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ACIDS AND BASES Properties of Acids
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taste sour (don't taste them!)... the word 'acid' comes from the Latin acere, which means 'sour' acids change litmus (a blue vegetable dye) from blue to red their aqueous (water) solutions conduct electric current (are electrolytes) react with bases to form salts and water evolve hydrogen gas (H2) upon reaction with an active metal (such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, zinc, aluminum)
Properties of Bases
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taste bitter (don't taste them!) feel slippery or soapy (don't arbitrarily touch them!) bases don't change the color of litmus; they can turn red (acidified) litmus back to blue their aqueous (water) solutions conduct and electric current (are electrolytes) react with acids to form salts and water
Examples of Common Acids
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citric acid (from certain fruits and veggies, notably citrus fruits) ascorbic acid (vitamin C, as from certain fruits) vinegar (5% acetic acid) carbonic acid (for carbonation of soft drinks) lactic acid (in buttermilk) Mineral acids like HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 etc
Examples of Common Bases
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Caustic soda or lye (NaOH) Caustic potash (KOH) household ammonia (aqueous) [NH3]
BASE VS ALKALI Bases: Bases are metal oxides, hydroxides or compounds (such as NH3) that give OH- ions in aqueous solution. CuO (s) + 2HCl (aq.) → CuCl2 (aq.) + H2O (l) NaOH (s) + HCl (aq.) → NaCl (aq.) + H2O (l) H+ + OH- → H2O NH3 (g) + H2O (l) ↔ NH4+ (aq.) + OHAlkali: A base that dissolves in H2O to give OH- ions is called an alkali. NH3, NaOH are examples.
Acids and Bases (Updated on May 15, 2011) Page 1
HCl(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Greater than 99. Strong Bases Lithium hydroxide Acids and Bases (Updated on May 15. CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) Strong Bases Similarly.CHEM 1101: CHEMISTRY (EEE/CoE) LECTURE 8 ‘All alkali are base.g.g. and again you can memorise them all. and quite a lot less than one. e. which makes life very easy for you. but not quite) that the equilibrium constant has very large values much greater than one million. but all bases are not alkali.4% ionised. a strong base is one which is fully ionised in solution. e. Again there are not many of them. Strong Acids Sulphuric acid Hydrochloric acid Hybrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Nitric acid Perchloric acid The Formulae H2SO4 HCl HBr HI HNO3 HClO4 Weak Acids A weak acid is an acid which is only partially ionised in solution.” Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Strong Acids A strong acid is an acid which is fully ionised in solution. The Formulae LiOH Page 2 . This also means that it has a small value for the equilibrium constant for the ionisation reaction. Strong acids are so fully ionised in solution (close to 100%. 2011) H3O+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq) Less than 0. The value tends to be less than one.99% ionised There aren't very many strong acids. It also has a high value for the equilibrium constant for ionisation.
As before.CHEM 1101: CHEMISTRY (EEE/CoE) LECTURE 8 Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Rubidium hydroxide Caesium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Strontium hydroxide NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH Ba(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 Sr(OH)2 Weak Bases Again. O: + H . anything else is automatically a weak base. . Limitations: (a) Free H+ and OH.. or how corrosive it is. there is no reference to the concentration of the solution. HCl + H2O → H3O+ + ClNaOH + H2O → Na+ + OHUsefulness: This concept is useful in the study of chemical reactions. this means that they have a small value for the equilibrium constant for ionisation. A base is a compound that releases OH. Again.. ================================================================== Three concept of acids and bases are: (1) Arrhenius concept (2) Bronsted-Lowry concept (3) Lewis concept Arrhenius concept (1884): An acid is a compound that releases H+ ions in H2O. O H Hydronium ion + H or H3O+ H + H H Acids and Bases (Updated on May 15.ions in H2O.ions do not exist in water. 2011) Page 3 .
not necessary to qualify as a base. These definitions are applicable to water only.” Conjugate acid and base: In acid-base reaction the acid gives up its proton and produces a new base. 2011) Page 4 . NH3 + H+ base NH4+ acid “An acid is a proton donor. (c) Some bases do not contain OH-. Acids and Bases (Updated on May 15. while a base is a proton acceptor. A base is any molecule or ion that can accept a proton (H+). Example: NH3.CHEM 1101: CHEMISTRY (EEE/CoE) LECTURE 8 (b) Limited to water only. (b) Not limited to aqueous solutions. + H ACID . N H base acid BASE H H + H Cl H N H H + or Cl- H CaO + H O H Ca(OH)2 base acid Bronsted-Lowry concept is superior to Arrhenius concept: (a) Much wider scope.. CaO Bronsted-Lowry concept (1923): An acid is any molecule or ion that can donate a proton (H+). NH3 + HCl NH4+ + Cl- (c) Release of OH.
there are two conjugate acid-base pairs. H+ H+ HCl acid NH4+ Conj. HA and A-. Conjugate pair: The acid-base pairs associated with the loss or gain of proton is a called conjugates pair. For example. the original base (B-) after a accepting a proton becomes a new acid is called a conjugate acid. A weak base has a strong conjugate acid. 2011) acid base HCl + H3O+ weak acid + Ciweak base Page 5 Conjugate pair . Conjugate pair H2O strong Acids and Bases (Updated on Maystrong 15.CHEM 1101: CHEMISTRY (EEE/CoE) LECTURE 8 Conjugate pair HA acid + Bbase HB Conjugate acid Conjugate pair + AConjugate base The new base (A-) that is related to the original acid (HA) is called a conjugate base. acid H+ H+ ClConj. HB and B-. In any acid-base reaction. Similarly. base + NH3 base + A weak acid has a strong conjugate base. A strong base has a weak conjugate acid. Conjugate pair CH3COOH weak acid + H2O weak base H3O+ stronger acid + CH3COOstronger base Conjugate pair A strong acid has a weak conjugate base.
C2O4H2 → C2O42. H2O + H+ → H3O+ (2) Polyprotic bases. For example.donate one proton HF → H+ + F-. CH3COOH → CH3COO.CHEM 1101: CHEMISTRY (EEE/CoE) LECTURE 8 Conjugate acid and base of H2O and HCO3-: -H+ H2O +H+ H3O+ conjugate acid of H2O CO3-2 conjugate base of HCO3OHconjugate base of H2O -H+ HCO3+H+ H2CO3 conjugate acid of HCO3- Classes of Bronsted Acids and Bases: Bronsted acids: (1) Monoprotic acids.+ 2H+ → H2SO4. H2O. Acids and Bases (Updated on May 15.accept one proton HS.+ H+ (2) Polyprotic acids-donate two or more protons H2S → 2H+ + S2-. HCl acid NH3 base + + H2O base H2O acid NH4+ + OHH3O+ + Cl- Lewis concept (1930): An acid is an electron-pair acceptor. PO43. 2011) Page 6 .+ H+ → H2S.accept two or more protons SO42.+ 2H+ Bronsted bases: (1) Monoprotic bases.+ 3H+ → H3PO4+ Amphiprotic substances: Molecule or ions that behave both as Bronsted acid and base.
95 1.33 1..50 +3 (amphoteric) (2) Ionization constant: The smaller the value of ionization constant (K). A Lewis acid + :B Lewis base A B Complex The combination of Lewis acid and Lewis base is called a complex. Examples: (a) H+ + H Lewis acid Lewis base .. the less is the degree of ionization and hence less strong the acids (or bases). 2011) Page 7 .75 × 10-2 [ H 3 PO4 ] −1 − Acids and Bases (Updated on May 15.. N H .CHEM 1101: CHEMISTRY (EEE/CoE) LECTURE 8 A base is an electron-pair donor. :O . and all anions or molecules having a lone pair of electron act as Lewis bases.69 0..60 0.65 Charge of ion +1 +1 +1 +1 +2 Qualitative strength Weak base Strong base Very strong base Strongest base Weaker base Weaker base Al(OH)3 0. F B F Complex H H H N H H + (b) H+ F + H H H H N H H (c) F B F Factors that are responsible for the strength of acids and bases (1) Base LiOH NaOH KOH CsOH Mg(OH)2 Size of metal ions: Size of metal ion (Å) 0. O .. H + :N H H F . H3PO4 ↔ H+ + H2PO4 1 [ H + ][ H 2 PO4 ] K= = 0. All cations or molecules short of an electron pair act as Lewis acids.
(4) Ionic potential: The ratio between the charge and the radius of an ion is called ionic potential (ϕ ).e. H 2 SO4 > H 3 PO4 > H 2 SO3 HClO4 > H 2 SO4 > HNO3 > H 2 SO3 > H 3 AsO3 > HClO Note: S with oxidation number +6 in H2SO4 exerts a greater pull on all the electron pairs of O atoms than does S in H2SO3. ϕ = z . the greater is the strength of acid.2 -amphoteric (both acidic & basic) (5) Electro negativity: The decreasing electro-negativity gives rise to decreasing strengths of acids in the order.3 2. i. decreasing bond energy. where z is charge and r is radius. easily gives up proton. the stronger the acid. Bond distance of HI (1. HI > HBr > HCl > HF (6) Number of oxygen and hydrogen atoms: The greater the difference between the number of oxygen and number of hydrogen atoms.CHEM 1101: CHEMISTRY (EEE/CoE) LECTURE 8 (3) Oxidation number: The oxidation number of the central atom determines the strengths of the acids.7Å) is greater than HF(1. r -acidic -basic +7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +1 +6 +5 +4 √ϕ > 3. H2SO4 > H2SO3. HF > H2O > NH3 Decreasing the atomic size of halogens decreasing strengths of halogens acids (ii). HNO3 > HNO2 (7) Number of non-hydrogenated oxygen molecule: The greater the number of non-hydrogenated O atoms per molecule. 2011) Page 8 . Acids and Bases (Updated on May 15.3 < √ϕ < 3.0Å). Increasing bond length. F>O>N .2 √ϕ < 2.
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