement conditions. 14. Lowest Highest Gamma ray Permeability 0.8). For reasons of cost and computing time.1 10 50 * . . Pseudorelative permeability and capillary pressure functions of pore volume weighted .17 Reservoir characteristics of channel and bar sands (after 1 9 7. The sands are distinguishable from each other by sedimentary facies description but do not have dramatically different permeability contrast in the bedding plane direction. position or saturation in a reservoir model.
generated from results of the simulation performance prediction is confirmed by fine grid model. petrophysicists and development geologists. infor cells of different sizes a good approximation over volves use of conceptual models. Figure 4. 14.18 Zonation in crosssection modelling. 14. Brent fluids across intercell boundaries. Peaceman [351 has reservoir used in early development planning and shown that a semisteady state productivity index in controlled with data from seven exploration wells. reservoir mapping and (AX~. together with application of directional relative permeabilities and the representation of the flow of fluids across faults and partially displaced layers.) grid cells can be represented threedimensional model on this grid base would as follows: contain some 11400 cells. the validity of a range of values can be obtained from Ax = which emerge during reservoir production. In the areal model.19 Contrast in pressure representation in analytical and simulator calculations. h The conceptual model of the field provides the basis for inferring the properties of the other 99%.AX~)O. about 1%. Potential gradients exist shows a crosssection and areal grid representation as step changes between cells and serve to move in the Statfjord field. The minimization of uncertainty in reservoir simulation is time dependent and occurs as more reservoir average saturation. such as areal extent. of a Middle Jurassic. al models there is no concept of saturation pressure together with geophysicists as necessary. are used in the coarse grid model to historical field measurement. has been discussed in the context of reservoir simulation by Smith [j6'. Modificaadopted for this purpose.Cell boundary Fig. (3) Coarse g r ~ d model saturation dlstr~but~on t ~ m e In The problems of crossflow and inflow to wellbores from stratified systems.gineers.3 Uncertainty in reservoir model description .~ Fig.20 gradient within a grid cell. Increasingly the history match procedure well productivity index in reservoir models requires involves multidisciplinary teams of reservoir enmodification from analytical forms since in numeric. the mapping of reservoir characteristics. net:gross variation and permeability. The characterization of a grounds.5. constant. (c) coarse grid model. well control exists in 7 cells of the total 760. (a) Geological representation. (b) fine grid model. Subsequent work has shown that porosity. unique since several varimethod of Kyte and Berry [341 is most frequently ables could be modified to obtain a match. = r.e'. Well functions may also be tions are required that are reasonable and can be used to represent partial penetration and local radial defended on both geological and engineering flow coning character [331. however. The history matching demonstrate the same displacement behaviour. thickness. In an individual stratum. k . A equidimensional (D. As has been shown by Archer [I7]. 14.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING (1) Geological representation I 245 75 Sand (2) Fine grid model I sand 4  I I . The process is not. where r.
interzone transmissibility and in saturation dependent relative permeability terms.21 Alternative petrophysical mapping. 14.246 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 24'002500  f 2600 . The greatest uncertainties in black oil reservoir modelling tend to be in appropriate zonation. (d) permeability map 3.2584.22).lrn 0 Oil /water n LO 5 27002800  5 10 I 0 I 1 225krn ibd Fig. crosssection interpretation can be varied even with a given control data set (Figs 14. the results of which may point to the need for key well . 14.21 and 14. Fig. (a) Well location. Development planning calls for flexibility in design so that early key wells can be used to help differentiate between model possibilities. These uncertainties can be explored in terms of their impact on proposed development by sensitivity studies. (b) permeability map 1.20 Early simulation cells for the Statfjord field study (Brent Sand) (after [I6]). (c) permeability map 2.
which are not unique. Examples.23 Results from preliminary history match at given well. (b) channel sand at right angles to fault. horizontal permeability. In heavy oil reservoirs fluid sampling is also difficult and the reservoir fluid may not flow composition may sometimes then be obtained from extracting core. In gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs the greatest uncertainties in addition to those mentioned for black oils are in valid fluid properties as functions of pressure and temperature. net pay volume.22 Alternative sand models giving different performance predictions. Sampling in these reservoirs at bottomhole conditions is generally unreliable and in these particular circumstances recombined surface samples may be preferred. (c) channel sands parallel to fault.) . 14.14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING (a) Extens~vemarine sand Coarsening upwards ( b ) Channel sand at r ~ g h tangles to fault Fin~ngupwards (c) Channel sands parallel to fault Fig. History matching measured periormance (pressure distribution and producing fluid ratios) with reservoir simulation is the only way to validate a model. Schemes for enhanced oil recovery which involve miscible processes and chemical processes often have great uncertainty attached to the modelling of physical mechanisms for displacement. 14.23 and 14. data. (Could vary: vertical permeability. 00* A A A Field measurements Model predictions A ! \ Pressure + Fig. The interpretation of viscosity at proposed reservoir development conditions becomes a particular uncertainty. (a) Extensive marine sand. relative permeabilities. are shown in Figs 14. In many of these processes there is significant numerical dispersion which makes displacement front tracking difficult and which may cause uncertainty in performance predictions.24. This is particularly true when multicontact or partial miscible processes are considered and for adsorption and microemulsion formation in surfactant processes.
a seasonal factor having a maximum value about 1. Develop transmissibility modification factor maps for all interlayers. Select crosssections of the reservoir (along dip .6 APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR MODELS IN FIELD DEVELOPMENT The decision base for reservoir development is both technical and economic[1201. Define basis for net pay and rationalize geological and petrophysical definitions in zonation. mature source rocks. i. I_n this part of the chapter we shall concentrate on offshore field development as uncertainty in reservoir characteristics is more significant. (5) 14. Reservoir engineering data added for volumetric and dynamic analyses. Preliminary economic analysis based on notional cost estimates and value of products. and decline is based on 1020% per annum (depends strongly on heterogeneity). Pressure regime and aquifer contribution assessed. Preliminary estimation of recovery factors for potential recovery processes. Development of preliminary geological model. trap and migration path. Facility requirements should be designed for day rate offtakes where SDC is the seller's delivery capacity . assume peak rate ACQ (annual contract quantity) is 0.7. for notional 20year life of reservoirs containing more than 1 TCF.4 (3) (4) Observed Simulated t Days Fig. porosity. Onshore development should proceed stepwise and is often unconstrained by development well locations. Well drilled . Run Monte Carlo type volumetric analyses. For gas wells consider plateau rate as fraction of reserve per annum according to typical contracts. Fluid samples for PVT properties.OIMD) PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE (KV=O. Complete petrophysical analysis on standardized basis. Develop more detail in geological model and consider mapping and correlation options. Check zonation using capillary pressure character and irreducible saturations. Well testsicore log data rationalization. for instance. saturation and field area (limits) in probability distributions for each zone. reservoir rocks.248 (KV=O. Represent stratified reservoir character in permeability contrast distributions. Develop relative permeability data for zones and regions in the field. tested and indication of commercial productivity index PI.6. Assume a peak production rate for oil of. Petrophysical data used to define porosity and saturation vertical and lateral distribution. Assessment of vertical and lateral heterogeneity.discovery. Define hydrocarbon in place level for simulation models. Represent PVT data regionally if appropriate.e. 10% of recoverable reserve per annum and a plateau duration such that at least 3 0 4 0 % of the recoverable reserve are recovered at peak rate. Define uncertainties and represent net thickness. Analytical methods used to define stability of displacement.1 Application Sequence Perhaps the sequence of field development considerations follows these steps: (6) (1) Exploration drilling location chosen on basis of potential structure. 14. Core to define sedimentology and provide basis for reservoir (7) (8) (9) recovery mechanisms. Estimate well requirements based on semisteady state completion PI.I MD) CS 0. (2) Appraisal wells to delineate structure and establish fluid contacts. It should in general be cheaper than any offshore project of comparable reserves.05 X recoverable reserve per year until 60% of the recoverable reserve has been produced.24 History match of water cut development in EtiveIRannoch sand system by assumption of vertical permeability between sands (after 14.
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
249
axes) to ensure gravity effects on flow represented properly. Represent layer nature transmissibility and reservoir permeabilitji as sensitivity parameters. Examine vertical sweep efficiency in analytical and reservoir simulation calculations for different recovery mechanisms and well locations/completion intervals. Determine character of pseudofunctions for use in coarser grid models. Check in 1D mode. (10) Run radial simulation models to evaluate coning potential or to calculate well functions in terms of saturation in some defined region. (11) Run threedimensional sector models to study both areal and vertical sweep efficiency and sensitivity of options to reservoir description uncertainties. (12) Extend to coarser grid full reservoir model in three dimensions for the recovery mechanism selected. Study effect of u7ell locations, rates, completion and recompletion intervals and productionloperation constraints. Production profiles and facility implications used in economic analyses are evaluated.
FC26
Dec 1976
(13) Refine field plan and consider effects of tubing flow constraints, pumps and separators and pass results to project management with recommendations. Define preferred well development sequence and design early data collection program. Plan for model updates and history matching. Represent recoverable reserves as probabilistic distribution. The use of a number of early 4evelopment wells and a decline in field pressure may allow development of refined correlations, such as shown in Fig. 14.25.
14.6.2 Recent Field Studies
The petroleum engineering literature contains many examples of field studies using reservoir models (see reference list). A particularly constructive example I' is the Stiles and Bobeck ' [ account of the Fulmer predevelopment simulation study in Blocks 30116 and 30111b in the UKCS North Sea. The Fulmer
FC63
Sept 1979
FC22
July 1979
FC44
May 1976
1
Nov 1977
Dec 1976
Fig. 14.25 Reservoir zonation in the Forties reservoir showing use of geological and petrophysical correlation enhanced with RFT and production logging data. (After r1221.)
250
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
field is a stratified Upper Jurassic shallow marine sandstone in a faulted anticlinal structure, and contains 41" API undersaturated oil. The datum depth and pressure is 10 000 ft SS and 5700 psi. The reported value of oil in place is 824 X lo6 STB. The field is situated in the central sector of the North Sea about 170 miles from Aberdeen and water depths are some 275 ft. The development plan preferred for the reservoir employs flank water injection and temporary gas storage in the crestal region. Reservoir studies were therefore directed at both gas and water displacement of oil and coning potential.
Crosssection and single well studies were used in addition to full field studies. An early production system was evaluated and installed. This employed four production wells drilled through a subsea template prior to installation of the main platform. The template well provided early information on which to improve the geological and reservoir engineering models. Figure 14.26 shows the structure map with west and north crosssections indicated, and Fig. 14.27 shows the general geological crosssection. Figure 14.28 shows the grid pattern for a gas coning model. Fig. 14.29 shows the north flank crosssection model and Fig. 14.30 the west flank
N
'IIItR
C
Wellhead jackel
1
2
3
8
5
6
1
~
9
~
Fig. 14.26 Fulmar structure map showing crosssection locations. (After [551.)
SW
WATER INdECTlON 1N RINGS I 0 b l i
Fig. 14.28 Fulmar gas coning radial model description.
NE
301167
7
FT4
a
12000L
Fig. 14.27 Fulmar geological crosssection. (After r551.)
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
Gas
injector
OWC
1000
2000
Distancefeet
3000
4000
Fig. 14.29 Fulmar north flank reservoir crosssection model. (After [551.)
GAS 6ACK.W GAS
INJECTOR INJECTOR
12,000
I
I
I
1000
2000
DISTANCE
3000
4000
I 5000

FEET
Fig. 14.30 Gas migration path predicted in west flank crosssection model. (After[551.)
The simulation and reservoir engineering study recognised that gravity forces would play an important role at planned reservoir withdrawal rates and that gas override and water underrun might be reduced. The apparent lack of restriction to vertical flow however gave concern about coning and resulted in recommendations about completion locations for wells. It also showed that long term gas
storage in the reservoir crest was not a good plan but that gas could be injected temporarily into the oil column where it should rapidly migrate upwards. The Petroleum Engineering literature contains numerous examples of reservoir simulation studies at all stages of field exploitation and the reader is referred to the reference list for further case studies.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
References
[I] Craig, F.F. Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding, SPE Monograph, Vol. 3 (1971). [2] Buckley, S.E. and Leverett, M.C. Mechanism of fluid displacements in sand, Trans. A I M E 146 (1942), 107. [3] Rapoport, L.A. and Leas, W.J. Properties of linear waterfloods, Trans. A I M E 189 (1953), 139. 141 Terwilliger, P.L. et al. An experimental and theoretical investigation of gravity drainage, Trans. A I M E 192 (1951). 285. 151 Levine, J.S. .. Displacement experiments in a consolidated porous system, Trans. A I M E 201 (1954), 55. [6] Johnson, E.F.,Bossler, D.P. and Naumann, V. 0 . Calculation of relative permeability from displacement experiments, Trans. A l M E 216 (1959), 370. [7] Croes, G.A. and Schwarz, N. Dimensionally scaled experiments and theories on the water drive process, Trans. A I M E 204 (1955), 35. [8] Engelberts, W.L. and Klinkenberg, L.J. Laboratory experiments on displacement of oil by water from rocks of granular materials, Proc. 3rd World Pet. Cong. I1 (1951), 544. [9] van Meurs, P. The use of transport three dimensional models for studying the mechanisms of flow processes in oil reservoirs, Trans. A I M E 210 (1957), 295. [lo] Egbogah, E.O. and Dawe, R.A. Microvisual studies of size distribution of oil droplets in porous media, Bull. Can. Pet. Geol. 28 (June 1980), 200. [ l l ] Bonnet, J. and Lenormand, R. Constructing micromodels for the study of multiphase flow in porous media, Rev. d. IFP 42 (1977), 477. [12] Archer, J.S. and Hancock, N. J. An appreciation of Middle Jurassic Brent sand reservoir features by analogy with Yorkshire coast outcrops, EUR 197, Proc. Europ. Pet. Conf. (1980), 501, Vol. 1. [13] Archer, J.S. and Wilson, D.C. Reservoir simulation in the development of North Sea oil fields, The Chemical Engineer (July 1978), 565. 1141 Archer, J.S. and Hurst. A.H.  The role of clay mineralogy on reservoir description in petroleum engineering, Proc. Clay Mineralogy Conf., Cambridge (1985). [15] Archer, J.S., Keith, D.R. and Letkeman, J.P. Application of reservoir simulation models in the development of North Sea reservoirs, SPE 5285, Proc. Europ. Svmu. SPE (1975). [16] Archer, J.S. and Wong, S.W. Interpretation of laboratory waterflood data by use of a reservoir simulator, SPEJ (Dec. 1973), 343. [17] Archer, J.S. Reservoir definition and characterisation for analysis and simulation, Proc. 11th World Pet. Cong., London (1983), PD 6 (1). [18] Ha"vena, D . Interpretation, averaging and use of the basic geological engineering data, J. Can. Pet. Tech. 6 (1967), 236. [I91 Bishop, K.A., Breit, V.S., Oreen, D. W. and McElhiney, J.C. The application of sensitivity analysis to reservoir simulation, SPE 6102, Proc. 51stAnn. Fall Mtg. (1976). [20] Killough, J.E. Reservoir simulation with history dependent saturation functions, Trans. A I M E 261 (1976). 37. [21] Slater, G.E. and Durrer, E.J. Adjustment of reservoir simulation models to match field performance, Trans. A I M E 251 (1971), 295. [22] Thomas, L.K., Lumpkin, W.B. and Reheis, G.M. Reservoir simulation of variable bubble point problems, SPEJ (1976), 10. [23] Toronyi, R.M. and Ali, S.M.F. Determining interblock transmissibility in reservoir simulators, JPT (1974), 77. [24] Wilson, D.C., Tan, T.C. and Casinader, P.C. Control of numerical dispersion in compositional simulation, Proc. 1st Europ. Symp. EOR, Bournemouth (1981), 425. [25] Mrosovsky, I., Wong, J.Y. and Lampe, H .W. Construction of a large field simulator on a vector computer, JPT (Dec. 1980), 2253.
2
14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
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14 CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR MODELLING
255
,
!
I
:
I
1
1
I
i
[78] Pryor, W.A. and Fulton, K. Geometry of reservoir type sand bodies and comparison with ancient reservoir analogs, SPE 7045, Proc. Symp. on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa (April 1978), 81. [79] Ruzyla, K. and Friedman, G.M. Geological heterogeneities important to future enhanced recovery in carbonate reservoirs; SPEDOE 9802, Proc. 2nd Jt. Symp. EOR, Tulsa (April 1981), 403. [80] Fisher, W.L., Brown, L.F., Scott, A.J. and McGowen, J.H. Delta systems in the exploration for oil and gas, Bur. Econ. Geol. (1969), Univ. Tex. Austin. [81] Simons, D.B., Richardson, E.V. and Nordin, C.F. Sedimentary structures generated by flow in alluvial channels, In Primary Sedimeaary Structures and their Hydrodynamic Interpretation (Middleton, G.V., ed.), Soc. Econ. Pet. Min. Spr. Pub. 12 (1965), 34. [82] Allen, J.R.L. Current Ripples, their Relations to Patterns of Water and Sediment Motion, North Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam (1968). [83] Reading, H.G. (ed.) Sedimentary Environments and Facies, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford (1978). [84] Reineck, H.E. and Singh, I.B. Depositional Sedimentary Environment, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1973). 1851 Chauvin, A.L. etal. Development planning for the Statfjord field using 3D and areal reservoir simulation, SPE 8384, Proc. Ann. Fall Mtg. (1979). [86] Utseth, R.H. and Macdonald, R.C. Numerical simulation of gas injection in oil reservoirs, SPE 10118, Proc. Ann. Fall Mtg. (1981). [87] Addington, D .V. An approach to gas coning correlations for a large grid cell reservoir simulation, JPT (Nov. 1981), 2267. [88] Darlow, B.L., Ewing, R.E. and Wheeler, M.F. Mixed finite element method for miscible displacement problems in porous media, SPEJ (Aug. 1984), 391. [89] Haldorsen, H.H. and Lake, L.W. A new approach to shale management in fieldscale models, SPEJ (Aug. 1984), 447. [90] Craig, F.F., Willcox, P.J., Ballard, J.R. and Nation, W.R. Optimised recovery through continuing interdisciplinary cooperation, JPT (July 1977), 755. [91] Le Blanc, R.J. Distribution and continuity of sandstone reservoirs, JPT (July 1977), Pt 1,776, Pt 2,793. [92] Jardine, D., Andrews, D.P., Wishart, J.W. and Young, J.W. Distribution and continuity of carbonate reservoirs, JPT (July 1977), 873. [93] Harris, D.G. The role of geology in reservoir simulation studies, JPT (May 1975), 625. [94] Groult, J., Reiss, L.H. and Montadort, L. Reservoir inhomogeneities deduced from outcrop observations and production logging, JPT (July 1966), 883. [95] Campbell, C.V. Reservoir geometry of a fluvial sheet sandstone, Bull. AAPG (1976), 1009. [96] Davies, D.K., Ethridge, F.G. and Berg, R.R. Recognition of barrier environments, Bull. AAPG (1971), 550. [97] Barwis, J.H. and Makurath, J.H. Recognition of ancient tidal inlet sequences, Sedimentology 25 (1978), 61. [98] Budding, M.C. and Inglin, H.F. A reservoir geological model of the Brent sands in Southern Cormorant, In Petroleum Geology of the Continental ShelfN. W . Europe (eds Illing and Hobson), Inst. Pet. (1981). 326. [99] Craig, F.F. Effect of reservoir description on performance predictions, JPT (Oct. 1970), 1239. [loo] Yusun, J., Dingzeng, L. and Changyan, L. Development of Daqing oil field by waterflooding, JPT (Feb. 1985), 269. [loll Simlote, V.N., Ebanks, W.J., Eslinger, E.V. and Harpole, K.J. Synergistic evaluation of a complex conglomerate reservoir for EOR, Barrancas Formation, Argentina, JPT (Feb. 1985), 269. [I021 Hutchinson, C.A., Dodge, C.F. and Polasek, T.L. Identification, classification and prediction of reservoir inhomogeneities affecting production operations, JPT (March 1961), 223. [I031 Treiber, L.E., Archer, D.L. and Owens, W.W. Laboratory evaluation of the wettability of fifty oil producing reservoirs, SPEJ (Dec. 1972), 531.
38.Sea.. J. The role of well logs in reservoir modelling. of N.A. [118] Dake. Conf. T. JPT (Dec. In North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs. D. ~.. (1980). Europe.. Viking gas field. and Stone.F. K. Tech.A. London (1982). A quarter century of progress in the application of reservoir engineering. Nordberg. N. Inlet sequence: a vertical succession of sedimentary structures and textures created by the lateral migration of tidal inlets. Proc. Vertical and lateral building of river sandstone bodies. 1870. 55th Ann.M. . Use of reservoir simulation models in the development planning of the Statfjord field. J. Pet. R. In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of N. J. \ . Europ. (1975).Feb. [I151 Hancock. [I171 Hillier. London 1986.J.B. Tech. Pet. Proc. SPE 10209. 1973). 11. Pet. London (1981). Conf. [I061 Gilreath. Sea Res. Europ. L J L . Proc. [I081 Raymer.. Butler. SPE 9342. 491. a n d ~ s a nP. London (1978). J. Vol.. Conf.L. EUR 98. P. EUR 270.S. Fall Mtg. Soc. Norway (May 1980). I. P. Elsevior Applied Science. Interpretation of log response in deltaic sediments. W. Europ. Simulation of gas condensate reservoir performance. N.M. 55th Ann. UK N. 11191 Coats. [I121 Bain. Application of the RFT in vertical and horizontal pulse testing in the Middle Jurassic Brent sands. [ I l l ] Denison. [I211 Gray. London (1978). J. EUR 92.H. Slater. Palynological identification of facies in a deltaic environment. and Stephens. JPT (Oct.J. 11.. [I221 Carman. Rocks. Pet. R. Inti. R. R. Reservoir development planning for the Forties field. London (1981) 371. London (1978). J. Proc.W. Heyden.E. Well performance analysis: a synergetic approach to dynamic reservoir description. and Hamilton.R. Can. 39. 243. [I141 ~ a l l e t t : ~ . and Lefevre. London 136 (1979). Wittmann. [I131 Stewart.L.G. R. Seminar. Fall Mtg. G. SPE L . [I071 Delaney. Pet. and Sanders. 1371. Diagenetic modelling in the Middle Jurassic Brent sand of the N. and Dimmock. [I051 Friend. K.S. 315. Proc. Woodward). 325. Pet. North Sea. Vol. Cobb. Europe (Ed. Computer reservoir continuity study at Judy Creek. Trondheim (December 1985).C. Europe (eds Illing and Hobson).M. L. Vol..P. C. AAPG Pub. 9. J. M. H. SPE 9310. on Sedim. and Young. Conf. M. Reservoir geology of the Forties oilfield. L. In Petroleum and the Continental Shelf of N... London (1975) 241. and Williams.A. J. (1985).O. M. Proc.L. Pet. Proc. W. EUR 89. Proc. Conf.. (Eds. In Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of N. SPE (1981). R. Proc. Can. and Fowler. 1982).P. W. and i c s 11101 Richardson. Pet.J. and Kleppe. 11981)). 11091 Gretener. Geilo. ~ e o l o ~ y . G. Sedimentology 21 (1974). 56th Ann.S.256 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE [I041 Kumar.E. J. Fall Mtg.T. Some aspects of reservoir description for reservoir modelling. (MayJune 1984). Refinement of the geological model of the Thistle field. 11. and Burgess. A. Eds. [I161 McMichael. G. Geol. (Jan. Graham & Trotman. 55. C. Illing and Hobson). P... 275. 3D seismic applications in the interpretation of Dunlin field. Finding and Exploring Ancient Deltas in the Subsurface. ' ~ e o ~ h ~ sengineering: a case for synergism. Inst. Nor. Archer. Europ. \ .
Some non. SPEAIME.31) ft3 centipoise (Unless otherwise specified. although some metric units mixed with American still may be Pressure encountered. 22782323 by permission. units has yet occurred.) Density lb mass per cubic foot * Reprinted from Journal of Petroleum Technology. A n application of the SI metric system pounds force per square in (psi) is found in the Journal of Petroleum Engineerinng atmosphere (1985) in the issues for August (p.Appendix I A SPE ~omenclature and Units* Standard letter symbols for reservoir engineering Gas volume and electric logging have been defined by the AIME cubic foot) measured at 1 atmosphere (Society of Petroleum Engineers).feet or metres cubic ft cubic metre Diameters tubular diameters generally inches or centimetres Liquid volume feetimetres barrel = 5.1801. an oil volume will be tank oil measured at 1 atmosphere and 60°F. 1415) and October bar p. kilometres barrel well depths . subscripts and nomenclature are still MCF = thousands of cubic feet MMCF = millions of cubic feet in use and may be encountered. and the industry uses the trillion is the American trillion = 1012. g per cubic centimetre + . No effective standardization or metrication of (The billion is the American billion = lo9.615 cubic ft Viscosity cubic metre = (35. Temperature degrees Fahrenheit "F degrees Rankine O R = 460 "F UNITS degrees Kelvin K Volume Length acrefoot for large volumes pipelines .miles.) American mixed units to a large extent. 1984. kg mass per cubic metre pp.cubic metre) and 60°F standard terms. 1984. feet.
806650 x 10' 6.O 1.013250 x 1o2 1 .' 0. (industry .3048 25.601846 x lo' 1.0920304 6. MCFid and MSCFDld. dynelsq.' 9.262059 x 10' 1.233482 x 1o3 1. in.4 2.2161 19 x 10.) per cubic metre tank oil Flow rate liquids .' 9.894757 1 x 10" 2.preferred) 1.barrel per day (bid) cubic metre? per day (m'id) gases .O 9. in.0765 1b/ft3) AYI scale for tank oil Oil densities API gravity Gasuil ratio standard cubic feet of gas per stock t a l k barrel of oil cubic metrcs of gas (s.9071847 1.589873 x 10. 0 l~ 2 o 9.~ 1.4 Ibift') gases relative to air (0.609344 1.046873 x 1o3 0.~ .869233 x 10.0 Recornnlendatiorl for rnetricatiorl and appropriate conver~ion Cactnrs for units are glven: Recommended units: conversions Quantity S I unit Industry unit mile metre foot inch sq.2271247 I 1o .589988 4.535924 x lo' 0. bld US gall.258 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Specific gravity liquids relative to water (62.241933 x 1 0 . ~ 3.~ .qtandard cubic I t per day SCFid. MMSCFD cubic lnctres per clay (mild) MSCFDid SG = specific gravity of water = 1.831685 x 1 0 .ift Ib mass short ton O~ / f t atmosphere bar kgfisq.198264~ 10' 1.4516 x 1o2 1. ft sq.c. mile acre sq.822689 1.02903404 x 1o .869233 x 1o .785412 x 1 5. s pm2 ~ m * Length m Area m2 Volume m3 Capacityilength Mass Temperature gradient Pressure m3/m kg Kim Pa Pressure gradient Density Volume rate Viscosity Permeability Palm kgim3 m3is Pa./ft Ibm/ft3 Ibm/US gall.s m2 Conversion factor .589873 x 10' 2. ~ 4.O 0. inch m3 acre foot barrel ft3 US gallon barrelslit it3/ft US gall. cm lbfisq. cm Ibfisq.imin cP Darcy rnilliDarcy SPEpreferred unit km m m mm km2 km2 m2 mm2 m3 m3 r13 m3 m3 m3/m m3/m m3/m kg Mg Kim kPa kPa kPa kPa Pa kPa/m kg/m3 kgim3 m3/d m3/hr Pa.
The term various also appears in this author usage. Choose symbols that can be readily handwritten. q). tion of additional standard symbols. This terminology perples C and D below. . Multiple letters such as abbreviations are C. A few exceptions are some D . Where pertinent. Principles of symbols selection Once the original reservoir Symbols Standard was established in 1956. Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity.. traditional mathematical symbols such as log. B. This flexibility in dimen. This is the universal practice of the Structure of lists American National Standards Institute (ANSI). respectively. Symbols alphabetized by symbols.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS SPE SYMBOLS STANDARD Preface Objectives The primary objectives of the 1984 Symbols Standards are to combine prior standards and supplements into one publication so as to provide (1) consistency of usage and maximum ease of understanding of mathematical equations for the readers of technical papers. Additional standard symbols etc. F. etc. adopt the symbols already for concentration (dimensions might be mi^^. where not in conflict with princicolumn for several symbols. static SP (SSP). as being The extraordinary growth in all phases of petroleum suggestive and easily remembered. B. rules and guides for the writers of technical papers. sions permits desirable shortening of the symbols avoiding symbols and subscripts for combinalist. Defining equations are given in a few cases rial. Adopt the letter symbols of original or prior L. (2) C D. ~ S P~ S S P . typed.E .G . for symbols and subscripts. and computer technology has necessitated the adop. processes. Limit the list principally to basic quantities. minimizing conflicts Examples are symbols: (1) m for slope of a line (two with that Standard. length.pbh. the specification of units and conditions of Examples are: gasoil ratio (GOR). have tions. Subscripts alphabetized by symbols. and printed. T. original standards were published in 1956 following five years of intensive development. Additions resulted from requests from members and from editorial reviews of the numerous papers submitted to SPE for publication. and (2) to codify symbols lists. temperature and electrical charge (m. the pAnciples employed in the selection of additional symbols have been as follows: A . Thus quantities that are sometimes identification only and are not intended as definirepresented by abbreviations in textual matetions. Some and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in more than 20 of the crossgrouping and obsolete quantities have formal Standards adopted by them for letter been eliminated. In The names or labels for the quantities are for and lim. dimensions of each quantity in terms of mass. ISO. For the Symbols Standards to have singleletter kernels. in four different forms as follows: (2) Make available single and multiple subA . minimize conflicts with m. special conditions. represents ratio (dimensions might be ~ ~ l m . spontaneous potential For convenience in dimensional checking of equa(SP). reciprocals. tables or graphs are required in the SPE where further identifications may be needed. the existing SPE Standard. (1) Use single letters only for the main letter symbols. the International Organization for StandardizaThe 1984 Symbol Standards are a consolidation of tion (ISO) and the International Union of Pure the 1956 Standard and all later supplements. present. prohibited for use as the main symbol (kernel) for a quantity. The complete symbols list is given symbols employed in mathematical equations. since the . hole pressure (BHP). tions. . Use initial letters of materials. a column has been included giving the the following SPE Standard symbols: R. scripts to the main letter symbols to the extent necessary for clarity. bottommeasurement is left to the user. phase. standardized by such authorities as ANSI. Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity. t. Adopt letter symbols consistent or parallel with require different dimensions in different problems. variables of any dimensions can be related). these Standards. which. mits maximum flexibility for quantities that may C. dimensionless or other). dimensionless or other). time. (3) F (factor) when it or IUPAP (see A).
the following guidcs were employed for the order of appearance o f the indiviclual letters in multiple subscripts in the syrnlx)ls list. many lettcrs in the Greek alphabet (lower case and capital) are practically indistinguishable from English letters. themselves standarclized.. a writer should be careful in calling for separate symbols that in published form might be confuscd by the reader. Multiple subscriptposition order. The wide variety ancl complexity of suhject matter covered in the petroleum literature nlakc it impossible to avoid use of multiple subscripts with many syrnbols.for example. 4. Conflicts must be avoided. an author may need synibols in addition to those already contained in standard lists. or a tensor index. Often a listed alternative symbol or a modifying subscript is available and should he adopted.  C. or (4) a tensor index. or else refer to a standard list as a source for symbols used but not explained. Examples: K. shoi~ldbe e11closed in parentheses. The intended sense must be clear i n each case. So far as logical clarity permits. (3) the constancy of one independent physical quantity among others on which a given quantity depends for its value. the zero is easily mistaken for a capital 0. Because of the many numerals. I11 particular: (1) Notations which call for handsetting of movable type should be rejected in favour o f forms adapted to inodcrn mechanical methods of composition. letters and signs that are similar in appearance. point. Requirements for Pl~blished Quantity. When the subscript r for 'relative' is used. one should avoid attaching subscripts and superscripts to subscripts and superscripts. Except in this situation. Instead. A symbol with a superscript such as plime (') or second ("). 01tirnc.. Use of the same rules is reconirnendcd when it becomes necessary t o establish a multiple subscript notation that has not ~ C C I Iincluded in this list. in copy largely typewritten and to be reproduced in facsimile. should not be excessive. (2) a distinguishing label. one may introduce locally. indicating the adopted unit rnay be attached to a letter syrnbol. (4) Often :I complicated expressioll appears as a cornpo nelit part of a complex mathematical f o r n ~ ~ ~ l a for example.. where possible. it should appear first in subscdpt order. Easily ident@~d. One should try to keep at a minimum the cost of publishing symbols. (3) a unit. To make such usage less confusing. a subscript may indicate: (I ) the place of a term in a sequence or matrix. (4) a variable with respect to which the givcn quantity is a derivative. or corres~mndingnu~ncral. hut not to letter symbols. (2) No one work should use a great variety o f types and special characters.. (3) Handwriting of inserted symbols.260 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Principles of letter symbol standardization A. An author should give a table of the symbols used ancl their respective interpretations. Subscripts and superscripts are widely used and for a variety of convcntional purposcs. 2. Each published letter syrnbol should be: 1. Econonzicul in publicatiorz. braces or brackets before an exponent is attached. For work in a specialized or developing field. any symbol not familiar to the reading public should have its meaning defined in the tcxt. part. a superscript may indicate: ( I ) the exponent for a power. a single nonconflicting letter to stand for such a complicated component. authors of technical works (including textbooks) are urged to adopt the symbols in this and other current standard lists and to conform to the principles stated here.. Like~/isc. In such a case the author should be careful to select simple suggestive sylnbols that avoid conflict in the given field and in other closely related special fields. or abbreviation. Reference marks. When the sulxcript i for 'injection' or . Clear in reference. may appear among subscripts. as an exponent of a given basc. Abbreviations. One should not assign to a given symbol different meanings in such a manner as to make its interpretation in a given context anlbiguous. Secondary symbols. the author should not introduce new syrnbols or depart from currently accepted notation. For example. such as n~lnlbers distinctive type. or systern of units. Except in brief reports. 2. Several subscripts or superscripts sometimes separated by colllnias may be attached to a single lettcr. For exalnplc. K. rnay be attached to in words and abbreviations. Stundard. A conventional sign. B. 3. In the use of pirblishcd symbols. 1. The units should be indicated whenever necessary. An explanatory definition should then appear in the immediate context. (2) a designated state.
. also F a . differentiaI. subscript D for 'dimensionless' should usually appear last in subscript order. when appearing as lightface letters of the English alphabet. Abbreviation subscripts (such as 'ext . Arabic numerals. the mobility ratio will be defined as the ratio of the displacing phase mobility to the displaced phase mobility..SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 'injected' or 'irreducible' is used. tion rate during time period 3. Thus: one may write (a/b)lc. should be selfexplanatory. maximum air injection rate during time period 1. and letters or other alphabets used in mathematical expressions. (iUl). separation. kinematic and dynamic similarity between two systems. compressibility of injected gas. Observe the following: 1. C O for carbon monoxide. Examples: p . 4. if carefully made. The letter C is retained for conductivity in well logging usage. Examples: B. P s ~ . Cg for propane . .G. boldface type is to be preferred to German. 3. phase. Abbreviated chemical formulas are used as subscripts for paraffin hydrocarbons: C1 for methane. ..s.npf D. GLp. 3. 5. When a special alphabet is required. Letter symbols for physical quantities. it should appear first in subscript order (but after r for 'relative'). Only type faces with serifs are recommended. (Shr)mln. the folloking subscripts should usually appear last in subscript order: regions such as bank. Examples: qoD3. Typography. 2. ~ .. from copy largely typewritten.. Dimensionless numbers are criteria for geometric. 4.Rsf. 5. Dimensions: L = length. letters that would be boldface in print may be indicated to be such by special underscoring. B. initial or original total system formation volume factor. When the mobilities involved are on opposite sides of an interface. The symbol p is to be used in all other cases and is that preferred by ASA. depleted. f. initial or original gas formation volume factor. The letter R is retained for electrical resistivity in well logging usage. alb or abI If more than one solidus is used in any algebraic term. Examples: Big. 7.or albc.. Gothic. 6. while the few distinct letters used from other alphabets. t = time. B. initial or original oxygen concentration. but not alblc. fl. 'min'). Except for Cases 4 and 5 above. q = electrical charge. and other subscripts and superscripts. The product of two quantities is indicated by writing ab. lower case. Except for Cases 1 and 2 above (and symbols Kh and L. individual component identification (i orQl other). perimental pack. It is important to select a type face that has italic forms. are printed in italic (sloping) type. and clearly distinguished upper case. 6. c. formation volume factor of injected gas. system subscripts should generally appear first in subscript order. Complete chemical formulas are used as subscripts for other materials: C 0 2 for carbon dioxide. Cn for CnH2n+2.)... lower case and small capitals. or in small capitals. O2 for oxygen. 'max'. whether upper case. density of solid particles making up exGFI. N2 for nitrogen.. i) enclosed in parentheses. Examples: EDb. etc. and T = temperature. or script type.). They are derived by one of three procedures used in methods of similarity: integral. d. should appear last in subscript order and require that the basic symbol and its initial subscript(s) be first F. (qoD3)max 7. 'lim'. p ~ 2reservoir pressure at time 2. unburned (b.. when applied to a symbol already subscripted. or the ratio of the upstream mobility to the downstream mobility. Examples of dimensionless numbers are Reynolds number (NRe) and Prandtl number (Np. b. burned. parentheses must be inserted to remove any ambiguity. are normally printed in vertical type. . numerical subscripts should appear last in subscript order. swept. 5 and 6 above. or dimensional.. Quantity symbols may be used in mathematical expressions in any way consistent with good mathematic51 usage. front. In material to be reproduced in facsimile. composition and E. The symbol a is to be used in all other cases and is that preferred by ASA. Co2. Except for Case 4 above. E x c e ~ tfor Cases 4. dimensionless oil produc. The quotient may be indicated by writing a . C2 for ethane. Examples: (. u). ~ q . For a discussion of methods . Special notes.. initial or original oil formation volume factor.. differential and flash (d. m = mass. Remarks.
J. However. No binding rule is made for the notation of space and time subscripts. In practice. It is suggested that X be uscd for floating point variables and I for integers. MN. Dimensionless numbers alc denoted by Q in thc last required subscript position. more characters may be used when necessary for designation of multiple mathematical lcttcr subscripts. mathematical operators. the order of subscripting should follow the rules given in the 'Multiple Subscripts . Principles of computer symbol standardization A. Schilson. 8. the remaining characters are to be right. 1. Average. Example tencharacter notations are: XDELPRSTQQ. The first part of tllc notation consists of one position to define the arithmetic inode of the complete computer symbol. H appears in the first character positio~i. This notation position should be used only if absolutely necessary. additional subscripting occurs immediately to the right of thcsc defined notations. The part of the notation representing the Insic mathcmatical quantity (letter) symbol should be retained and the other parts of the notation shortcncd. The following sketch indicates the coordinate system used to denote special posi . 2. and therefore must be defined in the text or appendix as is appropriate. The notation should suggest the operation. When a heat quantity is dcnotetl.or leftjustified to form a string of characters without blank positions. and the computer language being used will not allow more than six. by R. is uscd to represent the basic inathematical quantity (letter) symbol. extrapolated or limiting valucs of a quantity are denoted respectively by AV. The quantity x can be modified to indicate an average or mean value by an overbar. The computer subscript designation is placed irn~ncdiately to the right of the quantity symbol ficld with no intervening space. Exponents are characterized by XP in the second and thild positions. Tech. The system outlined below should be used when the subscripts are not implied by an array location or an index specified by the program logic. dilncnsionless average Ieservoir pressure would be denoted by PRSAVQ.262 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE of similarity and dinlensionless numbcrs. The fourth part of the notation (subscript field) is sect to represent the subscripts of the inatheinatical letter symbol and normally consists of one of the three character positions. MX. indcxcs and exponents are being assigned computer symbols. The second part of the notation (operator field) consists of three characters and is ~ ~ s e d for mathematical operators. when ail are used in a single symbol. 1964) 877. (August. Each of these parts has a dcfincd number of characters and. In those cases where the complete colnpuier symhol does cxceecl six characters. The third part of thc notation (clu~tntity symbol ficld) consisting of threc charactcrs. the total length may he ten characters. exclusive of time and space designations.as exc~nplifiedby thermal conductivity HCN. Computer symbol subscripts are nornlally designated by using thc mathematical letter subscripts of the SPE Syrnbols Standard.B. Indexes such as resistivity index are denoted by X in the third character position. minimum. Thc three letter notation rn~lcn~onically denotes the quantity name as closely as possible. For example. Shortened symbols are no longer standard. 3. a shortened notation must be employed. the preferred approach being the use of a declaration within the program. the combined notatiolis will not usually cxceed six characters. The computer symbols are structured tiom four possible parts rcprcscllting rcspectivcly arith~nctic mode. Symbol Structure. 5. the vital importance of these subscripts makes it necessary to establish a standard and require an author to define any deviations. Pet. basic cluantitics and subscripts. Fixed characters are utilized in this part of the notation when hcat quantities. 4. x. XDELC'MPPRD When any of the four parts are not uscd. such as porosity exponent MXP. This part of the computer notation is thus of the naturc of ~un character abbreviation. Other than in these cases. sce "Methods of Similarity". sincc the method of subscripting is oftcn dictated by the characteristics of a particular computer. maximum. Though usually not rccluired.Position Order'. of LM in the first two subscript positions. All three character positions must be employeci. XT.
Named dimen tion in multidimensional arrays. Such additional computer symbols are. T) letters and Arabic numerals are used in hand or before the following symbols: typewritten material. the computer symbols must not be used in works of portions of papers where programming is not discussed or as abbreviations in text or This convention was adopted so that the graphical material. Similarly. and that for the i+l/2 point text. Use of the computer symbols is restricted to the description of programming for computers. The mathematical letter symbol in turn designates a physical quantity. No computer symbols have been defined here for numerical quantities. Some of these special cases are noted would be referenced as PRMIPlH(1). I (I = 1. . in most P2 present location plus 2 P3H present location plus 312 instances. K. K sequence would correspond D. be given a notation that is compatible P1 present location plus 1 with it. or logical operators. The rules for establishing Symbol Definition the computer symbols contained in this standard are such that quantities not covered can. Units. Hence. Character set. then the convention is to shift the plusdirection elements to the node being F. they should be clearly defined If an array contains information correspondin the text or appendix. J. Authors are urged to familiarize themselves with the SI System of units and use them as much as practical. indexed. as is appropriate.. The computer symbols are always represented The space and time subscripts are conby vertical type in printed text. and arithmetic. Neither the complete computer symbol nor the mathematical letter symbol implies any specific units of . would be T . K sequences would correspond to not a numeral. nonstandard. 2. No computer symbols to designate common or natural logarithms have been established. P1H present location plus 112 by definition. J. . Machine E. Each complete computer symbol represents a mathematical letter symbol and its associated subscripts. these functions should be designated by the notations compatible with the computer system being employed. NX) B. a technical work.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS measure.e. C. relational. the permeability When employed in programs. Nonstandard symbols. Rather. crosssections as normally used. EliminaM2 present location minus 2 tion of a duplication may lead to a computer symbol that is at variance with the standard. the subscript for the present time t a notation that is nonstandard. I. computer symbol must begin with a letter and K or J . Restriction to computer programs. As a consequence. and that for subscript t2 would be When nonstandard computer symbols occur in TM2.3. See below: sketch below.2..I). their usage should at the il/2 point would be referenced as be fully explained by comments in the program PRMIPlH(1 . In the following example. 1. and in ing to points halfway between the normally the program. AIME 263 (1977) 1685) and their designation is. The notation used should be defined in the paper. Special notes. M1H present location minus 112 Duplication of computer symbols for quantiMI present location minus 1 ties that can occur simultaneously in an equation present location minus 312 M3H or computer program must be avoided. The computer symbol for dimensionless numbers in general (unnamed dimensionless numbers) is NUMQ. . i. Each complete used in petroleum engineering. left to the author. English capital structed by placing a letter code (I. page position of printed output obtained in a normal I. The computer symbols must be constructed from the 26 English letters and 10 to position as viewed on maps as normally Arabic numerical characters. indexed points. functions. The choice of units (Trans. however.
6. Graetz number as GRTQ. per unit area) moles of vapour phase initial water in place in reservoir mole fraction of component in liq uicl phase molc fraction o f component in vapour phase mole fraction of component in mixturc MOLL NUMQ OlLTl VELV MOLV WTRTl MFRL MFRV MFRM 1.264 PETROLEUMENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE sionless numbers have the mnemonic title designation in the field representing the quantity and a Q in the last subscript position employed. See section G . Quantities represented by single symbol in SPE Letter Symbols Standard but by symbolsubscript combination in Computer Sy~nbols List. SPE letter symbolsubscript co~nbi~lation kh Computer syn~bol Quantity title HCN thermal conductiv~ty 4. 111 prcparing the computer symbols it becail~c necessary to modify the format of certain of the basic letter symbols. 4. No mathematical letter subscripts correspond to these computer subscripts. Any dimensionless ilirmber not contained in this standard should be defined in the paper. SPE letter symbol Quantity title total inital gas in place in reservoir moles of licli~id phase climensionless number in gcocral initial oil in place in reservoir volumetric vclocity (flow rate or flux. subscripts or symbolsubscript combinations. Combination subscripts that contain these items are also changed accordingly . or natural gas engineering letter symbols as contained elsewhere in this SPE Standard are authorized. Reynolds number is designated as REYQ. Thus.) 2. Permissible format changes. They do not imply that changes in the form of the economics. reservoir engineering. Prandtl number could be designated as PRDQ. Rather these changes are shown as a matter of record to prevent confusion and to prescnt examples of permissible format changes in the computcr symbols that may be followed when it bccomes iecessary to construct a computer notation not included in the list. 3. designation in Computer Symbols Subscript List. Quantities represented by symbolsubscript combination in SPE Letter Symbol\ Standard but by a Conlputer Sy~nbol Notation only. Basic symbolic subscripts of SPE Lettcr Symbols Standard represented by different SPE letter Computer subscript s. No computer subscript notations corresponding to these mathematical letter subscripts are established. (Only changes in the basic subscripts are shown. Similarly. Grashof number as GRSQ. Symbolsubscript combinations of SPE Letter Symbols Standard represented by Computer SymbolSubscript Notation wherein subscript notations are not the same. These changes are in accord with the Gencral Principles of Computer Symbol Standardization. well logging and formation evaluation. See section G. .ynibol Subscript title CP Q QM 6 ext F lirn m rnux min  P EX XT FU LM FU MX MN PAV PRD RD TQ capillary dime~~sionless quantity dimensionless quantity at condilion m experiment cxtrapolated fuel limiting value fucl (mass ol) maximunl minimum Incan or average pressure pseudoreduced reduccd din~ensionless timc 3.
used to represent a specific physical or mathematical quantity in a mathematical equation. letter symbols. Computer symbols are not acceptable as substitutes for letter symbols in the required mathematical ( e ~ u a t i o n al) developmentsAleadingup to comp. tables. 6. use of reserve symbols. and descriptions of.te'r programs. and oral discussions) . Temperature ( 0 ) . and electrical charge (m. SPE letter symbol t Computer symbol quantity Title TA C interval transit time Distinctions between.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 265 SPE letter symbolsubscript combination Computer Quantity symbol title GL G~~ N G LT l N G LP REYQ fie RTW GWRS initial condensate liquids in place in reservoir cumulative condensate liquids produced Reynolds number (dimensionless number) gas solubility in water B. Dimensions . dimensions. reserve subscripts. properly defined. or special values. reserve symbols. At the present time. One computer symbol may be employed to represent a group of quantities. unit abbreviations and units Confusion often arises as to the proper distinctions between abbreviations. A single letter may be employed to represent a group of quantities. The same letter symbol should be used consistently for the same generic quantity. Abbreviations .an abbreviation is a letter or group of letters that may be used in place of the full name of a quantity. subscripts of SPE Letter Symbols Standard not assigned Computer Subscript Notations as a result of actions noted in 4.(for use in textual matter. time. dimensions. These conflicts may result f r o q use of standard SPE symbols or subscript designations that are the same for two different quantities. GLP) Reynolds (used with Reynolds number only. Length (L). R. abbreviations. temperature.(for use in mathematical equations) . Abbreviations are not acceptable in mathematical equations. being indicated by subscripts or superscripts. unit abbreviations and units used in science and engineering. properly defined. which can be used as an alternate when two quantities (occurring in some specialized works) have the same standard letter symbol.a reserve symbol is a single letter. physics. * Electrical charge is current times time. ' In making the choice as to which of two quantities should be given a reserve designation." Letter symbols . Author preference for the reserve svmbols and subscripis does not justify their use.a computer symbol is a letter or group of letters and numerals used to represent a specific quantity in the writing physical or mathematic~l and execution of computer programs. SPE employs the five basic dimensions of mass. 5. letter symbols. reserve symbols. or use of SPE symbols that conflict with firmly established. q). all SPE computer symbols employ capital letters and numerals. but only in of Jymbols conflict. o r other entity. computer symbols.. L . I S 0 uses: Mass (M). modified when appropriate by one or more subscripts or superscripts. SPE provides a list of preferred abbreviations in its 'Style Guide' for authors. and chemistry.) L~ Re sw D. To avoid conflicting designations in these cases. modified when appropriate by one or more subscripts or superscripts. figures.a letter symbol is a single letter. Reserve symbols . Time (T). cumulative (usually with condensate. commonlv used notations and signs from the fields of maihematics. computer symbols. Subscript title liquid produced. The Society of Petroleum Engineers has adhered to the following descriptions: A. t. L. SPE letter subscript C. length. Computer Symbols . Amount of substance (N) and Luminous intensity (J). unit.dimensions identifv the vhvsical nature of or the general components making up a specific physical quantity.(for use in computer programs) . and reserve symbolreserve subscript combinations is permitted. Electric current (I). . T . Letter operatorsymbol combination of SPE Letter Symbols Standard represented by Computer Symbol Notation only. ATRe) solution in water (usually with gas solubility in water. E.
All authors must include Nomenclatures in any manuscript submitted to SPE for publication. tables.units express the system of measurement used to quantify a specific physical quantity. or in a few cases a special sign. cm for centimeter). Units . specific * GOR initial solution GOR PI SPI none none IS J GOR GORSl PDX PDXS none none L4t/m ~ ~ t / m cu ft/BBL cu ft/BBL bldlpsi b/d/psi/ft J JS Examples only. effort to convert from the English to a metric system of units. etc. to join in a future natiol~al . American National Standards Institute and International Organization for Standardization symbols lists do not use the same letter synibols to represent identical quantities. but the symbols of other disciplines as sanctioned by the American Standards Association should be used when working outside the area of petroleum production. for text. that may be used in place of the name of a unit. The International Organization for Standardization Letter symbol for mathematical equations R Rs. Connecticut is gratefully acknowledged. the standard SPE symbol should be retained for the more basic item (temperature. it must be used consistently throughout a paper. These ASA symbol standards are published by the Arncrican Society of Mechanical Engineers. Use of an unsubscripted reserve symbol for a quantity requires use of the satne reserve symbol designation when subscripting is rccluired. such as books. The Society Board of Directors has approved the SPE 1984 Symbols Standards. pressure. In SPE usage. and units * gasoil ratio. Reserve symbol used only in case of symbols conflict an attempt should be made to retain the standard SPE symbol for the quantity appearing more frequently in the paper. Unit Abbreviations . figures. however. Examples Abbrev. It is to be emphasized that the symbols contained in the SPE list are standard for use in petroleum engineering. The symbol nomenclature. it has signified willingness. Contrasting symbol usage SPE and certain American Standards Association. consistency within a chapter or section must be maintained. Acknowledgement The work done in sorting and combining the various standard lists by Schlumberger Well Scrvices Engineering personnel in Houston. Texas and SchlumbergerDoll Research Ccntcr personnel in Ridgefield. initial productivity index productivity index. United Engineering Center. and readers by keeping the distinctions in mind when prcparing papers for SPE review. Manuscripts submitted to SPE are subjcct to review on these aspects before being accepted for publication. Authors can materially aid themselves. the ASA's policy of aliowing several sy~nbols repreto sent the same quantity in any list and the large number of quantities assigned sylnbols by the SPE. and recommends them to the metnbership and to the industry. otherwise. Up to this time. producing gasoil ratio. New York. must contain each reserve notation that is used together with its definition. N Y 10017. the lack of agreement between various ASA standards. solution. SPE has not standardized units.). editors. nor of units for irldiviclual quantities. F. SPE's practices showing the above distinctions are illustrated in the table of example quantities.       . Once a reselve designation for a quantity is employed. units havc 'abbrcviations' but do not have 'letter symbols'. permeability. G. oral use Quantity Computer symbol for programs Dimensions Unit abbrev. For larger works. which is a required part of each work. The variations in notations result from the application of the SPE guidcs in choosing symbols as detailed herein.a unit abbreviation is a letter or group of letters (for example. porosity. Reversion to the standard SPE symbol or subscript is not permitted within a paper.266 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (fSO) and many other national and international bodies concerned with standardization emphasize the special character of these designations and rigidly prescribe the manner in which the unit abbreviations shall be developed and treated. 345 East 47th Strcct. SPE has not standardized a general systc~ii units.
SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 267 A. in laboratory experimental run. area swept in a model divided by total model reservoir area (see EP) C \ Lit various L3/t various L3/m various various various various . in reservoir. unit. over year k GMFAY '. Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol ARR PRM GRV MPDA VAC ACT FACAFU INJA AIR AIREX Quantity Dimensions Ma. YZ Arrhenius reaction rate velocity constant absolute permeability (fluid flow) acceleration of gravity acoustic impedance acoustic velocity activity airlfuel ratio air injection rate air requirement air requirement. &a Pa.annulus geometrical factor (muliplier or fraction) TACA apparent interval transit time ECNA apparent conductivity DENA apparent density RADWA apparent or effective wellbore radius (includes effects of well damage or stimulation) PORA apparent porosity RESA apparent resistivity RESZ apparent resistivity of the conductive fluids in an invaded zone (due to fingering) APPR approximately equal to or is approximated bv (usuallv with functions) . unit. volumes of air per unit bulk volume of reservoir rock VISA air viscosity AMAK amortization (annual writeoff of unamortized investment at end of year k) AMP amplitude AMPC amplitude. ARA area EFFA areal efficiency (used in describing results of model studies only). relative AMPS amplitude. volumes of air per unit mass of pack AIRR air requirement. contact angular frequency COEANI anisotropy coefficient INCK annual operating cash income. compressional wave AMPR amplitude. "a P r . shear wave ANG angle ANG angle ANGD angle of dip ANGC angle. ta script t c a Pa r wa fa.
gas well backpressure curve (gas well). i~ljection well PRSIWS bottomholc static pressure.qerve SPE letter symbol Computer letter sy~nhol ASYM PRSA ANM AWT COEA RTEAV AV PRSAV PRSAVR DAZ RAZ NGW CGW NGW Quantity Dimensions asylnptotically eclual to atnlospheric pressure atomic number atomic weight (atomic mass. injection well PRSWS bottornhole pressure at ally time after shutin PRSW bottornhole pressure.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter syn~bol Re. shutin time (time after well is shut in) (prcssurc buildup. volumc at GORSB bubblepoint solution gasoil ratio DELTIMWS buildup tirne. fraction of FRCVB VOLRR burned reservoir rock.. exponent of ~s c base a. static PRSWW bottomhole (well) pressure in water phase TEMBH bottomholc temperature WTH breadth.. s m curve (gas well). logarithm BRGR bearing. coefficient of b ack pl. width. individual PKSWF botto~nholc flowing pressure PRSBH bottomhole pressure PRSWF bottolnhole pressure flowing PRSI WF bottomhole flowing pressure. shutin time) DENB bulk density BKM bulk modulus VOLB bulk volume VOLBEX bulk volume of pack burned in experimental tube run bulk (total) volumc. oil PRSB bubblepoint (saturation) pressure RVFGB bubblepoint reciprocal gas formation volunle factor at bubblepoint conditions VOLBP bubblepoint prcssurc.. relative THK bed thickness. relative) attenuation coefficient average flow rate or production rate average or nlean (ovcrbar) average prcssure average reservoir pressure azimuth of dip azimuth of reference on sonde backpressure curve exponent. general PRSWS bottomhole pressure. gas FVFOB bubblepoint formation volulnc factor. or (primarily in fracturing) thickness PRSE boundary pressure. external FVFGB bubblepoint formation volulnc factor. external RADE boundary radius. volumc of VELB burningzonc advance raie (velocity of) L~ Llt .
diffusion coefficient. initial capital investment. number of component of the SP. in liquid phase component. mole fraction of. total cementation (porosity) exponent (in an empirical relation between FR and +) charge (current times time) coefficient. convective heat transfer coefficient. over year k cash income. cation exchange. in vapour phase components. electrochemical coefficient. subsequent. anisotropy coefficient. flowing casing pressure. base 10 component j. P per unit pore volume. formation resistivity factor (FR@~) coefficient in the equation of the electrochemical component of the SP (spontaneous electromotive force) coefficient of gaswell backpressure curve coefficient heat transfer. annual operating. operating. cation exchange. undiscounted cash income. radiation coefficient. attenuation coefficient.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS  269 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions ECQ CEXV CEXUT PRSCP INVI INVK INVT CFLPV CFL INCK INC INCA INCB PRSCF RSCS CEXV CEXUT MXP CHG COEANI COEA HTCC DFN COEC COER KSP CGW HTCU HTCI HEC COE SATL MOLPJ MOLJ MFRL MFRM MFRV NMBC EMFC EMFK CMP ZED Pcs Qv Q vt capacitance capacity. before taxes casing pressure. moles of component. ovefall coefficient. operating cash income. in mixture component. summation of all cash flow. mole fraction of. in year k capital investments. z=PV/nRT) IiL ~3211~4n1~2n m/t3~ m/t3~ IiT various . per unit pore volume capacity. thermal cubic expansion coefficient or multiplier combined total liquid saturation common logarithm. cumulative moles produced component j. static cation exchange capacity per unit pore volume cation exchange capacity per unit pore volume. operating. after taxes cash income. electrokinetic compressibility compressibility factor (gas deviation factor. heat transfer. electrochemical component of the SP. discounted cash flow. mole fraction of. total capillary pressure capital investment.
.5772 constantincome d~scount factor constant. concentration. waterdrive constant. etc. at mean pressure compressibility. pseudoreduced compressibility. condensate or natural gas liquids content. unit fuel (see sv~nbol m'l condensate liquids in place in reservoir. dielectric constant. wetgas convective heat transfer cocfficient mL2/t'~ L4t2/m LJt2/m various m/L3 m various various m/t 'T . gas compressibility. oil compressibility. initial condensate liquids produced. Cc. Euler'5 = 0. oxygen (concentration of other elements or compounds would be CN2. formation or rock compressibility. CCOZ. dimensionless conductivity. C Cc I CNCFU NGLP CNTL SIG ECN ECNA CNDFQ HCN ARR LAM DIC DSCC HPC compressibility factor or deviation factor foi gas. linear aquifer consumption. apparent conductivity. thermal (always with additional phase or system subscripts) constant. methane (concentration of other paraffin hydrocarbons would be indicated similarly.) conccntration. waterdrive. hyperbolic declinc . fracture. fuel consamption of fuel in experirnental tube run consumption of fuel in experimental tube run (mass of fuel per mole of produced gas) consumption of fuel in reservoir contact angle content.etc.270 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer Ietfer symbol ZEDPAV CMPF CMPG CMPO CMPPRD CMPW AMPC CNC CNCCl Quantity A. dccay ( 1 1 ~ ~ ) constant.2rCC3.) indicated similarly. water compressional wave amplitude concentration concentration. 2 Lt2/m various various various various various LZ various various tq2/mL3 tq2/rnL' RRR WDC WDCL FCM FCMEX FCMEXG FCMR ANGC CNTL CNTWG HTCC constant. Arrhenius rcaction rate velocity constant constant. universal gas (per mole) constant. cun~ulative condensate or natural gas liquids content conductivity (other than logging) conductivity (electrical logging) conductivity.
i Rs Fd CUR RADS DMRS ZEL LAM TIMD TIMDN HPC conversion factor in Newton's second law of Motion correction term or correction factor * (either additive or multiplicative) count rate (general) count rate. effective decline factor.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 271 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions GRVC COR NMB NEUN NGR SATGC PRSC TEMC SATWC ARA XSTMAC XSTMIC XNL HEC NGLP GASFP GASE GAS1 GORP GASP MOLPJ OILE OILP FLUP WTRE WTRI FACWOP WTRP GASWGP i script i. gamma ray critical gas saturation critical pressure critical temperature critical water saturation Crosssection (area) crosssection. neutron count rate. are not applicable) cumulative water influx (encroachment) cumulative water injected cumulative wateroil ratio cumulative water produced cumulative wet gas produced curl current. nominal decrement degrees of freedom various . microscopic crosssection of a nucleus. electric damage or stimulation radius'of well (skin) damage ratio or condition ratio (conditions relative to formation conditions unaffected by well operations) datum. thermal cumulative condensate liquids produced cumulative free gas produced cumulative gas influx (encroachment) cumulative gas injected cumulative gasoil ratio cumulative gas produced cumulative moles of component j produced cumulative oil influx (encroachment) cumulative oil produced cumulative produced fluids (where N.) decay time (mean life) (111. hyperbolic [from equation lit lit lit IIL L2 IIT L3 L3 L3 L3 DECE DEC DCR DGF decline factor. microscopic cubic expansion coefficient. elevation referred to decay constant (llt.) decay time. macroscopic crosssection. and W. neutron (neutron mean life) decline constant.
relatlve (speclhc grav~ty) DT DENT density. 1tr IX (iollds. dens~ty. filiitc (Ax = x . true 1). N. ~nvndcd zone (clcctr~cally ec~ulvalcnt) DlAAVP diameter. Dlr DIAH d~arncter. oil 5 . water EDE deplctioil NI FUDR d c p o s ~ t ~ o n of fuel rdte EDP de prec~atlon Y. or x . fuel DY dens~tygas .H DPH depth Y5 SKD depth. bulk Df density. DENW dens~ty. RTEGQ d~mensionle\s ploductlon rate gas NUMO dlmenslonlcss uui~ibci general . D.rmplc Reyriolds numbcr. hydraulic ( k l r p c ~ hlcpc) or QLrZ.x ... at mean pre\\uie ANGH deviation./t mi^' ml~' mlLi ml~? ml~' l lL7 mlL3 III/L~ ml~' 1JL' mlLi mlLZ mlLZ ml~' ~IL' m/LZt L L rnl~t~ L L L L q2t21m~' L'lt ~ ~ 4 l t .) . mean part~cle d~elcctr~c constant DIC DEL d~fference d~fference or oper'itor.ut~clcsinaklng up experiment'll pack Do DEN0 density. hole dl. D L DIAI d~anieter. apparent I / ) . F5 SPG clensity. gra~n) n1' density (number) of neutiom I denvty of produced Ilquld. h e a r aquifer ENCTQQ dimenslonle\s fluld influx function at dimens~onle\s tiinc tL.. weightweighted ~ v g D+.) QoL ) RTEOQ d~incniionlc~s product~on 0x1 rate KO DEL TlMDY DLV DEN DENA DENB DFNF DENXO NMB DENFU DENG DENMA NMBN DENAVL DENSEX t ~. I%6 DFN diffus~on coeft~uent DFS diffuslvlty. s k ~ n (logging) Z ZED d e v ~ a t factor~(comprcss~b~hty ~o~ factor) for g~i4 = 1 VInR7') (Z ) z? ZEDPAV d e v ~ a t ~ factoi (compress~b~lity on fncto~) for g'ts. flushed zone n ! density (11ldicating 'number pcr unit volume') DF dens~ty. Cr\lDFQ dimenslonless fracture conductivity Q. fluid D dcns~ty. hole (clritt angle) f'd PRSD dewpoiut pressure D DIA d~a~neter d ~ .111 (always w ~ t h ~dent~fjring subscripts) (Ex.x. density oi solid p. c r z p1 ENCLTQQ dlmenslonles\ f l u ~ d ~ t iriilux function.?.272 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE  Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter synlbol Zd Co~nputer Quantity letter symbol Dimensions del (gradient operator) delay ti~iie del~verabillty g ~ well) ( s D dcns~ty Du d e m t y . dcns~ty.
water from burned volume. constantincome discount factor. volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock displacement ratio. angle of dip.ore)'.L2 La. LI s. apparent azimuth of dip. f script 1 AR dimensionless pore volume dimensionless pressure dimensionless pressure function c at dimensionless time tD dimensionless production rate dimensionless quantity proportional to x dimensionless radius dimensionless time dimensionless time at condition m dimensionless water production rate dip. or length of path distance. displacement displacement ratio displacement ratio. sinolepayment [1/(1 t i ) k . volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock distance between adjacent rows of injection and production wells distance between like wells (injection or production) in a row distance. radial (increment along radius) L2/t L L L L L . oil from burned volume. azimuth of discount factor.l)lj] discount rate discounted cash flow dispersion coefficient dispersion modulus (dispersion factor) displacement displacement efficiency from burned portion of in situ combustion pattern displacement efficiency from unburned portion of in situ combustion pattern displacement efficiency: volume of hydrocarbons (oil or gas) displaced from individual pores or small groups of pores divided by the volume of hydrocarbons in the same pores just prior to . volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock displacement ratio. apparent angle of dip. j = In (1+i)] discount factor. singlepayment (constant annual rate) [eIk(e' . oil from unburned volume.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 273 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions VOLPQ PRSQ PRSTQQ RTEQ RADQ TIMQ TIMMQ RTEWQ ANGD ANGDA DAZA DAZ DSCC DSC DSCSP DSCSPC RTED CFLPV DSP DSM DIS EFFDB EFFDU EFFD Fd Fdob F d ~ ~ DPR DPROB DPROU DPRWB DUW DLW LTH DELRAD Fdwb Ld. general discount factor. length.
porosity and hydrocarbon saturation): hydrocarbon pore spacc enclosed behind the injectedfluid or heat front divided by total hydrocarbon pore space of the reservoir or project EFFVB efficiency. volunictric. true. from unburned portion of it2 situ co~nbustion pattern EFFD cfficicncy. displacement. contacted) by thc injection fluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all laycrs behind the injectedfluid or heat front EFFR efficiency. rnodulus of (Young's modulus) m/Lt2 . tlisplacernent: volurne of hydrocarbons (oil or gas) displaced from individual pores or small groups of pores divided by the volumc of hydrocarbon in the same pores just prior to displacclnent EFFl efficiency. for buriled portion ollly. overall reservoir recovery: volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volun~e of hydrocarbons in place at start of project (El<= EPEIEL) = E v EL)) EFFP efficiency.yinbol Computer Ietter syinbol Quantity Dimensions divergence RADD drainage radius L DELTIMWFdrawdown time (time after well is opened to t production) (pressure drawdown) ANGH drift angle. areal (used in describing results of model studies only): area swept in a model divided by total model reservoir area (sec E. or discounted cash flow) SKN effcct. from burned portion of in situ combustion pattern EFFDU efficiency.) EFFDB efficiency. volumetric: product of pattern sweep and invasion efficiencies ELMY elasticity. invasion (vertical): hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING:PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE Ietter s. in situ combustion pattern EFFV efficiency. clisplacernent. hole (deviation) RORI earning power or rate of return (internal. skin DECE effective decline factor L RADWA effective or apparent wellbore radius (includes effects of well damagc or stirnulation) PRMG cffective permeability to gas L' PRMO effective permeability to oil L~ PRMW effective permeability to water L' PORE effective porosity EFF efficiency EFFA efficiency. pattern sweep (developed from areal efficiency by proper weighting for variations in net pay thickness.
cumulative DELOILE encroachment or influx. gas ENCO encroachment or influx rate. total GE equal to or larger than LE equal to or smaller than EQR equilibrium ratio (ylx) DIAI equivalent diameter (electrical) of the invaded zcne TIMP equivalent time well was on pzoduction prior to shutin (pseudotime) RWE equivalent water resistivity ERF error function ERFC error function.spE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity 275 Dimensions I R 't 2. oil ENCW encroachment or influx rate. oil. electrical tortuosity electrically equivalent diameter of the invaded zone COEC electrochemical coefficient EMFC electrochemical component of the SP EMFK electrokinetic component of the SP EMF electromotive force ZEL elevation referred to datum GASE encroachment or influx. Feq dr. during an interval ENG energy HEN enthalpy (always with phase or system subscripts) HENS enthalpy (net) of steam or enthalpy above reservoir temperature HENS enthalpy. oil. dz. P i script i. cumulative DELWTRE encroachment or influx. cumulative DELGASE encroachment or influx. uater. h ge Age fie Ane I Ig 10 e0 ew We Awe E H Hs h s 1. specific HERS entropy. < K dl t~ k. porosity (cementation) (in an empirical relation between FR and +) SXP exponent. i ZE. Mc. specific HER entropy. Dl . WE Awe U I IS I o (Jt S >. n ez expZ electric current electric impedance electrical resistivity (other than logging) electrical resistivity (electrical logging) . water WTRE encroachment or influx. gas. saturation EXP exponential functlon CUR MPDE RHO RES TORE DIAI q't mL2/tq2 m~~tq* mL3tqZ L mL2/t2q mL2/t2q mL2/t2q L L~ L3 L3 L3 L3/t L3/t L3/t L3lt L3 L3 mL21t2+ m ~ ~ l t ~ " mL2/t2 L2/t2 L2/t2~ mL2/t2~ L t mL3tq2 IIT . water.r R P. thermal cubic POREX experimental pack porosity NGW exponent of backpressure curve. during an Interval ENC encroachment or influx rate ENCG encroachment or influx rate. Kec QC Qk dl Kc EC Ek E Z Ge Ace l\i. ANe? e eg V D. DI T~ Rwe erf erfc En I @E b n m f ~E E. gas during an interval OILE encroachment or influx. gas well MXP exponent. complementary Euler number Eulcr's constant = 0.5772 HEC expansion coefficient.
) factor. average flowing bottomhole pressure. geometrical (multiplier) (electrical logging) factor. formation resistivity. in Newton's second law of Motion factor.. (a numerical subscript to f indicates the value of K. pcr unit area (volumetric velocity) flow rate or production rate flow rate or production ratc at mean pressure flow rate or production rate. casing flowing pressure. discount factor. compressibility (gas deviation factor z = PVlnXT) factor. friction factor. injection well flowing pressure.IR. geometrical (multiplier) mud (elcctrical logging) factor. mass flow rate.. equals R.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter syntbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Conlpnter letter sjm?bol Quantity Dimensions cxponcntial integral CG Ei (x) t exponential integral. gcomctrical (multiplicr) true (noninvaded zone) (clcctrical logging) factor in general. geometrical (multiplier) pseudo (elcctrical logging) factor. bottoinhole tlowing prcssure. tubing various . geometrical (multiplier) a ~ l n i ~ l (electrical logging) us factor. x positive PRSE RADE PRSXT ZED DSC DECE DEC GRVC FACHR FACF GMF GMFAN GMFI GMFP GMFXO GMFM G MFT FAC FACB M RT IIRT VELV RTE KTEPAV RTEAV PRSl WF PRSWF PRSCF PRSTF external boundary prcssure extcrnal boundary radius extrapolated pressure factor. including ratios (always with identifying subscripts) factor. heat flow rate or flux. effective decline factor.. geometrical (multiplier) flushed zone (elcctrical logging) factor. nominal decline factor. modified s ilt. conversion. geometrical (multiplier) invadcd zone (elcctrical logging) factor. turbulence flow ratc.
) COER formation resistivity factor coefficient (FRGrn) REST formation resistivity. electromotive (voltage) PORR formation or reservoir porosity CMPF formation or rock compressibility FACHR formation resistivity factor .equals RoiR. mechanical EMF force. oil FVFG formation volume factor. and QltD script 1 FLUP Wpare not applicable) DENXO flushedzone density flushedzone resistivity (that part of the RESXO invaded zone closest to the wall of the hole. at dimensionless time tD QLiD script 1 ENCLTQQ fluid influx function. (a numerical subscript to Findicates the value R. gas FVFO formation volume factor. VACF fluid interval velocity ZEL fluid head or height or elevation referred to a datum T ACF fluid interval transit time DENF fluid density ENCTQQ fluid influx function. gas FVFOB formation volume factor at bubblepoint Fob conditions. total (twophase) FVF formation volume factor volume at reservoir conditions divided by volume at standard conditions FVFW formation volume factor. cumulative produced (where N. dimensionless. oil FVFT formation volume factor. per unit area (volumetric velocity) FCE force. true RESZR formation resistivity when 100% saturated with water of resistivity R. dimensionless fluids.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 277 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions  tf script t Pxo Rxo Bob DELTIMWF flowing time after well is opened to production (pressure drawdown) FLU fluid (generalized) . where flushing has been maximum) GMFXO flushedzone geometrical factor (fraction or multiplier) FLX flux VELV flux or flow rate. water FRC fraction (such as the fraction of a flow stream consisting of a particular phase) FRCG fraction gas various Lit L various Lit . linear aquifer. TEMF formation temperature FVFGB formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions.
universal (per mole) gas density gas deviation factor (compressibility factor) at mean pressure gas deviation factor (compressibility factor.T~7 FIGSH @idw FIGW x/ zfiIl. . FFX F g ~ . initial reservoir (=mNB. F g o ~ GORF g~*p SFL FRO v GASFP GASFI GORF FQN FACF PRSF CNCFU FCM FCMEX FCMEXG FCMR DENFU FUDR FUG NGR GRY GAS SATOG SATWG CM PG ZED RRR DENG ZEDPAV ZED PRMG FVFG ( I . unit (see synibol rn) fuel consuniption fuel consumption in experimental tube run fucl consumption in experimental tube run (mass of fuel per Inole of produced gas) fuel consumption in rcscrvoir fuel density fuel deposition rate fugacity gamma ray count rate gamma ray [usually with identifying subscript(s)] gas (any gas.) free producing gasoil ratio (freegas voluniel oil volume) frequency friction factor front or interface pressure fuel concentration.J script 1 FRCL VI]./. including air) always with identifying subscripts gascap interstitialoil saturation gascap interstitialwatcr saturation gas co~npressibility gas compressibility factor (dcviation Factor) ( z = PVlaRT) gas constant. dimensionless fracture halflength (specify 'in the direction of' when using xI) fracture index free encrgy (Gibbs function) frec fluid index free gasoil ratio. Computer letter suvnlbol Quantity Dimensions F. producing (freegas volumeloil volume) free gas produced.. cumulative frccgas volume. FRCVB @Kj. effcctivc permeability to gas formation volurnc factor mi~t" various various m / ~ m n1/~? ~ mlL3 ml~'t mlLt2 Ilt various various L..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Letter svmbol Reserve SPE letter syrnbol fvh.. z p Z K~ Fg . cc g P.i~ F CNDFQ LTHFH FRX GFE i.. rlrn 'n " f FF FIL Fr LX FIX DF N1: N. z = PVlnRT) (deviation factor) gas.iKJog Pwg> 'TI<% kg> Kg Z fraction liquid fraction of bulk (total) volume fraction of intergranular space ('porosity') occupied by ali shales fraction of intelgranular space ('porosity') occupied by water fraction of intermatrix space ('porosity') occupied by ilollstructural dispersed shale fracture conductivity.
residual GORS gas solubility in oil (solution gasoil ratio) GWRS gas solubility in water SPGG gas specific gravity VISG gas viscosity VISGA gas viscosity at 1 atm CGW gaswell backpressure curve. natural. total initial GASE gas influx (encroachment). Lg F g g~ Agl CL. relative permeability to . or condensate content MOBG gas mobility FRCG gas.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 279 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Fgb Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions Bgb 5 eg Ge AG. free producing (freegas volume1 oil volume) GOR gasoil ratio. cumulative DELGASI gas injected during an interval INJG gas injection rate CNTL gas liquids. cumulative THK general and individual bed thickness NUMQ general dimensionless number (always uith identifying subscripts) L3 L' L3 L31t L3 mILt mILt ~32n~4n/~2n . produced.~L F g F g CL A. fraction MFRTV PRMGO GORP GORF gas mole fraction gasoil permeability ratio FVFGB L3 L' L' ~ " t L~ L' L3/t various ~ ~ t l m kg1k0 KgIKo gasoil ratio. dimensionless RVFG gas reciprocal formation volume factor RVFGB gas reciprocal formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions GASPUL gas recovery. solution. cumulative gasoil ratio. initial GASP gas produced. producing GORSB gasoil ratio. cumulative DELGASE gas influx (encroachment) during an interval ENCG gas influx (encroachment) rate GAS1 gas injected. solution (gas solubility in oil) GORSI gaqoil ratio. SATG gas saturation SATGC gas saturation. fg fg gas formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions FRCG gas fraction GASTI gas in place in reservoir. solution at bubblepoint conditions GORS gasoil ratio. critical SATGR gas saturation. wet. G1 AGI I g g ge 48. coefficient of gaswell backpressure curve. exponent of NGW DLV gaswell deliverability GASWGP gas. cumulative DELGASP gas produced during an interval GASPEX gas produced from experimental tube run RTEG gas production rate RTEGQ gas production rate. ultimate PRMRG gas.
is oil holdup. acceleration of gravity. oil gravity. specific. gas gravity. (multiplier). latent hcat or thermal diffusivity heat. true (noninvaded zonc) (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). radiation height. or fluid head or elcvation referred to a datum height (other than elevation) Helmholtz function (work function) holdup (fraction of the pipe volume filled by a given fluid: y . specific (always with phase or system subscripts) heat transfer coefficient. pseudo (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). mud (electrical logging) geometrical factor. total half life heat flow ratc heat of vaporization. y . solids) density gravity. geothermal gradient operator gradient. convective heat transfer coefficient. annulus (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). true (electrical logging) gradient gradient. overall hcat transfer coefficient. is water holdup Cof all holdups at a given level is one) hole deviation. flushed zone (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). specific. temperature grain (matrix. specific. relative density gravity.280 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer lefter sy~nbol GMF GMFAN GMFXO Quantity GMFM GMFT GMFP GMFT GRD GRDGT GRDT DENMA GRV SPG SPGG SPGO SPGW THKT GRRU GRRT TIM H HRT HLTV HTD HSP HTCC HTCU HTC 1 ZEL ZMT HWF HOL ANGH DIAH DFS geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). specific. water gross (total) pay thickness gross revenue ('value') per unit produced gross revenue ('value'). invaded zoned (clcctrical logging) geometrical factor (multiplier). drift angle hole diameter hydraulic diffusivity (kI@ p or h+c) various T .
injectivity index of refraction index. dimensionless influx function. fluid.ity individual bed thickness influx (encroachment).iRo hydrocarbon saturation. water initial condensate liquids in place in reservoir initial capital investment . oil influx (encroachment) rate. acoustic impedance. hydrogen index. electric index (use subscripts as needed) index. residual hydrogen index hyperbolic decline constant (from equation) L g ( z ) script I z MPD MPDA MPDE 3 FRX FFX HYX IJX RFX PRX PRXPR PDX RXSH PRXSE SHXGR IJXS PDXS THK GASE OILE WTRE DELGASE DELOILE DELWTRE ENCLTQQ QhD imaginary part of complex number z impedance impedance. cumulative.oducti. fluid. specific p. dimensionless (at dimensionless time tD) influx (encroachment) rate influx (encroachment) rate. cumujative.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 281 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions RH RADHL TORHL PORH RSXH SATHR HYX HPC hydraulic radius hydraulic tortuosity hydrocarbonfilled porosity. productivity index. gas influx (encroachment) during an interval. linear aquifer. gas influx (encroachment) rate. oil influx (encroachment). cumulative. (hydrocarbon) resistivity RiRo index. shaliness gammaray (Ylog various m/L2t mL2/tq2 'script 1 ENCTQQ ENC ENCG ENCO ENCW NGLTI INVI index. oil influx (encroachment) during an interval. water influx (encroachment) during an interval. fraction or percent of rock bulk volume occupied by hydrocarbons hydrocarbon resistivity index R. fracture index. free fluid index. gas influx (encroachment). s~ecific iniectivitv index. primary porosity index. secondary porosity index. porosity index.~ c n ) i ( ~ s h' ~ c n )  L3t/m L L3 L~ L~ L3 L3 L3 L3/t Lyt L3it L3it L~ M . water influx function.
effective. I)... surface tension PORIG intergranular 'porosity' (space) ( v. integral. culnul a t'ive DELWTRl injected water during an interval INJ injection rate INJA injection rate. flowing PRSIWS injection well bottomhole pressure.s I GL G N W Fbvo b i PLl4. initial WTRTI inplace water in reservoir. w PwrJS1~. fraction occupied by water intermatrix space (porosity). specific NGLTl inplace condensate liquids in reservoir.. initial FACWO instantaneous producing wateroil ratio ICP intercept lRCE interest rate. )/V.Z $i.h $ids/i @& iw FIGSH FIGW FIMSHD PORIM INE SATOG f<b~ fil.i W Srv. exponential. initial oil i n place in reservoir initial pressure initial reservoir freegas volume (=ITINR.. cumulative DELGASI injected gas during an interval WTRl injected water.~~. tS II w Y Y i~ j Pf (r pf Y 7Y 4% Ei(x) frg.)/V.x positive fcil.V. nominal annual PRSF interface or front pressure SFT interfacial..~hd frmZ3 ELr. initial GASTI inplace gas in reservoir. per period IRA interest rate.)(=GBgi) GORSI initial solution gasoil ratio WTRTI initial water in place in reservoir SATWI initial water saturation GAS1 injected gas.symbol Cor~~puter qua at it. Gi AGL AW j wi Si AS. modified rlt.. effective compound (usually annual) IRPE interest rate. fraction o c c u ~ i c d nonstluctural d i s ~ e r s e d bv shale intermatrix 'porosity' (space) (Vb .T L 1.. total initial OILTI inplace oil in reservoir. E. gas INJW injection rate.[ i$ r 111 11 (il+ @ dt]..v. exponentla1 ? L 0ILTl PRSI GASFI L' m/Lt2 L' ~ / L~ t ~ L" ~3 L3 ~3 pit L3lt L3/t L'lt m/Lt2 rnl~t~ ~ ~ t l m ~%/m L' L' L3 L' various MIL^^ m/t2 Ei (x) x positive t integral.<.V~.J Pibc. Rsi P i g~i FgS. E :. OnR' SoR U ~s~~~ intergranular space (porosity).f Piw.^ letter sy~nbol Dimensions N n P i GF.282 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol  Reserve SPE letter . Wi Awj i iu I s 2 M. internal energy interstitialoil saturation in gas cap . x .5hd $I. water PRSIWF injection wcll bottomhole pressure. rs Sr. . static IJX injectivity index IJXS injectivity index. fraction occupied by all shales intergranular space (porosity).. air INJG injection rate.
fluid interval transit time.. apparent a interval transit timedensity slope (absolute value) interval transit time. base e macroscopic cross section macroscopic cross section of a nucleus magnetic permeability magnetic susceptibility magnetization magnetization. base a logarithm. mole fraction of component in liquid phase. script t tshscript t di G i VI>~I RESI EFFI Ek SATIW VSK ENGK 3 ( y ) script L interstitialwater saturation in gas cap interstitialwater saturation in oil band interval transit time interval transit time. contacted) by the injectedfluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all layers behind the injectedfluid or heat front irreducible water saturation kinematic viscosity kinetic energy Laplace transform of y 7 0 y ( r ) e''dt S > t V GT HLTV LTH TIMAV LM WDCL FL. average (mean life) limit linear aquifer waterdrive constant liquid fraction ) liquid mole fraction LI(L + V liquid phase. initial liquids. moles of liquid saturation. shale invaded zone diameter. condensate. in place in reservoir. produced cumulative logarithm. base 10 logarithm. electrically equivalent invaded zone geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) invaded zone resistivity invasion (vertical) efficiency: hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected. path length. condensate. natural.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 283 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions t script t SATWG SATWO TAC TACA SAD TACF TACMA TACSH DIAI GMFI Pit Ti tf script t t.$ script 1 FRCL FL.fi script 1 MFRTL MFRL MOLL SATL NGLTI NGLP L" L lm i XSTMAC XNL PRMM SUSM MAG MAGF Laplace transform variable Laplacian operator larger than latent heat of vaporization length. or distance lifetime. common. matrix interval transit time. combined total liquids. fraction mlqt .
n VOLM F~ MFKTV FL.71i(hd). bulk modulus. mole fraction of component mobility (kip) mobility. . general (h. oil mobility ratio...) . [(h0.J.. e. .7 ~'T~ILI Vmo  t t P D. e +. total.. diffusefront approximation + ?il)\9c. script 1 MFRTL MFRL MFRM mass mass flow rate nlatrix interval transit tinlc matrix (solids.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter suvmbol Reserve SPE letfer symbol rn Computer letter syn~ bol MAS MRT TACMA DENMA VOLMA TIMAV TlMD PRSAV AV MEN DIAAVP MENES FCE CNCCl XSTMIC M FRM MOB MOBG MOB0 MBR MBKSAV Quantify Dimensions rn MI tmti SCY~P~ AtPrliz Olnn n7. ELMS Y ELMY V.\\\CPt] signifies . dispersion.f. mobilities d are evaluated at averagc saturation conditions bchind ancl ahead of front mobility ratio.) mobility. water modulus... etc. significs displaced. Lo M Mi Fh M I M M. A MOBT MOBW Kb BKM DSM E. x. FI.IiLicd) mobility ratio. shear niodul us of elasticity (Young's modulus) ~nolal volume (volume pcr mole) molc fraction gas VI(L V) mole fraction liquid L/(L V) mole f r a c t i o ~ ~a component in liquid phase of mole fraction of a component in mixture + + + + . u z h A. (h..c lhrli..r. 'swept' and 'unswept' rcfer to invaded and uninvaded regions bellincl and ahead of leading edgc of displacement front mobility..l~l.) microscopic cross scctioi mixturc.8. . grain) density matrix (framework) volume (volume of all formation solids exccpt clispcrsed clay or shalc) mean life (averagc lifctirnc) mean life (decay tirne) (lit) mean or avcrage pressure mean or average (overbar) mcan value of a random variable mean particlc diameter mean valuc of a random variable. estimated mechanical force methane concentration (concentration of various other paraffin hydrocarbons would be indicated similarly C.i(h. I... gas mobility.. of all fluids in a particular region of the rcscrvoir. displac~ng.g. h. sharpfront approximation (h"kd) mobility ratio. C .$.. MBR MBRT FA.i. total.. (dispersion factor) modulus.
annulus (electrical logging) GMFXO multiplier (factor). dimensionless. microscopic ANM number. number of.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 285 Letter symbol Heserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantify Dimensions Y R M ML n ni N N Ni V n r ML %LC 't N~ n~ n.vD N N gc a o s Z N mole fraction of a component in vapor phase molecular refraction molecular weight (mass. em. flushed zone (electrical logging) GMFI multiplier (factor). total NMBMT MWTAVL moleweighted average molecular weight m of produced liquids mudcake resistivity RESMC mudcake thickness THKMC RESMF mudfiltrate resistivity GMFM mud geometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) mud resistivity RESM GMF multiplier (factor). dm. r. 7 . &I ~+.w M CL. number of moles of component j MOLJ MOLPJ moles of component j produced. true (electrical logging) COE multiplier or coefficient CNTL natural gas liquids or condensite content natural logarithm. conversion factor in DEC nominal decline factor XNL nucleus cross section. geometrical. atomic NUMQ number. " moleweighted average NMBM moles.. geometrical. in general (always with identifying subscripts) MFRV MRF MWT MWTAVL L3 m m various various L I/t lit L3/m various L2 . f ~ a n ~ G X O f ~ i f ~ m ~ G P fct G~ Gt K In hn NN n~ t. f l ~ CL Nn.. pmf. mud (electrical logging) GMFP multiplier (factor). cumulative MOLL moles of liquid phase moles of vapor phase MOLV moles. geometrical (electrical logging) GMFAN multiplier (factor)?geometrical.CK z1v. density (number) of NFL neutron lifetime SND neutron porositydensity slope (absolute value) NEU neutron [usually with identifying subscript(s)J GRVC Newton's Second Law of Motion. Nt p. relative) molecular weight of produced liquids. geometrical.. base e THKN net pay thickness NEUN neutron count rate NMBN neutrons. geometrical. invaded zone (electrical logging) GMFM multiplier (factor). geometrical. pseudo (electrical logging) GMFT multiplier (factor.rmf f ~ m hm~ Rmf Gni Rm G Gan Gxo GZ Gm f~ Pm.
E. or steps. A Nc. OILTI OILE DELOILE ENCO MOB0 OlLP DELOILP RTEO RTEOQ RVFO OILPUL PRMRO SAT0 SATOG SATOR SPGO VISO INC INCA INCB XPO XPOU HTCU EFFR A. initial oil influx (encroachment) cumulative oil influx (encroachment) during an interval oil influx (encroachment) rate oil mobility oil produced. or incremcnts.) number (quantity) number of compounding periods (ucually per year) number of components number of moles.. or components.. residual oil specific gravity oil viscosity operating cash income operating cash income.F0.. relative permeability to oil saturation oil saturation in gas cap. cumulative oil produced during an interval oil production rate oil production ratc. NP AN. E D ) various mILt M M M various MIL' . Sog POI?S O I . volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock oil. interstitial oil saturation. Reynolds (dimensionless number) oil (always with identifying subscripts) oil band interstitialwatcr saturation oil compressibility oil density oil displaced from burned volume. etc. dirncnsionless oil reciprocal formation volume factor (shrinkage factor) oil recovery. number (of variables. total number. effective permeability to oil formation volume factor oil formation volume factor at buhblc point conditions oil. 90 Yon 60 Po.. = E. after taxes operating cash income. so. volu~ne per unit volume of burned reservoir rock oil displaced from unburned volurne. gas solubility in (solution gasoil ratio) oil in place in rcservoir. S o Pog. befcire taxes operating expensc operating expense per unit pr:)duced operator.S v.286 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE Letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity NMB NMB NMBCP NMBC NMBM REYQ OIL SATWO CMPO DEN0 DPROB DPROU Kc! F. Laplacian overall heat transfer coefficient overall reservoir recovery efficiency: volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volume of hydrocarbons in placc at start of project (ER = EVE. ultimate oil. e. Foh PRMO FVFO FVFOB GORS N N.
THKT THKN PER PRM PRMG PRMO PRMW PRMM PRMGO PRMWO PRMRG PRMRO PRMRW NMBP PSN VOLP VOLPQ FLUIQ f.Cii~.Vs)/Vb porosity.f oxygen concentration (concentration of other various elements or c o m ~ o u n dwould be indicated as. Ee POR PORA PORE MXP PORH PRX PRXPR PRXSE PORNE PORIG PORIM POREX PORR PORT 4. gross (total) pay thickness. s C~02. relative.R 4. to water phases. or distance L pattern sweep efficiency (developed from areal efficiency by proper weighting for variations in net pay thickness. to oil permeability. length. intergranular (Vb . to oil permeability.rscript 1 % ep D~ Eo. to water permeability. absolute (fluid flow) permeability. effective. Ea fe. dimensionless porosity (Vb . mean L path length. net period permeability. etc.ig Oim 4 . effective. dimensionless pore volumes of injected fluid.V. noneffective (Vpne/Vb) 'porosity' (space). fraction or percent of rock bulk volume occupied by hydrocarbons porosity index porosity index. total ip .Vgr)lVb) 'porosity' (space).) porosity. porosity and hydrocarbon saturation: hydrocarbon pore space enclosed behind the injectedfluid or heat front divided by total hydrocarbon pore space of the reservoir or project pay thickness. secondary porosity.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 287 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol C ~ 2 Computer letter symbol CNC02 UTL02 DIAAVP LTH EFFP Quantity Dimensions Co2 s. relative. cumulative.1 oxygen utilization particle diameter. intermatrix (Vb . number of Poisson's ratio pore volume Vb . relative. pore volume. wateroil permeability. f a . to gas permeability. effective. gasoil permeability ratio.VmalVb) porosity of experimental pack porosity of reservoir or formation porosity. hydrocarbonfilled. apparent porosity. magnetic permeability ratio. ~ 4. to gas permeability. effective (Vpe/Vb) porosity exponent (cementation) (in an empirical relation between FR and 4. primary porosity index.
reduced PRSAVR pressure. dimensionless pressurc. cumulative gas DELGASP prod~~cecl during an interval . front or interface pressure function. static bottomhole pressure. reservoir average PRSSP pressure.. bottomholc flowing pressure. casing flowing pressure. and W. bottomhole static pressure. flowing bottomhole pressurc. separator PRSSC pressure. at dimensionless time t . bottomhole pressure pressure. bottomhole static. injection well pressure. injection well pressure. capillary pressure. average. cu~nulative (where NI. bottomhole (well). pseudocritical PRSPC PRS PRD pressure. dimensionless. bottomhole flowing. tubing flowing PRSTS prcssure. dewpoint pressure. average or mean pressure. static casing PRSCS PRSTS pressure. flowing tubing prcssure. atmospheric pressure. at any time after shutin prcssure. bottomhole.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter synlbol POT VLT ENGP PRSBH PRS PRSA PRSAV PRSAVR PRSWS PRSWF PRSIWF PRSW PRSWS PRSWW PRSIWS PRS B PRSCP PRSCF PRSCS PRSC PRSD PRSQ PRSE PRSXT PRS WF PRSCF PRSTF PRSF PRSTQQ Q~~anfify Dimensions potential or potential function various potential difference (clectric) potential encrgy pressure. standard conditions PRSWS pressure. in water phase pressure. static tubing PRSTF pressurc. are not applicable) produced frcc gas. external boundary pressure. curnulative GASFP GASP produced gas. pseudoreduced PRSRD pressure. bottomhole general prcssure. PRSI pressurc. casing static pressure. initial pressure. critical pressure. reservoir prcssure. bubblepoint (saturation) pressure. flowing casing pressure. extrapolated pressure. tubing static PRXPR primary porosity index NGLP produced coildensate liquidst curnulative FLUP produced fluids.
prior to shutin (pseudotime) PDX productivity index PRAK profit. equivalent. over year k PRAPK profit. dimensionless DELTIMWFproduction time after well is opened to production (presure drawdown) TIMP production time of well. cumulative producedliquid density. dimensionless RTE production rate or flow rate production rate or flow rate at mean pressure RTEPAV RTEAV production rate or flow rate. average RTEW production rate. weightweighted average 8 produced moles of component j. gas. annual. instantaneous RTEI production rate at beginning of period RTEA production rate at economic abandonment RTEQ production rate. cumulative produced oil during an interval produced water. water. cumulative producing gasoil ratio producing gasoil ratio. free (freegas volume/oil volume) FACWO producing wateroil ratio. dimensionless RTEG production rate. gas RTEGQ production rate.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol ~ P E & P Computer letter symbol GASPEX GASWGP DENAVL MOLPJ OILP DELOILP WTRP DELWTRP GASWGP GOR GORF Quantity Dimensions G~~ G . specific TEMPC pseudocritical temperature PRSPC pseudocritical pressure GMFP pseudogeometrical factor (multiplier) (electrical logging) CMPPRD pseudoreduced compressibility PRSPRD pseudoreduced pressure EMFP pseudoSP TEMPRD pseudoreduced temperature TIMP pseudotime (equivalent time well was on production prior to shutin) QLTS quality (usually of steam) 1 . fraction of unamortized investment PRFT profit. dimensionless RTEO production rate. oil. total proportional to PDXS productivity index. wet.WP PL D produced gas from experimental tube run produced gas. cumulative produced water during an interval produced wet gas. over year k. annual net. cumulative produced oil. oil RTEOQ production rate. water RTEWQ production rate.
flow or production rate. interest. estimated late. dimensionless rate. production. nominal annual rate. oil production. gas production. of wellbore (includes cffects of well damage or stimulation) radius. air injection ratc: discount. production or flow rate. water influx (encroachment) rate. extcrnal boundary radius. dimensionless rate. true. gas production rate. intercst. dimensionless radius. or discounted cash flow) or earning power rate. per period rate. water injection it lit it L3/t L3/t m/t Lit ~ " t lit Lit ~ ~ / t L3it . use symbol i with suitable subscripts rate. injection ratc. gas influx (encroachment) rate. oil influx (encroachment) ratc. gas injection rate. shear rate (veloc~ty) burningzone advance of ratc. average late. intcrest. reinvestment. gamma ray count rate.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter synlbol Reserve SPE letter syn~bol Computer letter symbol Quantity DELRAD HCTJ RAD RADWA RADQ RADE RADHL RADD RADWA RADS RADW INJA RTE RTE NGR ENCG INJG RTEG RTEGQ ENC MENES INJ 1 RCE IRPE IRA M RT VELV HRT RORI ENCO RTEO VELV RTEOQ RTE RTEPAV RTEAV RTEQ RTES SRT VELB ENCW INJW radial distance (increment along radius) radiation heat transfer cocfficient radius radius. mass flow rate of flow or flux. apparent or effective. per unit area (volumetric velocity) rate of heat flow rate of return (internal. of return. effectivc. segregation ( ~ gravity drainage) n rate. effective profit. at mean pressure ratc. hydraulic radius of drainage radius of wellbore. influx (encroachrncnt) random variable. effective con~pound (usually annual) ratc. apparent or effective (includes effects of well damage or stimulation) radius of well damage or stimulation (skin) radius. dimensionless rate. production. ctc. production. flow (volumctric velocity) rate. oil production rate per unit area. mean value of x. well rate.
oil from burned volume.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 291 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions RTEW RTEWQ FACAFU DMRS DPR DPROB DPROU DPRWB EQR GORF Fsp. damage ('skin' conditions relative to formation conditions unaffected by well operations) ratio. producing gasoil ratio.). Fgos Fgsi ratio.. general . airfuel various ratio.l(~d)"n. volume per unit volume of unburned reservoir rock ratio. . mobilitv.we. cumulative L L various . gasoil ratio. Fox F?. solution gasoil (gas solubility in oil) ratio.) . 1. Fgo MGO FAC PRMGO GOR PRMWO GORSB GORS GORSI FACWFU FACWOP Fgs b Fgs.. MDd.l . volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock ratio. gasoil permeability ratio. solution (gas solubility in oil) ratio. gasoil.J(h. sharpfront approximation (LDlhd) ratio. free producing gasoil (freegas volumeloil volume) ratio.. water production. mobility.Mru GORP GORSI PRMGO GOR GORSB GORS MBR MBRSAV rate. water production ~ ~ ! t rate. cumulative ratio. wateroil. wateroil ratio. initial solution ratio. total [(A. at bubblepoint conditions ratio. displacement. . displacement. initial ratio. FgoP Fgsi Kg!ko sou Fg. oil from unburned volume.%. mobility. gasoil. gasoil. volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock ratio. dimensionless ratio.. permeability. . 'swept' and 'unswept' refef to invaded and uninvaded regions behind and ahead of leading edge of a displacement front ratio of initial reservoir freegas volume to initial reservoir oil volume ratio or factor in general (always with identifying subscripts) ratio. solution gasoil. diffusefront a ~ ~ r o x i m a t i o n [(hD + 4). displacement. mobility. waterfuel ratio. solution. at bubblepoint conditions ratio. gasoil. displacement ratio. mobilities are evaluated at average saturation conditions behind and ahead of Gent ratio.. D signifies displacing. (hdlsplaclnglhdlsplaced) Fi MBR MB~RT Fir F@.. gasoil producing ratio. equilibrium (yix) ratio. Fgo Fgrb Fgs. water from burned volume. solution gasoil. permeability. d signifies displaced.
x reservoir rock burned.) reservoir or formation porosity re\ervoir pressure. ED) . volume at standard conditions divided by volume at reservoir conditions (shrinkage factor) reciprocal gas formation volurnc factor reciprocal gas formation volume factor at bubblepoint conditions reciprocal permeability reciprocal oil formation volume fator (shrinkage factor) rccovery efficiency. ult~niate gas reduced pressure . wateroil permeability ratio. due to sh.i PRMWO FACWO XEL RRC RVF RVFG RVFGB RVFO EFFR b . in laboratory experimental run. instantaneous reactance reaction ratc constant real part of complex number z reciprocal formation volu~ne factor. freeprecession decay relaxation time. 1' 'I llless relative amplitude relative atomic mass (atomic weight) relative molecular weight (molecular weight) relative bearing relative density (spccific gravity) relative permeability to gas relative permeability to oil relative permeability to water relaxation time. unit air. producing. wateroil. in reservoir. air requirement. volumes or air per unit mass of pack requireincnt. volume of ~ Llt ~ ~ .292 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions  k d (z) script R r. volume of hydrocarbons recovered divided by volu~nc of hydrocarbons in place at start of project. volume of hydrocarbon? recovcred divided hy volume of hydrocarbons in placc at start of project ( E . averagc resel voir recovery efficiency. overall. proton thermal requirement.. molccular refraction index reduction ratio.f. SP (general) clue to shaliness rcfraction. reservoir overall. (ER = E ~ E I E L I E J U ) = recovery. SP. volumes of air per unit bulk volume of reservoir rock reservoir initial freegas volume (=mNB. unit air. reduced teniperature reduction ratio or reduction tcrrn reduction. F GASPUL PKSRD TEMRD RED REDSP MRF RFX REDSH AMPR AWT MWT BRGR SPG PRMRG PRMRO PRMKW TlMAV TIMRP AIR AIREX AIRR GASFI PORR PRSAVR EFFR VOLRB ratio. = [s] = E ..
apparent. shale resistivity. a numerical subscript to F indicates the R. Cf C S n sg sgc sgr so. formation. YW Ru R. per unit produced revenue. V . C VOLRU TEMR SATGR SATHR SATOR SATWR RST RES RESAN RESA RESZ COER FACHR PSO. rz MR.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 293 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol VRU Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions V R ~ TR sgr e~ Shr SO. in gas cap saturation.Sh Phn Shr POJO PorJSor SO Sor reservoir rock unburned. volume of reservoir temperature residual gas saturation residual hydrocarbon saturation L residual oil saturation residual water saturation resistance resistivity (electrical) resistivity. sgr Phrj Shr Port Sor PwrJSwr R P. resistivity. resistivity flushed zone (that part of the invaded zone closest to the wall of the borehole. residual L3 T ML*/~~' mL3tq mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 m~~tq' mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 mL3tq2 MIL3 M Lt2/m various . water revenue. R .s. run Pa.a. oil saturation. total' Reynolds number (dimensionless number) rock or formation compressibility salinity saturation saturation exponent saturation. interstitialwater.rmf P s ~r. gas. in gas cap saturation. annulus resistivity. SW. Rm R ~ c Rmf Rs~ Rs Rw PoJ"' PC. ~ h Ps. a P. mudcake resistivity. invaded zone resistivity. r Pan. ra Pz. gas saturation. interstitialoil. true resistivity index (hydrocarbon) equals RilRo resistivity. gas.71 Pm. hydrocarbon saturation. apparent resistivity. ~f c. ~ X O RESXO Ro Rt IR R. S. mud resistivity. formation. equals RdR. residual hydrocarbon saturation.g s h shr kf.s psj Ss P ~ cS. ~ C Pgrd'gr P o p SO^ p. r R Ran RU Rz KR FR RSO Pgr. residual saturation. formation (FR(Drn) resistivity factor. of the conductive fluids in an invaded zone (due to fingering) resistivity factor coefficient. rt ZR RESZR REST RSXH RESI RESM RESMC RESMF RESSH RESS RESW GRRU GRRT REYQ CMPF CNC SAT SXP SATG SATGC SATGR SATOG SATWG SATH SATHR SAT0 SATOR vu V N ~ e PI. oil. Ph. surrounding formation resistivity. YS Pw. where flushing has been the maximum) resistivity. formation 100% saturated with water of resistivity R. mudfiltrate resistivity. "m Pmo rmc pmf. gross ('value'). critical saturation. gross ('value').
water. interval transit time vs density (absolute value) SND slope. gas rn/~t~ lit various L various L various t~'/m . electrochemical component of EMFK SP. initial saturation. < . static (SSP) LENS spacing (electrical logging) HERS specific entropy SPG specific gravity (relative density) SPGG specific gravity.SP s. electrokinetic colnponent of EMFSP SP (measured SP) (Self Potential) EMFPSP SP.si @k @sl.) ELMS shear modulus SRT shcar rate AMPS shear wave amplitude RVFO shrinkage factor (reciprocal oil formation volume factor) PRSWS shutin bottomhole pressure. 0 s. water saturation. pseudo EMFSSP SP.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Comynter letter symbol PRSB SATL SATW SATWC SATWI SATIW SATWR PRXSE RTES PRSSP TACSH RESSH SHXGR Quantity Dimensions 4s J' \P fsh script t RSJ.Fps Fq. total (combined) liquid saturation. critical saturation. watcr irreducible saturation. initiai EMFC SP. F.. gas in water GORSB solution gasoil ratio at bubblepoint conditions GORS solution gasoil ratio (gas solubility in oil) GORSl solution gasoil ratio. saturation or bubblepoint pressure saturation.. water. ~cn)/(~slr ~ . neutron porosity vs density (absolute valuc) LT srnaller than DENSEX solid particles density of cxperimental rock VOLS solid(s) volume (volume of all formation solids) DENMA solids (matrix.F. J t GI< sr F@f> Fgs. Qpsp @S. 3 . water. gas in oil (solution gasoil ratio) GWRS solubility. at any time DELTIMWS shutin timc (time after well is shut in) (pressure buildup) DSCSP single payment tiiscount factor DSCSPC single payment discount factor (constant annual rate) SKD skin depth (logging) SKN skin effect RADS skin radius (radius of well damage or stimulation) SLP slope SAD slope.YCI. grain) density G O RS solubility. ( script 1 . residual secondary porosity index segregation rate (in gravity drainage) separator pressure shale interval transit time shale resistivity shaliness gammarav index ( Y .
SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 295 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions SPGO SPGW HSP HSPR IJXS PDXS SPV WGTS EMFSSP TIMS SDV SDVES PRSIWS PRSWS PRSCS PRSTS RADS STN STNS STNV STR STS STSS SUM VELV 40. bottomhole temperature. reduced temperature. reservoir temperature. use appropriate phase subscripts) surface production rate surface tension. at any time after shutin static pressure. interfacial surrounding formation resistivity susceptibility. water specific heat capacity (always with phase 2r system subscripts) specific heat capacity ratio specific injectivity index specific productivity index specific volume specific weight SSP (static SP) stabilization time of a well standard deviation of a random variable standard deviation of a random variable. pseudoreduced temperature. magnetic temperature ' temperature. normal and general strain. gross pay (total) various mILt2 m/Lt2 L3/t m/t2 mL3ttq2 mL/q T T T T TIL T T T T T m/t2 . injection well static pressure. standard conditions tension. surface (interfacial) tensor of x thermal conductivity (always with additional phase or system subscripts) thermal cubic expansion coefficient thermal or heat diffusivity thickness (general and individual bed) thickness. shear summation (operator) superficial phase velocity (flux rate of a particular fluid phase flowing in pipe. @R 8sc Y>Y RTESC SFT RESS SUSM TEM TEMBH TEMC TEMF GRDT TEMPC TEMPRD TEMRD TEMR TEMSC SFT HCN HEC HTD THK THKT specific gravity. normal and general stress. formation temperature gradient temperature. casing static pressure. rs K 8 ~ B H ec Of gh 8PC 8r . Qsc Js v Fwv Essp ts 0 S Piws Pws Pcs ts 7s E P Y 8 Y 0 T C U L'?Y Ps. bottomhole. shear strain. 8. estimated static bottomhole pressure. volume stream function stress. critical temperature. tubing stimulation or damage radius of well (skin) strain. oil specific gravity. pseudocritical temperature.
matrix TACSIl time. v G n W1 B.. payout (payoff. equivalent (pseudotime) TOR tortuosity TORE tortuosity. fixed length TIMP time well was on production prior to shutin. interval transit TACA time. apparent TACF time. interval transit. + h. 'swept' and 'unswept' refer to invaded and uninvaded regions behind and ahcad of leading edge of a displacement front THKT total (gross) pay thickness GRRT total gross revenue ('value') GASTI total initial gas in placc in reservoir NMBM total moles PORT total porosity FVFT total (twophase) formation volume factor HTCC transfer coefficient. shale TIMDN time. hydraulic SATL total (combined) liquid saturation HER total entropy MOBT total mobility of all fluids in a particular region of the reservoir. interval transit. interval transit. interval transit. payback) DELTIM time period or interval. matrix interval TACSH transit tirne. apparent. electric TORHL tortuosity. (h. heat. gross (total) THKN thickness.7J(hl) 1.~. fixcd length) TIMQ time. script t Y TIHKMC thickness.c. Laplace of y (J) script L . script t qscript t . interval TACA transit time. mudcake THKT thickness.z script t 7 j script t script t I.. dclay DELTIM time difference (time period or interval. neutron decay (neutron mean life) TIMPO time..) MB R T total mobility ratio [(hc)s..h script t t d ~ h. . fluid interval TACMA transit timc. heat. h U I r script t /. radiation TAC transit timc. pay. . convectivc heat HTCU transfer coefficient. illtcrval TACF transit time..g. dimensionless at condition rn TIMS time for stabilization of a well TAC time.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter sym b01 Quantity Dimensions tt1 lnnr f5 rscript t i./ script t /. decay (mean life) (11 h) TIMD time. overall HTCI transfer coefficient. net pay TIM time DELTIMWF time after well is opened to production (pressure drawdown) DELTIMWS time after well is shut in (pressure buildup) TIMC time constant TTMD time. shale interval transform. dimensioi~less TIMMQ timc. + h. fluid TACMA time. e.
acoustic velocity.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 297 Letter symbol Reserve SPE ktter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions TRM DENT REST GMFT PRSTF PRSTS FACB FVFT GASPUL INVUK VOLRU AIREX AIRR CNCFU RRR UTL02 VAL MFRV MOLV HLTV VAR VARES VEL VAC VACA VACF VACMA VACSH VELB EFFI VISA VISPAV VIS VISG VISGA VSK VISO VISW VOL VOLBP VOLB transform. volume of unit air requirement in laboratory experimental run. acoustic apparent (measured) velocity. air viscosity at mean pressure viscosity. gas viscosity. static turbulence factor twophase or total formation volume factor ultimate gas recovery unamortized investment over year k undiscounted cash flow unburned reservoir rock. kinematic viscosity. contacted) by the injectedfluid or heat front divided by the hydrocarbon pore space enclosed in all layers behind the injectedfluid or heat front viscosity. water volume volume at bubblepoint pressure volume. matrix acoustic velocity. mole fraction of component vapour phase. estimated vector of x velocity velocity. variable transmissivity. acoustic fluid velocity. bulk various m / ~ ~ mL3tq2 various mL2/t2~ Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit Lit miLt m/Lt miLt miLt miLt i it m/Lt miLt . oil viscosity. transmissibility true density true formation resistivity z true geometrical factor (multiplier) (noninvaded zone) (electrical logging) tubing pressure. gas. latent heat of variance of a random variable variance of a random variable. dynamic viscosity. oxygen valence vapour phase. shale acoustic velocity (rate) of burningzone advance vertical (invasion) efficiency: hydrocarbon pore space invaded (affected. volumes of air per unit mass of pack unit air requirement in reservoir. flowing tubing pressure. moles of vaporization. volumes of air per bulk volume of reservoir rock unit fuel concentration (see symbol m) universal gas constant (per mole) utilization. at 1atm viscosity. Laplace.
shale. dimensionless volume. effective permeability to L3 various ~'lt ~'/t L3lt m/Lt2~ Lit various Lt2/m m/L3 .D vslrd v . initial reservoir (=rnNl. bulk. consists of fluids and all shales) ( Vb .w V P vp n Vh Fd Vshl script 1 Vrhr VAL "P V[.. pore..V.'i I run volume.. freegas. pore (VI.<u V.Sh VOLNE VOLRB VOLRU VOLM VOLP VOLPQ VOLSHD VSHLAM VOLSHS VOLSH VOLS SPV EFFVB EFFV RTE RTEDH RTESC HSPV VELV WTR CMPW DENW DPRWB WDC WDCL PRMW volume. of pack burned in experiment. v. noneffective pore (V. ~ntermatrix (consists of fluids and dispersed shale) (V!.. effective pore volume fraction or ratio (as needed. linear aquifer water. grain (volume of all formation solids except shales) volume. "S/L> V..) volume.V g r ) volume. matrix (framework) (volume of all formation solids except dispersed shale) volumc.. surface conditions volumetric heat capacity volumetric velocity (flow rate or flux. shale. solid(s) (volume of all formation solids) volume. volume per unit volume of burned reservoir rock waterdrive constant waterdrive constant. in situ cornbustion pattern volumetric efficiency: product of pattern sweep and invasion efficiencies volumetric flow rate volun~etric flow rate downhole volumetric flow rate. . shale. specific volumetric efficiency for burned portion only. per unit area) water (always with identifying subscripts) water compressibility water density water displaced from burned volume. note that bulk volume fraction is unity and pore volulne fractions are $1) volume.) volume. intergranular (volumc between grains. .298 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter sy~ii bol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol VOLBEX VOLG VLF Quantity  GASFI VOLGR VOLIG VOLTM VOLMA VR.V. shale(s) (volume of all shales: structural and dispersed) volume. laminated volume.) volume of reservoir rock burned volume of reservoir rock unburned volume per mole (molal volume) volume. use same subscripted symbols as for 'volumes'. ~script l . dispersed volume. .V. structural volurne.) volume.
cumulative wateroil ratio. residual water specific gravity water viscosity wave length (110) wave number (lih) weight (gravitational) weightweighted average density of produced liquid L weight. cumulative width. atomic weight. initial water saturation (interstitial) in oil band water saturation in gas cap. electrically equivalent zone resistivity. effective or apparent (includes effects of well damage or stimulation wetgas content wet gas produced. initial water influx (encroachment). cumulative water injected during an interval water injection rate water mobility wateroil permeability ratio wateroil ratio. or (primarily in fracturing) thickness work Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) zone diameter. producing. invaded. cumulative water produced during an interval water production rate water production rate. irreducible water saturation. breadth. instantaneous water produced.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 299 Letter symbol Reserve SPE letter symbol Computer letter symbol Quantity Dimensions FVFW FACWFU GWRS WTRTI WTRE DELWTRE ENCW WTRI DELWTRI INJW MOBW PRMWO FACWOP FACWO WTRP DELWTRP RTEW RTEWQ PRMRW RESW SATW SATWC SATWI SATWO SATWG SATIW SATWR SPGW VISW WVL WVN WGT DENAVL AWT MWT RADW RADS TIMS RADWA CNTWG GASWGP WTH W Y D i Pi. cumulative water influx (encroachment) during an interval water influx (encroachment) rate water injected. interstitial water saturation. dimensionless water."i WRK ELMY DIAI RESI water formation volume factor waterfuel ratio water. relative permeability to water resistivity water saturation water saturation. critical water saturation. molecular well radius well radius of damage or stimulation (skin) well stabilization time wellbore radius. invaded various various L3 . gas solubility in c water in place in reservoir.
ED. or acting a after taxes a air a airfuel uF altered a amplitude log A angle. Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity Subscript definitio~~ Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript A A NA A A A AFU A A THE AH AN1 AN A WA A A PAV SAV B B B B CB TV BH WF WS E BT B OB abandonment a acoustic a activation log. or angular coordinate 6' theta anhydrite anh anisotropic ani annulus apparent (from log readings. displacement from (usually with efficiency... oil at (usually with formation volume factor. activity.BH B BEX .) burned in experimental tube run (usually with volume. Evb) burned reservoir rock  s. Vbp) bulk (usually w ~ t h volume V!. R. p rho B r. neutron NA active.) bubble point (saturation) bubblepoint or saturation (usually with volumc. fl beta B cb tv w. flowing (usually with pressure or time) bottomhole.) bubblepoint conditions.. volumetric of (usually with efficiency. B. solution at (usually with gasoil ratio. external breakthrough bubble bubblepoint conditions.) burned portion of in situ combustion pattern.. use tool description subscripts) apparcnt (general) apparent wellbore (usually with wellbore radius) areal atmosphere. static (usually with pressure or time) boundary conditions. angular. atmospheric average or mean pressure average or mean saturation band or oil band bank or bank region base before taxes bond log.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE B. VbC) burned or burning burned portion of in situ combustion pattern. cement borehole tcleviewer log bottom hole bottomhole..
n. static (usually with pressure) cement bond log chemical chlorine log clay clean coil compaction compensated density log compensated neutron log component(s) component j component j produced (usually with moles.) compressional wave conditions for infinite dimensions conductive liquids in invaded zone constant contact (usually with contact angle. oil from (usually with displacement ratio. GFp) cumulative produced liquid (usually with condensate. GLp) damage or damaged (includes 'skin' conditions) decay deep induction log deep laterolog delay cl cla cln C C INF C INF C C z C COY C C e I COR CR E S d ID LLD d id &d script 11 6 delta S D ID LLD D .SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 301 Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript burned volume. 0. g. PC) capture carbon dioxide carbon monoxide casing or casinghead casing. microlog. minilog convective conversion (usually with conversion factor in Newton's law of motion.) contact log.) core corrected critical cumulative influx (encroachment) cumulative injected cumulative produced cumulative produced free value (usually with gas.. flowing (usually with pressure) casing..) calculated caliper log capillary (usually with capillary pressure. bob) burned volume water from (usually with displacement ratio. 6.
Eo. clcctrical log.scripf Computer letter subscript density density log.. rd) dual induction log dual latervlog earth effective (or equivalent) clcctric. shaly) discounted value. Enr. cumulative entry epithcrmal neutron log eqivalent estimated ethane experimental CD D d d d DT rl eta PD D Dnz tD wD d DM DR dy PV d K d Db Du D do1 dh d DI DLL e e e C cd d 6 delta dt RHO CD D D D D DT ETA PQ Q QM TQ WQ D DM DR DY PV D K DD DB DU s. o sigma dm dr dty Pv D d s.. a..) diplog.302 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript definition Letter srrbscript p rho Reserve SPE sub. dipmeter directional survey dirty (clayey. present worth.) displacement from ilnburned portion of in silu combustion pattern (usually with efficiency. electrical survey electromagnetic pipe inspection log electron empirical encroachment (influx). or present value disperscd dispersion displaced displacement frorn burncd portion of in sitr~ combustion pattern (usually with efficiency./ E k EL EP el E C DN DL DH D D1 DLL E E E C E K EL e NE eq E c 2 script el EM i E r1e EV eSt el' E EX EP E EM E E NE EV ES C2 EX ..) din~ensionless quantity dimensionless quantity at condition m dimensionless time dimensionless watcr dip (usually with angle. ES . depletion dewpoint differential separation differential temperature log diffusivity dimensionless pore value (usually with volume V. compensated density log depleted region.D DH di d///scriyt11 E E ec e ek el.J displacing or displacement (efficiency) dolomite downhole drainage (usually with drainagc radius. electrical electrochemical electrode electrokinetic electrolog.
water in (usually with saturation.) gas cap. (usually with gas. outer boundary conditions extrapolated fast neutron log fillup finger or fingering flash separation flowing bottomhole (usually with pressure or time) flowing casing (usually with pressure) flowing conditions.) external. surrounding fraction or fractional fracture..SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript experimental value per mole of produced gas (usually with fuel consumption. solution (usually with gas solubility in water. GFp) free value. R. C. dimensionless gasoil. gas. initial (usually with gas. mass of (usually with fuel concentration. mE.) fuel (usually with fuel properties. well (usually with time) flowing tubing (usually with pressure) fluid fluids in an invaded zone. oil in (usually with saturation. conductive flushed zone formation 100% saturated with water (used in Ro only) formation (rock) formation. or interface fuel. fractured or fracturing free (usually with gas or gasoil ratio quantities) free fluid free value. solution (usually with gasoil ratios) gaswater. So. plYf) flowing conditions. such as pF) gammagamma ray log gamma ray log gas gas at atmospheric conditions gas at bubblepoint conditions gas cap. cumulative produced.) geometrical geothermal grain grain (matrix. solids) gravity meter log gross (total) guard log gypsum half Eg e o EXG E XT NF ext NF F f f wf cf 1 ' F F L F F F WF IWF if w CF f Z t f ~f f P WF TF F xo 0 zero z xo 7ZR . S) . GFz) front. front region. injection well (usually with pressure.
dual induction log. T D T light phase limestone limiting value i. lamination lateral (resistivity) log latcrolog (add further tool configur a t'lon subscripts as needed) laterolog. rcsidual hydrogen sulphide imbibition induction log. script i id i di i m i i Fi si I i i iwl iws I inj inncr or interior interface. Rsi) initial value or conditions injected. 8 theta h~ Cornputer letter subscript HT HP H H HL H HY HR H2S I ID I D1 IM INF E I FI S1 I 1 I IWF IWS heat or thermal heavy phase hole horizontal hydraulic hydrocarbon hydrogen nuclei or atoms hydrocarbon. script i L i im i in t i z iota.. cumulative initial conditions or value initial free value (usually with gas. injected or injecting injection well. neutron.script 1 / j r script 1 1st DLL PNL LP LS LM I I I F I IG IM I I I DLL PNL LP 1. dual lifetime log. script i I R J PJ J L LAM L LAM / script 1 L n script 1 1 LL d #'script II n . front region. 1 I is iota. t iota. script i F i. . injection wcll. or front interference intergranular intcrmatrix internal intrinsic invaded invaded zone invaded zone.304 Subscript definition PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Letter subscript 12 Reserve SPE subscript T. GFi) initial solution (usually with gasoil ratio. deep investigation induction log induction log.s lim . conductivc liquids i11an invasion (usually with invasion efficiency. EI) irreducible jth component jth component. produced junction larnillar laminated. conditions for influx (encroachment)..s) pi. script i I I I I?/ j /script l ('script L L LL I Z 1 I ir. static coilditions (usnally with pressure. ~irt. cumulative injection. flowing conditions (usually with pressure..vj) HP 1 1 H h N H h H hr H2S I ID I DI IM cc P H . medium investigation infinite diincnsions.
compensated neutron log neutron log. variable density log minimum mixture mobility molal (usually with volume. cumulative (usually with condensate GLp) location subscripts. contact log microseismogram log.lambda M M M m m mc mf n N n NA nu PNL . lineal liquid or liquid phase liquids. ?..2.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript t script 1 d script 1 305 linear.g. period. income. fast neutron log. or unit nuclear magnetism log L L z Computer lltter subscript L L Z LP z 1. invaded zone liquid produced. N16) normalized (fractional or relative) nth year. R N nm N NE NF SN NT N2 NE NW N N N N NM . TDT neutron log. grain) matrix [solids. minilog. VAW) Mth period or interval mud mud cake mud filtrate net neutron neutron activation log neutron lifetime log. signature log. epithermal neutron log. ngscript 1 CN cn N M NE ne NF nf SN sn NT nt N2 M M M MC MF N N NA PNL CN ne nw n N n n NIV NW n r. payment. usage is secondary to that for representing times or time periods 1% lower magnetism log. CnJ matrlx (solids. except (nonstructural) clay or shale] maximum mean or average pressure mean or average saturation medium investigation induction log methane microlaterolog microlog. thermal nitrogen noneffective nonwetting normal normal (resistivity) log (add numerical spacing to subscript to N. nuclear mass of fuel (usually with fuel concentration. conductive. sidewall neutron log.3. etc. p rho IM CI MLL ML VD im mflscript 1 1 miscript 1 vd min M 2. e. LOG tscript 1 NM m ma ma max P 1% L nm L L NM FU MA MA MX PAV SAV IM C1 MLL ML VD MN M LAM S 7.
elcctrornagnetic pore (usually with volume. or payback permeability phase or phases pipe inspection log.2. dimensionless (usually with volumc.) produced wateroil (cumulative) (usually with cumulative wateroil ratio. sol.s> OG E 02 P K P PO K P EP P PQ PHI P PAV PR P PJ P FP I \ 1 i I i 1i P 1 one P PI P F ~ j 4 phi 4 phi  f . Bob) oil. 1..) production period (usually will2 time. E.. purticular period.306 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript defi~litio~l Letter subscript 1. E epsilon f . available secondarily as location subscripts or for other purposes) observed oil at bubblepoint conditions (usually with formation volume factor.) oil from unburned volume (usually with displacement ratio. or radial distance rate of return '//. dimensionless oil oil from burned volume (usually with displacement ratio. E cpsilon 11.) outer (external) oxygc11 particle (usually with diameter. OB oh OB OB o n o ob ou N.. V. S.) pore value.. mean or average primary produccd produced component j (usually with moles.) produced.. S. n OQ 0 OB OU o oS e 0 2 4.) oil in gas cap (usually with saturation.. cumulative produced free value. element. FM. pri P I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I PE LP IY 01) PEX WOP I I i I P Plc P P I'C P 1) PD Pr pSP r r r P PK P P PC PQ PRD PSP R R R I I I ! i .. r~.. etc. radial.) payout.) profit . payoff. cumul at' v e ~ (usually with condensate.unamortized invcstmcnt proximity log pseudo pseudocri tical pseudodimensionless pseudorcduccd pseudoSP radial radius. cumulative (usually with gas. or intervril pattern (usually with pattern efficiency.. GFp) produced in experimciit produced liquid. G.. Reserve SPE subscript Co~npnter letter subscript numericnl subscripts (intended primarily lo represent times or time periods.) P 1c K Po K C P P P P k P EP I' 17n porosity porosity data pressure..3.
sec S.m o sigma SP SH LLS SL SP S S M S SEX MA SB .) separator conditions shale shallow laterolog shear shear wave sidewall sidewall neutron log signature log. initial (usually with gasoil ratio. rho S F SD SS SAV B BP SC 2 two S s. burned reservoir rock. o sigma sha a s script 1 1 t tau T tau SJV sn vd slt S o sigma 2. Vbp) scattered.) rock (formation) sand sandstone saturation. R. unburned residual residual hydrocarbon resistivity resistivity log Reynolds (used with Reynolds number only. tool sonic velocity log b. microseismogram log. p rho R r c r. mean or average saturation or bubble point saturation or bubble point (usually with volume.. Rsb) solution in water (usually with gas solubility in water. variable density log silt single payment skin (stimulation or damage) slip or slippage slurry ('mixture') solid(s) (all formation solids) solids in experiment solids (matrix.SPE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 307 Subscript definition Letter subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript recovery (usually with recovery efficiency. scattering secondary segregation (usually with segregation rate.) solution (usually with gasoil ratios) sonde. NR.. grain) solution at bubblepoint conditions (usually with gasoil ratio. R. ER) reduced reference relative reservoir reservoir rock. p rho fm sa sst 7.) solution. 9.
3) ultimate unamortized unburned unburned portion of in situ colllbustion pattern displacement from (usually with efficiency. ED.s s S S s. dimensionless times or time periods tooldescription subscripts: see individual entries SLICII as 'amplitude log'. o sigma a sigma pn/ script 1 tv h. total system transinissibility treatment or treating true (opposed to apparent) tubing flowing (usually with pressure) tubing or tubinghead tubing. etc. borellolc temperature ternperaturc log temperature log.L) unburned reservoir rock SSP s S sc ws cs o sigma iws ws . a sigma ts ws s .F st S t. F. static (usually with pressure) turbulence (used with F only..3.'. t t T t I tau tr 4 1 & ul U ts B 11 LL u DM Ru T TI T T T T T TF T TS B UL U U DU RU .308 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Subscript definition Letter subscript SF' s s Reserve . 8 theta pnrscript 1 nt s s s PNL TV T T DT h PNL NT tD 1.SPE subscript SP Computer letter subscripf SP L S SSP S SC WS CS IWS WS TS WS S S ST S EPS ST S S S S PNL TV T T DT HT PNL NT TQ SP spacing specific (usual1y with J and 4 SSP stabilization (usually with time) standard collditions static bottomhole (usually with pressure or time) static casing (usually with pressure) static conditions. 8 theta t. injection well (usually with pressure) static or shutin conditions (usually with time) static tubing (usually with pressure) static well conditions (usually with time) steam or steam zone stimulation (includes 'skin' conditions) stocktank conditions storage or storage capacity strain structural surface surrounding formation swept or swept region system T D T log. sonde total initial in place in reservoir total (gross) total.epsilon e s st s o sigma S. differential thermal (heat) thermal decay time (TDT) log thermal neutron log time. etc. 'neutron log.2. neutron lifetime log televiewer log. T ti t T T t T. tool.h dt T.
. injection. (usually with cumulative wateroil ratio. flowing conditions (usually with time) well... S. cw. F.) wellhead wet gas (usually with composition or content. refers to zero hydrocarbon saturation zone. oil from (usually with displacement ratio.) wateroil (usually with instantaneous producing wateroil ratio. static conditions (usually with time) wellbore.. flowing conditions (usually with pressurepLWf) well.) unit unswept or unswept region upper vaporization. invaded WgP w Y 0 zero z W zr xo i I . Ebb) volume or volumetric water water. F) water. or vapour phase variable density log. static conditions (usually with time) well. vapour.SPE NOMENCLATUREAND UNITS 309 Subscript definition Letfer subscript Reserve SPE subscript Computer letter subscript unburned volume. gwb) waterfuel water in gas cap (usually with saturation. 6. r. solution in (usually with gas solubility in water. conductive fluids in an invaded zone. R.. sonic or acoustic log vertical volumetric of burned portion of in st combustion iu pattern (usually with efficiency. signature log velocity velocity. apparent (usually with wellbore radius.) watersaturated formation. flushed zone. 100% weight well conditions well.. dimensionless water from burned volume (usually with displacement ratio.> ou OU u u U U U U * v V vd VD v SV U U U V VD V SV V VB V sv v v W V Vb V w WD wb wF Wg V W WQ WB WFU WG WO WOP SW wo WOP sw 0 zero W w wf ws iwf iws ws c zr w f s ZR W W WF WS IWF IWS WS WA wa wh Wg t h WH WG WGP W Y ZR Z XO I wet gas produced wetting Young's modulus. static conditions (usually with pressure p.) wateroil produced (cumulative) . microseismogram log. injection..) well.
) (N. Thc UK Government's 1983 'Brown Book' indicates a probable rangcof techllically recoverable reserves between 11 and 23 x 10" STB.1 Casing Design Example (a) The buoyancy factor (BF) is glven by SGsreel.c..35 = 5. We will assume that the combination of oil expellcd from source rocks and trapped in potential structures represents some 8% of the collverted source rocks..l For the external system: and for the internal fluid system: .SCJtluld BF = SG. i..Appendix 2 Solutions to Examples Chapter 2 Solution 2. I6 x 10"' mi Assuming an average formation volu~ne factor of 1.085 X 4500 x 12 X 10%' = 2. will be calculated it dctcr~ninistically.: 011 co~~verted s o u ~ c rock for c Trapl?ed o ~ ( = OIP) l = 5 x 4500 x 12 x 10"mi = 0. For an assumed overall technical recovery factor of 0.4rm'lsm'.) Chapter 3 Solution 3.1 Although this problem should place probabilistic rangcs on the given data and assu~nptions.54 X 10"' sm3. assuming an oil formation volu~lle factor of 1.4 rm3/sm3this yields a stock tank oil in place of 1.4 x lo9 sm3 (This is ecluivalcnt to 34 X lo9 STB.B.54 x 10"' x 0.35 this yields 21 recoverable reserve of 1.
15 X 0. 20 ppf and can be set below the neutral point (see Table A3.1).11520) = 1480 ft .433 = 0.433 = 0. 8370 (i) Collapse limit = .755 BR = .498 psiift + 11520 [0.10072 ft 0. (iii) Joint strength calculation check Since the entire section is below2the neutral point. 1 (iv) Design weight for the section (CWT) CWT = Design length x wt per foot x BR = 1480 x 23 x 0.498 . (NB no tension problem since neutral point is at 9800 ft.92 X 0.14000 ft for 23 ppf casing 0.0.1 as  9570 . internal differential is: (max surface pressure) .(external fluid head) Internal pressure gradient = (SG x 0.8311 = 4164psi As burst pressure of 23 ppf casing is given as 11780 psi no problem arlses. At 11 520 ft. (b) For the design weight of casing (CWT) we have CWT = weight in air x BR where the buoyancy ratio BR is given by BF for outside mud system 0.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES point (NP) is thus the depth at which the string above is in tension and below in compression. + .8311 = 4647 psi no problem arises.853 (c) In the lower section we can check criteria: (i) Collapse The external mud gradient is SG x 0.'.433 psi!ft = 1. that is (13000 .0. tension is not a problem so a n h ~ joint with long threads is sufficient.885 BF for internal fluid system 0. we can propose a section length of 11 520 . (d) For the next section N80.10 070 = 1450 ft (ii) Burst check 8000 10 070 [0.831 Rounding off.755 = 9820 ft This is rounded off to 9800 ft.0.831 psilft The collapse limit of the P110 casing of the various weights is given from Table A3.. 23 ppf has the next highest collapse pressure to P110.498 .) (ii) Burst check Since a more dense mud is used outside the casing then the greatest interna1:external pressure difference is at the top of each section.885 = 30125 lbs. The ~p = 13000 X BF = 13000 X 0.831 : Use 23 ppf casing from bottom to 11520 ft. 8000 + (internal fluid head) .831 11630 .433) = 1. and 0.11520 ft for 20 ppf casing.
We calculate the ratio (R) for unit tensile stress to mininiuni yield strength using the ellipsc of biaxial yield stress curve (Fig.83 1 This is above the neutral point and therefore subject to the weight of casing above.8311 = 5369 psi This is w~thin tolerance ot both 20 and 23 ppf N80 the (iii) Joint strength clicck Section design weight = (2170 x 20 x 885) Total design weight = 38 109 54 920 = 93 329 lb +  38 409 Ih We can see that the joint strengths of 20 and 23 ppf N80 casing are both greater than the design weights (Table A3.. a depth can bc rcachcd where either collapse or burst may control. .. 5240 (i) Collapse check = 6305 ft 0. giving 2170 feet of caslng requ~red between Wc could converge a little Ilctter hut m~ght 7900 and 10 070 ft (11)B u s t check for ~ntcrnal d~tferentinl 7900 ft at = 8000 + 7900 [0. round to 8340 ft 0. to 6930 = (i) Collapse limit = . A3. A3.855 = 24 795 lb Total weight calculated so far = (30 125 + 24 795) = 54 920 Ib.498 .7972 ft accept 7900 tt a\ a 5ultahlc depth.8339 ft.956% 6930 0.828) We have to choose D such that the reduction factor (FK) currclated with R to obtain thc cffcctive collapse depth is consistent: This is solved by trial and we might choose D to be 7900 ft Froin Fig.D) R = 80 000 (5.1): 23 ppf : 251 000 Ib 20 ppf : 2 14 000 I h (f) In abnormal pressure wells.1 the value o f FRcorresponding to 0.0. A Assume casing above neutial point is 20 ppf 20 (9800 .For the minimum yield strength (Y. A design t r ~ afor the l next section is made using 17 ppf N80.1) to obtain the percent of full collapse pressure that is appropriate.0815 is 0.1 the plain end area (A) of 20 ppf N80 is 5.828 inL.20 ppf. It is considered more econon~ical design for N80.83 Collapse limit is 0.831 .) of 80000 psi we have: weight in air of casing above neutral point R= Y .956 x . (e) In the next section we might consider [he use of P11017 ppf but only a rclatively short section could be used. From Table A3.312 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (iii) As we are below the neutral point no joint strength problem weight for this section (iv) Des~gn 1450 x 20 x 0.
831 . 20(9800 .885) = 107 616 lb The joint strength for 20 ppf N80 is given in Table A3. round up to 1820 ft 0. We must therefore consider using 20 ppf N80 as we know that this is collapse designed down to 7900 ft.0.962 (80 000) + and a collapse limit of 5573 ft which is in tolerance The possible length of this section is thus (7900 .17 ppf grade casing.e.1800) = 6080 ft (iii) Joint strength check Design weight for section is (6080 X 20 Total weight is 107 616 93329 = 200 945 Ib + X 0.0. 8000 . We have so far designed 11 180 ft of the total well depth of 13000 ft.498 This means that we could design a section of length (7900 .8311) = 6192 psi + The burst strength of 17 ppf N80 is quoted in Table A3.831 .7900) 17(7900 . the depth equivalent to a burst stiength of 6180 psi.498 .6180 = 5466 ft Depth = 0. i.0.498 The depth that 17 ppf N80 will withstand the internal pressure differential is below its allowable collapse depth and this grade cannot be used in this part of the design.202. The remaining 1820 ft are considered using P110.5430) = 2470 ft (ii) Burst check Internal differential at 5430 ft = 8000 (5430 [0.7400 Depth = = 1802 ft. The burst strength for this is 7400 psi. .Of full collopse pressure We can converge on a reduced setting depth of 5430 feet.1 as 6180 psi.5430) = 0. giving FR = 0.884 R= 4. We must check the depth at which burst governs.1 as 214000 lb. 8000 .
If the distance abovc 13 000 ft is 1)' tlicn I'.) = 80 = 000 p s ~ N80 for 110 000 psi for P110 . is Solution 3.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (g) (i) Collapse check Setting depth = 7000 (0.strength (in) safety factor irzl.1 gives burst rating as 8500 psi. the gas and fracture gradients to a common pressure.831 a proposed setting at 1820 ft is acceptable. (11) We can summarize the design as follows: + Length jfr) 1820 8250 1450 1480 Caring Grude 17 ppfP1 10 L 20 ppt N80 L 23 ppt N80 L 23 ppf P110 L It should he cmphasizcd that this design is one of many combinations which may he acceptable and optimization in terms of cco~~omicspossible.8 X D ' ) Sctting P.1820 1820 10 070 10 070 .11 520 11 520 13 000  Total string weight = 27 382 200 945 Joint strength of P. Wright (Il~lji) TABLE A3.tstrength Joint . wk.1 Casing data for example (Grade N80L/P110L 5.) W(111thickiiess Collapse incl.2 The average gradients give a p o x pressure at 13 000 ft of 13 000 X 0.) ZOOOlh (PS~ (incl. (ii) Burst check Internal difference at top of string is 8000 psi (max) and Table A3.I10 L = 247 000 Ib design is acceptable. = 5915 . S. S.F. we have Minirnum setting depth is 13 000  6407 = 6593 A..455 = 5915 psi and a fractu~e pressure at 13 000 ft of 13 000 X 0 80 = 10 400 pv 'Hie minimum setting depth is givcn by equating. = 10 400 . (iii) Joint strength check Design weight of section added = 1820 x 17 x 0.(0.. F. press (incl.(0. = Pi.) psi Section ~lreu (in2) Minimurn yield strength (Y. above 13 000 fcct. therefore design is acceptahle.1 X D ' ) Pi.78) = 6570 ft 0. OD. Bu/:c.885 = 27382 Ih Sectiotz Surface .5 in.
98 (e) From graphs z = 0.732 x 520 (d) At 2000 psia and 595"R P.= 1.28.235 BBLIMSCF I" (h) From graphs.9) Po Y Therefore y = 0.825 (fig 4.825 x 10.4 1..977 lbft3 zRT 0.90 0. 4.634 28.5 11.02 16 30 44 58 (a) 14. = 2000 670.16 = 18.0116 (Fig.5 19.6 343 550 666 765 (c) 308.9 X 5.732 x 595 6.3 (Fig.615 = 1. ul = 0.7) * MP 18.7 27.0.38 X 2000 (f) Density = = = 6.03 0.7 Gas density = .SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 4 Solution 4.38 673 708 617 55 1 605.1 NB API gravity is nonlinear.97 m MP 18.= = = 4.32 1.977 Gas gradient = lad psilft = 0.38 (b) Specific gravity = .4 18. Water SG = 1.= 0.0485 psi ftI = 6.5 MW 18.9 15. 4. Solution 4.3 1= 371.0 (c) 1= 670.8) and Ratio .' lbft3 V RT 10.5 1.. inverse scale.05 0.015 cp .38 X 14.6 = 2.7 35.97 .8 x 10.2 C1 C2 C3 C4 0. API = 10.
reduced properties. and that the reservoir tcmperatule is 135"F.1000 ft.3 c. Let this extra distance be x ft. 6. From the given data clearly this gaswater contact will bc below 4100 ft. thus thc tlcnsity takes the value calculated in (f).5 psi 144 Therefore p = 99. 1 p ldz zdP from grapll (Fig.5 = 1975. specific gravity of mud = 1. C'~.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (i) Compressibility c. prcssures are equal. it will lie above water.. + coSu + cWSM.7) of z VS.0 Ibslcu tt 1.0485 x 1000 = 48. pressure due to gas = 0. = 11 1' = 111923 = 520 x 10"psi' (b) Effective hydrocarbon complessibility (a) Total compressibility c. Assume too that density of gas is a constant over the distances concerned.0485 psi ftI). by graphical differentiatio:~ ( i ) At 4100 ft SS aqmlcr pressure would be 0.5 psi Assuming the mud to he incornpressible. Pressure balance at gaswater contact: Theretore gaswater contact depth = 4600 tt S S (k) From (j).5psi Therefore pressurc of mud at this point will be = 1975. gaswatcr contact is a1 4600 ft SS.44 x 4100 = 1804 psi Since gas has a srnaller density than water.S~ + .5 + 500 = 2475. = .48.e. At gaswater contact.. let density of lnud =p lbslcu ft P Prcssure cxcrtcd by mucl at 3600 ft = x 3600 = 2475. = c.58 Solution 4. and pressure is 4600 x 0.977 Ib ft" (or gradient 0. 4.44 = 2024 psi Assuming the gas density relnains constant fol.5 psi Thcrclorc pressure at crest of structure = 2024 .
P. = = 12. pressure at top :.0534451 . Avogadro's law states that 1 lbmole of any ideal gas occupies 379.. 4.1 Pseudo critical properties of hydrocarbon liquids Weight of one barrel of water = 5. and yg = 0.615 x 62. T = 175°F.002.lbs. The molecular weight of gas is the gas gravity x molecular weight of air :. height of oil zone = = 1550 ft 0. Density of reservoir condition oil = lbs1BBL 1.: SG = = 0.433 psilft where 0.7 psia.4) x 0. From specific gravity of tank oil.6 x .293 psilft.4 lb/ft3 and 5.002 Since CR = co.9 .1) is given at this T. Volume of 1STB oil at reservoir conditions = B.52 and P. A4.5 t 38 weight of oil and gas in solution (b) Density of reservoir oil = volume of oil reservoir cond~tions i UOLECVLhR WEIOW Fig.834 = 292.4 x 0.615 cu ft = 1 barrel}. 8255 .677 350. : weight of gas which will dissolve in 1 STB of tank oil is given by the number of moles of gas times its molecular weight .4 RB!STB 141.4.97 lbs = 0.1550 = 5450 ft SS For a molecular weight of 180 and 38" API oil the liquid critical temperature is 1220°R and the liquid critical pressure is 310 psia (460 + 175) 4000 = 0.'. 310 Tpr = 1220 .22) or correlation equations for API = 38". The reduced compressibility from charts (Fig. BBL [292. GOC = 7000 .2] + [750 X 0. oil gradient = 0.465 = 3255 psi.4 pounds (density of fresh water is 62. A4.4 The reservoir oil gradient is therefore 0.2800 For constant oil gradient.05345 R.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 4.4 (a) From graphs (Fig.7: bubble point pressure = 2800 psia formation volume factor = 1. weight of gasiSTB = (RJ379.5 = 0.834 specific gravity of tank oil = 131. weight of one barrel of oil is 350.4 = 350.7 x 28. psial 310 From a constant oil compressibility between 2800 and 4000 psia . PCthen c = . condition as c~ = 0. : For an oilwater contact of 7000 ft SS the hydrostatic pressure is 7000 X 0.4 cu ft at 60°F and 14.21.400 density at reservoir conditions .677 X 0. The bubble point pressure is the pressure of oil saturated with gas in equilibrium at the gasoil contact of oil column = 2800 psi.293 :.2 lb.433 is the fresh water gradient . GOR = 750. 0.
06 vlv = 89.275 .383 RBISTB psia 410 Bo250(1 = .318 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING:PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE = B.5 Fro111graph of systcn~ pressure vs..615 = 400 SCFISTB R.4 cP .2800)) From graphs. = . the Liquid volun~c standard conditions = 295 ml.6 cP.)   (1 457 1 3 15)(295) .3000 = . = 293 (10 ) = x 2000 1500 400 420 440 System volume 89.40 1.457 RBISTB .R.AP) 1.06 (5 615) = 500 SCFISTB At 2000 psia 388 430 B.C. = . ( 1 .389 RBISTB = = = i (4000 .410) 1 ' 408 = 9..= 1. 01 log F : log cp on coordinate scales . R..0 . B. at At 3000 psia liquid compressibility c. = 295 X 10 ' Bg = H .]. B. L1 x 5.315 RBISTB ..21 0)lO'  Chapter 5 Solution 5. system volun~e bubble point is estimated by inflexion at 2500 psi. : Solution 4.8 x 10"si' 8.1 Plot either on log : log scales. (R. 295 295 .2500) = 408 295 (404 . viscosity of dead oil a t reservoir conditions 1. B. ..= 1. =  $gIT P (0 '" (4000 . viscosity of reservoir crudc = 0.= 1.= 1.390 RBISTB psia 295 26.04 x 10 vl\ =7 (26 275 .6 X 1.
04 R 0.2 0.056 If{= Sw " where exp n = 2 11.120 19.29 Qm and water resistivity is 0.29 F==.53 a = 0.8 0.092 29.84 then I = = 9.165 12. @ From plot m = .8 0.1 Fvs.80 If the true resistivity is 1. A5..1.23. O Intercept at + =I = 1. 1. Check Calculate @ F 0.29 .268 5.7 ' \ .205 8.056 Qm then R.774 Substitute back into laboratory data to calculate check values of F.7 0.18 1.53 Fig.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Slope le?gih F oxis _ 1795 m=length + ax!s 11.
86 0.22 2.2 S H ~ ..37 2.2.5 21.00 0.20 SNP 29.67 2.5 20. A5.91 6.26 0.1 .00 0.52 2.14 0.39 0.25 I Bulk denstt Fig.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Solution 5 2 .0 C~~~ 1100 150 350 4650 R ~ ~ 0.63 0.00 0. ~PD/N V ~ 1 00 1. Data values Calculated values ~ o values g Shnlc Zone A B C GR 102 52 72 20 FDC 2.31 0.00 0.215 ~ i Vs~C.0 22.
3 DensityISNP crossplot. p 24 Fig.2. A5. '1 og/cc 2 2 4 0 m . I S~dewallneutron apparent limestone porosity (%) .SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Radotlon ~ntens~ry ~ncreases 011bare mud 8 Sha!e 1100 2 0 p .
More rigorously convert density and neutron values to sandstone matrix SD = 16. = 0. Assuming C to be water bearing R. Only level I shows a signiticant displacement from clean line. . i.3 1. = 0.2.DSH . i S w : .5 .262 X 0. {R. = FRw = 11a2.qYn = 32.25. The porosity is given by point Yon the clean sandstone line where BY is parallel to the matrix shale line. the sands (such as feldspar) so the GR overesti~llates As above graphically for level B. (f) Taking the minimum shale i~ldication (from DIN) gives o~ily as shaly.VSH@NSFI.V~SH @LI.W Solving the equations for unknown VLsH 24. = Q.= 0) Archie Simandoux \ 1 \ 1 : . @I). Graphically Vqhfor 3 zone B = XBIXS = 1. @ = @ D .'R.@D v .082 = Modified Simandoux !=[' R. cP = @N .0145 (takingRILdas R.5. VAlrCR values calculated are tabulated above (e) See Fig.31 aN (g) Saturation calculations Level A all equations rcduce to Archic (V.0. Vxh= 0. Prcs~~mahly are radioactive rninerals in B there shale content.. Thc graphical construction is complicated by the curve on the sandstone line.2. = @NSIIQ.2 . ? + ~ . Q.14.31.5 = 0. 3 5 2 S . point plots close to clean sandstone line with @ = 0..2514 = 0.322 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (b) For zone C.) (c) Shale values arc listed above.e.16. 0 . : ~ l ~ ~ ' ~ [5] 1 Solving quadratic + vc root ollly . FRIu] L ~ w 2 + RSII .yl. S.} R . gN = 24. . ~ 5 = .327.5.YH = 7.3 for shale point.215 = 0. @. A5.
3 mho.26~ : 0.' m'l F = 1 1 = ~ ~ = 14. S.V R R.676~. = 0.046 x 0.38 ohm..0138 mho = 100 cm' or ohm'' cmI x 0.meq1. = Modified Simandoux model .676 sW2 0.0933S. + : 0.'s which are less than the Archie S. = 5 110.meqlcc = 0.79 R . + flSH where 1 1 1 Thus the modified Simandoux and Indonesia equations give similar S.0138 = 1.~.0676 (10 SW2 1.SOLUf IONS TO EXAMPLES  Poupon and Leveaux (Indonesia) 1 1 vSH(1V""/Z) . Solution 5.2=0 .2 = 0.0933 S. + = 0. The shale conductance in the basic Simandoux is already near to the measured conductance so the solution gives an unlikely optimistic value for a shaly sand.544) Comparing with the Waxman Thomas equation .cm2.0. n = 2 n BQ.0.) .3 Waxman and Thomas equation with a = 1 . SW fl' .38 S.~+0. (see Archie solution. r = 2 .
5 + + Solution 5.s. kA = w kA P : dP PLY  PL2 or Q.5 BBLld '  . = F 2L Solution 5. .1 1  Pautcrop at HWC datum . * _ .127 X 1. . = qP and Po = 1 atm Hence: Q.2 = sW2 .. R.127 x 10 x X 1 52 800 q = 2848. P.& k Assuming Boylc's law: Q.0676 0.5 1450) Hence..5 Thc problem requires correction of pressure so that the lincar Darcy law call be used. . q = 1.e. it would take 14% shale with resistivity 1.4 (a) Prove From Darcy's law: kA DP 4 = . . static pressurc at the outcrop is: P5250= 0. Rsi r 0.0 rn~les . t .433 x 1. A_ *.45 X 5250 = 2362.038) and referring to a HWC datum of 5250 f t SS.. /  .? . .45 psilft (0.. In ficld units: kA AP q = 1.... : 0.1 1.0 " v L BBL1d Assu~niiig average water gradicnt of 0. _A . .14 1 1 Basic Si~nancloux = .. FR..5ohmm to get the samc result as the Waxman Thomas eauation VSIT 0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE i. / PHWC :..5 psi But prccsure = 1450 psi at 5250 750 X 3000 X 65 (2362. ..
8 50 poi. .log..5 Hence k = 1. dt Flow across core is: kA AP q= I J L But A P = datum correction pressure difference.. for rate 2 = 6.. so: kA pgh dh dt ho kpg' or loge .3472 x 750 = 2010. 15.02 mD Sc for rate 3 = 5. 1 X 2 X lo6 log.h against t would be best Solution 5.= t h WL log.02 x 981 4500 hTote: a plot of log.log. gives kL as l/P.. ho ho pL A [log (ho/h)] = pL sok=pg' Note: pg' has to be in units such that pg' h = atm.84 .4 psi (b) Flowing gradient = 94 psi .0068 D = 6. = 50 lbift3 = psi/ft = 0. Solution 5.6 Using the equation: S. Plotting k against liP.8 mD S.7 Assume crosssectional area A.144 (a) Correct well pressures to 5750 ft = 1750 + 0.. for rate 1 = 0. + 0 as 3 mD.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 5. dh q = A where q is flow rate and h is current height measured from bottom of core plug.0 mD This is because of the Klinkenberg effect..3472 psiift ..
) e ...P..internal boundary Q= . =i I = ... . Ak.4 . C k .500) 3 x 10 Solution 5..P4). Ak Ak. h. = q . .for noncornpiessihleflow A y d. .)+(P.~ (a) Linear beds parullel flow Q = q1 + q 2 + q 3 Assume infinitely thin harriers between layels where k' is the apparent permeability and A the total arca Hcncc k'A = k l A l + k2 A2 + .PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE S o . NOWPIPd=(P.= . Sincc flow ratcs. CkA.9 Q k dP Darcy's cquation . then 3000 x 1000 x 150 x 4 = 93. h r (b) Series yo w Assume equal arcas P.. P. it is noted thal tlic same terms appear in thc radial flow network as in the linear system. crosssections and viscosities are equal in all beds + (c) R u d i a l ~ o ~ .) EL 111 (r. p n r u l l e l From thc figure. AP. U__] Ll U5ing D a ~ c y ' s law LL E LIP L2P qt.P2)+(P2P. 4 p s i PV.5 x lo9x @ft3 pvuqulfrr = (2104.Irw. 4 + 9 4 = 2 1 0 4 . P . Thcrcforc k' 01 if bccls all same width =. = 2 0 1 0 ..+q2. 2nkh ( P .external boundary w . . = 3000 x 1000 x 150 x q Equating production Vp= V2F.
) k' = ln (rjlrj. take data lengths as bed depths and bed lengths and radii to be equal.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES The only difference in the two systems is the manner of expressing the length over which the pressure drop occurs.l) . and radial flow . Linear flow . mD For radial systems. h1 Therefore k t = h. (d) Radial flow series By same reasoning as in the linear case In (r.=I kj Bed Depth1 Length of bed Horizontal permeability. wellbore = 6 . C k . Linear flow in parallel 250 x 25 + 250 x 50 k' = Radial flowin parallel + 500 x 100 + 1000 x 200 = 134. and radius of effective drainage 2000' and bed 1is adjacent to wellbore. All these terms are the same in each case.parallel.parallel.4 mD 2000 .Ir.
1 L 0.3 I 0. A6.1 Saturation distribution.1 I 0.6 0.7 0.9 I 1.e. permeability near wellborc most inlportant Chapter 6 Solution 6.0 Sw (fraction) + Fig.2 I 0. .4 I 0.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Linear $0 w in series 2000 2000 Radialflow irz series i.5 I I I I 0.8 0.
) and the reservoir condition PCcurve is therefore calculated as rn@ For the reservoir specific gravity of oil and water given The relationship between capillarypressure and height H above FWL is. against h curve: S .7 10.0 12209..7 191. relationship is calculated.968 0.2 Sw (PC).72 PC = 0.0 7. = 0.9 1.0 0.1 5.. H = P. dh Sw = h fro^ area under S .27 At reservoir conditions Pc(s.3 82.0 880.8 35.37 Solution 6.4 110.re9 J(.176 0. then (= 0.984 0. = 0.11 and using J(S.o 0.1 32.5 2651.0 29.341 0..7 2.9 133.4 65.5 155.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Kote that the oilwater contact is at S.31 (135 ft relative) IS..0 140.3 78.4 3662.6 3.9 1954.4 5.4 4.6 112. J (Sw) = 0.+)= a 0.7 90.363 PC(Sw)lab ' = 26.3 5.4 1847.8 2.7 232.581 J (S.0 0 1. = 0.4 for 25 m D and 0 = 0.2 36.v.)as the observed oil water contact.1 1534.w..104 Using the threshold value of PC(swi PC.46.22) Ji.5 ft above the FWL HTTz =  .104 4.3 d$  with a cos 0 = 7 2 dynelcm the Sw J(sw) 1.363 0.5 4.445 Solution 6.e8 = (. = 1..451 0.211 How.433 H A p .862 0.2 43.6 82. At 100 ft above OR7C.0 518. (PC)~g f ( J ) = PC (Pc)Hp 5 100 0 0 0 0 100 4.2 15.7 395.S .= 2 ft above the FWL 0.8 264.0.2 8.13 For the laboratory data V%@e = (15010.) o COS 0 for o cos 0 = 26 and f @ l = 44. in the units required.= . not at PC=O.) vs S.901 0.4 5477.9 60.85 .
. KO (s) = and K . and using Dalcy units of ccls for rate end 4P AP 4. KO =and K.14) AP qw For water K.1 From Darcy's law modified for effective permeability in horizontal linear flow qo Y. = AP.1 ~ Fig.2)' 3600 1 I For K.) Thcsc data are plottcd in F I A 7.. (md) = P. then: K .. = 4..... K~IC<. = AP.. L 9 1 Ll. A7. .r) = A AP. Assuniing zcro capillary pressure ( P .1 Steadystate relative permeability. = 0 = Po atmospheres for AP..330 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Chapter 7 Solution 7. = I (4) (9) (1000) JC (3.= (5.ic!. L 1.) (9....) so AP. K. (.. A AP..0) For oil K.
2765 = 12 765 RB!D The end points of the relative permeability curve are K..931 0.984 1.. + .778. The average saturation remaining in the reservoir is given by the Welge equation as: foe S.295 0. = 0.44) = 4.44. the oil rate in RBiD is 10 000 x 1. breakthrough therefore occurs in 1095 days (= 3 years) At year 4 the pore volume injected is 4 (365) (12 765) (5.615) (4.9) = 0..' = 0.ldS.33 to the fractional flow curve at saturations greater than frontal occurs at S. The gradient of this tangent [df. kro p krw' M' k.4 (.35 The ratio his then calculated from the given end point mobility ratio of 2.708 0.505. = 0.). = 0.28 gives the tangent at Swf= 0..= 0.lswe The recovery factor is thus:  .+. = S.45 dfw (from a plot of vs S.82 ftlday (5280) (50) (0.2 For pressure maintenance. the reservoir condition water cut.SOLUTIONSTO EXAMPLES Solution 7..71. A t this saturation (S.25) For a system length of 5280 ft.).then=1 1 . .28 = 0.7 2. From BuckleyLeverett tbeory ihe constant rate frontal advance of the 40% saturation front is: (12 765) (5.9 at Sw.535) and the intercept f with f.'  0.615) = 0.7 at So.3 PV (5280) (50) (5280) (0.' K. = 0.00 A line tangential to the fractional flow curve from S .778 (0..25) Xda '   1 The tangent of gradient 3. .]sw~s 4.= 0. = 1at S. PO k7wi Po Since M' = ..28 The fractional flow curve can now be calculated for the horizontal reservoir: fw 0 0.[dfw~dS. = 0. dS.082 0. f.
51 cp .) sin a q SCFtD = p.1736) qcr1t = (0. A7.LO") = 0..2 Saturation distributions X+ From the givcn data the saturation is plotted as shown in Fig. = 276 mD @ = 0. p = 0. = 1.4 40 80 120 160 200 240 Fig.04 Dip = 6" 1. A 7.125 Solution 7.9 x k krgfA (yg . k.5 X 10') = 18.127 X 10"  0. The fractional flow curve is calculated as follows: I f.580 MMSCFID Thc rate of injection proposed (15 MMSCFID) is less than the critical rate and might almost lead to a stable displacement. = 9434 rbld /I = 100' w = 8000' Ay = 0. = P. B ( M .1) where B.028) (35.. The density difference in terms of specific gravity is: sin (.5 X 1 0 " = 10 MSTBID 12.1736 4 9 X 10 (800) (0.3 The critical injcction rate for gas is given in field units of SCFID as: 4. The oil rate cxpccted prior to breakthiough is theretore: 15 X I O h X 7.y. is in units of RBISCF and a is negative for updip injection.71  1) (7.. I+. = 1..5) (8000) (100) (0 4968) (0.332 PETROLEUM ENGfNEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Solution 7.4335 Ay sina . 1+ 1.2 q..215 A = 800 000 ft2 p. .83 cp .
0 = 85 12 + 146 = 158 X 15 ft 15 + 56.5 = 33. Since there is no uniform sgturation distribution jnitialJy a material balance solution is used: Sw Fig.2 15 + 112. A 7.0  For S . = 0.79 For S. A7.4 15 225 = 240 + .2 = 71. A 7.4.4 = 127.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES The results are shown in Fig.0 X 10 ft 10 + 23.5 10 + 47 = 57 10 + 94 = 104 X 12 ft 12 + 36.75 t (yrs) 0 0.3 Sw Therefore: Fig. Selecting saturations For S.0 2.0 2.5 1.0 = 0.4Slopes of fractional flow curve. A7.5 1. = 0.5 1 2 + 7 3 .5 1. t (yrs) 0 0.0 2. The slope of the fractional flow curve as a function of saturation is plotted in Fig.7 t (yrs) 0 0.5 = 48.3 Fractional flow curve.
22  59.15 ( 5 .n ) Sw. = 5 + where: I k ..334 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Interpolation .' X = 160 f + 10 56. numbering layers n .56 55. from n = 0 to n = N = 5..6 ft from OWC Solution 7.7n 0.56 = 161.5 For the particulal examplc the problem reduces to the tollowing tab~il~rtion.n vs and tirolz . = 50 + 500 + 1500 + 2000 + 500 = 4550 m D    The resultant pseudorelative permeability is plotted as SWn rc.68 55. bottom to top I" 5 0.
8 1.0265 20.1752 0.1 Using the relationship h f 139 = 164/sinh x the saturation vs height relation is calculated as follows: X (frac) sinh x h (£9 0.1 S and q~vs.6367 118 0.7586 77 0.4108 260.5211 175 0.2 0. Take 50 ft intervals from base to crest.50 0. depth.0 1. .90 1.80 0. A8.2 shows the plot of isopach value vs area contained within the contour.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 8 Solution 8.3360 349 0. In the absence of a planimeter to measure area use metric graph paper in a simplified approach.40 0.1 shows the plot of water saturation and porosity as a function of depth. 8. . Fig.8881 45 z 0.60 0. Porosity ( $1 + Water saturation ( S w ) + Fig. A 8.33 0. A. Count squares to determine volume for each interval.55 Fig. Assign .70 0. appropriate value of cp and S for each interval (lcm square = 2500 acreft).
'most likely'. (RF) where R F is the recovcry factor (fraction). and maximum values are calculated as: minimuln 'most likely' maximum 43 x J O ~ S T B 116 X 10"STB 274 x 1 0 " ~ ~ .PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Area w ~ t h ~contour (acres) n lntervul No..2 The oil in place at stock tank conditions is evaluated using the relationship 7758 Ah$ So N= R. of square9 Gross rock volume (l@ucrejt) Saturat~on (Sw) Por oszty (Q) Hydrocurbon (volume x lo6 I Hydrocarbon In place = 230 326 250 BBL\ = 170 x 10"BLs rescrvoir oil stock tankloil Solution 8. is in RBISTB The recoverable rescrve is N. the minimum. where N is in STB A is in acres h is in feet $Sois a fraction B.. Deterministically.
These data are interrogated randomly using a Monte Carlo approach in the recoverable reserve calculation.3 Distribution functions. A 8.4. A8. The values associated with the 90%. . A 8.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 337 The distribution functions of the reservoir parameters are shown in Fig. 50% and 10% levels are as follows: at 90% the recoverable reserve is at least 72 x lo6 STB at 50% the recoverable reserve is at least 120 x lo6 STB at 10% the recoverable reserve is at least 185 x lo6 STB  0 1 22 1 24 1 26 0 0 125 0 135 0 145 Fig.3. The resulting cumulative frequency greater than a given value plot is shown in Fig.
895 Hence A P = 22.4 X lW3 K.875 atmospheres For (c) x = 0.72 atmospliercs Fur (b) .55 Hence A P = 64 atmospheres .4 Recoverable reserves distribution. (x) =  0.62 Hence AT' = 2.x = 4. = 14815 (c) tn = 7. (x) = 0. Solution 9.E.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE lo6 STBt Fig.5772 .4375 From graph  E..u = 0.log. A8.49 Frorn giaph . as x i s small  Qwl'  4. Chapter 9 tl. (x) = 0.1 For (a) x = 4K. = +PC? with (a) tn = 1181 (b) t.2 x lo' E.
The value of PJh.16 is 4961 psi .1 Pdvs loglot.ft rn 162.3800 mD.5) (1. of P.454) rbid (= 727 rbid) Then.6 (500) (0.corresponding to a Horner time function of 3. A9.6qb For h = 120 ft then KO= 32 mD.1.7535) Then Kh = 18 Fig. kh = . Solution 9. the slope is determined as For a reservoir rate q of 500 (1.fvs loglot rn = 18 psifcycle 162..4 From a graph of P v s 21. ( log At t+At ) with h e points in the table calculated.3 From the plot shown in Fig.7 psilcycle (= rn). A 9.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Solution 9.
.4 x 10.4728 .6201 0. = 15 x 10'10.5 3 4 5 6 ~ate S.5 2 2.87 m S = 132 psi 4981 ..5 hours: Now P.5119 0. P vs or At t = 60 x 24 = 1440 hours t+At a plot of p vs log . = 0. = B. Tzme smce hut m  loglot+At At 0. For B.2430 P 2509..).5 Examination of the data shows that: APIday = 3 psi Assuming I . then Solution 9.) p Hence Kh = m Assume t.on linear scales are as fo~lows: ' .7 2510.4728 AP.2788 0.).l(c.7 We have NB..1 Solution 9.6 Rate 1 2 3 4 Q (MSCFlD) 7 290 16 737 25 724 35 522 ( A P ) total 42 181 126 120 237 162 391 616 Slope = 7 psilcycle from Horner plot 162. AP and (c.2 1 1 .7404 0. Data points for Horner plot on setnilog paper.3979 0.132 Efficiency = = 0.7 2511..5 (approx..'  P. n . / r .' and N.5 2513.7 = 21.3274 0.) 4981 .7 2512 1 2512..S.~ = Kh In 0. +S.B.340 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE = 0..4472 0. prior to build up is 4.= N.606 r .3 251 1.. = 500 bid.0 25 13.6 (q B.
.2 and when AP2 is equal to P ( 6 . as ~ ~ Rate 1 2 3 4 Q (MsCFiD) 7 290 16 737 25 724 35 522 ( ~ ~ ~ ) ~ ~ . : ~ then QAoF = 220 x lo6 SCFid The AOF plot is shown in Fig. A9. .~ ~ y . is~ ~ follows: . and that in this case only the inertial drop is close to the total drop of the previous rate. . ~ t (~P')total .l 9 851 42 181 126 120 51 928 122 665 237 162 233 906 391 616 Comparison between the numbers shows that at high rates the inertial drop is over half the total drop. = 0. ~ ~ The inertial pressure term A P ~ ~ .calculated from B as follows: 3.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES This is order of magnitude agreement. T z P B= h2 r.16 ~ l o .2 AOF determination. .000185 Hence ( A P ~ ) ~ .. A 9. ~is . 3 2 1 0 ~ ~ s i ~ ) AP~(PSI~) Fig.
h AP. the pressure drop over the same radii are cons~dered. pressure P..825595 15. At 500 p s ~~cduced . h AP. Ye log. T.  v.1 p i zj p.  2nk. log'!  re ". = Po B. ..7 psi and 60°F: 1 v" 2000 v. Therefore recoverable gas = =0. 520  14.=I..S..65 x 0.ft Volume of reservoir available for fluid = ( I . Radial flow of oil q. Er.rdlcnt Ir negl~g~blc.94 Solution 10.75 500 679. .. r. and .. = 0.342 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I Chapter 10 Solution 10.. 8.P.6 T.1 Volume of reservorr = V = LOO X (5280)' x 500 cu..2 2nk..* l and if the capillary pressure gr. z.6 x 1 0 ' ~ SCF (1) Assume no water influx.7 0.) @V= V .h z=0. Radial flow of gas q.T.12 x V Volume of gas at standard conditions of 14.
= r$h2 h$ \ i Therefore.375 X lo6 (from trend) Solution 10.R.) + ( W e .690)]  14.) 750 x 0.43 X lo6) [1.0019(996 690)l .594 + 0. The total measured gasoil ratio will then be: For the figures given: Solution 10.5 [1.76 9 = 4.66 X 4.363 .S.615 Since bubblepoint is 1850 psi. this must be pressure at any gasoil contact Elevation of gasoil contact above oilwater contact is: This is less than hydrocarbon column so gasoil contact exists at 4031 ft SS Height of gas zone = 750 .715 = X lo6)[1.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES To this must be added the gas evolved from solution in the oil.3631 = 4.112 X lo6 A t P = 1000 estimated water influx = 6.1. Bg(Rp .437 + 0.594 . oil in place = 0.Boi c  (i) A t cumulative 1.3631 1.1. BB.14.715 x lo6 BBL ( P = 1600) Wel = (1.3 1. N = A.B . W.) B .54 X lo9 = 2..17 x 0.43 x lo6B B L ( P = 1300) W e .229 = 521 ft r h h: ( 2 ) 50' = 0.34 Ratio gasltotal = = .0015(878 . = (3.875 X lo6 (ii) At cumulative 3.4 Total hydrocarbon in place = $x ?h@ ( 1 .437 .198 x lo9 STB 1.54 X lo9 B B L = TI 3 ( 5 2 8 0 ) ~ 5.5 X 106[1.
.
(SCEISTB) 500 Using the relationship F = N(ET)+ We + WinjBWinj following is calculated where: the L E T = mE.41 0.2302 (b) E.0061 0.3850 = 585 psi AP2 = 22 APo =  5870 .0960 8.18)(7~10~~)(0. .)B.1.(SCF/STB) 0 R.2131 62. = (B. U = 1. Time 1.0435 0.0065 (e) ET = mE.4310 = 780 psi AP1 = 22 PI . Units (a) F = N.PI 2. .28 0.+ E.SpE NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS From production data the value of R.1.N ( E T ).B.80 P(psi) 5000 1wi.18 x 200 x (7 x U = 22 841 BBLIpsi x (9000)* From tables or charts for dimensionless influx at reD = 9 we have: t~ 40 80 WD(~D) 21 29 .119 x 1 x 0.5020 The aquifer constant is: U = 1.06 (f) We = F .0420 0.40t (pzp r"0 (0. 1.P3 5020 ../N.119f(phfrt..= 425 psi 2 Pi P2 .6 The dimensionless radius ratio is: r aquifer 81 000 yeD=9 r oil zone 9000 The dimensionless time tDis related to real time by: 2.) + (RSZ Rs) Bg  RBISTB RBISTB RBISTB 0.82 + (R. + Eo + Efh RBISTB 0. to give the following table.Bwini lo6 BBL Solution 10.Win.R.81 1.309 k t (years) 2.0887 3. lo6 RB 30.4)(9000)~ The instantaneous pressure drops which at the start of each year are equivalent to the continuous pressure declines are: Pi.1.67 0.+ E f . B. is calculated as G.(l@ 0 BBL) ~ ~ ( 1 STB) 06 0 R.309 (707t) tD = .5870 .
= 0.!5 . Vn.4 0. = 22 841 [425 (20) + 780 (21)] = 655.4 3.25 X 53 000 X 1.5 It S = +4 K.005 = 1.. in reservoir barrcls. = 0.6 h = 100 ft k = I325 ruD 50 PI= Po Solution 112 The injectivity inclcx is given in field units by: Assuming all other factors cqual then Solution 11.9 x 10' BBL W. = 22 841 [425 (21)] = 203. = 22 841 (425 (34) + 780 (29) + 585 (21)] = 1127.85 The volu~ne olinjccted fluid.945 x 10%~ .I For r. K. 11..0. = 1500 ft r ..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE W...3 X 10' BBL Chapter II Solution 11.4 which correlates areal sweep efficiency EA as a function of e ~ point mobility ration ~ d ( h l ' ) for different fractional injection volutnes.7 x 10hBBL W.4 p V K O 0. aftcr 10 ycars is: 10 X 365.' M!=.3 Use is made ol Lhc plot in Fig.
25 (4000) U= = 0. A12.1 Displacement reglmes.PO) For A@' (in psi).33 psi Chapter 12 Solution 12.4 For stable cone formation A@' = g' ( P .0476 BID .Ps) kh (a) Solvent Oil I Regions l and I l * Region I Reglon I1 Region I i 7 I Slngle grav~ty overnde tongue Slngle tongue but sweepout Independent of RVG for given M Solvent Reglonm Translt~on reglon w ~ t h secondary fingers below maln tongue RegionE: Multlple flngers with sweepout ~ndependent RVG for glven M of Region T J J Fig.1 (a) In field units 1.7 Solution 11. L R".g = (PO .ft3 70 (1500) The viscousgravity force ratio is calculated from 2050 Up.~)) given in reservoir barrels as follows: is From Fig. . . .4 the value of EA corresponding to M' = 4 and V D= 1is 0. and cone height X (in feet) and density difference as specific gravities then x = 4. 11.SOLUTIONSTO EXAMPLES The disp1aceabIe pore volume (= PV (1so.s.
wt%. 154 g oil. 38 g brine g . (= 25).3610. A12. M represented by y.1) (b) In field units 1. 2x1 surfact. (b) The point with the composition 4% surfactant and 77% oil is given on Figure A12. Figures A 12. 21 % surfactant. Then k = ((1) (3))" ' = 1.3 (a) The critical point (CP) is estimated where the limiting tie line becomes tangential to the phase envelope and has the composition. 12% brine. Figure A 12. 10% oil.2 shows a breakthrough sweep efficiency of about 15% and a flow dominated by gravity tonguing.055 = 6.kh ' ( c/crn3) (rnd) ( F T ) Fig.2 The tic lines for the system join the equilibrium con~positior~s systems A and B in the two phase region. The of compositions are plotted in Figure A12. From the slope of tie lines in this region thc equilibri~~m phasc compositions are A .2 Breakthroughsweep efficiency. 675%oil. (Fig A 12. ZO~OU~.348 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE For a mobility ratio./lr. and A? with weight percents estimated as: A.nit.0208 BID . Solution 12.L (B/DFT~)(cP)(FT) A.25 ( I 000) U= 30 (2000) = 0.ft" The viscous gravity force ratio requires an approximation of pcrrneability as: i=: .55).1 and A 12. 80% brine AZ 97% oil. 1%) brine For an original 200 g mixture containing X surfactant. f ~ e l d force un~ts. VISCOUSgrav~ty ratlo (RVG). 10% surfactant.73md For a rnobility ratio of M (w&. = 0.2 show a breakthrough sweepout efficiency of around 50% and a flow dominated by viscous fingering.3 as point A.
2 g. 3. 21. 5% surfactant.0 g surfactant 1.3 the composition 20% oil and 80% brine is shown at location B. location 1 is 10% oil.3 Ternary diagram. brine 66%. A line from B to the 100% surfactant point leaves the two phase region at location R ' . The oil + brine weight is 100 g and would constitute 82.5% surfactant (146 g total) D: 94% oil. 40% surfactant and location 2 is 50% oil. 1 % brine (54 g total) . The compositions are: C: 58% brine. It is shown as location 6.5%. The mixture is in the two phase region and equilibriates to compositions C and D on the equilibrium tie line through location 6.5 g oil . and 43% brine. surfactant 17.ture.5%. The tie line ratios give: wt of Al phase 3113 x 200 = 46 g wt of A2 phase 10113 X 200 = 154 g :.5 g brine (c) On Figure A 12. (e) On Figure A 12.3..5% oil.3. 40% surfactant.175 (10010. 20. They are in a single phase region and the resulting mixture contains 30% oil. 5% oil and location 5 is 20% surfactant.6 g surfactant 36. A12.6 g oil 4.5% of the mi. (d) On Figure A 12. Composition of Al = 4.tOO Brine Surfactant / 100% 10 Brine Wt % Oil  100% Oil Fig. as denoted by position 3. location 4 is 12% surfactant. having a composition oil 16.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 1 0 0 % Surfactant 0.825) = 21. so surfactant needed is 0. 77% oil The mixture weight is 200 g and contains 41% oil. 40% surfactant and 30% brine. 16% surfactant.8 g brine : Composition of A2 = 149.
The ratio of latent heat to total energy injccted. The average spcclfic hcat. at different values of dimensionless time..5 913. [n 1 = 161 rbid For 9 acre spacing and a 200 psi differential For thermal sti1nulatio1r steam injection a 5 fold improvement in flow resistance hetween producers and i~ljectors and would lead to rates nrounrl 800 hid.0 2.504 t years = 00. 3221 18 Btu . tl..4 El. The valucs of l D are givcn from: = 0. T o determine the steady state productioniinjection time at which such rates will lead to 50% of the pattern volurne being occupied by steam we can conduct the following analysis: The cumulative heat injccted into the reservoir.89 The following tablc nlay now bc constructed usingSi. C.64 0 59 0.25 E. Ehs.. using the mass rate of injection W.1 t~) on Fig A 12. ..0 1.>= I+ { A T ) = fxth L v d h { I + 0. Q..5 t (days) 365..0.8 323 3 409..00138i days or 0.75 (845) Figure A 12. t 233.. V..9 730.. is in general givcn by: .52 0.8 The volulne of a steam zonc..is calculated from: j.56 0.4 can now be used to cstimate the thermal efticiency of the steam zonc. over the temperature range 380 ...PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLESAND PRACTICE Solution 12. t (yr) 1.0 1.fl. = t . can be calculated from heat injection rate.003541 (1000)(60)) .964 l o .3 For co~~ventional production q. q ..1 474.100°F is given by: : Q.25 547.5 2...75 1...5 0.j  700  (0. 0.
. The injection rates needed to provide 50% pattern volume of steam at the following times are therefore as shown in the following table.5 (9) (60) (43560) (35)(280) 322118 qi.] =Ehs t 357817.l In terms of standard cubic feet this is: 1 V. These data may be further evaluated in terms of steam injection equipment capacity and project economics.j .SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 1 . A12.5 .4 Thermal efficiency For the case of 50% steam volume in the pattern of area A acres then 43560 M R AT Qi 0 .4 The wet condensate gas volume is obtained from the volumetric calculation: A hn @ ($) Vsc = '3. Fig.75)] 300 Bgi . 5 A h = Equating values of Q. we obtain the relationship 0.= .or Dimensionless t ~ m e t D . t = Ehs where t is in days That is q.. Solution 12.18) (0.[n(3x 5280)~ (0.
019 x 10'' SCF Similarly the oil volume = 3... The oil molecular weight is given by 44.. = G = 7.75) (5.7 z = 0. = 620 and T.4) (0.639 x lo9 STB . = 3. = 8.6 15) n= 379.3 p .PL) The weight associated with a stock tank barrel of liquid is given by: The number of rnolcs associated with this weight is 5000 (62.03 ..PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE v.8962 x '".7.1 937 X 10" = 3.. PI.197 x 10 RCFISCF 3. frorn Fig 4.7 using the reservoit condition molecular weight or gas gravity.925) (670) 4500 B.925 Thcn: (0. Mo = (1.1937 X 10"' Rgz SCF In order to find B. we need the super compressibility factor z which can be obtained from Fig 4.. = 465 From reservoir datum conditions 'Thc clry gas volume So.4 + 1 19 From Fig 4.8962 X 10 ' ~O'~SCF N = 1.02829) (0.
2 Solution 13.619 . q. ! = . is 8900 ft.1 Using the relationship that the depth equivalent of the total head is equal to the sum of the depth equivalents of the well head pressure and the well depth.D Producing Rate 2 0 0 0 Bbls/day Oil API Grav~ty 35'API Gas Spec~ficGrav~ty 0.1 Fig.65 Average Flowing Temp 140°F 0 6 5b Fig. Since D. then: D T = Dwhp + Dwell (a) From Fig.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES Chapter 13 Solution 1'3. i.e. (b) From Fig.2 The maximum production rate q. A 13. Since Dw.. withp. A13.5355 bd 3315 0. A 13.1 at a well head pressure of 400 psi then Dwh = 3700 ft.ellis Pressure In 1 0 0 PSIG 12 16 20 24 1 l l l ' ' I l i l Pressure In 1 0 0 PSIG 12 16 20 l ~ ~ ~ " oO h 4 l l 1 8 28 ' oO k 4 ~ l 8 24 ' 28 l ' l ' Vertical flowing pressure gradients (all 011) 4in. the static pressure.l.. therefore. The well head pressure is read from the graph at 3900 ft as 360 psi. can be evaluated using the Vogel relationship. At the GOR of 200 scflstb the pressure at a depth equivalent of6700 ft is read as 2400 psi. A13.2 at the bottom hole pressure of 1200 psi and GOR of 500 scffstb the depth equivalent DT.eli = 600Q ft then D T = 9700 ft. is read as 5000 ft then Dwhp 3900 ft.
5 .3 Fig. A13. A13.354 Pressure In 100 PSlG PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Pressure in 100 PSlG Tublng Slze 41r1l D 35OAPI Average Flowing Temp 140°F Fig. A13.pressuregrad~ents(all 0111 Tublhg Slze 4tn I D Producing Rate 5 0 0 0 Bbls/day 011 API Grav~ty 35OAPI Gas Spec~flcGrav~ty 065 140°F Average Flowtng Temp a' 0 0 m 4 0 Fig.4 Pressure In 100 PSlG 1 23+ Vert~calflow~ng.
. = 1.15) (20) At separator conditions the gas density p is given by .0. tubing and a GOR of 200 SCFJSTB.166) (4) 3D=L= 5cD2 : D .8544 Total volume of the separator is thus twice the oil volume for an interface half way up the separator : .06303 (2) (4) 0.. The total head depth is obtained as the sum 0. The flowing bottom hole pressure equlyalent to the total head depth is recorded as a function of flow rate. and L = 4.166 m3 Design length for LID = 3 gives (4. A 13. . ~t can be seen that the bottom hole pressure is essentially independent of rate at this condition and is 2200 psi.627 m Design length for LID = 4 gives (4.15) (1) . The maximum velocity equation is then used: Since crosssectional area = volume ratelvelocity then for an interface half way up the separator we have: jc D* 0.SOLUTIONS TO EXAMPLES 355 From Fig. % .3 For a residence time of 3 min. Solution 13.396 m In practice the separator design would be based on a standard size selected to be nearest the size calculated. the volume of oil in the separator will be: At 40°C and 20 bar the volumetric rate of associated gas will be (1000) (95) (313.06303 m3is /g= t (24) (60) (60) (273. V3ep = 2 O V = 4.099 .f the well depth and the depth equivalent to a tubing head pressure of 400 psig. .209 m and L = 3.5 the different vertical flowing pressure gradient curves at different rates are found for 4 in.1 to A 13.166) (4) D3 = 4c 5 : D = 1.
.
26.221 In volatlle oil reservoirs 211 BucklesLeverett theory 105 BuckleqLeverettNVelge technique 107.159. 1823 Back pressure equatlon 1434.193 capillary pressure 93 and residual fluids 11112 defined 92 capillary pressure data (given rock type.28 caustic solutions 196 cementation problems 356 chemical flood processes 196200 choke assembly 146 Christmas tree 36 coalescer 227 r Coates and ~ u m a n b i equation 86 combination drive material balance equation 166 compaction drive 161 complete voidage replacement 173 completion 28. 55 Compton scattering 76 conceptual models 233.196 casing a well.55.71 .25.81 presentation of results 70.245 condensate analysis 208 condensate reservoirs and liquid d r o p o u t 208 condensate systems 42 condensing gas drive 1945 cone height. normal) 36 composite cores 111 compressibility 423. reasons for 25 casing eccentricity 356 casing selection 27 ~nain design criteria 28 casings 23.148 API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity and 011 density 14 aquifer characteristics correlation with model 167 determination of 1656 aquifers and pressure change 165 areal sweep efficiency 176.220. critical 182 coning 1812 core analysis and permeability distribution 834 routine 6971.245 Amerada gauge 147.51. uncertainties In 2467 black 011 systems 42 blowout 35 blowout preventers 3 4 5 blowdown 210 Boltzmann transformation 134 bond number 191 BOPSsee blowout prekenters bottlenecks 219 bottomhole sampling 52 Boyle's law method and grain volume 73 Brent Sand reservoirs 10.221 bubblepo~nt pressure 5 2 .221 barrel 14 bedforms.29 completion for production (permanent.Index Abandonment pressure 159 absolute permeability 102 AFE (authorisation for expenditure) document 23.~'suction pressure see imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure carbon dioxide in miscible displacement 195. gram size and stream power 242 blocides and Injection water 229 biopolymers 197 black oil reservoir modelling. Numbers in bold indicate tables Capillary number 191.54.53. correlation 99 ca~illarv Dressure hvsteresis 978 capillar. 11 brine d~sposal 186 bubblepolnt 41.109 Footnote: Numbers in italic indicate figures. 5 4 5 . 5 6 7 160.163.
division of 238.47 Cricondcnhar 41.358 coledata and palaeogeog~.25 drilling fluid see drilling inud drilling logs 30 " drilling rnutl pressure. 323 drill coHars 23 drill stem testing 145 testing tools and assetnblics 1457 drilling.) 79 Darcy's equation 79 data acquisition during drilling 3&1 datum correction 7980 deltaic environments.ltion69 coring the case for 65 conventional and oriented 66 of development wells 656 of exploration wells 65 coring decisions (146 coring mud systems 6 6 7 corresponding states. 68 care length and imbibition processes 11&I 1 core log 64.95 Darcy (def .240.42 Cricondentherm 41 rate critical displace~~ient 177 critical displacement ratio 112 critical gas (equilibrium) saturation 159 critical production rate (coning) 182 crude oil flow of in wellbore 221. compaction corrected 131 core preservation 678 core recovery.242 deltaic models.68 core plug experi~ncnts.223 rnctering of 229 processing 22&8 cushiori 147 cuttings logs 31 cyclic steam stimulation 205 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE displacement principles 1735 drawdown testing 138 drill bits 22.24. effect on injectiori/production well locations 180 field processing 224 filtration. distribution of. concern ovcr laboratoryderivcd data 11314 core plugs 68 analysis on 65 and effective permeability 109 and fluid saturation 934 and oil saturation 193 and permeability 81 and porosity 72 and residwal saturation 174 core porosity.55 twophase 556 factors B 4 9 4 1 formation volu~lle folmutionwaters 14 fractional flow 1046 analysis mettlods 1056 effect of dip angle and wettahility 175.244 demulsificrs and heavy oil processing 228 depositional processes and reservoir rocks 7 tlcwpoint 41 dewpoint locus 42 diamond coring 33 differential liberation at resevvoir temuerature 53 displacement calculations. validation of relative permeability data for 113ll . rbeology of 2930 drilling optitnization 323 problems in cementation problems 3 5 4 drilling. law of 445. fluids for 31 Coregalnlna surface logger 68 cores 62 colnpositc 111 correlation with wireline logs 63. petroleurr~reservoirs 13&1 exploration well drilling 7 . 177 free water level (FWL) 12.73 and gravity drainage 1645 L.7 divcrsity of inLonnation availahlc 64 and geological studics 689 and heavy oil reservoirs 202 residual fluid saturation deter~nin. 241.75 data obtainable from 6. hydrocarbon zone.12I 3 fluid saturation. identification of 238 faults (inreservoir). s Faults. injection water treatment 229 523 flash liberation at rescrvoir tc~nperat~irc flash separation tests 534 flooding efficiency ratio 110 flow equations. turbine versus rotary 33 drilling costs 23. 65. recovcry of by depletion 211 Forcheimcr equation 143 formation breakdown pressure 30 forination density logs and interpretation of porosity 2023 formation density tool response 756 formation factor see formation resistivityfactor formation interval tester (FIT) 148 formation resistivity factor 74 formation testcr (FT) 148 formation volume factor 14. use of 23843 dcltaic systcin modcl242. spcciz~l pressure control and well kicks 3 4 5 stuck pipe and fishing 3 3 4 drillstriiig 23 drive mechanisrrls 159 dry gas reservoirs 412 dual porosity systems 71. linear and radial 801 flow string 145 fluid contacts 1213 multiplc 12 fluid flow in porous media 789 fluid pairs 93 fluid pressure and overburdcn load 1312 fluid pressures.aphical recolistructio112378 and recognition of sand body type 238 corederived data 68 core floods acid surfactant testing 200 core for special core analysis 67. excessivc 29 drilling muds 223 control of 289 main constituents 67 drilling muds and cements. laboratory incasurernents and relationship with reservoir systems 936 fluids. Early (transient) tirne solution 138 rates 180 economic factors and oil productioi~ effective pelmeability 102 and wettability 108 and enhanced oil Iecoverysche~ncs unccrtainty 247 equity.
uncertainties in 247 gas condensate reservoirs 20711 production methods for 20911 gas deviation factor Z 46. compatibility with reservoir fluids 1834 injection fluids. development of 2378 geothermal gradient and hydrocarbon generation 7. critical properties of 210 gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs. 9 hydrocarbon pore thickness (HPT) 1267 hydrocarbon pore volume maps 1267 hydrocarbon properties 47 hydrocarbon recovery. behaviour of 434 gases. 4950 gas properties 45 gas recycling. gas condensate reservoirs 210 gas reinjection 186 gas reservoirs. reservoirs with water encroachment or water injection 1658 material balance calculations generation of data 52 sources of error 1689 material balance equation 158 combination drive 166 gas cap expansion drive 1 6 3 4 solution gas drive 1613 material balance residual oil saturation 174 mathematical models 2334 . generalized correlations 548 lithofacies representation 125 LKO (lowest known oil) 12. viscosity of 184 injection water treatment 229 injectivity index 174 insert bits 33 isobaric thermal expansion coefficient 43 isocapacity maps 126 isochores 124 isochronal testing 144 isoliths 124 isopachs 124 isoporosity maps 125 isosaturation lines 99 isosaturation maps 126 isothermal compressibility 43 isothermal retrograde condensation 42  Kay's rule 45 kelly 23 kick 345 Kimmeridge Clay 7 . migration of (modelled) 934 hydrocarbons (commercial reservoirs). measurement of 150. 13 homogeneous reservoirs and coning 1812 Horner analysis 13 hydrates 224 hydrocarbon accumulation and sedimentary basins 7 hydrocarbon accumulations and formation waters 14 hydrocarbon exploitation. improved 191211 hydrocarbon reservoir fluids 15 hydrocarbon systems volumetric and phase behaviour 4C1 applications to field systems 412 hydrocarbon volume in place calculations 1278 hydrocarbons. regional 1011 Ideal gas law (and modification) 43 imbibition processes and core length 11011 C liquid 104 imbibition wetting phase threshold pressure 97 inplace volume if2 inflow performance relationship.9 geothermal gradient and reservoir temperature 13 GOR see gasoil ratio grain density 71 grain volume and Boyle's law method 73 gravity drainage and dual porosity systems 1645 gravity segregation and recovery efficiencies 1645 gravity stabilization and reservoir dip 175 Head loss in wellbores 221 heavy crude oil characteristics of UKCS heavy crude oils 201 general classification 200 Yen classification 200. : Gas cap expansion drive 1 6 3 4 gas compressibilities 489 gas condensate. 9 Klinkenberg correction 81.13 low interfacial tension (IFT) systems 193 Material balance.512.229 gas formation volume factor 157 gas formation volume factor B.54. 47 gas expansion during production 157 gas flow and gradient 159 gas flow and permeability 81 gas flow rate. 220 dimensionless.82 KolmogorovSmirnoff test 84 Lasater correlation (bubblepoint pressure) 55 leak off tests 30 Leverett Jfunction correlation 99 light oil processing 226 foaming problems 2278 separator design sonsiderations 227 wax problems 228 line source solution (fluid flowing in a porous medium) 1345 development of 1356 liquid drop out 208 liquids systems. quality of 1836 injection water. geological characteristics 62 hydrostatic gradient. 159 gasoil systems and relative permeability 1 0 3 4 gas well testing 1435 gases. types of interactions 16 hydrocarbon field 7 hydrocarbon generation and geothermal gradient 7 .201 heavy oil processing 228 heavy oil recovery 2002 heavy oil reservoirs examples of 201 permeability increase and production improvement 20 production characteristics of 2034 properties of 2023 and thermal energy 2047 and uncertainty 247 heavy oil systems and thermal energy addition 204 HKW (highest known water) 12.for oil wells 2201 for gas wells 221 injection fluids. recovery from 1579 gas viscosities 478 gaskicks 12 gasoil ratio 14. flow of in wellbore 221 geological model.INDEX .
ch.67 niulticon~ponentsystems.) 44 Monte Carlo approach. bland (unreactivc) arld core recovery 312. 147 (downhole). equations of 2345 Natural gas calorific value 226 dehydration 2245 onshore processing 22. heavy oil rescrvoils202 North Sea. fluid choicc for miscible displaccrnent 196 North Sea.246 Thistlc oil reservoir 122.186 offshore system 21 oil bank formation 195 oil density 14 oil tlow rate.185.9K9 oilwater systems and relative permeability 1023 openhole tests 145 optimal salinity 198 orifice meters 229 overpressure 11. relationship between 846 cutoff 124 distributions 778 logs 757 main logging tools for 75 measurement of 723 potential gradient 174 pressure (abnormal) and (1cxponent256 pressure buildup analysis 13940 pressure buildup (tcsting) 149 pressure control and well kicks 345 pressurc decline. 51 . hytlrocarhonfields Beryl field 196 Brent field I96 Buchan field 37 Dunlin field 131. measurement of 150 oil formation factor B. general limitations on 67 mud logging 301 mud systems. reservoirs.175. stratified reservoirs 1078 planimeter 124. influences on 191 oil viscosity 56 oilwater contact (OWC) 96. 126. phase inversion tempcraturc (PIT) 198 physical models 233 piston disp!acernent. abnormal 1112 primary rccovery. significance in drilling and well completion 26. averaging of 83 permeability 7. properties of 195 rnobility ratio 1045. 127 polyacrylamidcs I97 polymer tluids 193 polymer systems and adsorption 197 pool see rescrvoir pore fluid pressures 11 pore pressure.) 1 1 . probabilistic estimation 127 technique and recoverable reserves estimate 130 movable hydrocarbon fortnula (MHV) 130 mud cake 36 mud circulation system 22.176 and polymers 197 modelling of reservoirs1301 models 2334 mole (dcf.107. principle components of 184.7<%46 and critical displacement ratio 112 anistropy 823 distributions 834 i~~~provement 1934 laboratory detennination of 812 ratios 1045 variation. phase behaviour 41 multirnodal porosity 78 niultirate data. rccerlt 5 6 8 Nortli Sea. 23 mud composition.718 and permeability. 199 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE oil saturation. 127 Statfjortl field 106. analysis of 1435 mnltiphase flow.12 Packcr 146 Pcng and Rohinson equation 44 pcrmeabilities.124.360 rnercury injection and porosimetry 73. 123. static system 12 pressure gauges 137. oil reservoirs 15964 ODT (oil down to) 13 offshore productioniilljection systcltt. Iocd. 178 Forties field 249 Fulmar field 24951 Magnus fieltl 184 Maureen field IN7 Montrose reservoir (RFT data) 151 Murchison field I25 Rough gas field 123. reservoirs and surfactants 198.96. effects of 1068 permeameter 81 petroleurn migration of 910 origin and formation of 7 recovery 5 petroleum engineering function of 1 proble~n solving in 3 phase (def. rates of 137 pressure depletion 21 0 pressure drawdown and reservoir limit testing 1423 pressure equilibrium. oil correlations.iracteristics o 136 L pressure gradients and heterogeneity of rescrvoir pore space 129 pressure maintenance 173 pressure regimcs.125 North Sea. 196 nonwetting phase fluid 94 nonwetting phase saturation 102 North Sea.56 salcs specification 224 swcete~lirlg 225 ~ ~ a t u rgab processing 2246 al nitrogen in miscible displacement 195. validity of 242 porosity 7.28 pore size distribution 9 G 7 pore space characteristics and equilibrium saturation distrihrltion 921 pore volurue compressibility 160 of rcservoir rocks 203 poroperm data.245.97 meters 229 microemulsion 198 ~niddle (late transient) time solution 139 miscible displacement mecltanisms 1945 miscible displacement processes 193 miscible floods 194 applications 1956 exan~ples 196 miscibl~lluids.
47 Standing's data (bubblepoint correlation) 55 STB (stock tank barrel) 14 steady state permeability tests 110 steam flooding205 steam properties 206.192 residual saturations 111112 resistivity factor see formation resistivity factor resistivity index 74 retrograde condensation 208 reverse circulating sub 146 rotary table 23 Safety joints and jars 147 salinity and water viscosity 56 samplers 147 sand body continuity 180 importance of 238. single and multicomponent systems 401 Radial equations in practical units 136 radial flow in a simple system 1345. 1067 effect of temperature 204 relative permeability data. 3 production enginee.245 reservoir temperatures 13 reservoirs 718 areal extent of 1224 residual oil 53.probabilistic estimation 1278.influencing factors 21829 production rate effects 1802 production rates. technical and economic factors 219 production system 21819 production testing 1501 productivity index (PI) 245 220 and inflow ~erformance pseudocritical temperatures and pressures 457 pseudorelative oermeabilitv in dvnamic svstems 115 pseud+relative permeability functions 177.247 reservoir modelling analysis and data requirements 237 application in field development 24851 concepts in 23348 reservoir performance analysis 15768 reservoir pore volume and change in fluid pressure 423 reservoir pressures 1C12 reservoir rocks. sources 1415.137 recombination sampling 52 recovery efficiency.55 StandingKatz correlations 46.) 7 reservoir description in modelling 23745 uncertainty in 2457 reservoir development.ing. effect of 181 reservoir fluid properties. and well performance 2201 ~roducrion engineering described 218 hroduction op&ations. 243.193 residual oil saturation 192 i average 174 and material balance 174 measurement of 191.178.129.17 reservoir (def. heavy oil reservoirs 204 relative spreading concept 93 repeat formation tester (RFT) 14850 reservoir behaviour in production engineering 2201 reservoir condition material balance techniques 160 volumetric balance techniques 1601 reservoir data.177 reservoir flow rate.245 static 11516 pseudorelative permeability relationships and thicker sands 107 PVT analysis 524 PVT relationships.207 steamdrive analysis. characteristics of 6286 pore volume compressibility 203 reservoir simulation modelling 2337 reservoir simulation and vertical communication 243. phase behaviour 401 skin effect 1402 negative factors 142 skin zone 194 slabbing 68 solution gas drive. significance of 1 . 4 reservoir dip angle 175. measurement and prediction of 439 reservoir fluids and compressibility 423 nature of 14 properties of 4058 reservoir geometry and continuity 180. laboratory determination of 10911 fiom correlations 11213 improvement. analysis by material balance 15963 solution gasoil ratio 53. 191 influence of recovery mechanism 191. 130 produced fluids and offshore processing 1846 produced water treatment 228 producing rates (well inflow equations/pressure loss calculations) 1745 nroduction costs. costs of 3 .23845 reservoir heterogeneity 17780 reservoir mapping and crosssection interpretation 2456. effect of 13 Shinoda diagrams 198 simulators applications 235 classification of 235. water reservoirs 168 recovery factors and reserves 12830 recovery string 34 recovery targets 191 RedlichKwong equation 44 relative permeability 1024. example data requirements 207 Stiles technique 1078 stock tank oil 54 and retrograde condensation 208 stock tank oil in place and equity .236 single component systems.23940 sand body type effect on injected water and oil displacement 17880 recognition of 238 saturation distributions in reservoir intervals 989 saturation gradients 164 saturation pressure see bubblepoint pressure scribe shoe 66 sea water as injection water 184 seawater floods (continuous) and low surfactant concentration 199200 secondary recovery and pressure maintenance 17386 secondarv recoverv techniques 173 sedimentary basins and hydrocarbon accumulation 7 origin of 7 worldwide 2 segregated displacement i 77 sensitivity studies 2467 shaliness.54.
65. gas reservoir 15&Y water injection 166.32 well drilling operations 203 well locations and patterns 1823 well performance.166 water influx. i r situ 112 wettability effects 108 wetlability preference 93 wetting phase fluid 93 wetting phase saturation 94 wetting preference 175 wireline logs. corrclatio~i with cores 63.242.210 water drive reservoirs 167 recovery efficiency of 168 water forrnation factor B. 74 superposition technique 140 surfactant concentration (low) and co~itiliuous seawater floods 199200 surfactant flooding 198200 surfactant phase spstenls 1978 surfactant processes 197200 surfactants 193 synthetic 199 sweetening. dipping reservoirs 181 20 well classif~cation well clescription log 31. 180 Welge analysis 106 Welge's cquatiol~s 174 well arrangements.245 Forties Iescrvoir 249 and geological core atudq 689 and histogram an2rlysis 84 and permeability distributions 84 . values of43 unsteady state relative permeability tcsts 10910 USA. natural gas 225 Tester valvc 146 thermal enelgy 2047 thernlal injection processes 2 0 4 6 thickness maps 124 threshold capillary prcssurc (reselvoir rocks) 95 threshold pressure 94 traps (structural and stratigraphic) 10 triconc bits 32. different reservoir systems I39 wellbore.197 vapour phase 42 vcrtical bed rtisolution 76 vertical permeahility variation and fractiontll flow curvc 177 verlical PIessure logging 14850 Viking GIaben area (N North Sca) 10 Vogel cli~nerisionless1PR 2 2 6 1 volatile oil Icservoirs21 1 volatile oil systems 42 volutnetric balance techniques 160 vugular carboliates and u~hole core analysis 69 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING: PRlNCfPLESAND PRACTICE Walther's law of facics 238 water drive and gas condensate reservoirs 209. holnoge~~cous water viscosity 56 waterflooding 178.75 wilcline testing 1 4 W 0 WUT (water up to) 13 Xanthan gums 197 Zonation 99.131. heavy oil resourcc distribution 202 Van der Laan method (volume in place) 128 vaporizinggas drive 194. altered zone 141 well bore flow 22 13 wellbore inflow equations 174 wellsite controls and core recovery 68 wettability 175 change in 67. 179. 501 water influx 165.alysisof 13451 well productivity improvement 1934 well test methods. applications of analytical solutions 1369 well test procedures 14550 data analysis 1478 well testing and pressure analysis lS(b1 well!reservoir rcsponses. radial flour an.243. 33 trip gas 34 turbinc mcters 229 Ultimate recovery formula see movable hydrocarbon formola uncertainty in rcselvoinrnoclel description 2458 unitization 13C1 universal gas constant.362 determination 130 stock tank units 14 stock tank volume 53 Stratapax bits 33 stratified reservoir analysis 306 stripping 191 structure contour maps 122 stuck pipe ancl fishing 3 3 3 summation of fluids and porosity 723.196 degree of 93 ~ wettability control.178 Iescvvoir96 water saturation tlistribution.