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Rainwater Harvesting for Domestic Water Supply 1982

Rainwater Harvesting for Domestic Water Supply 1982

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MICROFICHE REFERENCE LIBRARY
in Asia

er Harvestins for Domestic Water Sum'Lv . in Develonina Countrie. 8.D A T# iterature Survev by: Kent Keller Published by: US Agency Water and 1611 North Arlington, for International Development Sanitation for Health Project Kent Stree,t, Room 1002 VA 22209 USA

document WASHC-252 when ordering.

Available from: US Agency fur International Development Water and Sanitation for Health Project 1611 North Kent Street, Room 1002 Arlington, VA 22209 USA

Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

._._ _,...._.. ._ ._, - ..--

-

RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DC’!i;ESTIC GlATEP SUPPLY IN DEVELOPIMG COUF!TP.IES: A LITERATUPE SURVEY

I4ASH C-252 KENT KELLER 1 JUNE 1982

Drawing

from

White

et al,

1972,

bY Permission

b

RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A LITERATURE SURVEY ABSTRACT Interest in developing locally needs. of water ages. in rainwater countries harvesting has grown with efforts @RWH") for interest water supply *

in supporting human

organized RWH is

and implemented an attractive for using

to meet basic the with

way of

increas,ing

quantity water short-

available Catchments with

household existing built

use in areas roof structures storage

and surfaces, repreis

in combination sent a particularly

self-help promising

containers,

approach.

The literature

reviewed;

publications

most useful

to prospective are identified. for simple

designers Feasibility

and implementors and costs are given. technologies used for for (for US$

of RWH projects guidelines

assessment Construction is

RWH systems and storage roof is

of selected

catchment existing

described. several of the dry

When a small gallons season of the with per

catchment, part

day could

be provided at a cost

at least self-help X00.

in central storage tank)

Africa,

construction Costs of tanks

of under may be retechniques

effective

covers storage

duced by applying or planning storage

or modifying into

traditional

construction

of new buildings,

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1. 2. INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW 2.1 2.2 2.3 3. The range Implications of rainwater of type catchment of use for technique choice of technique community 7 8 < Page 1 4 4 5

Rooftopcatchment for household and small water supply in developing countries review and annotated bibliography

Literature 3.1

Broad concerns and basic constraints in rainwater catchment 3.1.1 rainfall patterns 3.1.2 needs 3.1.3 costs and comparisons with alternatives 3.1.4 maintenance and public health 3.1.5 publications and how to obtain them Catchment technologies 3.2.1 surfaces and materials 3.2.2 guttering systems 3.2.3 diverting "foul flush" 3.2.4 publications and how to obtain Storage 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6

: 9 9 12 16

3.2

them

3.3

'

technologies or "tanks" general considerations household tanks tanks for use with larger roofs tanks for use with surface catchments table: costs of materials, cost/m3 of water storage publications and how to obtain them describing planning and construction of rooftop catchment and storage techniques data to design a rooftop catchment designs system 68 68 3: 78

4.

Technical notes a few promising 4 l 4. T 4.2 Using costs 4.2.1 4.2.2 rainfall

of construction materials quantities ,for 4 tank calculating costs of materials

(continued)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4.3

Building water tanks 4.3.1 cement plaster jar, 0.25 m3 4.3.2 ferrocement tank, 10 m3 4.3.3 the Ghala Tank, 2.3 m3

5.

REFERENCES

“9

-l-

RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY IN DEVELOPING COTTNTRIES: A LITERATURE SURVEY 1. Introduction Effective rainwater for is harvesting thousands a rapid (RWH") techniques of years in have been of the

known and practiced world. water Today there supply,

in many areas

increase assistance

intef&?tP!?~~~&?Ia$'o?f devote projects more and more for meeting

as development

groups

attention basic

to small-scale,

locally-implemented

human needs. This high for level of interest of water is should not be surprising. RWH presents the basis; quantity it all As a numof water

an option

development It

resources,

ber of advantages. available require to import building or other the builds focus

a way to increase

to households mobilizing vast

on an incremental quantities and expertise systems.

does not at once, and

of resources, involved

the materials large projects, for complex

in planning with

In combination and construction efforts.

sanitation as and water techniques

RWH planning

can serve RWH relies

community skills

organization

upon local

and experiences patterns. with local

in construction,

consumption, are combined RWH systems in southern plan fiber, mortar, area

and rainfall imaginatively can be relatively Chad,

And when proven structures cost. or tile

and materials, For example, roof local with a

low in capital sheet metal

* an existing

of 30 m2, guttering tanks

made and hung with baskets of about

wood and

and three could

made oi' traditional at a cash cost

and cement

be built 4.)

US$ 80 (assuming

* see section

-2self-help of water a family's the dry labor)**. per day for This system would provide several gallons improving a part of

much of the year, situation during

substantially at least containers might reduce

water season. the

supply Use of cement

locally-available mortar could t::nks

to replace costs a great into a new

or supplement deal. public supply And if facility might

water

storage

be planned or health

and built center, small

such as a school be developed costs. RWH may be the only ground and surface for

a much larger increment in

a relatively

construction Finally, water further. where

way to increase cannot

availability

of

supplies

be developed

Why has the attention

great

potential

of RWH only audience

recently

come to the planners tradi-

of an international Answers

of development lie

and practitioners? tional structure

to this

question

in the

and administration assistance bodies for

of development and national broad-scale resources

assistance. planning the short

International authorities, term,

development impact within

each striving to devote

have tended

their they While effective

to water centrally of failures for if would

supply and implement indicates water rule. depend

technologies regionally that needs, this it

and projects or nationally. is not the most

can design a history strategy

meeting not the

has nevertheless RWH programs,

been the on the other

tendency hand,

Successful

clearly

**assuming a cement price of US$ 5.00 and less than 10% of total expenditures for sand and gravel. See section -4.2..

-3on local building considerations: styles, materials, for climate, participation of users,

and skills. the historical requiring international lack of interest neither the in RWR imported assistance

Another is that the

reason systems

are simple, which

technology organizations These features groups crete,

nor experts are set characteristics

development

up to provide. of RWR, however, the interest are precisely the and with con-

which committed

have aroused to supporting goals.

of individuals efforts planning challenges in increased

locally-organized providing present

acheiveable for

While will

assistance for many of a close is

and funds organizations, convenient, look

such projects the potential clean range water for

benefits-people

quantity for paper

in many areas--call The rest of this

at the

of RWR techniques. the field

an attempt tifying assessing and describe widely identified

to survey

by reviewing value

literature for planning is

and idenand

published

accounts

of greatest

RWH systems. the

An additional

objective

to identify and

construction of the literature

of a few of the most promising and storage techniques

applicable in the

catchment survey.

_.--___

-4-

2.

OVERVIEW 2.1 The Range of Rainwater Catchment Teotinique

Rainwater means of taking use. in the surface. Most water ground, In

harvesting water supply out of

-the

like

any

other cycle the or

kind for cycle

of

water

supply

--

is

a

hydrologic interrupt

some human or productive after it the water is below it on or the

strategies water out

diverting rainwater

of

streams water

pumping is

up from as water

harvesting, is

the

intercepted for it lost

falls. in make

Rainwater many areas particular because to the it where sense is

harvesting other in arid sources

an attractive are in short most soil

alternative supply, rainfall but is

supply

would to

seem to

regions briefly

where

any kind

of use directly

held only

in parched 1962). source of

and evaporates,

returning

atmosphere. Rain is of can

(Myers, a diffuse energy; be

water like

in

the

same way that it it is is (usually) available

sunlight

is

a

diffuse clean, quantities.

source and it

but, collected

also and

sunlight, until

relatively in useful

stored

The range spaning Furrows Australia a broad in the

of water

harvesting

approaches

and applications reach

is tremendous, of human history. used today in In out

spectrum soil

of technologies were used

and a considerable in ancient to provide 30 to diverted can hold Israel water 3,000

surface "road varying

and are for

(now called cisterns

catchments") in with capacity surface

agriculture.

Roman times, of soft 1963). water

from water out,

m3 were excavated of hillsides

limestone Certain caught

and filled tree trunks,

off

(Davis, volume of

when hollowed tree

a considerable

from flow

down the

branches.

-5-

In general, collecting (Currier, two basic channeling natural 197?j.

rainwater

harvesting from

c.,ln be defined prepared

as "the

process for

of use" with and

precipitation In practice, 1)

watersheds

beneficial as systems rain

most RWH schemes can be understood a 'surface -or "catchment" of reservoir for for

components: a flow

collecting receiving

of water , and 2) some kind and holding and can it for

the water

from the catchment ways of analysis. surface Often to the between a buried often faces classifying Systems employed: RWH systems elevation systems tank)

use or distribution. RWH systems according treated soil, for to or

There are many possible purposes the broad of description of and

organizing be classified soil, "ground

type

catchment material. according

untreated are of the in which called

artificial

sheet catchments"

catechments"

or "roof it is

catchment the

surface.

Sometimes water

is useful below the

to distinguish ground (e.g. in

surface

of stored

or,

alternatively, in tanks,

above the ground practice. buried For tanks, water

(as in a jar). example, rooftop or or

These categories catchment all three; surand so,il

overlap may feed

and intermingle above-ground tanks hand,

open ponds, from treated

conversely, surfaces 2.2 or,

underground on the other

may collect

untreated

from some kind Choice

of roof.

Implications Survey of the

of Type of Use for literature of on intended

of Techniques and domestic the applications use vs. suggests agricultural certain that use) techuses-of water, required are and not

techniques (e.g. of

establishing is helpful. niques water with the

categories The nature to

and requirements other or for alternatives. irrigation Clearly

use then For example, for large

indicate

as preferable for quality stock watering of is

agricultural quantities are clarity treatments,

-large

call

less surface

a concern. the

catchment Since color

areas and soil

ground

obvious

choice.

important,

any of a wide

variety

of physical

and chemical

easily

applied will

over often

large be chosen

expanses

of

ground, costs. domestic

may be considered.

Tanks

without

covers

to reduce for

On the other than their which agricultural elevation plague

hand, water water. protects

use should

be cleaner for

and more convenient surface as

Roofs

are an'obvious

choice

a catchment

them from many of the sources catchments. the Tanks distribution some kind built built

of contamination into is for or adjacent convenient. tanks,

and damage to homes Public reduces rate ; i of

ground buildings

surface

and public health

mean that usually

point of cover yet

considerations and

dictate can be

which

evaporation consumption Thus the near not buildings, always

means they by larger,

smaller tanks. rooftop water

support

thesame

provided nature for

uncovered

of domestic RWH schemes and this and 1969). rooftop

use indicates for domestic will

catchments supply. domestic (e.g. suitable until

and tanks this schemes and

in

or

Obviously supply Maikano roofing

will with

be true,

report

describe

ground-surface 1980; will Ionides, stand

catchments et al.,

open/underground In many areas, catchment, roofs least for, exist atop --

tanks lack at least of

Nyberg,

materials is without catchment

in the

way of

alternativeroofing are entirely -the

available.

But where

suitable at

and few areas facilities

some impermeable structure in adequate cpoftop by most Grover, systems,

roofing,

public

and surface guttering,

are paid foul

and available systems,

cash and effort for storage.

can be invested Additionally, of labor and Pacey, with required 1974;

flush

and tanks

catchment community 1971). each

systems

do not involve

the all-out

mobilization (Farrar incrementally undertaken

ground-surface Village water a small

catchment supply up-front can

systems improve

cdcchment a time.

requiring

cash

outlay,

one at

-7-

2.3

Rooftop Catchments for Developing Countries This report, developing rather, for low-cost to then, will

Household

and Small

Community

Water Supply

in

focus

on rooftop

catchment catchment for

systems techniques their

which will

have not

been be

used in ignored; tions

countries. they will domestic scarcities expertisf.e,

Ground-surface be surveyed water of here

and considered

potential

applica-

supply. capital are and listed relevant lack of access to many kinds which of are water

In addition modern industrial prevalent supply a. in option: tropical coming often b. soils capacity water

conditions, to

some of

many developing

countries,

RWH as a local-level

and

subtropical torrential

climates: bursts; (Grove, during

marke,d wet and dry very high potential

seasons; evaporation

rainfall rates,

in short, exceeding which dry

2 m per year out and crack

1978). sustained and retain dry water periods, reducing the

of soil recharge

horizons (Myers, using

to:absorb 1962);

and limiting sources and too

groundoften too

satisfactory

groundwater power,

deep to develop to develop c. dangers of using

available

human or animal pumps.

expensive

imported

engine-driven and other

waterborne

infectious

diseases

wherever

water

is

ponded or stored d.' rural proverty

in the open. with corresponding public nutrition works. deficits; lack of experience

in organizing

for

community

-8-

3.

LITERATURE REVIEW AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 3.1 Broad Concerns 3.1.1 Rainfall is Rainfall random and Basic ;datcerns mand even sporadic (Grove, 10% of there Grove in that the rainy is in occurrance. 1978) notes in This that only for is especially Africa as a 10 Constraints in Rainwater Harvesting

true whole, years. year Africa about

in

continental rainfall In effect, least that totals

climatic will

regimes; be within

averagfe

about

4 of any in

this moderate

means that drought. rain

some likelihood says falls that "in there

during observers a few spells

given East

of

at

(1978) area

contend a week".

most of the even during

lasting periods

Thus, length.

seasons,

may be dry

of considerable

Even in climates of rainfall represented during

moderated any given

by nearby

bodies

of water,

the

amount and frequency from the norm

month or year

can beexpected

to depart

by averagfe this imply

precipitation for water

statistics. supplies of relatively rainfall of totals simple from clean simple water rainwater during rainy catchment periods having may be of near-

What does systems?

At a minimum,

an addition high

can be expected. rainwater a significant surface With of rain wastes for

In areas with household advance and high in use in over water storage would (and dry (see

and short above-ground

dry seasons, container

some kind

using table.

groundwater

polluted

by interaction

investments

capacity, be available

water during

could parts area would

be provided of dry

during periods. could

periods Larger

and some water in storage

investments available

possibly

catchment this Rainfall

as well)

make water expensive

throughout areas

periods, sectionn

although "Using 4. I,

be impracticably

in many rural

Data to Design

a RWH System").

3.12 The value measured agreement

Needs of achievable local water would is water improvements needs. It in could water available during through RWH must there In be is such into could

against that

be that quality,

wet months,

adequate

in quantity,

and convenience. water larger from storage rooftops tanks

a case there small provide Local outside view,

be little real gains during

to be gained would only

by channeling be made if

containers; for

more water peoples'

the dry months. of it their could needs may also differ with health and that other investing those point rainwater may be of of

perceptions For example, in puddles

evaluators. abundant in water jars

be that not

from a public be drunk, on the in

and ponds should Local

collected accustomed drinking

would

be preferable.

people,

hand,

to water water.

from open sources

and see little

point

in cleaner

3.1.3 Implicit proposed the

Costs ,in the

and comparisons above and other discussion examine kinds

with is those of for

alternatives the costs need and to calculate benefits the costs in light of a of of

RWH system, of

related

feasibility

water water can

supply supply

improvements. is outside White individual community capita for the et al

Discussion scope

benefit/cost report, but

comparison a few that basic

techniques

of this have are such cost wells greater

observations

be made. costs than of

(19721

generalized substantially as standpipes of US $15 (East Africa,

construction

and financing

RWH systems improvements construction community out work that to

higher,

on a per head basis, wells.

simple

and community cisterns, 1972). of settlement

They estimate with et of

a per

for

as compared However, White

US $7 per al (1972)

capita also tend

point to

dispersion

and aridity

climate

each

raise

the

-lO-

per capita (decreasing) 88).

costs from

of any kind arid

of

water

supply

improvement: to humid the cost there

"The range nucleated advantege

of costs areas"

is

dispersed

environments regimes

(page

Thus in many climatic may disappear; providing (1973), as to

and settlement and indeed in

of standpipes

and wells means for Parker observations with

some areas

may be -no practicable

such community Farrar the

improvements. (1974), favor

and Pacey

and

Grover

(1971)

have in

each

made

conditions

which

simple

RWH systems

comparison

alternatives. a. where the self-help b. where small c. where

RWH will barriers community to

be relatively organzing

attractive: and providing large amounts of labor (for

systems) water

are high; improvements can be made available only in

capital amounts;

for

supply

the community construction

organizational

infrastructure

does not exist sytems;

to arrange

financing, d. where e. where

, or maintenance are dispersed; surfaces the cost are

of community

settlement impervious

patterns roofing

in use. of simple of materials, and storag prices parts RWH systems skills, over cash, other and/or

In a particular alternatives financial structures which tures help must for labor). will

situation also

advantage

depend on availabilities Actual costs of catchment the local

assistance. (such

depend on what existing materials and expendiassume selfare

as roofs) to

can be used, build in this the

of the building of the of system, will

be purchased labor (although Specific

remaining

report, for

discussions storage

costs

cost

estimates

and catchment

technologies

-ll-

included proposed worthwhile,

in

the

following can

sections,

and using

rough the

materials guidelines

cost in

estimates section 4.

for It

a is

system

be calculated

though,

to make some general cost storage involved (the

observations: in building "tank" quality. gravel, will rooftop catchment systems report)

a. most

of the materials providing leak

goes into which

term water sand,

be used in this

does not

and protects of netting in cement,

The most common materials bricks, stones, steel rod

used are or wire, b. the meter this lined for costs

combinations and steel of of

("chickenwire"). tanks, as measured vary from in widely. in materials cost tanks per included saltor more Africa cubic in

storage water cost/m3

(m3) report, open

capacity, ranges system

Among the for

under

US $ !.00/m3 1975)

a proposed

reservoir "tin" 1972).

Mali for

(Cluff, rooftop

to US $30.00/m3 in Eastern

manufactured et al,

tanks

catchment

(White c. as tanks

increase

in volume, tanks

their will

ratio tend

of wall

and cover

area

to capacity costs per

decreases.

Thus larger

to have lower

materials

m3 of capacity. d. however, cost large tanks built smaller .). built for with costs cement mortar and a variety (1982) of other with tanks manufactured built with or locally imported materials may

more per m3 than page 69 tanks, can be built

available

materials

(see chart, e. "family-sized" materials, countries.

of US $8.00.15.00/m3

in developing

-12-

3.14

Maintenance of

and Public

Health of course, is to keep the the quality requires system of the attention to the to working water to user: the

The objective (collecting provided each of contact tank, is the with residence Rooftop which the can tank

maintenance, and, at the

rainwater) as high processes the

same time, Achieving water transport

see that these from in

as possible. which

goals the

transmit surface,

atmosphere of

catchment in the tank, surfaces

some kind

channel

and delivery. collect to dust, the vegetable cause the from will matter, rapid water the not and bird sediment stored in droppings buildup the roof during which on tank. to the heavy "washes" stored the tank.

catchment clog transport and

channels in

tank,

bottom,

some cases) to transport

contaminate water they

Gutters tank) rain. the water roof in

and downpipes must be cleaned problem

(used

edge of the overflow water not to

frequently is

so that

A bigger at the the

consistently of each storm

diverting so that clean tanks

the dirty it will water are being

beginning

contaminate flow into by the gutters

tank,

and subsequently

allowing

In Java, (Winarto, tank inlet

where steel-reinforced 1981; Pompe et al,

cement motor 1982), the inlet

built the

hundreds to the

bamboo trough hole until after position

from the

is propped When the This of the out strategy, into sheet). roof

away from the is clean, it

first the

few minutes inlet sc'reen is

of rain. by a child. always clothes

is moved into to

over

scheme has precise to dry

no mechanism time of the

break

down, of the

and the rain

household

aware hanging

beginning indoors. are used

because on this

washed simple is to

must

be brought tanks it

A variation without is clean

but effective move the on the tank

when

smaller

downspouts,

position

or uncover

after

the roof

(see the drawing

cover

-13-

Other the trough funnel 1978) the

arrangements or downpipe

have been devised from the gutters

which to the

require tank.

some kind These "butterfly and

of

addition a tipping (Dooley,

to

include valves"

mounted under which are turned "foul cleaning is clean flush"

the gutter manually is

outflow after

(UNEP, 19079), the in roof is

cleaned,

"roofwashers", devices

in all

first

collected

a container. the always devices flow of

These water into

various position for

require roof

and repair, often easier of

and moving and almost "foul flush"

when the fastening in

cheaper.

Techniques in

downpipes section Filters sediment 1974; cistern require on the et al effective

and a variety 3.2.3. of sand,

are described

more detail

gravel

and charcoal

are

often (e.g. a

suggested Office small for

as a way of keeping of Water Programs/EPA,

and contaminants 1977). which The in

out of large designs turn

cisterns show

VITA, cover,

usually

concrete cleaning.

box

atop

the

has a removable and flushing to high

cover prevent

Such filters bacterial buildup Henderson that an and of

frequent filtering (1973)

inspection grains.

dangerous

Because of this

maintenance with cisterns downpipe

requirement, and suggest instead.

recommend against flush" question it is system the

use of a filter be installed of in

"foul

the sand

Farrar flow to tank

Pacey (1974) water through

effectiveness

as a filter is that it is out

when the better of the

intermittent. and effort in

Our conclusion keeping the "foul

invest than

available in filters.

resources

flush"

The maintenance on the practicality maintenance holes. If effectiveness of the

requirements of "foul roof, flush"

of the gutter,

tank and

itself

will

depend to a large cleaning, important as well

extent as the in tank

downpipe The other

system. cover its

factor

is the quality sunlight

of the tank the water

and screening temperature

on any inlet rises and

and outlet algae grow.

reaches

-14-

Unprotected areas cover where and

openings tanks screening, "Heaven's are

bring

mosquito near

breeding, homes. to But have

particularly regardless sediment vinegar,

dangerous of the scooped baking

in malarial of the and walls

located all water..." tanks

quality out

need (1980)

scrubbed. bleach

suggests

soda,

and chlorine

solutions

as cleaning walls access should used to own. as long hole

agents. as it or tap

Any cleaning would area

material the

can be used to remove new charge and well inside of water. drained. surface.

scum from tank Any tank's Cracks in mortar

not contaminate must be kept

clean

be replastered lift water out

after of

each cleaning a tank, has

of the substantial

A pump,if
requirements

maintenance

of its

The maintenance similar used; Maikano vulnerable Ionides all et to those of

requirements rooftop

of

ground

surface

catchment "Foul flush"

systems

are broadly are area not (e.g. are

catchment basins are and used

systems.

devices

sometimes and to al

sedimentation 1980)

near the outflow instead. caused propose would

of the

catchment

Nyberg,

Ground by fencing

surface and

catchments animal areas traffic. to

contamination (1969) off and the

damage (1971)

human

Grover surface,

catchment

keep in floors

such traffic

but this (1980)

be expensive grain

and ineffective threshing

many areas.

Maikano

aild Nyberg in

say that could

traditional be fenced

used a catchment using tree branches. point

surfaces

Botswana

inexpensively,

possibly

A general systems which

to a

be made about group of

the maintenance families is that

of

ground

surface of

catchment community catchment

serve

some degree

organization systems

is required.

By contrast,

maintenance

of household

rooftop

requires

no such commitments.

-15-

A summary of key maintenance 1. Any RWH system which systems has

considerations catchment,

follows: channeling, storage, and delivery

components 2. Community maintenance;

must be given require

frequent

attention. for effective smaller scale

cc nunity require

organization

household

syst--,ns

a correspondingly

of organization. 3. Rooftop catchment su aces have the advantage traffic which causes of not being vulnerable

to human and anima; ground suface

contamination

and damage to

catchments, or device for keeping the "foul flush" out of the tank

4. A procedure deserves 5. Gutters fully. 6. Any tank lint0

particular

attention. must be inspected and cleaned especially care-

and downpipes

needs

periodic

cleaning.

Its

design

should

take

this

fact

account.

-163.1.5 Publications and how to obtain them +++ 1974, More Water for book, National USA. this overview Topics: and soil and others. gravel in Ionides is runoff divided agria free Arid Lands: mention name

Commission Promising of your

on International Technologies or insitutional Office Avenue,

Relations/NAS, and Research of the Foreigh affiliation Washington, after reducing dislcusses U.S., as well hillsides and section

Opportunities, Secretary, D.C. 20418, 8 years evaporation techniques as the

154 pages,

group

when requesting

copy from

BOSTIC (JH215), 2101 Constituion Still culture, trickle babwe, useful reuse irrigation,

Academy of Sciences,

and provocative "water supply" selecting of water, harvesting rainwter of the from

in print, conservation".

in two halves,

and "water water-efficient

from water crops, ancient and research

surfaces, The chapter used good and

on rainwater to harvest photogrtiphs Farrar

in Australia,.Z%mmounds and strips ago. Includes (1969) et al

and the western

in the Negev 4000 years tanks described (below). 3.3.4

"sand-sausage"

pnd Pacey (1974),

Frasier, harvesting in 1983.

G.W., with

and Myers, parts available

L.E.,

(?),

in preparation, water Dr. supply. Frasier

a handbook Will (see of Documents, section

on rainwater be published Washington, 3.2.4). as D.C.,

devoted information

to domestic contact

a USDA handbook,

from the Superintendedt

For further

Hofkes, 18,

E.H.,

ed.,

1981,

Small

Community request

Water Supplies, copy from

Technical

Paper

no. 2280

IRC/WHO, book,

413 pages,

a free

IRC, P.O. Box 5500,

HM RIJSWIJK,

The Netherlands. document contains on technology a 12.page as a source Bibliography is currently of small section rainwater &!#&%t& community is supply storage water that well supply the best systems". short

"A handbook/source This useful overview published Includes China)

which

probably

summary of rainwater good drawings and a Venetian cistern. editor

we have seen. (as used in

of an underground

of 12 items. working on a "design manual for

IRC says that RWH systems".

the

+++here, as in sections 3.2.4 and 3.3.6, been taken from Darrow and Pam (1976)

much of the access information and Darrow et al (1981).

has

ITDG, in preparation, techniques available workers. scope will The manual quently is us to believe as a~ until that cover is planned with Write Berkshire late it

"a practical option will will for for water 1983,

manual supply."

describing This quality systems domestic holders

rainwater book will of for

harvesting probably not range be leads of and the

but the consistens be well-researched be on low-cost of water wherever In order personnel and failures." at: for use by project

ITDG publications to a broad small communities workers information objective to share Section,

and useful

"The emphasis intended

the provision to include, field successes

and agricultural

purposes. and consederived anxious of ITDG is

and field practical this

possible, to achieve

from experience to make contact their Cullis, experiences-ITDG.)

in the field.

who would Applied

be willing Research

something Adrian Shinfield

(p ersonal Kingdom.

communication,

to Ms. Cullis

Road, Reading,

RG2 9BE, United

White, University

G.F.,

Bradley, of Chicago carefully

D.J., Press,

and White, book,

A.U.,

1972,

Drawers

of Water: from

Domestic

Water Supply

in East Africa,

306 pages,

US$16 (clothbound) Chicago, Illinois water involved over

11030 S. Langley,

60628 USA, supply in the devel-

An effective, oping lation types fram tropics,,of of water of water 1965-68.

assemb?ed overview tc a broad and their patterns for range varying strategies.

of domestic of workers applicability

interest supply improvements and settlement A key source

in the

formuof

Of particular in East Africa, containing world.

interest: where lessons

analysis the authors

of basic studied

the range

environments relevant

planners,

and insights

to much of the developing

-183.2 Catchment 3.2.1 Surfaces Roofing be an attractive This section technologies and materials. materials.In option outlines impervious many areas , existing where with rooftop clearly rainwater suitable catchment surfaces developments might are rare. in

roofs

some of the most Frb.nising roofing for developing of choice galvanized "zincpan", sheet is

of recent

low-cost,

countries. for metal etc.) light impervious sheet roofs (various tile,

The "conventional" countries "tin" are usually

materials corrugated "iron sheet", metal the

in develop ing ly called and "as-

, "galvanized", sheet.

, fired in weight, it is

bestos"

Manufactured better than

easy to install, also ,however, expen-

and sheds water sive might requires heavier is strong or altogether

other

alternatives; areas

unavailable Tile

in many isolated is fair1.y soil

where but its it

rooftop

catchment

be most appealing. a source than

impervious for ured firing:

manufacture is also substantially sheet prac'\ ,

of good clay materials.

and fuel Manufact

most other

corrugated expensive that

asbestos

and light unavailable materials

in weight, (Hofkes,

bu'

:'Ike metal 3.1.5, into

sheet,

ar;d often certain

tically roofing

see section fibers

suggests the runoff!.

asbestos

may shed asbestos materials which

"Traditional" faces reports water for roofs that from

may have some potential McDowell

as rain-shedding (1976; see section

sur3.3.6)

can be guttered. roofs

thatched the roof thatch

have been guttered (some sources Hall (1981;

with question

polyethylene the potability 3.2.4)

and that

the

is potable surfaces).

of water discusses and has con-

collected thatching broad

from

see section

materials

and techniques,

emphasizing technology.

the cost-effectiveness The durability investigators of thatch often express

potnetial

of a traditional questioned;

been widely cern over

public-health-minded place for

thatch

as a breeding

insects

and even rhodents.

-19The fabrication is an example catchment Fibre cal-level terltion entries per 50-kg a materials Parry (1981)) of rain-shedding shingles materials from coconut which might fit tree well trunks in a rooftop

of the use of local

system. reinforced fabrication (UNIDO, in section bag, cost 1978; cement ("FRC") corrugated countries, I.T. Building that sisal sheets, and processes considerable Workshop; price see of US$5 for for loat-

in developing Parry, 1981;

have received Materials

3.2.4).

UNIDO estimates reinforced $0.90/m2 on the with

at a cement fibers could countries

FRC sheets of about

be fabricated (1978). manufacturing

in many developing

reporting

pioneering

work on small-scale

technologies for FRC sheet, says that "By comparison with the conventional alternatives, if production labour costs are counted, fibre cement roofing components generally turn out to be: 1) Between one-third and one-quarter the cost of asbestos cement roofing sheets and requiring a similar roof structure. 2) Slightly more expensive than locally-produced traditional clay tiles but requiring a mcuh simpler and cheaper roof structure. 3) About three-quarters the cost of galvanized corrugated iron sheets and requiring similar or slightly more expensive roof structures. 4) About the same cost as medium quality traditional thatch where materilas have to be bought commercially by house builders, but with a similar roof structure. If made and supplied on a selfhelp basis with labour costs not counted, the FRC roofing products would frequently work out as the cheapest roofing of all." Parry also emphasizes for the importance of proper tools and adequate (made under training carefully after

in the methods controlled four years. A variety placed hull nology manually fibers

successful

manufacture. exposure

FRC sheets tests

conditions)

in natural

show no deterioration

of natural

fibers,

which

are usually

mixed with

the cement or Coconut TechCrushed

as the sheets are being Bandung apparently

are cast, tested in

can be used in FRC sheets. Indonesia personal at the Development communication),

("ijuk")

Institute,

(Anshori another

Jausal, alternative.

bamboo culm is

The mechanical in an asphalt bath,

forming

of waste

fiber

into

boards' being

which

are then in
,

soaked

is one of many techniqeus

investigated

India.

_- -...

_.

-.

-2oNAS (1974; an overview roofing see Roofing in Developing technologies. Countries Development feasibility , section 3.2.4) provides low-cost catchment

of new roofing

of more effective of rooftop

is one of the

keys to the countries.

broad-scale

schemes in developing

Ground Surfaces. of ground surface "a.

Grover

(1971, tecnologies:

page 52) offers

a useful

list

of the range

catchment

Clearing

sloping

surfaces

of vegetation

and loose ground

material, cover, the

b. Improving c. Mechanical surface, d. Reducing

vegetation treatments,

management

by changing

such as smoothing

and compacting

soil

permeability treatments catchment catchment catchment, catchments. with with

by the

application and seal

of chemicals, the surface,

e. surface-binding f. -9. Wiih little sibilities searched its Covering Covering the the

to permeate a rigid a flexible report

surface, surface.' will

and

emphasis space

on rooftop surface

this

devote

relatively the range of pos-

to ground kinds

We hope to indicate into a very broad

and the topic.

of investigations

and widely-re-

The lowest-cost tional This is one--the

alternative of runoff in

in ground

catchment

is,

of course, ground describe

a tradisurfaces. a stratof the runoff 5%

diversion fill

from completely Ionides in Botswana

unprepared (1969) took

how "hafirs" locating effect

the Sudan; tanks

et al which

egy for collecting

"sand-sausage" of rddd tracks. ground 1974,).

advantage

The "efficiency" surfaces

(ratio

of collected about

to rainfall) (Lauritzen,

of unprepared 1961; Cluff,

may be no more than

A variety

of materials

and treatments

can improve

efficiency

of ground-

-21surface 4 acteristics catchments. for Myers (1974, for the page 3) provides aprons...: must be nontoxic should to man and animals. a list of "desirable char-

materials from

catchment structure

1. Runoff

2. The surface to water. 3. The structure

of the structure

be smooth and impermeable

should

have high

resistance because

to weathering of internal chemical

damage and should or physical 4. The structure should wind, growth, be able occasional insects,

not deteriorate

processes

such as crystallization, mechanical strength but rainfall, plant

need not have great to resist animal birds, used should permit

damage by hail traffic, moderate

or intense flow

of water,

and burrowing be inexpensive, minimum site

animals. on an annual preparation cost

5. The materials basis, tion

and should costs.

and construc-

6. Maintenance Available of these great pensive materials

procedures and treatments Steel

should

be simple

and inexpensive," to meet others) drawback is also Paraffin Parafive years salts, of ex-

meet some (and fail 1967) 1966;

specifications. butyl

(Lauritzen, and Thayer, if

has the obvious Bradley, color 1967) to water.

expense;

(Lauritzen

and may impart

a noticeable, of all and its

harmless, the life chemical

may be "the ffin is cheap,

most promising easily applied, soil"

treatments

tested.

expectancy 1982).

is at least

when applied to reduce 1975) on soil (Frasier, impart is

to a sandy

(Eshenaur, surfaces

Application

of sodium banks (e.g.

seepage

on catchment but

and in reservoir

Cluff,

low in cost composition. 1975;

relatively

short-lived

and dependent considered weathering,

in effectiveness and proposed also tends with to

Sprayed

asphal t has been widely 3.2.4). Asphalt, whi ch might after

see section

a dark

co loring

to water

be eliminated

by spraying

-22one of a variety catchment for of treatmnnts. a community rainwtaer Grover (1971) proposed scheme in such a sprayed Kenya. for research into asphalt

harvesting

The University ground develop surface

of Arizona,

U.S.A.,

has been a center of the (1974)

catchments, for

although

the emphasis uses. including plastic", Cluff

research describes earth"

has been to a range of

catchments

agricultural there

approaches being investigated I ,I "gravel earth sodium treated", phalt-plastic-asphalt-chipcoat" cribed, however, methods. The organization in section underground catchment floors clay 3.3.4) tanks, project Christian suggests Maikano in Botswana surfaces. the treatments

"compacted

, "compacted of layers, As desmachinery; "as-

covered

and a sequence 1975 section on large, 3.2.5).

(see Frasier, are heavily dependent for

exensive using

some of them might

be adapted

application

labor-intensive

Care (Farrar apron (1980)

and Pacey, to collect describe

1974, water a pilot

see illustration for their rainwater grain threshing of chemical

a concrete and Nyberg which

makes use of traditional are plastered the water with

as catchment

These floors

a mixture for

and cow dung and the concentrations.

project

is monitoring

collected

and pathogen

FWH’m 4. Ground Calchrmnt

Institute

for

Rural

Water,

1982c

(draft)

by permission

-23-

3.2.2

Guttering

systems

Clearly, water from

effective

guttering stored

is a key to rooftop it is not

catchment channelled for

systems; efficiently construction Techof

can be neither the roof

nor consumed if Yet the materials that is omitted

to the tank. is a topic is far cost

and techniques from almost than construction small part all

effective nically, water Possibly reasons.

gutters guttering storage,

accounts.

less

challenging

of cost-effective of tltal for costs. these

and its

is usually

a relatively ignored

guttering

has been largely

in published

accounts

General obviously the roof. vary

considerations. with the intensity

How big

do gutters storms yields

need to be? and the

Size

needs will covered roofs, 15 cm runby

of local runoff

ground

area metal

Ree (1976), metal gutters

investigating 20 cm wide gutters the

from sloping each with of twice over

used sheet in diameter. off year rate

by 10 cm deep, had a capacity

a downpipe the greatest a period

Each of these from half USA.

recorded

12 x 18 m area half

of roof

of one have and downbe

in Oklahoma, the year's with enough

Thus gutters rain area but than

as wide roof. x depth)

or half

as deep would gutters

handled pipes big

heaviest

from that (width

In general,

a cross-sectional to handle problem do not they all

of 100 cm2 will rains

probably

the most torrential gutter size is probably

from most roofs. gutters securely them posithe edges water important.

A greater
SO that

hanging

they so that roof. stand

sag or fall catch both

during gushing slope

heavy flow for

rainfall, and dripping

and keeping flow from so that equally

tioned of the

Ensuring

adequate

the

entire

system, is

does not

and damage gutters

or attract

mosquitoes,

Mnufactured

metal

gutters.

Aluminum

or galvanized

sheet

metal

gutter-

,...

-24-

ing gutter long width tering less

is

the

technology

of choice with which

in most areas sepcial are driven As of this brackets

in developed

countries. metal

The straps or

sections spikes with

are joined sleeves

and hung with the upper in the U.S. / m (galvanized unless coated part

through writing, US$1.85

of the

gutter's qut.

and into

wood backing. sections tends

aluminum sheet with the

and downpipe expensive but

cost

about

ih slightly highsystem costs

to corrode paiht). This

more quickly for

quality another

rust-resistant $0.60 per meter. for

Hardware would

joining

dnd hanging costs

make the materials approximately

of guttering US). Higher metal

and downpipe cost gutters

a building unavailability

6 m long

$30 (1982,

or complete

are likely areas

to eliminate of developing

manufactured countries.

as possibilities Alternatives using

in most rural local materials.

McDowell

(1976,

page 33) observes:

“It is noticed that, in many areas, houses will have a short lenqth of roughly fashioned guttering fixed under the eaves just above the door, and that water from this will be collected in an old oil drum or other container. It seems that this type of device is used more for the purpose of preventing water from running in through the doorway of the hut than ds a serious approach to water collection. However, the existence of this "technology" could provide the link point for development of simple but effective roof catchment systems." McDowell "P-shaped edge-to-edge. also reports on the use of,split bamboo culms with together to leak joints removed, angles "V" might be and

gutters This

made by nailing construction

two boards seems likely

at right but the

Institute

for

Rural

Water,

1982

(draft),

by PemiSSiOn Basics. October 1978. page 4

-25-

.

Joining (Institute

Gutters for

and Downpipes Rural Water, 1982,

by permission)

sealed

with

tar, 3.2.4)

pitch,

or some local good ideas sheet similar hanging and tied below).

gum. for

Institute joining

for sections

Rural

WAter (1982;

see section with gutters Rural iwre

provides

of bamboo guttering or canvas, Institute or local and joining for fiber,

and some flixible and downpipes with

material materials gutters to holes

such as rubber (see figures). with twisted wire sheeting

Water

also

suggests the gutter (see figure

wrapped of roof

around supports

in roof

or to the ends

INstitute

for

Rural

Water,

1982b

(draft),

by permission

-26-

3.2.3

Diverting

the

"foul

flush"

The crucial water, tank flowing off

importance a roof

of some routine at the beginning

or technique of a storm, 3.1.4. flush" (e.g. those

for out

keeping of the there

dirty

stroage is more to in 1979). of

has been discussed by devising which c!og

above

in section "foul quickly devices, from waste "automatic". lower

In general, method than

be gained filters, There water interval, Flanual

an effective and contaminate of foul-flush manually which are

by investing Plan Service, the flow

Ilidwest which

are two kinds to be switched and those systems. choice

require after :the

to the tank

appropriate

Usually

in cost areas. it

and easier An attractive

to devise, and simple "waste"

these

will

be the obvious is tion, to attach then

in most poor so that tank inlet

approach posi-

the downpipe propped in the

can be propped after the roof

in the

is clean. the outflow joint

Open trough of the gutter

downpipes with wire

like

split

bamboo can be suspended fiber; closed downpipes

beneath with

or local

a flexible

can be moved in

the same manner

(see figure

below).

INstitute

for

Rural

Water,

1982

(draft),

by

PermiSSiOn

-27-

The task people

of moving in developing

the downpipe countreis because for

can be performed tend to be conscious laundry with the

consistently of the

by a child; precise moment shelter. the clean. container

fo the start Another cover on,

of rainfall simple

drying tanks into

must be brought covers until jars) is the is

under

technique the flow (for very

small tmk, like

to leave roof is

blocking approach under

of water small

A similar into these they

containers only ble after

to move the interval.

position routines

the downpipe

an appropriate health tank. downpipe

Both

may be objectiona

from a public water at the

point

of view: they flush arrange-

cause mud and pools

of standing

Nevertheless, and foul

may be the method ment is impracticable. valves

of choice

where a more complex

Bypass Often referred

built

into

metal

downpipes they

may be an option require sheet

in some areas. work ing in many

to as "butterfly" and It thus might would

va Ives, be expensive

metal

capability, situations. arrangements cheaper,

or impossible a similar a movable

to fabricate valve downpipe for will

be possible materials, alternative.

to devise but

downpipe probably be the

made of other

more functional

Institute

for

Rural

Water,

1982b

(draft),

by permisssion

-28-

Automatic commercially

systems. only in

Automatic a few areas,

roof but

cleaning they

devices

are available from local materials

may be fabricated is a container Plan Service, the

in some situations. for dirty water called

One simple

automatic

device

or receptacle 1979; see figure water be-

a "roofwasher" receptacle storage flush pieces

(Midwest fills

below). begins tween

Afte rthe

roofwasher the

up with is

foul

flush, attached figure.to

to overf low into the downp ipe 1eaves

tank.

A screen

usually

and the foul large

container of debris

as shown in the that would float

keep our

and other

on the water

Midwest Plan by permission

Service

(1979)

in the used for Midwest capacity

receptacle hauling Plan for

and clog water

the

overflow

pipe might about

to the

tank.

Oil

or fuel

tins,

in many areas, (1979) recommends

be converted 10 liters Other the that

to roofwashers. of roofwasher (e.g. receptacle 1978)

Service every

30 m2 of building should be big enough

area. to hold is

sources first

Dooley,

say a roofwasher A problem rainstorm

20 minutes

of runoff. of a from through

with

such a simple water dirt the will

device pour

when the beginning into the they roofwasher are carried

is torrential, stirring pipe into

vigorously

the downpipe, the overflow

and bird tank

droppings

so that

instead

of settling crossways,

at the bottom inside the

of the roofwasher the

receptacle. to inhibit

Modification: this stirring

a baffle action,

mounted and/or

a vertical

screen

dividing

-2%

UNEP (1979) by permission Institute (draft) for Rural by permission Water, 1982

downpipe a drain

side

from

tank

inlet

side so that

(see they

figures

above).

Roofwashers after

must have

and removable

cover

can be cleaned

each rain.

More complicated attention downpipe. with zontal a large pin and stronger Reported inflow (see figure

"automatic" structures

foul with

flush

devices

tend for

to require mounting in

more the metal,

more hardware "swing

in use in Australia, side divided below). into

funnels"

are made of sheet and hinged

two compartments,

on a hori-

At the the

star$

of a storm, into the first

water

pours

from

gutter

compartment. increases, pours compart-

As the weight the from funnel the

of the assembly so that into the water second the

swings gutter leads tank. large

ment which into the

through

downpipe would have

Such a funnel to hold

to be quite
UNEP (1979) by permission

the recommended and hinge-.

volume

of foul

flush.

Mounting

-3opins would also have to be quite of foul strong. flush This options particular device is but unlikely it is an

to be the most attractive interesting idea.

in most places,

3.2.4

Publications

and how to obtain

them

Frasier, Phoenix, report Street, from the

G.W., Arizona, editor, Tucson,

ed.,

1974,

Proceedings 1974, currently USA.

of the Water Harvesting Agricultural out Watershed Research of print. Research

Symposium, Service/USDA infomration 442 East 7th

March 26-28, 323 pages, 85705, Southwest Arizona compilation

no. ARS-W-22,

Request Center,

Rangeland

A wide-ranging systems for

of 40 papers technical is It

and reports a fine research

on rainwater concerns overview

harvesting. development of

Much of the material agriculture. ov developments "Engineering zona' (Cluff, 1974, (Dedrick,

is quite

and most of it

, however, catchment. and 'Storage

of the specturm interest: of ARiwater" harvested

in ground aspects 1974,

surface

Of particular systems for

of water

harvesting

at the University

pages 27-39)

pages 175-191).

Hall, Vol.

N.,

1981,

"Has Thatch

a Future?", pages 7-9,

Appropriate & for the Ltd.,

Technology, issue with Air 9 King

London, Speeded London Street,

8, no.. 3, December 1981, Intermediate Kingdom. out

Post from

Technology

Publications,

WCZE 8HN, United 'Thatch by.modern the rising is currently sheet price thatch a concise highlighting roofs

of favour of modern

almsot building

everywhere. manufactured fuel required materials.'

It tiles.

is veing

replaced as with it who topic, ing of gutter-

materials ingredients worth

or expensively and the

However,

the essential is undoubtedly is studying presents roofs, ing thatch

become more and more costly to process them, The author, on the of thatch

of raw materials re-appriasing and has found Balinese for rainwater

traditional little grass types

information

available and methods

summary of thatch

"prefabricated" catchment.

techniques. Walton Hall,

No mention

The author's Bucks, United

address : Open University,

Milton

Keynes,

Kingdom.

-31-

Institute request

for from

Rural the

Water, Water for

1982,

"Constructing, technical Center,

Operating, note no. Agency for

and Maintaining RWS.l.C.4, USAID, International

Roof Catchments". Development,

the World Information

Development D.C.,

Washington, of simple

20523 USA. catchment disposal, several systems, of which (RWS.l.P.5), Cistern" from the discussion are roofing ABout 4

A good overview and gutter with pages of text, permission Request CAtchments" "Constructing

rooftop foul flush

installation, above. "Evaluating (RWS.l.D.4), a Household

and maintenance.

the remainder

figures,

reproduced "Designing Roof and

Rainfall "Designing Cistern"

Catchments (RWS.5.C.l~),

a Household

(RWS.5.D.l), same source.

I.T. for

Building Honduras

Materials

Workshop, Fibre

"Production REinforced request Overend

and Installation Cement: from Basic I.T. Building

of CorOperating Manual

rugated Workshop,

Roof Sheet made from and Guatemala", Trading Kingdom. Corngreaves

19 pages, Estate,

Materials

Road, Larley,

West Midlands,

864 7DD, United Describes, sheetmaking (1981, suit below). for for local techniques as a namual

in good detail table the "This

and with

excellent the

line for basic

drawings, FRC sheets production

the

tools, in Parry to of the

and molds, manual roofing

and techniques describes products.

outlined

and application document is intended

Modifications

have been incorporated in possession

circumstances

in Honduras

and Guatemala...The who are already

the assistance

of groups

-32-

I.T. ceived

equipment first

to make corrugated hand training from

roof

sheets

and ridge operator".

tiles,

and have re-

an experienced

NAS, 1974, book, ing a free

Roofing give

in Developing name of group

Countries: Office

Research of the

for Foreign

New Technologies, when requestSecretary, D.C. 20418, materials National USA. relying

57 pages,

or institutional Avenue,

affiliation Washington, roofing

copy from BOSTIC (JH215), 2101 Constitution of the and/or in India. range

Academy of Sciences, A useful on local roofing overview materials research

of possible

low-cost Includes

new techniques.

appendices

on low-cost

Parry, no. from

J.P.M., Fibre

1981, 1981,

"Development pages 20-23,

and tEsting CI 1.50 for Ltd.,

of Roof Cladding Technology, the issue 9 King Street, and Air

Materials Volume 8, Speeded Post London WC2E

Made from

Reinforced TEchnology

Cement","Appropriate Publications

London,

2,September Intermediate

8HN, United A sumnary cement outcome ing but which Manufacturing countries The author of about in April with but sheets: the

Kingdom. of the I.T. for Building Materials Workshop findinys on fibre-reinforced "The final system involvsheet roofing tile." in developing are outlined. rate seven countries are made of the new as on a combined

sheeting of the is

use in the manufacture cladding like for panel which large

of roofing low-cost has the but

components.

development

work was a complete an extremely Materials

a new corrugated fitted I.T.

coverage scale

of a one metre

lightweight this section)

processes (see believes that

implementation

on a small Workshop,

Building

FRC sheets

were being production

made at the

2,000 1981. "only

a month by several Cost and roof materials; time will tell cost the

teams in at least comparisons on the of the it lifetime hinge lifespan

structure eventual the

requirements

coventional development alternative

advantages point

FRC products, is especially

has now reached to conventional of its facility any urban

where

can be considered

a viable appropriate small

materials or rural

and one which situation."

because

to be produced

labour-intensively,

scale,

in virtually

-333.3 Storage 3.3.1 As has is the long usually most been the difficult Technologies General noted or "Tanks"

considerations in other sections, part of so that must not the simple it water storage facility and at the or "tank"

most expensive to construct tank

RWH systems, will it will the perform must hold; tank is

same time over strong a

satisfactorily be structurally

period.

An adequate thegreat dirt,

leak; it (if

enough to keep water.

to support out

load of the water insects, and

and it buried)

must be covered, dirty surface

sunshine,

As far is usually

as users both the

are

concerned, and

the

tank

is

also

the

focus requiring

of the

system;

it and

storage both which these

distribution

point,

cleaning

maintenance In fact, a rooftop the bulkiest

to ensure a tank catchment part

functions. storage for this needs and performs reason that this well section is the key to is

addresses It report. by their individual larger etc; surface groups methods, with the is

system. of this

on tanks

Tanks can be categorized 1. 2. tanks tanks centers, 3. Within with its each tanks of used used with with

applications household rooftops above, partially or

into

three

groups: above ground

rooftopsgmostly several buried,

rooftops--community and below ground.

schools, used with three

catchments. there are many djfferent costs, needed 4), and labor (see kinds of tanks, each Each on using about

these

own construction factors, data to along design

materials capacity

requirements. note decisions

of these rainfall

technical into

a RWH system,

section

enters

-34-

what kind fully

of

tank

to

build. in the

These key aspects subsection below; of

of tank see also materials.

designs section

are described 3.1.3

as

as space permits note choice

on costs

and the technical comments about The tank's of families--is design. will build for This

on section of tanks

4 on costs will

Here,

a few general

design

be made. household source determinant consultation or source of tank with growing prospect construction note: the out of for for a group and who

function--as probably choice the

an individual single

most important in their effort of close

sizing people of

can be made only tank; without

and use the the idea, on the

participation has little tank

genuine In

support their school

a tank-building slow progress Farrar

success. irrigating

comments gardens

open

in Botswana,

and Pacey

(1974)

"In any community where a tank programme is contempleted, it would seem important to enquire into the 'felt needs' of the people. To which category of water use do they give highest priority? a) drinking water: for home or school use? b) washing water c) water for gardens: again, at home or at school? water for school gardens would be given the In most parts of southern Africa, lowest priority." Whether deserves to build an above-ground Watt tank (1978) or notes, an excavated (underground) tank

considerable

thought.

"Storing water in tanks built on the surface has many disadvantages when compared Besides avoiding the need for with storage tanks excavated into the ground. laborious excavation which is almost impossible in some hard dry soils, the tanks can be observed for leaks and easily repaired by trowelling a layer of In addition, although the stored water mortar onto the inside of the empty tank. of polluted material falling is likely to become hotter in the sun, the risks into the tanks are reduced. Water stored above ground can flow out under its own weight whereas it has to be pumped out of a ground tank." The main supports with advantage the tank walls. of lining This wall underground tanks, on the it other possible hand, to is build that the earth tanks

and contents means that surfaces

, making building instead

deeper

thinner

materials of structural

can be conserved wall

and used

to make

leakproof

reinforcement.

-35-

Underground

tanks 3.3.3,

do not always shows with fewer to

require

a pump.

Figures block

in tank supported with earth

Section

(below)

how a concrete a tap. materials give less tanks per unit

embankments Larger smaller tanks, less

can be fitted tanks require which tends tend to

of

water

storage

capacity

than smaller

tanks, though,

them a cost expertise may bring wall

advantage. and preparation, with

Constructing fewer

require Large

tools,

and for than _

cash

"up-front". large areas (e.g. of

them structural to many

problems; cracking cases

example, smaller tanks, one.

flat

plastered and tanks,

are more vulnerable 1980). Thus, in

walls or groups

Maikano

Nyberg, will

smaller larger

of smaller

be chosen

in preference

to a single

Different construction. and leak applied if

kinds

of

tanks and

demand other

different tanks

standards mortar

of

workmanships will

in crack an'd who be

Ferrocement mortar to is the not

made with components

plaster

made with,olean

in proper

proportions,

properly

reinforcing may not .

framework. perform

A prototype satisfactorily;

made by people a failure should

have never planned

made one before

on or experience of or

sought.

The walls are of Only brick

underground masonry.

tanks Cairncross

must

be built

carefully, (1978) local

especially say these masons tanks should

if

they should always

and Feachem (and

be built

by an experienced

builder

indeed,

-3E-

be involved). 1974) emphasizes "unskilled a long life 3.3.2 Recycled, can be used to edge of roofing. out about labor".

Individual

Water Supply

Systems

(Office workmanship

of

Water

Programs/EPA,

the importance Bricking, will not

of high-quality plastering,

and recommends against part of a tank with

and curing

are all

which

leak. individual household rooftops of locally-available or use of front sim ply steel of this they dripping petrol containers off drums the with These with in

Tanks used with used containers. catch water et

A wide variety from guttering the at the

flowing al (1973)

White in

dscribe

one end cut drums hold a board large

West Africa

(see picture about notes a price first

report).

0.17 m3 and cost Watt (1975) He reports jars.

US $2.50 that Thais

(1969); collect US $5.00

can be covered from roofs

and a rock. jars.

rainwater (1975) for (Watt,

pottery

of about devised

a 0.3 m3 jar. 1975), these

Cement mortar jars

Apparently built filled

in Thailand

have been enthusiastically 1976). Cloth mold, sacking

in other with rice

parts hulls

of southeast

Asia

and Africa waste is

(McDowell,

or some vegetable McDowell this

used as a jar-shaped says that the Java. Watt * is for author jars

onto which

cement mortar capacities

is plastered. up to

(1976) method; in

can be constructed

with

3 m3 using

has seen prototypes attraction materials of

of even larger this costs method of

models, storing

made with rainwater m3 jar; is

soil-cement, its that

A great (1975)

low cost. entire sum

reports

of US $0.50

per 0.25

cement. of this lacking Watt's type are apparently tend made in the to crack size range wall of 0.15-0.5 meets the m3, base.

Most jars as larger See section jars

reinforcement instructions

where the m3 jar.

4 for

on making

a 0.25

a'.

-37-

cement

jar

McDowell (1976) both by permission

plastered

basket

Jim Bell making the water of the jar

(personal jars the of jar

communication) about is of the

reports

on a variation practiced wire netting in

of

this

method

for

same size in the

widely soil: are then

Liberia. ("chickenwire")

A hole, is mortar.

shape

excavated the it hole, is

pegged to After the

walls

which

plastered "mold".

with

cement

has cured, baskets

dug out with

of its

earthen

Traditional this technique

plastered

cement mortar. hundreds of tanks The usual

Originating in Kenya, technique foundation.

in Burundi, is to

Thailand, Rwanda, plaster a

has been used to build Lesotho, is set and into

Swaziland, granary

Tanzania, basket which

Zambia.

a cement

or concrete

"In Kenya, the basket frame is made from sticks cut from woody shrub which grows throughout the country. the frame is made from In Rwanda and Burundi, bamboo, presumably provided that the material is strong, the basket could be made from any number of shrubs or sticks which can be woven into basket form. The basket is constructed on the ground by weaving the sticks into round shapes. The actual shape does not seem very important, but it is recommended that the bottom be omitted so that the sides can bond with the base" (UNICEF, Eastern Africa Regional Office, 1982).

-3%

Apparently basket requiring 2.3 m3. allowing

tanks with

up to 7.5 m3 in capacity bands of straight wire is about of $7.14

have been constructed or wire mesh.

by reinforcing

the

frame

The more

common size, of about 1981), pipe, and a

no metal Assuming about

reinforcement, a cement price

1.5 m high per 50-kg for about

and has a capacity bag, (rural gravel Zaire, and outlet (1981). a "Ghala"

20% of total type

materials be built

costs for

sand,

2.3 m3 tank 4 for Kenya detailed

of this notes

could

US $42.00 out using

See section basket in

on construction Regional

as carried Office, 1982).

(UNICEF East AFrica

-3%

Cast concrete between of Health areas concentric for

ring steel

tank. forms,

Relying these

on thin tanks

unreinforced

concrete by the

rings,

poured

have been promoted where many buildings roofs (Watt,

Thai Ministry

use at schools sheet

in a country metal or tile

in rural The rings, tank for which

have galvanized

1978 b). to give

are about of up to this size,

1.5 m in diameter 7 m3. not again

and 0.6 m high, materials cost of the

can be stacked costs

capacities a tank forms of

Watt estimates including and again rings the in under

of US $40.00 Watt points project

(1977) out and that

forms.

could

be used production could concrete Brian and the U.S. rfngs

a tank skilled to

construction supervision. the tank

suggests high-quality

central rings on their

of the

The cured, location for

then

be transported

by truck

placement

foundations. Grover Population Corps, (personal communication) Association similar reports that the Thai Ministry of Health with into the the

Development are building

of Thailand, tanks with

in collaboration bamboo staves cast

Peace for

reinforcement. tanks. is applied steel These tanks by hand to are built using a techniques mesh. the in "True" tanks distribute occur which cement

Ferrocement mortar paste

a reinfocing for

wire in

ferrocement here. evenly

has much more Still through materials Tank walls Thus walls (Briscoe

the principle

reinforcement than called ---.-..-.. __ _ is the same: metal reinforcing preventing the cracking (Office of

described loads

strands that

the cement mortar, of similar

would

in unreinforced 1973).

thickness are strong much less that walls.)

the

Foreign

Secretary/NAS, of water

4 cm thick require (1981)

enough to hold total material tank

2 m depths than

above ground. walls. less

conventional do not necesarily

concrete require

notes

ferrocement

walls

cement than

concrete

In his Their

handbook

for

field

workers 3.3.6

(Watt, below),

1978,

Ferrocement

Water Tanks

and

Construction,

see section

Watt notes:

of this material over other tank construction mat"The main advantages... are its cheapness and easy working erials, such as galvanized corrugated iron, using the minimum of expensive materials, equipment and skills. it is, in addiSome of the tanks described in the manual have been inconstant on, very durable. use for over 25 years with only a few instances of failure--due in the main to poor workmanship in construction." Watt income sand, goes on to rural water, say that ferrocement 1) they simple only techniques use are particularly available suited materials for low-

areas

because

commonly

(cement, people of can the

and wire); tanks

2) only after

skills

ar needed:

"...untrained

make satisfactory tanks can help Clearly can be taught done at the

a few days simple

supervision.:."; hand tools tank are

3) users required. is

in construction;

4) only of

an important and learned Friends Rural

advantage readily. Training reports in

ferrocement Early

construction of near these

that

it was

development Hlekweni,

techniques

Center,

Bulawayo,

Zimbabwe.

Roy Henson of the Center tion the of Asian 210 9 m3 tanks Institute

training in

of a half-dozen 1971-72 trainings local (Farrar are

craftsmen

and construc1974). At

Matabeleland

and Pacey, held in for the

of Technology nations workers who, in in

in Bangkok, turn, train Java to

field

workers

fromn

developing field

craftsmen

techniques. tanks and

AIT-trained

Central

make modified smaller

ferrocement tanks.

have begun using trainees And in tanks

woven bamboo staves built

reinforce

They and their (Winarto, a total 1981). of 650

have reportedly West java, made using

1,400 tanks programs

up to 10 m3 in capacity are planned to construct 1982).

two separate the Central

Java techniques

(Pompe et al,

Ferrocement of wire larger) outside netting steel (Sharma

tanks

are typically are is

built

one of two methods. to a grid onto

In the first of

layers 6 mm (or from the

("chickenwire") rod. Mortar

attached directly or

framework this

trowelled 1980)

framework of

and Gopalaratnam,

against

a sheet

woven bamboo mat

-41-

SISTIM PENAMPUNGAN AIR HUJAN RAINWATER COLLECTION SYSTEM

I hrh L,,” -,cwr.o,r r--rre

i

Ferrocement tank installation in Pompe et al, 1982 , by permission

Java

i
i

-42-

tied

temporarily 1981;

against Pompe et floor rollers.

the al,

inside 1982).

of

the

framework

wall

to

act vertical

as a

“form" are

(Winarto, continuous

Whenvreinforcing and into costs the for cover, a 1.2

rods tanks of this

from the

through

the wall

cured m3 tank

can be type

moved on makeshift with integral floor 1980). second netting form Farrar

The materials were estimated

and cover

at US $33.00

(Thailand;

Sharma and

Gopalaratnam, In the used. cylindrical Watt, 1977; Wire

construction and plain and plastered and Pacey,

method, straight with 1974; Tanks

no reinforcing wire thin are coats

framework wrapped of cement around

of

steel a sturdy (Watt,

rods

is

inner 1978;

mortar

see Ferrocement in Southern these be built of the Africa: tanks in

Water Tanks and Their A Review", are place. first than the installed Materials type steel netting because rod price section 3.3.6).

Construction, Like tanks with

and "Catchment steel unlike rod

reinforcement, they than plain must for wire

on a concrete costs are

foundation; usually layer of

but

them, less and of

substantially wire netting price

tanks cost per

a single framework. of $1.00 4) the

less

Assuming

a cement

US $7.14 (his

500kg

bag, steps

wire

per m3 tank could Friends Zimbabwe;

described for

by Watt about

construction Similar

are presented 9 m3 capacity including

in section built gutters at

be built Rural Farrar

$150.00. Center,

tanks cost

of $62.50

Training

Hlekweni,

(1973,

and Pacey, do not the include wire

1974). money spent and netting on materials are wound. pitpit, for Calvert or the cylin Idrical and l3i nning wildcane for

These costs forms report the around using

inner (1977) forms in

which mats

woven from However, iron wall the

wood and bamboo, forms

New Hebrides. of to

recommended bolted and build

by Roy Henson and Watt, together make it

made of to If

sections plaster

corrugated a uniform

sheet thickness

roof

much easier good tanks.

consistently

-a3-

FIGURE 9 A paste of mortar is forced into the layers of mesh by hand . . . (Smith Kampempool, Applied Scientific Research Corporation of Thailand)

FIGURE 10 . . . or trowel. The mortar is dry enough to remain in place when applied; a formwork is not needed. (Noel D. Vietmeyer. National Academy of Sciences)

Office of the by permission

Foreign

Secretary/NAS,

1973

.

.---.

-44-

corrugated tank would

iron cost in is are

sheeting $50.00

costs plus

US $2.20 of

per

"3, iron,

this

kind

of

form

for

a 10 m3 The However, number

costs cost

angle

hardware, materials many tanks. technique for

and fabrication. one tank. Where a large should be

form will, the form

some areas,

as much as the build this

portable to be

and can be used to built in one water described area,

of tanks

considered.

In New Zealand, using in the factory Foreign method floor, to similar tanks farms in

ferrocement to those with

tanks

are manufactured

by a number of,firms grid of 10 mm rod (hauled (Office of from the

by Watt.

With a welded

capacities and

of 0.7 m3 to 18 m3 are portable often guaranteed for 25 years

trucks) 1973).

Secretary/NAS, "Tin"

Manufactured used for of southern costs point $112.00 capacity which climate, salt-laden

or corrugated in many areas.

sheet Farrar have

metal

tanks.

These

tanks that

have

been

many years Africa, tanks

and Pacey (1974) "tin" tanks alongside

report their

in parts The from as US 1.4 m3 from

most

foreigners

homes.

of these of

are high Farar

and extremely and Pacey et in al give

variable, the cost say (1972). last longer

depending of

on distance

manufacture. (1973, cost

a 9 m3 version "tin" tanks of metal in that 3 or

Zimbabwe); $39.00

White

(1973) Africa

that

to $84.00 are fabricated

East

The corrugated than (1977) fail 5 years report after rooftops type other earth thick. are

these

tanks then

may not Calvert

a damp in the

even

galvanized. of

and Binning 16 gage tanks

atmosphere 3.3.3

New Hebrides, larger

4 years.

Tanks used with ferrocement with

rooftops Most tanks mortar.

or several of this As with confining

Underground earthen designs, that the pit lined

tanks.

basically

an tank

wire-reinforced is can provided

underground walls,

structural ferrocement

strength lining

by the

meaning A further

be made only

a centimeter

-45-

advantage

of

these

tanks

is

that

their

construction aboveground

requires ferrocement

neither tanks. Pacific

the

steel

rod framework Calvert section

nor forms and Binning describe

needed to build (1977;

see "Low Cost Water Tanks in the design m3. complete First with

Islands", cover, 3.5

3.3.6)

an innovative volume soil 15-20

reinforced concrete used to

in diameter or "footing"

and 2 m deep, is poured;

a circular trench is

foundation

from'the center

footing circle. is this

make a gently plaster m

sloping reinforced holes begins netting

earthen with

dome in the wire near the netting opposite holes

of the

A 5 cm layer laid over the

of cement

and steel edges. tank plaster tanks that

rod After is

dome, and two 0.6 dome cures, 2 layers walls. about digging of wire

were left through

forrocement beneath. to the not cost is earth

and the the these

excavated applied should the

are used to strengthen believe that

The authors (1976, village's fabrication approach covers

more than for

US $250 a While the similar

New Hebrides). water of supply cover

They suggest drained which will

design

suitable public

"collecting

from the not

roof

of a large

building."

crack and

may require (1980)

some experimentation, report trails of

seems promising. for underground tanks

Maikano

Nyberg

in Botswana. storage of bin Ethiopia suitable (Office for of storing the in Storage sides reinforced water Foreign develBins", sloping with

A ferrocement-lined has been documented 1973; in

underground-grain the Harar al Province 1979;

Secretary/NAS, oping section inward wire countries 3.3.6). to netting

Sharma et

see Ferrocement; on Ferrocement in with cover mouth with

applications Grain with

and "State-of-the-art Traditional mouth at grain the

Review pits,

conical are lined

shape

a narrow

surface, floor.

plaster is needed,

and given surface

a concrete water will in

A small the type

and provision Ferrocement up to 3 m and

made so that linings floor have diameters

run away from pits of this

of the depths

pit. of

been installed of 4 m,

Metal or
Concrete Lid

Office of the by penission

Foreign

Secretary/MAS.

1973

Storaga Chamkr

FIGURE C-3 Cross-section of ferrocement underground storage pit.

Herd core

Soil plaster say that that types

type

will

affect

smoothness sides

of earthen of an excavation. in lined "soft"

walls

and the Calvert

ease

with

which (1977) say soil

can be applied their tanks grain

to the should pits

and Binning

be dug out have been

soil.

Sharma et,al in all the

(1979) major

traditional of the Harar The linings

successfully

province

of Ethiopia. dogon granaries (1978), Existing lined manner are already with with with ferrocument an interesting granaries, with pioneered by Hans

of traditional

Guggenheim version high of

and described the Ethiopian diameter,

by Watt scheme. are

represents adobe-brick plaster

above-ground about wire 2.4 netting The flat the m

and 2.6

m in in the

reinforced

and covered roofs of the (if

Traditional houses

timbere-reinforced with water

adobe. spouts

adjacent

equipped

to drain

torrential and elegant about that

infrequent) provide only

rains.

The system seems to be an extremely catchment system would with storage

inexpensive capacity Watt of noted

way to Clearly

a rooftop very sturdy

13 m3. trouble

adobe walls begins

be suitable; in the rain.

can begin

when adobe walling

to erode

-47-

Buried

and partically over

buried

brick

and masonry structures under

tanks. to hold

Stones water. loads, parts

and bricks Stones

have

been used all laid to with resist

the world have great

to build strength This is

or bricks strength in deep they are for walls tend

mortar loads

compressive the to is

but

lask

from the water

side. pressure This

means that greatest, in

lower

of walls if

tanks, not built

where

the

tend turn,

buckle the

outward

strongly (or partically

enough. burying)

fact, type

principal deeper parts

motivation of the also

buying are

this

of tank: tanks

the

supported

by earth. cooler than wall.

Brick

and masonry

when covered

properly in to

to keep water or share Buried leaks, water which to enter

above-ground

tanks,

and can be built

a basement

a foundation brick allow are

and masonry stored harder water,

tanks water to to

have their escape and in

disadvantages, and contaminated

however. ground to

Cracks and repair.

and

surface If a

detect the tank

many cases with

harder a strong itself,

pump is cover serious

used to raise that will bear

must be fitted safely.

(and expensive) may bring with it

human traffic

A pump, in

maintenance variety

problems. of shapes and sizes incorporated surface of of (and circular weakness wall is into hence possible. a building. less material) tanks cracks (Maikano section tanks Rectangular Circular per tanks are easy

A wide to design

and can be readily less wall

and elliptical unit volume stronger, likely to 1980; Cairn2 m acorss of

tanks storage

require capacity. is along

The walls .* zone

and elliptical where mortar floor

are also are most

and there develop Cairncross cross should

a shorter the line

where the 1978; in fact,

meets the

and Nyberg, 3.3.6).

and Feachem,

see that

Small stone

Water Supplies, and masonry

and Feachem say, be circular.

more than

-48-

We have found their construction

few accounts is tank nothing ' . ..walled

of brick new or

and masonry noteworthy. stone

tanks Wright

in use, (1956)

probably

because

shows a drawing and plastered

' of an underground with cement mortar".

up with

or bricks

and mortar

Wright (1956) by permission

In Sou thern Africa, 'I . ..the occasional large buildings in rural areas--schools, churches, halls, etc .--can provide a water supply to the community on about the same scale as that from 'beehive' tanks (45-90 m3, see section 3.3.4 below, ed.) . ..Four or five 9,000 liter tanks would be needed for many school buildings, though a more usual method of providing this capacity is to build a single large The difficulty is that tank walls built in this way are tank of concrete blocks. ill-suited to resist the sideways pressure of the water* so concrete block tanks are usually built in shallow excavations with piled earth used to buttress the sides. (The figure) illustrates a tank of this kind, showing how the tap may be placed so that water can be drawn off by gravity flow."

Farrar

and Pacey,

1974 by permission

(Farrar 'section (parker, storage

and

Pacey,

1974, In this

see

"Catchment

Tanks

in

Southern of this

Africa: type built

A Review", in Ghana of

3.3.6). 1973) capacity, is

same paper, to would have cost

a 71 m3 tank US $260.00 cheaper

said this

(1973). tanks

At $3.63/m3 (in cost/m3

(1973) of storage)

be one of the

we have seen documented. Many of the provision made of varies for cisterns rooftop block size built catchment plastered into and with the basements is of residences required in Bermuda, codes, where are

storage cement but

by building Volume of these range

concrete with the

mortar.

cisterns 50 m3 to

of the Solar

dwelling,

most fall

within

the

of

90 m3 (John One of they for sion can

Sands, the

Engineering arguments and

Technology, for built

personal

communication). of this type is that

strongest

considering-tanks into or alongside

readily

bve designed small increment details

new public costs.

buildings discus-

a relatively of construction Underground

in procurement and masonry tanks have

and labor tanks been States or in

See the 4. for

of stone These

section used

concrete

tanks. countries. are

widely they

rainwater referred with rod, It is

storage to as capacities concrete resistant hole

in the developed "cisterns" ranging is to probably cracking effectively and from the

:In the United built 50 m3. material and its out into

are usually

frequently

alongside reinforced for water

basements with steel

10 m3 to strongest

Properly for cover walls

storage.

and leaking, seal

can be cast from the

with surface. they for in

an inspection The require forms, areas great large and of

so as to of of

contaminants tanks and also is steel; expensive their

disadvantage quantities expertise developing

underground cement, gravel,

concrete sand, often

expense: and materials

in the

methods,

are

and scarce

rural

countries.

-5o-

This in

type

of

tank

or

"cistern" water with

is supply simple valves of

widely

documented

in

literature (1958)

published and Wright covers water

U.S. textbooks describe

on rural a cistern

and sanitation. sand filters, in the downpipe Both in light (1959)

Salvato overlapping for

(1959)

manhol& dirty

and hand pumps, from the for roof at

and "butterfly" the 3 beginning size U.S. to

diverting give water simple needs sizing least

a rain. area

sources of the

guidelines of farming

matching in

cistern the

roof

households and discuss

Wagner and Lanoix tanks shjould

give than the

simple and at

guidelines 3 m from any clean Using

location:

be higher

sewage disposal and sloping

installation. toward section and the

They also downpipe 3.3.6) gives for

emphasize to prevent tools

need to keep gutters water. lists, and VITA's

evenly (see

setting

Water Resources tites, filter. detailed matching year's rainfall proportions, (Village

and materials a cistern see

and quantisand-grael gives for

procedures

constructing (VITA, 1973;

Technology on building volume for to the

Handbook with area

section guidelines should in section

3.3.6. given hold

information cistern water data

concrete. assume that it.

The sizing the cistern note

roof family

a full

supply to plan

using

See the

4 on using

a rooftop

catchment

system. (Office ,of Water in Programs/EPA, presents 1974), the text in Salvato (1973; Plan

The Manual originally

of Individual by the drawings and Lanoix an Individual

Water Sistems : US Publ'ic of a cistern (1959),

published

Health which

Service

1950,

and cross-section (1959), Wagner for

are referred (1973). section

to an appear

and VITA

Henderson 3.3.6)

and Smith and Midwest

see Planning Service in the with against (1979) US for

Water System,

are two more recent rural applications. sketches filters for

books published They give

by government similar Midwest

extension

programs

information Plan Service

on cisterns, recommends they can

useful use

color of

and cross-sections. the water from the

downpipe,

noting

that

-51-

quickly system

become (see the "Heaven's

contaminated. note-on Water: of the for gutters in

They

suggest, flush

instead, devices,

an

adequate 4). Rain"

"roofwasher"

and foul Rural Places,

section Gather systems the

Cisterns of cistern

(1980) by users

is

a in

useful Indiana,

presentation U.S., written of

pros

and cons

as seen the

a popular

audience.

The users

emphasize

importance This systems

of some kind article also

a "roofwasher" some of the

system, potential

discussing problems

several with rooftop

alternatives. catchment

relates

in industrialized countries: "'Rainfall itself carries dust and even chemicals. Near Highways, there is probably a sigrificant lead content in the air. Downwind from industrial plants, there will be a problem with pollution. You need to be site-specific with cisterns."' Also cistern lkiters the mentioned walls: are cleaning vinegar is the to to the solutions for yearly water; scrubbing 1 kg baking seen which a tank, of the insides in against it can the is water of 8

3 parts This chlorine impurities is

to one part only water form source being

soda dissolved recommends saying which that treats

of water. of

we have stored in

addition with as it

interact water

chloroform. or iodine

A chlorinator solution

pumped to Other

house,

.or pasteurization, chlorination of the

recommended in the tank. Dooley She uses level of the test

instead.

sources

recommend periodic

(1978) chlorine using

discusses bleach hydrochloric bleach

cisterns to disinfect acid. to disinfect

for

the rural cistern

U.S. in another water and

popular

journal.

describes scrubbing years. concrete

a chlorine the inside

Dooley it

also every

recommends two or three available, costs of

cistern

with

Even in the U.S., are expensive. tank Dooley

where the materials (1978) estimates (U.S., areas

are readily materials 1977).

cisterns

a 36 m3 underground would be impossible The discussion

reinforced to build

at about

US $1,000 in rural

Such a tank countries.

in most situations

of developing

of underground their design

reinforced may be useful Wright (1959) foundation

concrete when

tanks large

is

included

here tanks

because are of built

elements into

of

rectangular in which

public is the

buildings. wall

shows a design or basement.

one wall

a cistern

of a building

Wright (1956) by permission

Fig. 3-27. A cistern suitable for a boscment. The foundation wall sewos as one 01 more sides of the cistern, the other walls being constructed of concrete. Note that the cistern is entirely enclosed to keep out dust and rodents and that a leaf catcher ana strainer is provided on the down spout. Entrance to the cistern for cleaning and repairs may be through a trap doori 05 shown. or through a special door in the side between hvo floor sills as shown in the insert.

-53-

3.3.4 As noted

Tanks Used with in the section to

surface

catchments surfaces, for ground irrigation, in level catchment stockwatering, developing supply not countries, because of systems or

on catchment harvest

have been used some other rooftop the

primarily

rainwater In

agricultural systems

purpose. will

some situation for

catchment

be more attractive reqirements

domestic

reduced

organization to

and cash

of rooftop of

systems,

to mention catchment

problems surfaces.

related

acquisition

of land

and protection

ground-level

Nevertheless, improvement collects per unit in of

tanks

used

with

ground

surface in

catchment

represent of using

a possible water which costs have

upon the natural water for

practice, surface

established depressions.

many areas, offer

Some designs Additionally, catchments storage

low materials the used tanks with with which a

storage use or

capacity. with ground as

some of might in be

been proposed catchment smaller

rooftop another,

instead, rooftop

used

overflow

combination

catchment

tank.

Farrar

and Pacey,

1974 by pemisssion

-54-

One particularly threshing Developing in diameter, gular, their should short where the but wall floors

interesting in Botswana section lo-25 ones is likely less to

scheme

involves

tanks

used

with

traditional in

(Maikano 3.3.6). m3 of have

and Nyberg, The tanks

1980; see Rural are about

Water Supply

Countries, and hold circular area

2 m deep, tanks

2.5 to 4 m were rectanbecause walls

water.

The first to

of these the pilot

been

recommended storage is

project finished tanks

for

an equal Water a shallow

capacity, channeled basin is built into

and the the

be less length of

crack. from occurs.

through-a of floor, of made wire. being curb. and

PVC pipe

settling curb

in

one corner the the

some sedimentation to keep out of tree covers,

A brick

around for

perimeter cover, barbed

tank

surface

water

and provide concrete wire cure

a foundation slabs reinforced

of lengths

trunk

or precast over to

with mold, place of

Uomed cement tried.

plastered are allowed the cover the ing

mesh on an earthen and then lifted the of the into

are also on the Calvert

These covers of

The construction Binning is applied (1977). on wire that

seems to excavation

be much like a "thin sides. layer" Again

method cement

Inside nett

mortar

plaster

pegged to the

approach

seems to be

much like on the costs about not soil

of Calvert

and Binning

(1877), mortar low: wire, cover. water will for

who splashed onto that

a liquid surface. the

cement mixture The materials authors 1980). estimate It is

walls

and plastered appear for

cement

of the tanks US $135.00 clear if this are note rains.

to be fairly chicken the

a 25 m3 tank,

cement,

and PVC pipe

(Botswana,

amount includes intended that to

The tanks Nyberg of the are (1980) next

provide

for require

people

and cattle. before

Maikano the

and

"The cistern

cleaning

beginning

Platering

of the tank

and cover

may have to be done as cracks

noticed."

-55Most widely is, without doubt, (Ionides known of the pilot et al, recent community for rainwater harvesting water to irrigate were lined plastic tubing schemes in Africa school with gardens

project 1969).

providing

in Botswana layers diameter, briefly provided in

Large

excavations (thin

alternating 15 cm in and soaked

of polythene, filled water with

mud, and "sand-sausages" a mixture of 14 parts in the

about

sand to one part liner). also filled used with the lining the rushing through

of cement

before wall well

placement strength casings in

The hardened to build in

"sand-sausage" which of an

low-cost

and were tanks

"beehives", the for manner

were essentially artificial (several strong Another layers aquifer.

sand

A technical

problem

with

chosen inflow water

popularization side during polythene of the tank a storm. sheet

configurations enough likely of the to

were considered) the erosive

was building force of eating

withstand

problem lining. costs for for

seemed to

be rodents

the

Materials estimeted the

the

sand-sausage

tanks

were

very

low:

Farrar

and Pacey for lining been the

US $75.00

a 45 m3 tank

(1973),

Botswana). Still, for the

The technique the tanks

excavations adopted. ideas great

seemed to have promise, School gardens and

as well. vegetables from the

have were, reason

not like

widely tank, the

children A second poor

originating labor requirement

substantially of these for

outside. with

may be reducing

tanks

combined labor section

nutrition, and Pacey,

peoples' 'tatchment

capacity

and enthusiasm Africa: using sand have

manual

(Farrar 3.3.6).

1974;

see

Tanks in Southern design, with may

a Review", the to liner reduce

The "beehive" described and filled

describe evaporation for community

design, (water

using is

the

liner through supply

drawn water

beehive-shaped

wells),

promise

domestic

efforts: "The performance of the 'beehive' tanks that have been built has generally been satisfactory, and from a technical point of view, we would regard this type of catchment tank as a highly attractive approach to the water supply problems of semi-arid areas."

-56-

Farrar built

and Pacey (1974) Christian 2 meters

also

give

a brief in brick

description Zimbabwe: or stone,

of the "The then

"Water

Harvester", holes with are

by the

CARE Organization depth, lined Concrete tanks linked with lids

cylindrical plastered water

dug to about

cement The one is

to make them water system pump is US $75.00 shown uses

proof. three The rough

are made to keep the underground with of these pipe, linked

clean." only tanks

so that cylinder

needed. for

estimate (1973,

of the

cost

9 m3 of storage

Zimbabwe).

Farrar

and Pacey

(1974)

by permission

-5/-

Research water proof

into large collects

the

use

of

synthetic or "hafirs"

aspha 1t,

plastic,

and

rubber

liners

to

excavations during

(a traditional Sudan) (1962) m3 with

name for

a depression as far for lining and PVC as

where water the hafirs sheet. tion for Grover on an island rubber proposed sheet. early with Their

wet months (1961)

in the

goes back at least present sprayed methods asphalt of

60's.

Thorsky in

and Ellsperman range of 7,500 work,

capacities reports

the

describe water supply

experimental is given.

and no indication

implementa-

community (1971) off

supervised the coast

construction of Kenya. effort with

of The tank was

a 270 m3 tank was lined

excavated

into

coral butyl Grover storage of 200

with

0.8 mm thick that

This

prototype tanks (each

sufficiently of the 2,300

promising m3) to

3 similar

a volume system These for

meet the needs

requirements families with

of a ground coral of

catchment island. the

farm and domestic tanks would have

on another

proposed material,

been covered to cost a

a floating level.

sheet

same butyl (about about

reducing

evaporation made the

negligible

The cost proposed

of butyl tanks

3.7/m 3, 1969, (Kenya, surface

in Kenya) 1970)

of each of Grover's The cement an additional Cluff ponds or stabilized,

US $18,000 catchment

including

pumps. to cost

asphalt

---sprayed

was expected

$15,000. (1975) points to out that evaporation during the of 2-3 ma/year dry season, to the in Mali causes existing constructing would reduce provide thousand to reduce

"mares" to

disappear

and proposes mares. This

embankments the

make deeper ratio to

reservoirs storage

adjacent (reducing water

surface/volume capacity

of the

evaporation) of groups lined the of

and might several salt of

enough people. seepage,

meet the

domestic

needs

In one case Cluff and estimated that

proposed its

an 80,,000 m3 system, cost (including from the

with cost

capital

earthmoving reservoirs)

and an impo rted would be less

engine-driven than US $1.00

pump to move water per m3 of storage

mare to the

(1975,

Mali).

None of these tion his records, analysis local and

hugeopen watershed proposals

tank

systems

has been built,

but Cluff

used precipitacosts in

characteristics, for several

demand figures villages. His report

and labor

i s provocative.

-583.3.5 Costs of materials, costs/m3 pagtiis of water storage

On the following cost lest information in storage do, capacity

a tabular 3.3.

summary of most of the materials are care listed in sequence materials from smalDifferences in local prices

in section

The tanks for extreme

to largest. call show that: large at tanks lower

and dates The figures

of documentation however,

when making

comparisons.

1. In general, can be built

(e.g.-12, cost/m3

14, 15,helow) than small tanks.

of storage

2. Some small of all 3. Tanks

tank

options

(e.g.

2 below)

may be among the cheapest

tanks. built with similar methods, but greatly to meet different in cost "in (compare the field"). costs of

engineering 4, designed 4.!Vlousehold-sized" under See section 4.2.1 for

standards

, may vary

at a university, tanks

and 10, developed can be built below). of materials for

materials

US$18/m3 (2,6,7,10 direct comparisons

requirements

of tanks

6, 10, and 12.

..-~

,,.-

-5% 3.3.5 Costs of materials, costs/n3 of water storage (continued)

TANK (C: cover, P: pump, G: gutters) 1. 0.17 m3 steel drum, East AFrica (White et al, 1972) 2. 0.25 m3 cement mortar jar, Thailand (Watt, 1975) 3. 0.3 m3 pottery jar, Thailand (Watt, 1975) 4. 1.2 m3 ferrocement tank (Sharma (Cl 'r Thailand and Gopalaratnam, 1980) 5. 1.4 m3 "tin" tank, East Africa (White et al, 1972) 6. 2.3 m3 plastered "Ghala" basket, East Africa (UNICEF, 1982) 7. 7.0 m3 cast concrete ring tank (C), Thailand (Watt, 1978 b) 8. 9 m3 ferrocement tank (C,G) Zimbabwe (Farrar and Pacey, 1974) 9. 9.0 m3 galvanized corrugated iron tank, Zimbabwe (Farrar and Pacey, 1974) 10. 10 m3 ferrocement (C) (Watt, 1978) tank

I?ATERIALS

MATERIALS+ COST (US?) 2.50

COST/M3 ++ (USS) 14.90 (1969)

manufactured

cement mortar, concrete purchased locally cement, sand & gravel, steel mesh & rod manufactured

0.50

2.00

(1974)

5.00 33

16.70 28

(1973) (1980)

39-84

28-60

(1969)

cement: sand & gravel cement. sand & gravel cement, sand 6 gravel, steel netting and wire manufactured

42*(est)

18

(1982)

40(l)

5.70

(1977)

62.50(l)

6.90

(1973)

112

12.50

(1973)

cement, sand & gravel, steel netting and wire

150*(estj

13

(1982)

+ author's ficrure unless indicated otherwise ++ my calculations, not those of authors * assumes US$ 7.14 (Zaire, 1981) per 50 kg bag of cement: other materials estimated. See text (1) excluding costs of metal forms

-6O3.3.5 (continued) MATERIALS MATERIALS+ COST (US$)
-

TANK (C: cover, P: pump, G: gutters) 11. 15-20 m3 underground ferrocement (C), New Hebrides (Calvert and Binning, 1977) 25 m3 underground ferrocement tank, Botswana (C?) Maikano and Nyberg, 1980) 36 m3 buried reinforced concrete cistern (C,P?) USA (Dooley, 1978) 45 m3 "sand-sausage" open tank, Botswana (Farrar and Pacey, 1974) 71 m3 partially buried concrete block tank (C, and G) r Ghana (Farrar Pacey, 1974) 2,300 m3 butyl-lined tank (C,P), Kenya (Grover, 1971; proposed only) 80,000 m3 NaCl-lined earth reservoir system, Mali (Cluff, 1975; proposed only)

COST/M3 ++ (USS) 12.50 (1976j

cement, sand & gravel, steel netting and rod cement, steel netting, PVC pipe cement, sand & gravel, steel rod, materials for forms cement, sand, plastic tubing cement, concrete sand, block

250

12.

135

5.40

(1980)

13.

1000

27.50

(1978)

14.

75

1.67

(1973)

15.

260

3.70

(1973)

16.

0.8 mm butyl sheet, cement, hand pumps NaCl, enginedriven pump

18,000
(2)

7.83

(1970)

17.

not enumer-. ated

under 1.00

(1974)

(2) not including cost of sprayed asphalt estimated at an additional $15,000

catchment

surface,

-61-

3.3.6

Publications

and how to obtain

them

--

Cairncross, tl.%l Keppel This water water water wall, from

S., the

and Ross

Feachem, Institute,

R.,

1978,

Small of

Water Supplies, Hygiene and

book, Tropical

78 pages, Medicine,

London London

School WCIE

Street

(Gower Street),

7HT, United information sources Contains but of

Kingdom. on building water, Z-page text watrer section gives small-scale treatment, on building for and In and

book is a compact supply lifting, tanks footing, of systems.

presentation Discussions

of

basic

include

and storage bricks and floor inlets, the

and distribution.

and masonry. thicknesses; overflows,

No diagrams, plastering screening, given

guidelines cleaning

and waterproofing; and covers; provide for

mainienance; some cases

outlets,

and drainage. more strength,

construction than

specifications necessary. R.3. 1977,

use more materials, -Calvert,R.C., article, 1977&0.75 Publications, Describes

and Binning, 3 pages, for the Ltd., fabrication the cover, sdoil in

"Low Cost Water Tanks magazine, from Vol

in the 4, no.

Pacific 3,

Islands", November

Appropriate including Street,

Technology Air

issue

Speeded Post,

Intermediate Kingdom.

Technology

9th King

London WC2E 8HN, United cover of on an earthen ferrocement The authors

of ferrocement and plastering in the

dome, excavation lining believe for 15-20 the tanks

of tank m3 tanks can be

from beneath built built in for "soft"

New Hebrides. They also describe

under US $250.00. tanks and using Pacey,

a method for wood and reed in no.

building materials Southern 6,

above-ground for forms. A

ferrocement -Farrars Review", D.M.,

locally A.J., and

available 1974, Field

'Catchment Technology

Tanks Report

Africa:

Africa

Fieldwork

13 pages, request

;-62-

Farrar from

and Pacey 74 (cant) Paul Sherlock, critical surface OXFAM, 274 Banbury description catchment designs Road, Oxford OX2 7DZ United Kingdom. "sandtanks, and

An excellent sausage"

and evalution tanks,

of open and "beehive" roof catchment

ground

ferrocement Botswana, information

combinations give

of these

in Swaziland, cost

and Zimbabwe. we have seen,

The authors and also

the most complete manual labor

construction requirements

discuss technically making Friends

as a barrier tank projects. tanks

to completion Step-by-step built in the

of some of the instructions hundreds for around the

sound

"sand-sausage" of the Bulawayo. a rooftop

a 7.5 m3 version Rural Center,

ferrocement

Anyone to read this -Henderson,

considering report. G.E., Jones,

catchment

system

or project

in Africa

should

try

E.E.,

and Smith, $5.00

G.W.,

1973,

Planning

for for 30602, rural

an Individual Vocational USA. and farming roofwashers, in Using and

Water System, Instructional A well-written families a fil ter.

book,

156 pages,

from American Center, water Athens,

Association Georgia for of cisterns, detail, than

Materials,

Engineering

book on conventional U.S. Includes

installations drawings

in the

good color but less

Better (below) G.J.,

pictures,

construction

Water

Resources -Maikano, pages,

and Nyberg, book Rural held

L.,

1980,

"Rainwater

Catchment

in Botswana", Proceedings Ask for

paper, of a a free

5

in the

Water Supply

in Developing 5-12

Countries:: ? August 1980. Center,

Workshop

on Training book from

in Zomba, Malawi,

copy of the

International

Development

Research

Box 8500,

Ottawa,

Canada KlG 3H9.

-6%

Bibliography An account store using to their water these land

and access of a pilot caught systems

information program for

for

section

"Storage underground floors. and should in the

Techniques" ferrocement Rainwater allow tanks harvested to move otherwise. to

popularizing grain threshing

on traditional is for families

and cattle,

farmers than

and begin

plowing details with

17 days earlier are given, barbed but wire

rainy

season covers

Not many construction concrete tank covers

domed ferrocement are mentioned.

and poured of the 10

reinforced floor built by the

Maintenance project In all it

and catchment tanks

are emphasized. and more are under end of 1980". 1973, your

"Today,

the

pilot

has about is

underground

construction.

hoped to

have 80 completed -Office

of the Foreign book,

Secretary, mention a free (JH215),

Ferrocement: institutional

Applications affiliation

in Developing or name of and Technology National USA. for

Countries, your group

91 pages,

when requesting Development

copy from: Office

Board on Science Foreign

International

of the

Secretary, O.C.20418,

Academy of Sciences, A basic sidely book on the refer& for roofing, diagrams

2101 Constitution range of ferrocement the food basics

Avenue,

Washington,

techniques on the facilities,

and potential topic.

applications, cover equipment, Appendixes silos silos are

to throughout boatbuilding, and the construction which article

literature storage

Chapters

ferrocement low-cost include

fooe-processing of shells and walls. for water. food-storage (These

of construction and cost

steps,

breakdowns storing below). 1982,

in Thailand also -described

and Ethiopia in the

can be used for by Sharma, et al, H.,

Pompe, C., in the

van Kerkvoorden,

R.,

and Siswoyo, Project", 1982. Information

"Ferrocement pages 51-61

Applications in Journal of

West Java Rural Vol.

Water Supply 1, January

article, Ask for

Ferrocement, &from

12, no.

a reprint Asian

or xeroxed Institute

copy at of

International

Ferrocement

Center,

-640

Bibliography

and access

information

for

section

"Storage

Techniques"

Technology, An overview ferrocement largely storage man-day. tank -and

P. 0. Box 2754, of the project tanks, as well

Thailand. which plans to construct hundreds water of 5 m3 and 10 ,3 supply system rainwater per built

as a reservoir Presents a chart gutters

and community comparing and labor costs costs

of ferrocement. tanks Also in Java, includes

of various

including

of Rp 1000 (USg1.60) details of the

good drawings tank. J.,

showing

construction

10 m3

2.5 m3 bamboo-cement P.C., Pama, R.P., Valls, Grain

Sharma, art

and Gopalaratnam, Bins" , article, Reprint Information

V.S., pages

1979,

"State-of-thein Journal per page of

Review

on Ferrocement

Storage 1979.

135-150

of Ferrocement, plus $2.00 from

Vol 9, no. 3, July International

or Xerox

copy at $0.20 Asian

Ferrocement Bangkok,

Center,

Institute

Technology, Describes structures field the silo water. India, -tested "Thailo", lined

P. 0. Box 2754, construction " . ..developed satisfactorily." holding with 4 tons

Thailand. for four ferrocement that bin grain storage

techniques in different

and costs parts

of the world conical

have been extensively has been called pit

An above-ground of grain plaster the cost

which

or 9.5 m3 of water which

and an undergound h.ave

reinforced give

are two maodels

been used to store pit built in

The authors at US $62.00.

of a 9.5 m3 underground

plastered

UNICEF East Africa tanks for storing

Regional water",

office, article 4 1.50

1982,

"From Kenya--How in Appropriate

to Make Plastered Technology

basket

pages 7-8 from

magazine, 9 king

Vol 8, no. 4, March 1982. Street,

Intermediate Also

Technology

Publications,

London WCEE 8HN, United

Kingdom.

available

from UNICEF,

East African

-65-

Bibliography

and access

information

for

section

"Storage

Techniques"

Regional Describes Unit below) designs that, fixed

Office, activities

P. 0. Box 44145, and gives

Nairobi,

Kenya. of the (like Karen Appropriate those described Technology by Watt, pit 1975,

background jars

outside

Nairobi.

Cement mortar

and a PVC bag suspended &ed at the center. houses

in a thatch-covered Also mentions other

bamboo-lined ideas of water could in passing: roughly

are two tank "It is noticed guttering be point

in many areas, under the

will

have a short door,

length

fashioned will link

eaves just oil

above the

and that . ..(this)

from this provide the

collected for

in an old

drum or container but effective

development from

to simple grass roofs,

roof

catchment huts,

systems."

And, by using

"Collection a polythene

of water film joined

even on circular guttering

is possible split for

guttering to give

or by simple a "V" section." and effective

made from ideas

bamboo or from two planks food production/storage/ technology acti-

Many other institutional

preparation, vities. '"VITA, 1977,

involvement

in village

Using

Water Resources, 1815 North of a part from the

book,

143 pages, Suite

$5.95

from

Volunteers

in

Technical This $10.00 concrete and food page piece a capacity

Assistance,

Lynn Street, Village

ZOO, Arlington, Handbook, excellent

VA 22209 USA. available sections agriculture, a good 6cistern with on for

is a reprint (387 pages)

of VITA's

Technology

same address , and including as well as health Using

and bamboo construction processing on planning and preservation. and building

and sanitation, contains concrete

Water Resources US-type of a filter

a conventional drawings

of 10 m3 or more,

including

and a "roofwasher".

-66-

Bibliography

and access

information

for

section

"Storage

Techniques"

The book as a whole of a small -Watt, t 2.95 S.B., from water 1978, supply.

is

good basic

reading

for

anyone

consideriong

construction

Ferrocement

Water Tanks and Their Publications,

Construction, Ltd., 9 King

book, Street,

118 pages, London

Intermediate Kingdom.

Technology

WC2E 8HN, United For those most useful descriptions

considering publication

a rooftop listed

catchment here. Gives

system,

this

book may be the guidelines

single for design,

straightforward and a detailed, tansk (using

of materials for

, and tools building for 4). the

required, ferrocement 25 years

step-by-step metal parts forms) which

summary of methods ha,? been "used

successfully note in section method,

over

in different construction of unreinforced tanks

of the world" of several mortar (see a 6 m3 varia-

(see technical tions on the

Also small

describes jars

basic

including 4),

technical tank built

note

in section formwork bins

1-25 m8 manufactured in the U.K.

in New England, traditional with makeshift formwork

without storage

10 m3 ferrocement-lined tank with built

adobe grain formwork Arizona, Lists discussion note, *Watt,

in Mali,

a 40 mS roofed built

in Zimbabwe, USA. amounts of using 4). 1978,

and a 150 mB open tank

makeshift

in

of materials rainfall data

required to plan

for

each design,

and gives system

a brief (see technical

a rooftop

catchment

section S.B.,

"Rainwater

Storage

Tank in Thailand", 2, August Technology

article, 1978,

pages 16-17, for the Ltd.,

in

Appropriate including King Street, Air

Technology

magazine, from

Vol 5, no. Intermediate

t 0.75

issue 9

Speeded Post, London,

Publications,

WC2E 8HN, United

Kingdom.

-67-

Bibliography

and access

information

for

section

"Storage

Techniques"

Describes cast in

construction 1.5 m. diameter up to four inner rings high

of tanks cylindrical

made out of stacked stee forms.

ureinforced

concrete rings for

rings,

The 60-cm-high costs (US $40.00 Watt

can be a 7 m3 tank) that high-

stacked but the quality for

and have low materials steel forms centrally would

and outer could

be expensive. supervision

suggests

be cast

under

and trucked

to location

assembly. 1981, "Rainwater Collection Tanks Constructed of Ferrocement, International on Self-Help 3, July Information Basis",

--Winarto, article, for / Asian

pages 247-253 in Journal &f J.zop&e a reprint or xeroxed copyffrom Institute of Technology, adaptation Java. with

Vol 11, no. Ferrocement Bangkok, tank

1981.

p/G& JZ.mjwAn+Yzf
Thailand. methods for

Ask

Center,

P. 0. Box 2754, of standard Detailed integral

An account availabilities

of the

ferrocement verbal floor

to the materials building a steel

of rural 9 m3 tank

instructions and cover. could

rod reinforced plastering knowledge (Watt, (instead presented

Bamboo mats are used as with basic

forms.

Some pictures; in

construction Ferrocement construction cages. by the

be attempted

of the techniques Also describes

Water Tanks and Their of smaller The steel tanks built

Construction with bamboo

1978).

of steel here

rod)

reinforcement

rod and bamboo cage designs Water Supply Project

have been adopted above).

West Java Rural

(Pompe et al,

-68-

4. Technical catchment 4.1 Using

notes

describing

planning

and construction

of promising

roof=

and storage rainfall

technologies to design affecting a rooftop catchment system ++-t catchment system

data factors

The principal are a. local of the provided important rainfall

the design

of a rainwater rainfall

patterns; is

b. area of the s:ored in;

catchment;

c. volume to be il; the most e So the basic

container by the and,

the water system for

and d. the amount of water The first of these least factors about.

consumption.

at the same time, that which fall, should and the

the one we can do the periods of time

amount of rain natural facts

between

rains,

are the three factors

shape the system. will

combination

of the other

in a rainwater This

catchment then,

section,

show how to think

about:

a. area

of rainfall of storage;

catchment; and to be provided for consumption,

b. volume

c. amount of water given available information countries the

on rainfall. usual aprpriach in water storage In this supply is to start with

In rich
an amount that for

consumption, of water placed

and then dry

to design periods.

and catchment apprbach,

to provide

amount is

even during on convenience about

maximum countries, alit strucfor on

emphasis the other ways take often tures,

and reliability. convenience about

In developing

hand, second

concerns place

and reliability costs.

must nearly situations physical a plan

to concerns with

In these

makes sense cash, local

to start materials,

available and labor--,

resources--existing and then

to work out

++t methods in this pages 109-112 pages 103-104

section

VITA (1977,

are extracted page ill),

and modified from Watt (1978, and Hardenbergh and Rodie (1960,

-69-

expending for water

those

resources

in such a way as to come closest We will take this latter approach data during

to a target in this varies storms, section. widely. and how much and

consumption. data.

Rainfall Obviously time

The degree like

of detail

of rainfall falls

we would the

to know how much rain This take all would allow

separates

storms. would easily next

Ls to determine from the a storm

of a catchment or waste hold some of

storage it;

combination also the this

the water whether

we could until data available

determine storm would are very

storage to occur.

would

enough water

to last rainfall data

be expected hard

In practice, the best

detailed

to get. totals.

In many areas, These figures

are month-by-month bureaus, stations.

rainfall airports, The data

can be reseveral

obtained search years.

from weather or extension

and sometimes should

from agricultural over

have been taken

In many places The next area. average impossible (We noted fall best

it

may be impossible then, desirable area. Average is

to find out

month-by-month monthly is avers

rainfall totals for

totals. your

alternative, and least for your

to find alternative totals

The last totals

to find useful

out yearly because it is

are

less

to tell in section within

from them how often, 3.1.1 that there is

and how extreme, less than for

are the deviations. chance of rainfor the

a one-in-two any particular from

totalling

10% of the yearly We can expect that

average, monthly

year, the

continene would rainfall time. 3.3.6) of the

of Africa.

deviations

average average of the

be at least totals For thie that

as great.) might reason, provide

This water

means that as expected (Using

a system only Water

planned

using

about

two thirds

VITA recommends totals

Resources, to give

see section an estimate rainfall in

average

rainfall

be multiplied

by 2/3

minimum rainfall.

We can be much more certian

that

actual

-7othe future will meet or exceed this minimum rainfall estimate.

In any case, totals, over it several is

whether

you use month-by-month to try to get part data information (van over

rainfall which

totals

or average

important years.

has been collected 1975, page 442) Chad.

Here is (for

of a table crillected

der Leeden, 3 years] for

showing

monthly

averages

Am Timan,

.Figuring in a tank, is

runoff. related

The amount to the

of r'unoff, area

or water covered we plan

available

for

stor,age surface. of a

horizontal

by the catchment to use the roof

(As we work this building resources used for this area for

example,

we will surface.

assume that This

a catchment

seems to be a sensib le use of ex isting used in the sizes by the example could equally well be

in many areas. a variety is the

The procedure surface covered

of catchment ground area

and types.) roof.;
Rainfall R

For a building, figure.

as shown in the

Watt (1978) by

perinission

-71-

Let's

assume that

the ground

area

covered

by the roof which

is could

30 m* (the

area

of from

a 5 x 6 meter the rooft'is:

building).

The amount of runoff

be collected

R

= =

area 30 m*

x x for

rainfall rainfall any kind monJhly

x x

0.9* 0.9. of rainfall average total. R; using R. The amount of water for water needs during in stordry Using a yearly monthly

Runoff average

or "R" can be figured rainfall totals would totals would give

give a yearly

minimum estimate Using age should periods. of 20 liters needs during runoff

minimum estimate capacity.

to plan

storage

come as close Take, for

as possible a family

to providing of five, period

example, per

each of which of one month.

needs a minimum Their water

of water

day over be;

a dry

the month would needs = =

5 people 3,000 this liters.

x 20 l./day

x

30 days

This

means that at least liters)

to supply

need for beginning most,

water,

a storage period.

tank

would

have to

contain

3 m3 at the would

of the dry but

A tank

containing minimum

2 m3 (2,000 needs. Simple cimple for graphs

provide

not all,

of the family's

graphical can help We will step is for

method

.

If

you can compute

monthly

runoff

totals, the need

show dry work out

periods an exafile

and wet periods using totals the data for

and indicate for Am Timan

storage. The first

(above).

to calculate

runoff

each month. totals,

The rain-

fall

data

available

Am Timan are monthly

average

so multiplying is about 90%

* Ree (1976) efficient.

says that a sheet metal roof Other materials may be less

with good guttering efficient.

-72each of these minimum runoff, for October by the roof the product rainfall area gives monthly average runoff. Here is table Then, to get a

is multiplied in October,

by 2/3. from the

the calculation is 30.5 mm):

(average

above,

R(Oct) = area x rainfall(oct)
=

X X

z/3

x

0.9

30 m* 0.55

x

0.0305

m

2/3

x

0.9

= This calculation is following (this

m3. for figure each month. 1, with These minimum the below runoff totals are

performed graph,

shown on the at the far

peak month of the wet season more straightforward):

left

makes the

procedures

The second total from figure graph

step

is

to show "cumulative" is added to the runoff, for total

runoff--that

is,

each monthly months. the sum same

1 above shows the

of the previous increases the graph will

Thus the throughout

sum of all

which

or remains show the

the year.

For October,

example,

-73of the runoff line totals of the for the months of August, September, and October. runoff ("minimum"

The sol id because

following

graph

shows minimum cumulative runoff figure by 2/3):

we have multiplied

each monthly

/’ / / /

Note that of zero: the with over

the for

line these

is horizontal months, the there

for is

the months no increase is

with

rainfall

and runoff runoff.

totals At

in the cumulative This all

end of a year a capacity an average The final of

cumulative

runoff

17.2 m3. hold

means that the water

a tank

17.2 m3 could time is from

theoretically our 30 m2 roof water the

collected

year's step

in Am Timan. consumption family the on the graph along

to show cumulative Take, for example,

with

cumulative 20 I. 20 1. x

runoff. per day. 30 days

of five, will

each member con have used they

suming 5 x

At the end of one month = 3,000

family

1. or 3 m3; at the end of two months a total line of 6 m3, and so on. graph above, until This figure

will

have used another

3 m3 for

cumulative 2. but The rises

consumption dashed line

is shown as the runs below the

dashed cumulative

on the runoff

line

October,

-74above it after this that. rate This shows that the 30 m* roof cannot provide enough water

to support

of consumption. can the 30 m* roof line (the dashed provide? line with We can determine dots, figure graph, equals for cumulative and faster increases 2) this

What rate by drawing so that

of consumption consumption runoff

a second the

is meets

line

at the end of the year Thus cumulative faster levels off than

(on this

in the middle runoff for

of the wet season). Runoff the runoff

consumption consumption

the year. but then

increases line

August

September, than faster runoff than

and consumption runoff

increases again

from

October

to June.

Then in June and July

consumption, of storage from the required roof, to provide can also this rate of consumption, from from the graph. the runoff line 2, and

The volume use all This the

runoff is the

be dtermined distance line

volume

sum of the line

greatest

vertical

above the which runoff

consumption about

to the

consumption greatest to the

(distance

AB in figure from (distance store the

represents line below

6 m3),

and the line

vertical consumption

distance line could the

the consumption about

CD in figure 6+3= provide This divided little line

2, representing theoretically consumption

3 m3). hold

So a tank runoff

which from

about to'

9 m3 could the steady

enough indicated

30 m* roof line (2).

rate of about again

by the dash-dot

rises

at the rate divided

1.4 m3 per month; by 30 days gives

1.4 m3 (1,400 rate

liters) of a

by 5 people, more than

a consumption family. with water during like

9 liters

per day for

each member of the in areas and less

Water tend

rationing

and storage. during cumulative (like runoff

Most families wet months consumption lines line.

shortages dry months.

to consume more water representing not the be straight

water

Thus a line above would following

on a graph instead

the ones to curve, shows

1 and 2) but The graph

tend

cumulative

in figure

3 (below)

-75-

a curving above, for this it

consumption is rate

line

(3);

using

the method storage with

for

calculating is

storage

easy to show that of consumption

much less which changes

volume the

needed to provide

seasons.

The technique educated is best, guess

described

in this could

section

is a useful

tool

for

making system.

an It

at how much water to bear size:

be provided of Watt

by a proposed (1978,

however,

in mind the words "In the steps real world

page 112) is unlikely indication

in his to be of

discussion uniform tank

of system enough

the climate more than

to allow

these

to give

a rough

size".

-764.2 4.2.1 Costs of construction quantities for 4 tanks the materials and listed in inputs table for construction Using this of kind of

Materials The following

page compares in section 3.3

tanks

discussed

3.3.5. determine

information, cost-based

local

prices about

can be applied the relative for

to roughly attractiveness the

costs

and make designs. basket

judgements

of different plastered

"Trade-offs"

are evident:

example,

cement mortar than

(UNICEF, 1982) requires
three, but meeds no metal The subsequent calculating amounts

more cement reinforcing (4.2.2)

/ m3 of storage material gives

any of the other gravel. for roughly

and little

section

guidelines a variety

and examples of tanks.

of cement

needed to build

4.2.1

(continued)

Materials

quantities

for

4 tanks

-77-

Ferrocement Tank with foundation (no cover) (after Watt, 1978) 10 m3

cement sand gravel chickenwire

;lf

lx&gs (50 kg. each)

: 0.5 m3 : 16 m2

-. 6..o:.’
Cement mortar plastered basket with foundation (no cover) (after UMICEF, 1982) 2.3 m3

plus:

straight

wire,

use of forms

cement sand gravel

: 5 bags : .I3 m3 : .04 m3

Reinforced cement mortar plastered underground tank (after Maikano and Nyberg, 1980) 20 m3

cement sand chickenwire

: 12 bags i ;2m;2

Underground concrete with cover 12 m3

tank

cement sand gravel

: 13 bags : 1 m3 : 1.4 m3

plus:

reinforcing for forms

rod, material

-78-

4.2.2

Calculating

costs

of materials

The following amounts for

discussion

on figuring

costs needed for

shows how to obtain construction like catchment

rough catch-

some of the amin materials The procedures an idea of whether the costs questions are simple, materials against into

of roof

ment systems. used to get able, not for

and computations for a probcsed costs

them can be are affordThey do time required

and to compare take many important

the

of alternatives. they ignore the

account: for

delivery, Here is

and any costs

of labor,

example. of materials costs

a summary of the

computations

cost of cement (for concrete) cost of cement (for mortar) cost of roofing material (sheet)

volume of concrete volume of mortar area of roof

X

rice
f3-ag

"ikzis%F .
X

10 bags cement m3 mortar

X

f!g

?

The first for construction table to the

two exampTzs of the 3.3.5,

;;-;

zaked

out

for tank 4.2.1).

material; described Other

that

would

be needed 4.3.2 in for forms,

10 m2 ferrocement no. lO,and section would

in section materials, metal for

(see also addition for

ones mentioned example

here,

be needed--sheet of sheet metal

example.

The final 4.1 for

concerns about

cost

roofing. roof can

See section collect.

how to think

how much rainwater

a given

8’

-79Cement in concrete floors, footings, and foundations of tanks

1. Figure

the

volume

of concrete

needed.

For a 2.8 m diameter

floor

which

will

be 7.5 cm thick,

area

= =

**

6.2 m*

volume

=

area

X X

thickness

=

6.2 m* 0.47 m3.

0.075 Ill

=

2. Figure in the help

the

amount of cement 1:2:3,

needed to make the

concrete. is plenty clean

Concrete strong materials for

mixed self-

proportions footings, Concrete Using this

cement:sand:gravel, when made with contains about

floors,

and walls mixed 1:2:3

and cured

properly.* per m3.

7 bags (8 50 kg per bag) the number of bags needed:

information,

we can figure

bags of cement

=

volume of concrete

X

&Crete x

=

0.47 m3 3.3 bags.

7 bus iiXconcrete

=

3. Figure example,

the

cost,

using

the

price

of a bag of cement

in your

area.

For

cost

=

# of bags

x x

price $7.14

per bag (US$, Zaire,

=

3.3 bags $23.49.

1981)

_

=

* determined u%theoncrete calculator", VITA (1973). You many decide to use a lower porportion of cement. The "concrete calculator" shows how to adjust the volumes of the other materials.

--

-8O-

Mortar

for

plastering the volume

floors, of mortar

walls, needed.

and roofs

of tanks plastered with 5 cm. of

1. Figure mortar,

For a floor

2.5 m in diameter,

area

=
=

rr2 4.9 m2

volume

=

area 4.9 m2 0.25 m3.

X X

thickness 0.05 m

= =

For a cylindrical 4 cm of mortar,

tank

with

walls

2 m high,

plastered

with

a total

of

area

=

2hr

(height)

=

15.7 m2

volume

=

area 15.7 m2 0.63 m3.

X

thickness 0.04 m

= =

x

So the 0.88

total

volume

needed,

for

walls

and floor,

is 0.25

m3 + 0.63

m3

=

m3.

2. Figure mixed

the 1:3,

amount of cement cement:sand, about is

needed

to make this for

volume

of mortar. walls. This local So:

Mortar mix masons

recommended

waterproof

contains and collect

10 bags (0 50 kg) per m3 (always on mixes, if you are

check with

opinions

inexperienced).

-81-

bags of cement

volume of mortar 0.88 8.8 m3

'

$kikSar

' bags.

i!iLEE%ar

3. Figure area.

the cost

of the

cement,

using

the

price

of a bag of cement

in your

For example,

in Zaire,

cos t

= = =

&of 8.8

bags bags

x

cost

per bag

$62.83.

I Roofing 1. Figure Allow material (corrugated

-82-

metal

sheet)

the area of roof to be covered with the metal sheet. for overhang, and consider where gutters will be A building 8 m long with a hung, when making measurements. pitched roof might have 2 roof surfaces of equal area: total area = = = 2 ( length 2 ('8 m 48 m2 x width) x3m)

2. Using sheet

this area, figure the cost, in your area. For example,
cost =

using

the

price

of metal

= =

area 48 m2 $105.60

X x

price zz.20

per m2 (Mcnrovia, 1981, US$)

This is only a rough figure, of the individual sheets and fit the roof surface. Also, to shed water properly'. This of sheet needed, and the cost,

because it ignores the size how much they must be cut to the sheets must overlap a little means that the actual area may be 15-20s more.

If gutters are to be made with the sheet material, this may increase the cost again. Sometimes sections can be made with pieces cut gutter and hangin g straps the sheets are fit to the roof.

of when

-834.3 Building Water Tanks

The construction widely to give skills manual docemented the

information of the tanks reader

in this outlined detailed

section above

is

for

three 3.3.2.

of the most Here we intend tools, in their given. for and

in section

interested in their would

information some readers construction the three

on the materials, with confidence

involved skills

construction; to attempt these are

be able that

from the "best" three (see, tank

information designs

We do not mean to imply household a relatively 4.2.1). mented. ternatives. Each of the which is a mixture with out tanks rooftop great They are, See section

catchment; amount however, 3.3 for

in fact, of cement three

each of these per m3 of storage

tanks for of the of water

requires example, designs stroage section docual-

of the most "teachable" discussion

a more complete

described

in this

section

is It

made with is always

cement mortar, important to

of sand and cement the cleanest of the mortar a small choice concrete where available mixture

and water. materials, . Watt

make mortar contaminants board probably other.

and to keep soil (1978) suggests using

and other a mixing is each

or making a better

pad on a layer the tanks or jars

of gravel. will be built

The board far

from

Gauge sand in measuring box

Watt (1978) by penission

Mixing tray with lip

f

-84-

The mortar tions with proof

mixtures

used for from

the following 1:2 to 1:3 with with is

tanks (measured

and jars

contain

propor-

of cement:sand more cement for the

ranging

by volume).

Mixtures and more waterFor larger likely to crack

are easier

to plaster jars

and may be stronger littel reinforcement. enough and less

surfaces

of smaller

containers, when curing. Sand for but with should ceeding ginning. Clean thoroughly cement/sand is too "dry" sand with it

a 1:3 cement:sand

mixture

strong

mortar lots

should of fine

be clean. silt should

A range

of sand grain because it

sizes causes

is OK, mortar made

be avoided materials Study the

to flake be gathered

off.

Sand and any other any work strats. and read through

to be used in construction the list of materials carefully prebe-

before tanks,

each of the

instructions

water mixed

should together

be added to the cement with a trowel in,

and sand after Make a hole at a time. mix will not

they

have been pile of

or shovel, a little a "wet"

in the

mix and pour will be difficult

the water

While

a mix that

to apply, water

be as strong mixture. STart

when cured. with

Use as little of water that

as possible half

to obtain of the

a workable cement,

an amount

is

the volume

and add water

sparingly. Do not mix more mortar l/2 hour! After properly about this than can be applied of time, to the tank begins or jar to set in about and cannot

amount 1978).

mortar

be applied

(Watt,

Concrete jars because it

is &red instead contains the load gravel

of mortar or small tank

for

the

foundations and is less

of most tanks likely

and

:.tones :znd its

to break used not be

or weaken under in concrete flat. Like

of a heavy a range

contents. and the concrete stones will

The gravel should

ideally sand,

contains gravel

of sizes, or the

m ust

be clean,

be weak.

-85Concrete 1:2:3 as little to 1:3:6. water used for foundations of the can be mixed proportions in proportions , concrete place. the should ranging from

Regardless as possible

be made with like those

and mixed

in a clean

Containers

shown in the in mortar

figure

above can be used to measure mixes. REsist to measure the

proportions to estimate

of materials proportions in a weaker

and concrete

temptation this will

or use the blade mix. The Village an excellent

of a shovel

with;

result

Technology

Handbook

(VITA,

1973;

see section and building

3.3.6) with

includes concrete.

section

on selecting

mixes,

preparing,

4.3.1

0.25 Unlike

m3 cement the other

plaster water It

jar containers in this section, fibers this jar is built The mortar (like bur-

entirely is lap) applied filled

of mortar.

contains which is

no strengthening usually enough

nor wires. material

to a " mold" with these is something jars "rich"

made of sacking to plaster material, against. they

heavy

Because tar mix which

have no rekforcing in cement. (copied (measured

are made with

a mor-

The proportions by permission by volume). instead Refer

of materials from Watt,

recommended 1978, see section the be mixed

in the following 3.3.6) proportion as "dry" of making are 1:2,

instructions cement:sand

Watt does not that the mortar

mention should

of water as possible, mortar

to be used. for highest

He says strength.

back to the

discussion

above. instructions m3, Watt says than are for that construction with of a small jar which

The following holds about 0.25

people

no experience jars, which

have been taught have screens, soil and ('

to make the jars

in less

two days.

Much larger using this

lids,

and taps,

have been constructed

method.

Subsituting

-86-

lime

for

some of the cement

and sand in the mortar

has also

been tried.

MATERIALS:

l/2 clean clean

bag of cement sand water "gunny grain

(less

than

this

should

be required)

burlap, sand,

cloth",

or other

strong to fill

sacking

material

husks,

or sawdust

the sacking

TOOLS:

needle

and thread,

or other

tool

for for

sewing

the

sacking and mixing mortar

mixing board materials trowel

or pad and containers

measuring

and wooden stick

I

STEPS IN CONSTRUCTION REQUIRING SPECIAL CARE: Making sure that the material used to fill the sacking (step 2.4) is heavy enough to keep its shape during plastering. It is a good idea to try filling the sack on the ground before beginning contruction. Making the until you allow you Mixing the especially Curing the Do not make the mortar for applying to the mounl mortar. are actually ready to begin (step 2.8). This should to work with a "dry" mortar mixture for maximum strength. cement and sand well, before adding the water, is important. new jar (step 2.10).

-87-

Photo 2 Making a small water jar: 250 litres. Thailand**

2.1 Place two pieces of gunn y cloth ihessian sacking) 125cm by 1lOcm together and mark out. Sew the two pieces together along the curved lines leaving the top and bottom open.

2.2 After sewing, turn the sack inside out. ci3

** copied

from Watt,

1978, by permission,

ITDG

-

.

- --. --.-

-

_ __._

.-- ---

-

--.. .--_

_

c

L9
-AeM %l u! apew uaaq aney Al!=deD (‘slie6 0001 xoJdde) saJl11 mop 01 dn lo Slodpue Puel!eql u! ssa33ns leaJ6 qi!~ pasn uaaq sey ahbwy3al s!ql WamJ 2 aeal le JOT laaqs ?/lseld JO Su!yses dwep Jabun AiqeJalaJd ‘spu!M 6urA~p pue lqt+p4ns~o 4no Je! aifi aJn3 ‘AJJnJS luawa3 e Yl!M paJu!ed aq us/e plffoqs Je.l ayl~o apisu! aql :Jeuow qllM asaql 13aJJog pue SKJalap Aue Joi Je! aql y3aq3 ‘apew uaaq sey Jel i1q1 Jai/e S~OY PZ 6es +a pue 6eq Aum6 aql lo sauawo2 aql aAokau 01-z ‘W39’0 lnoqe

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L-Z

--

-9o4.3.2. Ferrocement The following Ferrocement This tank tank, 10 m3 and instructions Construction on years versions for have been copied (see section 3.3.6). with the confrom

description

Water Tanks design method

and their in part, other 3.3.2

is based,

of experience are being built

struction

in Zimbabwe; See section

in Thailand

and Indonesia. tanks.

more information

on ferrocement

Chapter Seven

**

Small Tanks for Domestic Use: 10m3 Capacity
These tanks have been used for many years in parts of Africa and have been designed to be as simple as possible to build in self help programmes. The users, who are at first unskilled in this sort of construction,can contribute their time and efforts in collecting sand and water, digging the foundations and preparing the mortar under the general guidance of a trained builder. With experience they quickly learn how to make the tanks without further guidance. A trained builder with five helpers takes about three days to construct the tank. The users often contribute some money towards the cost of the tank, which helps to cover the builders’ wages, the cement, reinforcement and the hire of the formwork. Design The tanks have been designed for construction by relatively unskilled workers. They have a diameter of 2.5 mctres, a height of 2 metres, giving a capacity of 10 cubic metres. The final wall thickness will be about 4cm. The tanks are built on site and should not be moved. Formwork The 2m high formwork is made from 16 sheets of standard galvanised roofing iron, 0.6mm thick with 7.5cm corrugations, rolled into a cylinder with a radius of 1.25m. Steel angle iron (40 x 40 x 5mm) is bolted vertically on the inside face at the ends of each set of four sheets - this allows the sheets to be bolted together to form acircle. Between the ends of each section is placed a wedge which is pulled cut to allow the formwork to be dismantled (see Fig.19). 49

**

copied

from Watt,

1978,

by permission,

ITLG.

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--

-93-

Materials required for lOm3 tank wti.? galvanised iron roof 600 kg. Cement 200m Plain wire 2.5mm diameter 16m Chicken mesh lm wide lm Water pipe 20mm bore 1 No. Water tap 20cm of 8cm dia. iron or Overflow pipe concrete pipe Gaivanised iron sheet and angle iron for roof 1 .0m3 Sand 0.5m3 Gravel

54

4.3.3

THE GHALA TANK

This While similar materials. instructions this

tank

is made by plastering comes from of of baskets the Kenya,

a sturdy the

basket idea could

for

holding be used of to

grain. make

design out Most come

tanks

made from information

a wide and in the the

variety drawings Magazine The liters closer

indigenous for these

from 1982

an (see

article Section as large

APPROPRIATE say that last of

TECHNOLOGY, March ghala-type ten the years. tank tanks

3.3.6):* as 7,500

authors

can be built

and should to the 2,3L'3 size

Most of these described here,

tanks which

have been built has a capacity

of about

liters.

5Ocm

100 cm

Fig. 1 Ghala basket constructed without a base.

**

fioures reproduced from UNICEF’ East Africa by'permission, ITDG

Regional

Office,

1982;

-95GHALA TANK (cont.) MATERIALS:' 5 bags of cement . 12 wheelbarrows
l

(50 kg each). of clean sand. Most pieces of cm in diameter.

4 wheelbarrows of this gravel should clean water.

clean gravel. be about 1.25

l

l

enough small rocks step 1 below. 2 m of water with 90m elbow tap to fit

to build

the foundations. cm in

See

l

pipe about 1.25 (see fig. 2). pipe. woven

diameter,

l

th_e water

. one (fig. TOOLS:

ghala-type 1).

basket,

without

a

base

l

mixing board or pad, and containers proportions of mortar and concrete shovel pipe and trowel. threader.

for measuring materials.

l

l

STEPS IN CONSTRUCTION REQUIRING SPECIAL CARE: --Compacting to support (step 1). the foundation until it the weight of concrete, is solid enough tank, and water

---

I'dry18 enough that it will not fall Mixing mortar off the overhang of the inside of the basket, yet wet enough that it can be worked into the weave of If you the basket walls (steps 6 and 7 below). make a small quantity of mortar and try can, it to the basket before beginning w.W w construction. Plastering the inside of the leak-proof to give a strong, dation (step 7). Curing: constructed keeping the walls tank strengthens, bottom of the basket bond to the foundamp while before it the newly is used.

---

---

-96GHALA TANK (cont.) CONSTRUCTION: ---

1. Lay the
about

rocks for 2 m diameter

the foundation, in and 20 cm deep (fig.

a circle 2).

---

2. Spread a mixture of soil, sand and gravel over the rocks and stamp or pound down to a 1.5 cm thickness (fig. 2). 3. Prepare concrete as described above. Use proportions 1:2:4, cement:sand:gravel (measured by volume). This concrete is to be laid on the foundation; making the mix with about 20 1. of cement should yield enough concrete for a layer about 7.5 cm thick. 4. Spread about l/3 of the concrete on the foundation. Place the water pipe and tap in the wet concrete as shown in fig. 2. 5. Spread the remaining concrete on the foundation. Imnediately place the basket in the into the center and work its lower part concrete. Work some of the concrete up against the basket wall (fig. 2) to make sure the basket is firmly anchored. 6. After the described cement:sand concrete is set, prepare mortar as proportions 1:3, above. Use (measured by volume).

---

---

---

---

---

7. Apply

the mortar by hand or with a trowel to the inside of the basket walls, starting from the bottom of the basket. This layer of mortar Use a little should be about 1.25 cm thick. extra mortar where the bottom of the basket meets the concrete of the foundation; fill and smooth this area so that the bond will be strong.

---

8. While the first layer of mortar is stiffening, prepare mortar for the second layer. Use proportions 1:2, cement:sand (measured by volume). Apply to the inside of the basket and smooth into a layer about 1.25 cm thick with a trowel. Then apply any remaining mortar to the outside This may help protect the oriof the basket. ginal basket materials and will help strengthen the tank.

-97GHALA TANK (cont.) --9. As soon as the second layer of mortar sets, cover the tank with wet sacks or cloths. (These covers should be kept wet for about a It is much easier to keep the covers week. damp for proper curing if the tank can be shaded from the sun.) After about 12 hours, fill the tank about 114 full with water; this keeps the inside damp.

Two layers of mortar 1.25 cm each

Fig. 2 Construction of thefoundation and positioning of the basket.

-98GHALA TANK (cont.)

---

a lid. A concrete lid can be poured into a 3 to 5 cm deep circular hold in the soil, carefully cut to match the diameter of the opening at the top of the tank (fig. 3). Line the hole with sand so that the lid can be pulled out easily; using soil or some other material, carefully make mounds in the hole for air and water holes. A handle can also be placed in the concretp as it See the details of figs. 3 and 4. stiffens. The authors of TECHNOLOGY note that or other materials. the lids article in APPROPRIATE can be made out of wood should be

lO.Make

However the lid is made, its holes screened to keep out mosquitoes and dirt.

Fig. 3 Construction of’ the lid.
Lid handle I
Pout

for collecting

water

fig. 4 Detail of the lid.

-gg-

5. REFERENCES+

BRADLEY, R., BRISCOE, J.,

1967, "Butyl
pages 8-9.

Rain

Traps",

Arizona

Engineer

and Scientist,

May 1967,

and Treatment Community Use", Water and Sanitation USAID, Washington, D.C., 34 pages.

1981, "Water Storage

Devices Suitable for Home and for Health Project OTD 50,

Bulletin No. 10, The *CAIRNCKOSS, S., and FEACHEM, R., 1978, Small Water Supplies, Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene, London, 78 pages. (see section 3.3.6). *CALVERT, R.C., and BINNING, R.!., 1977, "Low Cost Water Tanks in the Pacific App;opi-rate l'echnoloqy, London, Vol.4, Islands (New Hebrides)", Nov. 1977. (see section 3.3.6 CLUFF, C.B., no.3,

1975, "Surface Water Storage of Mali", unpublished project York, 78 pages.

Potential report,

in the Nara and Sangha Areas The Wunderman Foundation, New

*CLUFF,

B.C.,

*Commission

Aspects of Water Harvesting Research at the 1974, "Engineering Proceedings of the Water Harvesting University of Arizona", Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 26-28 1914, Agricultural Research Service/USDA report No. ARS-W-22, Washln&on, D.C., pages 27-39. (see section 3.2.4) on International Relations NAS, 1974, More Water for Arid Lands: Promising Technologies and Research Opportunities, National ACadenly ot Sciences, Washington, D.C., 154 pages (see section 3.1.5). and Guzzlers",

CURRIER, W.F., 1973, "Water Harvesting by Trick Tanks, Rain Traps Water-Animal Relations Symposium, Twin Falls, Idaho. DARROW, K., DARROW, K., DAVIES, W.J.,

1981, Appropriate and PAM, R., 1976, revised Volume I. - Volunteers in,Asia Press. Stanford,

Technology Sourcebook 318 oases. . Book

Technology Source KELLER, K., and PAM, R., 1981, Appropriate Volume II, Volunteers in Asia Press, Sanford, 496 pages.

1963, "Use of roman-type cisterns and small dams for rainwater storage in the highlands of the base valley of the Medjerda," unpublished report, USAID/Tunis, 5 pages.

DEDRICK, A.R., 1974, "Storage Systems for Harvested Water", Proceedin s of the "d---Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, Marci' --‘1914 Agricultural Research Service/USDA report No. ARS-W-22, %&ngton, D.C., pages 175-191. (see section 3.2.4) DOOLEY, L.K., Organic 1978, "Rainwater Cisterns", Pennsylvania, May 1978, pages 141-146. Gardening ' and Farming, Emmaus,

*Items

marked with

an asterisk unalphabetized

are

reviewed references

in the listed

section

noted section.

+ see additional,

at end of this

-lQOELLSPERMAN, L.M., Asphalt Membrane Test Lining for Hafirs", 1962, "Buried to the Governmr:nt of the Republic of Sudan, USAID/United States Department of the Interior, 23 pages.
report

*FARRAR, D.M.,

1974, "Catchment Tanks in Southern and PACEY, A.J., Africa Fieldwork and Technology Field Report Review", Oxford. (see section 3.3.6)

Africa: a No. 6, OXFAM,

FEACHEM, R.,

BURNS, E., CAIRNCROSS, S., CRONIN, A., CROSS, P., CURTIS, D., KHAN, M.K., LAMB, D., and SOUTHALL,H., 1978, Water, Health and Development: an Interdisciplinary Evaluation, Tri-Med Books Ltd., London, 260 pages. 1975, Proceedings of the Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 26-28, 1974, Agricultural Research Service/USDA report No. ARS-W-22, Washington, D.C., 323 pages (see section 3.2.4). Corrugated Roofing Vol.11, No. 2, April Panels",

*FRASIER, G.W., ed.,

"Fiber-Cement GROVE, A.T.,

1981, Journal 1981, pages 183-184.
University Press,

of Ferrocement,

Bangkok,

1978, Africa,

Oxford

337 pages.

GUGGENHEIM,H., 1977, "Dual

Technological Syustems in Water and Grain Storage", The Application of Technology in Developing Countries, Interdisciplinary programs Seminar Series August - December 19/6, Office of Arid Lands Studies, Tucson, pages 21-35.

9

HARDENBERGH, W.A., and RODIE, E.B., 1960, Water Supply and Waste Disposal, International Textbook Company, Scranton, Penn., 513 pages. "Heaven's Water: in Rural Places, Cisterns Gath ' the Rain, 1980, Rodale's Shelter, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, Apri.1 1980, pages 34-37. New

for an Individual *HENDERSON, G.E., JONES, E.E., and SMITH, G.W., 1973, Planning Instructional Water S stem, American Association for Vocational -hens, Georgia, 156 pages. (see section 3.3.6). Technical *HOFKES, E.H., ed., 1981, Small Community Water Supplies, International Reference Centre for Community Water Supply 3.1.5). Sanitation, The Hague, 413 pages (see section Paper No. 18, and U.S., and UPTON,

*IONIDES, M.G.,
M London,

ap REES, G., GIBBERD, V., 74 pages.

MOODY, P.R.,

Thornton,

1969, The Introduction of Rainwater Catchment Tanks and MicroI$gation to Botswana, Intermediate Technology Development Group,

*Institute

Operating, and Maintaining Roof for Rural Water, 1982, "Constructing, Water for the World technical note No. RWS.I.C.4, USAID, Catchments", approximately 10 pages (see section 3.2.4). "Evaluating Rainfall for Rural Water,1982b, World technical note No. RWS.l.P.5,/8 pages Catchments", Water for the

Institute

USAID,

-lOl*I.T.
Building and Installation of Corrugated Materials Workshop, "Production Roof Sheets made fro? Fibre Reinforced Cement: Basic Operating Manual for Honduras and Guatemala", report/A,I.D. contract 522-T-430, Intermediate Technology Development Group, London, 19 pages (see section 3.2.4). Report on Experimental 1981, "Interim Programme", United Nations Development Bangkok, 6 pages plus annexes, Report: Rainfall", Family Rain Water Storage Programme/World Health Organization Environmental Health THA/76/004. Crops and Soils, August -

KUKIELKA, B.J.

Desert LAURITZEN, C.W., 1961, "Collecting September 1961, page 2.

LAURITZEN, C.W., 1967, "Rain Traps of Steel", Utah Science, Vo1.28, No. 3, September 1967, 3 pages.

Salt

Lake City, Volunteers and Storage",

Vol.111, LINDBLAD, C., and DRUBEN, L., 1976, small Farm Grain Storage, in Technical Assistance, Washington, D.C., 148 pages.
MADDOCKS, D., 1975, "An Introduction Appropriate Technology, to Methods yo1.2, No.3, of Rainwater pages 24-25. Collection

*MAIKANO, G.J.,

and NYBERG, L., 1980, "Rainwater Catchment in Botswana", Rural Water Supply in Developing Countries: Proceedings of a Workshop on Training Held in Zomba, Malawi, 5-12 August 1980, International Development Research Center, 1980, Ottawa, pages 13-l/ (see section 3.3.6).

*MCDOWELL, J., ed., 1976, Village Technology in Eastern Africa: a Regional Seminar on Simple Technology for the Rural Family, UNICEF Last Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, 60 pages (see section X3.6).

MIDWESTPLAN SERVICE, 1979, Private
72 pages.

Water Systems

Handbook,

Iowa State

University, Land

1962, "Harvesting MYERS, L.E., Erosion, Precipitation,

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