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Chapter 6 Performance

Chapter 6 Performance

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ME 464 Flight Mechanics

Chapter 6 Elements of Airplane Performance

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6.1 Introduction 

´First Europe, and then the globe, will be linked by flight, and nations so knit together that they will grow to be next-door neighbors. This conquest of the air will prove, ultimately, to be men·s greatest and most glorious triumph. What railways have done for nations, airway will do for the worldµ Claude Grahame-White, British aviator, 1914

landing.  . etc. turning.4 Questions about airplane performances What is the maximum speed? (Vmax)  How fast can it climb to a given altitude? (R/C)max  How far can it fly on a given tank of fuel? (range)  How long can it stay in the air? (endurance)  Take-off.

weight forces only Aircraft is a rigid body Aerodynamic pressure. shear stresses converted into lift and drag . drag. thrust.5 Core of flight dynamics Lift.

drag polar for the complete airplane  CD=CD. parasite drag coefficient .e+CL2/TeAR  ² CD.6 Drag Polar Aerodynamic force and moments are from the pressure distribution and the shear stress distribution  Aerodynamicists provide performance engineers the pertinent data.e.

landing gear and other components.0+rCL2  . a function of E. profile drag of the wing. engine nacelles. friction and pressure drag of the tail and fuselage.7 Drag Polar.e =CD. Parasite Drag Parasite drag coefficient. including wave drag if applicable  Also. angle of attack  CD.

8 Drag Polar CD=CD. Oswald efficiency factor.0+(r+1/TeAR )CL2 CD.0+CL2/TeAR CD.0. span efficiency (non-elliptic lift distribution) plus the effect of the variation of parasite drag with lift  .i Drag due to lift  CD=CD. parasite drag coefficient at zero lift e.

9 Drag Polar. ideal case CD     Drag=zero-lift drag + drag due to lift CD=CD. at E=EL=0 Drag polar.0 CL CL CD. graph CL vs CD CD.0. parasite drag coefficient at zero lift.i CD.0+ CD.0 CD .

zero-lift doesn·t match with minimum drag EL=0 is slightly negative. negative pitch increases pressure (form) drag due to flow separation CL CD. real case    CD=CD.min CD CD.CL min )2/TeAR drag Actually.10 Drag Polar.0 .0+(CL.

11 Flight Path ET .

12 6.2 Equations of Motion .

level (U=0) .2 Equations of Motion Inertia force=ma=mdV/dt  Centrifugal force=mV2/r  Equilibrium equations TcosET²D-WsinU= mdV/dt L+ TsinET²WcosU= mV2/r  Static performance.13 6. unaccelerated flight TcosET=D L+ TsinET=W  .

14 6. unaccelerated flight L=W  T=D=q’SCD  L=W=q’SCL  T/W=CD/CL  Thrust required TR=W/(CL/CD)=W/(L/D)  . Unaccelerated Flight When ET is small (usually is) T=D Equation of motion for level.2 Level.

0 + CL2 /TeAR  Then get the CL/ CD   Calculate TR=W/(CL/CD) Draw TR vs V’ curve (L/D)max V’ .15 Thrust Required TR   At a given altitude. for varying V’ TR CL=W/ [V’V’2 S]  CD= CD.

16 .

different thrust required L/D (L/D)max E .17 Lift-to-drag ratio    L/D is a measure of the aerodynamic efficiency Minimum thrust angle of attack at maximum L/D ratio (2-50 for subsonic flight) Different angle-ofattack.

q’ is also high (V’V’2 )  Then CL is not large small E  For low velocity.18 Thrust²required Curve As V’ is high. q’ decreases so CL and consequently Eincrease also increase induced drag  TR E increase V’ .

19 Minimum Thrust Required TR ! D ! qg SCD ! qg S (C D . 0  W qg STeAR 2 Take a derivative to obtain the minimum point V(L/D)max .0  C D .i ) 2 CL TR ! qg S (C D .0  ) TeAR W as C L ! qg S TR Net TR Zero-lift TR Lift induced TR TR ! qg SCD .

0  2 !0 dqg qg STeAR C D. 0  qg STeAR C D.0 W2 ! 2 2 qg S TeAR 2 2 ¨ W ¸ W 2 ¹ ! CL as 2 2 ! © ©q S¹ qg S ª g º 2 W TR ! qg SC D . this case minimum dTR W2 ! SC D .0 2 CL ! ! C D .i TeAR .20 dTR dTR dVg ! dqg dVg dqg Chain rule Minimum or maximum.

21 Cessna Skyline which is simulated as CP-1 .

22 Cessna Skyline which is simulated as CP-1 .

230 hp (at S.8  Propeller efficiency=0. CP-1 Wing span b=35.0 0.8  .23 Example 6.) single engine  Parasite drag coeff CD.025  Oswald efficiency factor e=0.1.L.8ft  Wing area S=174 ft2  Gross weight W=2950 lb  Fuel capacity 65gal (aviation gasoline)  Power plant.

two turbofan engines  Specific fuel consumption 0.1.24 HW 1: Example 6.3ft  Wing area S=318 ft2  Gross weight W=19.6lb fuel/(lb thrust)(h)  Parasite drag coeff CD. CJ-1 Wing span b=53.02  Oswald efficiency factor e=0.815 lb  Fuel capacity 1119gal (aviation gasoline)  Power plant. 3650-lb thrust.0 0.81  .

25 Thrust required curve for the CJ-1 .

357 CL ! 2 1 V gVg2 S 0.002377 * 200 *174 2 b 2 35.82 ! ! 7.37 L CL 0.26 How to obtain thrust required curve for the CP-1? Assume W Vg ! 200 ft / s ! 136.8 * 7.2 D C D 0.0319 W 2950 TR ! ! ! 263lb L / D 11.0319 C D ! C D.357 ! ! ! 11.357 2 ! 0.37 AR ! S 174 2 CL 0.025  ! 0. iterating with V’ .5 * 0.2 Use excel spreadsheet.4mi / h 2950 ! ! 0.0  TeAR T * 0.

211 0.70 13.100 0.027 0.395 0.79 12.427 1.70 7.58 13.032 0.170 0.32 8.030 0.295 0.58 11.75 8.033 0.23 6.27 Excel Spreadsheet.55 9.440 0.047 0.270 0.026 10.41 11.038 0.634 0. CP-1 at sea-level CP-1 Thrust and power required CD L/D TR 1.063 0.844 0.028 0.031 0.027 0.078 0.027 0.58 13.159 0.82 11.179 0.035 0.357 0.323 0.026 0.93 9.029 0.042 0.182 0.21 7.30 13.148 0.67 5.39 6.494 0.34 12.196 0.248 0.728 0.79 6.028 0.054 0.026 0.557 0.01 5.027 0.94 12.35 279 250 232 222 217 217 221 228 238 250 264 280 297 316 337 359 383 408 434 462 491 520 552 Vfree 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 CL PR 27889 27535 27866 28835 30414 32595 35376 38764 42773 47418 52719 58698 65377 72781 80936 89868 99606 110175 121605 133925 147162 161347 176509 .991 0.19 10.135 0.139 0.228 0.

210 CL ! 2 1 V gVg2 S 0.022 W 19815 TR ! ! ! 2075lb L / D 9.32 ! ! 8.0  TeAR T * 0.55 Use excel spreadsheet.28 How to obtain thrust required curve for the CJ-1? Assume W Vg ! 500 ft / s ! 341mi / h 19.93 AR ! S 318 2 CL 0.815 ! ! 0.5 * 0.93 L CL 0. iterating with V’ .212 ! 0.022 C D ! C D.02  ! 0.81* 8.55 D C D 0.002377 * 500 * 318 2 b 2 53.21 ! ! ! 9.

25 8.61 15.237 0.48 16.218 0.405 0.56 10.363 0.025 0.428 0.48 14.022 0.583 0.259 0.022 L/D 16.56 9.026 0.032 0.85 12.022 0.454 0.024 0.022 0.94 15.271 0.88 9.023 0.022 0.187 CD 0.21 9.023 0.210 0.87 14.25 12.383 0.030 0.44 12.035 0.29 Excel Spreadsheet V free CL 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 0.28 10.033 0.312 0.029 0.024 0.512 0.05 11.24 15.027 0.91 10.07 13.345 0.194 0.025 0.297 0.248 0.024 0.25 14.66 13.67 TR 1188 1202 1220 1243 1269 1299 1332 1369 1408 1450 1495 1543 1593 1645 1700 1756 1816 1877 1940 2005 2073 2142 2213 2286 .66 11.284 0.328 0.68 16.481 0.026 0.028 0.023 0.228 0.022 0.022 0.202 0.546 0.95 8.

30 Thrust Available andMaximum Velocity Constant power Constant thrust .

87 at sea level .2 maximum velocity of CJ-1 Thrust available TA=2*3650=7000 lb Maximum velocity.31 Example 6. 975 ft/s Mmax=Vmax/a=975/1117=0.

32 Power required for level. PR=TRV’ = (W/CL/CD)V’  Substitute V’  ² L=W= q’ SCL=½ V’ V’2 S CL ² V’ =sqrt(2W/V’ S CL)  PR =  PR = (W/CL/CD) (2W/ V’ S CL)½ (2W3 CD 2/V’ S CL3)½~1/[CL3/2 /CD] . unaccelerated flight Power=energy/time=F*s/(t=FV  Power required PR=TRV’  Substitute TR.

33 Power required of CP-1 at sea-level (Propeller) CL3/2 /CD .

0 + CL2 /TeAR)V’  PR=[zero-lift power required]+[Liftinduced power required]  .34 Power required for level. unaccelerated flight Note that for propeller  PR~1/[CL3/2 /CD]  For jet (constant thrust)  TR ~1/[CL/CD]  PR=TRV’= DV’ (true for level flight T=D)  PR= DV’= q’S( CD.

0  2 TeAR 1 W 2 / V gVg2 S dPR 3 2 ! V gVg2 SC D.i ¸ ! 0 ! V gVg2 S © C D . 0  dVg 2 TeAR 2 3 2 ¨ ¸ W 2 / V gVg4 S 2 ¹ © required 3 4 ¹ ! V gVg2 S © C D .0  V gVg S ª 2 2 TeAR 1 W 2 / V gVg S 1 3 2 ! V gVg SCD . 0  CD .i ª º 1 2 ¸ ¨ CL ¹ © 3 1 3 ¹ ! V gVg2 S ¨ C D.0 =1/3 CD.0  2 TeAR © ¹ © ¹ CD. 0Vg  qg SVg TeAR 1 ¨ 2 ¸ ©W / V gVg S ¹ 1 1 2 º 3 3 ! V gVg SCD .0  3 © ¹ 3 2 TeAR ¹ 2 © ª º © ¹ ª º Minimum power .35 2 CL PR ! qg SCD .

i Minimum thrust. CD.0 =1/3 CD.36 Lift-induced.i .0 =CD. zero-lift and net power required CD.

37 Minimum thrust required vs minimum power required PR=TR* V’ Minimum slope gives minimum thrust d ( PR / Vg ) d (TRVg / Vg ) dTR ! ! !0 dVg dVg dVg .

38 HW2: Example 6.000 ft  .3 Calculate the power-required curves for CP-1 at sea level  Calculate the power-required curves for CJ-1 at 22.

001184 slug/ft3 PR=TR* V’ .39 Power required for the CJ-1 at 22.000 ft Change air density 0.

40 Power Available Power available=(propeller efficiency)*(shaft brake power) .

41 Power available for propeller and jet engine propeller hpA=L*bhp jet PA=TA* V’ TA is constant for jet .

map on PR graph.8*230=184 hp. alt=(0. hpA=(TA* V’)/550 ‡ Thrust is proportional (also power) to V/V0.42 Example 6.001184 ‡ hpA. V0=0. propeller efficiency 0.000 ft CP-1 horsepower rating at sea level 230hp.001184/0.002377. V(at 22.8 ‡ hpA=L*bhp=0.000ft)=0. Vmax=265 ft ‡ For CJ-1.4   Find maximum velocity for CP-1 at sea level and for the CJ-1 at 22.002377)(3650*2) (V’)/550=6.61 V’ .

43 CP-1 hpA=184hp Vmax=265ft/s CJ-1 hpA. alt=6.61 V’ Vmax=965ft/s .

VSC L V0 V . PR .44 Altitude effect on power-required curve Assumed the same CL and CD V0 ! Valt ! 2W .0 V0 Square root of density ratio V .alt ! PR .0 ! PR .alt ! 2 2W 3C D 3 V 0 SC L 2 2W 3C D 3 VSC L Valt ! V0 PR . V 0 SC L 2W .

45 Effect of altitude on power required .

46 Propeller At higher altitude. power available drops and maximum velocity reduces Jet At higher altitude. slope of the power available drops and maximum velocity reduces .

low limit is Vmin instead of Vstall .47 At high enough altitude.

000ft altitude Sea level 22.5 Obtain PR curve at sea level converting from the 22.48 H.000 ft .W. 3 : Example 6.

49 Rate of Climb L=W cos U L and D is smaller during climbing than level flight (lower induced drag) T=D+W sin U TV’=DV’+WV’ sin U DV’]/W= V’ sin U [TV’- (Excess power)/W=R/C= rate of climb .

50 Excessive Power Propeller-driven jet-driven .

51 Maximum rate of climb [Excess power]/W=R/C Maximum rate of climb occurs at maximum excess power .

52 Hodograph for climb performance High climb angle doesn·t give maximum climb rate .

4: Example 6.53 H.6  Obtain rate of climb vs velocity for CP-1 and CJ-1 .W.

54 .

55 Gliding Flight L=W cos U D=W sin U D/L=sin Ucos U tan U=1/(L/D) Higher L/D. long distance . shallow glide angle.

6]=4.000ft.7 CP-1 power-off glide from 10.6mi .000ft=25.56 Example 6. maximum L/D=13. Find the maximum range and glide angle.20 R=h/tan U!h*(L/D)=136.6 U=tan -1[1/(L/D)]= tan -1[1/13.

9 U=tan -1[1/(L/D)]= tan -1[1/16.57 Example 6. Find the maximum range and glide angle.9]=3. maximum L/D=16.000ft=32mi Higher L/D gives longer range .000ft.390 R=h/tan U!h*(L/D)=169.8 CJ-1 power-off glide from 10.

000ft and 2000ft each. Find the equilibrium glide velocity.000ft . L/D 1 L ! V gVg2 SCL ! W cos U 2 2 cosU Vg ! V gCL ¨W ¸ © ¹ ªSº Wing loading determines speed W 2950 ! ! 16.58 Example 6.95 S 174 From 10.8 CP-1 power-off glide from 10. maximum L/D=13.6 Angle and range.

2.

2 0 16. 4.95 cos Vg ! ! 174.3 ft / s .

0017556 .0.

0.634 2.

95 cos . 4.2 0 16.

000ft Vg ! ! 154. From 2.3 ft / s .

0022409 .0.

634 CL. from max L/D calculation .0.

59 Absolute and service ceilings Rate of climb=[Excess power]/W .

R/C=100 ft/mim Absolute ceilings. R/C=0 .60 Absolute and service ceilings Service ceilings.

only level flight is possible .61 At Absolute Ceiling No excess power.

10 Obtain absolute and service ceiling .W.5: Example 6.62 H.

the better.63 Time to Climb The faster. civil airline clear congested traffic area and to better weather condition sooner dh=(R/C)dt dh t!´ R 0 C h2 Integration of (R/C)-1 over altitude . fighter.

W. and CJ-1 .11 Find time required to climb to 20.64 H.000 ft for CP-1.6 : Example 6.

also different for propeller and jet  .65 Range and Endurance Range. total distance (measured wrt ground) traversed by the airplane on a tank of fuel  Endurance. total time that an airplane stays in the air on a tank of fuel  The parameters are different for maximizing endurance and range.

66 Range and Endurance. occurs at minimum power required condition. propeller-driven Airplane    Specific fuel consumption Weight of fuel consumed per unit power per unit time SFC=(lb of fuel)/(bhp*h) ² Note: for jet use TSFC (Thrust specific fuel consumption)   (lb of fuel)/h SFC*hpR Minimum pounds of fuel per hour maximum endurance. CL3/2 /CD .

propeller-driven Airplane      Maximum endurance occurs when the airplane is flying at a velocity such that CL3/2 /CD is maximum (lb of fuel)/(h* V’) § (SFC*hpR)/ V’ (lb of fuel)/(mi) § (SFC*hpR)/ V’ (lb of fuel)/(mi) maximum range hpR/V’ tangential line of PR curve maximum CL/CD Maximum range occurs when the airplane is flying at a velocity such that CL/Cd is maximum .67 Range and Endurance.

68 Maximum endurance and range for propeller-driven airplane Max CL3/2 /CD Max CL/Cd .

69 Endurance Equation. propeller SFC ! c ! lb fuel .

ft * lb / s s cPdt ! d .

fuel lb Wl ! W0  W f dW f ! dW !  d .

fuel ! cPdt lb dW dt !  cP dW ´ dt ! E ! w cP ´ 0 l E w0 .

70 Range Equation. propeller SFC ! c ! lb fuel .

ft * lb / s s cPVg dt ! Vg d .

fuel ! Vg dW lb Vg dW Vg dt ! ds !  cP Vg dW ´ ds ! R ! w cP ´ 0 l R w0 Multiply both side with V’ .

area under (1/cP) . area under (V’/cP) Endurance.71 Graphic solution to obtain maximum range and endurance Range.

maximum fuel . W=L for level flight L CL R! c CD w0 dW L CL W0 ´ W ! c CD ln W1 wl Maximum propeller efficiency. Range PA DVg P! ! L L 0 VgLdW LdW R! ´ !´ cDVg cD wl wl 0 L WdW L L dW !´ R! ´ cD W cD W wl wl Level flight w w0 w0 w Multiply W up and down.72 Breguet Formulas (for propeller). minimum c. maximum L/D.

73 Breguet Formulas (for propeller). W=L for level flight Vg ! w0 E! L CL ´ c CD wl 3 L CL / 2 ¨ Vg S ¸ 1 / 2 W0 ! 2 © ¹ W Wl c CD ª 2 º 3 L CL / 2 ! . Endurance P! PA DVg ! L L w0 w Level flight 0 LdW LdW !´ E! ´ cP cDVg wl wl w0 E! L WdW L L dW !´ ´ cDVg W w c DVg W wl l 2W 1 . L ! W ! V gVg2 SC L 2 V g SC L V g SC L dW 2 W 3/ 2 1/ 2 w0 Multiply W up and down.

2 V g S 1/ 2 Wl 1/ 2  W0 1/ 2 c CD .

High L, low c, large fuel, CL3/2 /CD, sea level (V’)

74 H.W. 7 : Example 6.12 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CP-1
0.8 2950 L CL W0 R! ln 13.62 ln ! 7 c C D W1 2.27 *10 2583 c ! 0.45lb fuel /

hp * h ! 0.45 ! 2.27 *10 7 ft 1 550 * 3600 3 ¨ CL ¸ ¨ CL / 2 ¸ From example 6.1 ¹ ! 13.62, max© ¹ ! 12.81 max© ©C ¹ © C ¹ ª Dº ª D º R ! 6.38 *106 ft ! 1207 mi
3 L CL / 2

2 V g S 1/ 2 Wl 1/ 2  W0 1/ 2 E! c CD .

81. 0.8 1/ 2 12.

2 * 0.002377 *174 .

4h ! . 25831/ 2  29501/ 2 7 2.19 *10 4 s ! 14.27 *10 ! 5.

75 ¨ CL ¸ max© ¹ © C ¹ ! 13.62 ª Dº 3 ¨ CL / 2 ¸ max© © C ¹ ! 12.81 ¹ ª D º CP-1 at sea level .

at maximum L/D (lb of fuel)/(h*V’) (TSFC* TA)/ V’ (lb of fuel)/(mi) (TSFC* TA)/ V’ .76 Range and Endurance. Jet Airplane        flight) Weight of fuel consumed per unit thrust per unit time TSFC = (lb of fuel)/(lb of thrust*h) (lb of fuel)/h TSFC*TA Endurance of jet TA (equals TR for level Minimum thrust of jet.

Jet Airplane       (lb of fuel)/(mi) maximum range minimum (TA /V’) tangential line of TR curve TR /V’= D /V’=(½ V’ V’2 S CD)/ V’= ½ V’ V’ S CD V’ = (2W/ V’ S CL)1/2 TR /V’= ½ V’ S(2W/ V’ S CL)1/2CD TR /V’ 1/[CL1/2/CD] Flight at the maximum [CL1/2/CD] gives maximum range .77 Range and Endurance.

78 CL1/2/CD L/D .

jet TSFC ! c ! lb fuel .79 Endurance Equation.

lbthrust s Multiply W up and down. W=L lb  ctTA dt ! d . TA=TR=D.

fuel ! dW dW dt !  ctTA E w0 dW 1 L dW ´ dt ! E ! w ctTA ! w ct D W ´ ´ 0 l l 1 C L W0 E! ln ct C D Wl Minimum ct. max CL/CD w0 . maximum fuel.

jet Vg dW ds ! Vg dt !  ctTA R w0 w0 Level flight Vg dW VgWdW ´ ds ! R ! w ctTA ! w ctTRW ´ ´ 0 l l Vg LdW Vg C L dW !´ !´ !´ ct DW ct C DW wl wl wl ! w0 w0 w0 2W C L dW V g SCL ct C DW Min ct. CL1/2/CD .High altitude 2 C1/ 2 1 L (W01/ 2  Wl1/ 2 ) V g S C D ct .80 Range Equation. max fuel.

W.4 !2 ( 19815  12352 ) 4 0.13 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CJ-1 1 ¨ CL ¸ ¨ C L/ 2 ¸ max© © C ¹ ! 16.667 *10 ! 19.6 lb fuel / lb fuel * h ! ! 1.1 ? A 2 1 23.81 H.001184 * 318 1.6 ct ! 0.2 *106 ft ! 3630mi .667 *10  4 s 1 3600 1 2 C L/ 2 1 (W01/ 2  Wl1/ 2 ) R!2 V g S C D ct 6. 8 : Example 6.9. max© C ¹ ! 23.4 ¹ © ¹ ª Dº ª D º From example 0 .

W. 8 : Example 6.13 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CJ-1 1 C L W0 E! ln ct C D Wl 1 ¨ 19815 ¸ .82 H.

667 *10 ª 12352 º E ! 4.9 ln© ! ¹ 4 1.3hr 4 .16.79 *10 s ! 13.

8 : Example 6.83 H.13 CJ-1 Ex .W.

84 Takeoff performance F=ma=mdV/dt. dV=(F/m)dt V=(F/m)t or t=Vm/F ds=Vdt=(F/m)tdt s=(F/m)(t2/2)= (V2m)/(2F) Rolling resistance R=Qr(W-L) F=T-D-R=T-D.Qr(W-L)=mdV/dt .

85 1 V gVg2 SC L 2 2 1 CL ¸ 2 ¨ ¹ D ! V gVg S © C D .0  J © 2 TeAR ¹ ª º L! .

16h / b 2 J! 2 1  .

D varies with velocity F . h / b 16 J ground effect. or float. even though L. air cushion. tendency to flare Note that F is rather uniform.

86 Takeoff performance V 2m V 2 (W / g ) s! ! 2F 2 T  ?D  Q r .

2 s LO 2W V g SC L max 1.  L Aavg W ? A Lift off speed=1.44W 2 ! gV g SC L max T  ?D  Q r .2 stall speed VLO ! 1.2Vstall ! 1.

 L Aavg W ? A ?D  Q r .

W  L Aavg ! ?D  Q r .

7VLO Can be simplified if T is large .W  L A0.44W 2 ! gV g SC L maxT LO substitute average value with 0.7V s LO 1.

distance is proportional to 1/V2’ (hot day at higher airport needs longer runway)  Increase CLmax. and T can decrease s .87 Takeoff performance sLO  1.44W ! gV g SC L maxT 2 Distance is very sensitive to the Weight  As T is proportional to density.

W. the wings are 6 ft above the ground when rolling  .02). CLmax=1.17 Estimate the liftoff distance for the CJ-1 at sea level  Assume paved runway (friction 0.88 H. 9: example 6.0.

89 Take-off Speed Vs. the airplane is able to maintain straight flight at that speed with zero yaw or with a bank angle of less than 50. the required rudder force may not exceed 180 lb. At these conditions at this speed. stalling speed Vmc. . minimum control system. if a critical engine fails.

the pilot rotates the airplane. equal to V1 or 5% higher than Vmc. the average pilot could safely continue with the takeoff in the event of a critical engine failure  VR. keep on accelerating  . takeoff rotation speed. the critical engine failure speed.90 Take-off speeds V1.

2 Vs or 1.  VLOF. even with one engine inoperative. 1. the pilot could lift the airplane off the runway and continue takeoff.1 Vmc  . takeoff speed (can clear 35 ft above ground obstacles). 10% higher than Vmu for extra safety  V2. minimum unstick speed. without any hazardous characteristics.91 Take-off speeds Vmu.

92 Landing Performance  D  Q r .

 L ! m W dV dt Thrust is zero (if not reversal) .

93 Landing performance V 2m VT2 (W / g ) s! ! W 2F 2?D  Q r .

3Vstall ! 1.3 2W V g SC L max landing speed=1.  L A .69W 2 sL ! gV g SC L max ?D  Q r .7VT 0 VT ! 1.3 stall speed 1.

 L A .7VT W 0 .

69W sL ! gV g SC L max TR  ?D  Q r .7VT 1.W  L ! m dV  TR  D  Q r dt 2 substitute average value with 0.

 L A0.7VT W With thrust reversal ? A .

spoilers employed so L=0.94 Example 6. empty feul tank.5 with flaps fully employed  . but increase 10% of zero-lift drag coefficient.18 Estimate the landing ground roll distance for the CJ-1 at sea level  Assume no thrust reversal. CLmax=2.

3 0. 0 ! 0.02  0.1* 0.022 1 1 2 D ! V gVg SC D .95 Example 6.002377 *104 2 * 318 * 0.9lb 2 2 1.02 ! 0.002377 * 318 * 2.3 2W 2 *12352 ! 1.6 ft / s C D .7VT ! 104 ft / s VT ! 148.5 V g SC L max 0.022 ! 89.18 VT ! 1. 0 ! 0.69W 2 sL ! gV g SC L max TR  ?D  Q r .

002377 * 318 * 0.7 VT ? A 1.9  0.022?0  ? .2 * 0.4.69 *12352 2 ! A 32.  L A .7VT W 0 Use the speed of 0.

89 12352  0 A ! 842 ft Use Qr=0.4 for paved runway (with braking) .

level turn Bank angle J W=L cos J Fr=L sin J Fr2=L2-W2 W Vg2 Fr ! W n 2  1 ! g R R! V 2 g Load factor n= L/W g n2 1 Small R. large [ large n and small V’ g n2 1 [! Vg V=R[ .96 Turning Flight.

pull up Fr=L-W=W(n-1) W Vg2 Fr ! W .97 Pull-up maneuver When L > W.

n  1 ! g R Vg2 R! g .

n  1 g .

n  1 [! Vg .

98 Pull-down maneuver Inverted such that Fr=L+W=W(n+1) W Vg2 Fr ! W .

n  1 ! g R Vg2 R! g .

n  1 g .

n  1 [! Vg .

99 High-performance military fighter n is large (3-10)  n+1 n and n-1 n  Wing loading W/S. Vg2 ! V g SC L 2 Insert V’ n=L/W . the better Vg2 2L 2 W ! ! R! gn V g SC L g ( L / W ) V gC L g S gn [! ! Vg L! gn ! 2L V g SC L V gC L n gn !g 2nW 2W S V gCL S 1 2L V gVg2 SC L . the smaller.

8 Rmin W 2 ! V g C Lmax g S Best performance at sea level [ nmax. Beech craft Bonanza 18.max nmax max ! g constraint. max . F-16. structural V g C L .100 V-n Diagram  Wing loading (W/S). n max ! V gVg n! ! W 2 W W S 2nmax W Corner velocity.max S . 2W S see V-n diagram 1 V gVg2 SC L 1 L 2 2 C L . min R V* ! V g C L . stall. F-15. 74. 66.

.

max [n .

101 V-n diagram Maneuver point Corner velocity .

102 Accelerated rate of Climb. Energy Method        Maneuver banned during WWII AFIT later could explain in energy terms Total A/C energy=PE+KE=mgh+½mv2 Specific energy He (energy height) He=(PE+KE)/W He=h+V2/2g Differentiate with t dHe/dt=dh/dt+(V/g)dV/dt .

103 Energy Height At higher energy state .

104 How to increase energy height? dV W dV T  D  W sin U ! m ! dt g dt Multiple V/W on both ¨ 1 dV ¸ ¹ T  D ! W © sin U  © sides g dt ¹ ª º TV  DV excess power V dV ! ! Ps ! V sin U  W W g dt V sin U ! R / C ! dh / dt Ps ! dh V dV  dt g dt This equation is dHe/dt Ps=dHe/dt .

Ps=(V/g)dV/dt. 300*32.105 Time rate of change of energy height dHe/dt=dh/dt+(V/g)dV/dt=Ps  Pilot can use excessive power to obtain rate of climb or acceleration or both  Example excessive power =Ps=300 ft/s while flying at 800 ft/s  ² Pilot can climb at 300 ft/s = dh/dt ² Use for acceleration.1 ft2/s ² Or combination of climb and acceleration .2/800=dV/dt=12.

106 Specific excess-power contour. subsonic .

supersonic .107 Specific excess-power contour.

n=1. W=18.108 F-104G supersonic fighter.000lb at maximum thrust Flight path for Minimum time to climb .

109 .

110 .

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